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Design 3



UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE | architecture department

Planning standards
1. Easily identifiable entrance and exit, and clear external signage,which may need
to be illuminated.
2. Sufficient unloading/loading space to accommodate multiple events.
3. Level ground floor with loading docks of sufficient size for all servicesincluding
client vehicles.
4. Large coach drop off and collection points adjacent to main entrance,with
sufficient turning space and height, accessible under cover.
5. Doors of sufficient width and height or demountable/retractable wallsto permit
truck access (trucks delivering exhibit and stagingequipment pose particular
6. Floor loadings to permit truck access
7. Easily identifiable and weather protected entrance and reception areafor attendees.
8. Clearly identified disabled access.
9. In larger venues, security systems and monitoring at loading docks.
10. Separate entry for venue staff.
11. Storage space (for several days) for pre-congress consignmentsincluding
exhibitors displays materials.


1. Manager/security guard contactable direct by phone.
2. Recording and coding of all deliveries.
3. In larger venues, loading dock staffed at nominated times, and a security
management and monitoring system in place.
4. Area to be clean, well lit and secure with plenty of trolleys for client use.

5. Provision of Concierge and porterage services, which include provision for

receipt of urgent courier deliveries to front of house rather than loading docks.
6. Security arrangements for VIPs.
7. Signage for dedicated service access routes.
8. Ready access for the PCO to storage areas.

1. Plenty of space for parking while unloading/loading goods and equipment with a
dedicated car park for vehicles delivering goods or equipment.
2. Parking for trucks with sufficient height and turning space where staging, audio
visual or other equipment needs to be packed in or out within a short time period.
3. Long-term parking for trucks used for transporting production equipment and
exhibitors displays.
4. Coach parking bays off street.
5. Sufficient undercover parking for attendees.
6. All parking, including venue staff parking, should be secure.
7. Disabled spaces.
8. Direct access to venue lobby.
9. Clear directions for exiting car park.
10. Sufficient cashier stations (everyone likely to leave at once).
11. Sufficient exits to street, with adequate queuing lanes.


1. A percentage of parking dedicated to meeting attendees, provided free or at
preferential rates.
2. Designated reserved space for organisers access, provided free or at preferential
3. Clearly displayed height dimensions and hours of operation inparking facilities.


1. Colour coded storage bays set aside for specific meetings.
2. Facilities to store up to one week prior to and two days after a meeting.
3. Storage available for meeting organisers, exhibitors packaging materials and
production equipment cases or offsite storage provided by a company with a
delivery service to the conventioncentre on the setup day.


1. Colour coded pre-addressed labels to differentiate meetings, matching colour
coded bays for different meetings.
2. Plenty of trolleys (and forklifts in larger venues) and staff to assist build-up of
meeting and exhibition material.
3. Management guidelines for incoming and outgoing goods.

1. Drive-up, drive-in access
2. Truck to trolley at loading docks or unload by hoist.
3. Space for queuing buses.
4. Turning area for delivery trucks.
5. Feature lifts in larger multi-level venues.
6. Covered walkways connecting various areas within and without the venue and
weather protection to transport pick up and drop off points.
7. Easy access to public transport.

8. Easily identifiable taxi waiting bays and call buttons.


1. Address for delivery dock clearly shown on brochures or letters toorganisers.
2. People movers operating around site.
3. Shuttles from nearby hotels.
4. Schedule unloading pre-convention and packing out postconvention.

1. Clear signage on main access routes starting as far away from the venue as
2. External signage to roof level sufficient for identification of venue.
3. External signage at ground level sufficient for direction of pedestrian and
vehicular traffic.
4. Temporary customizing e.g. with electronic display to enable specific events to be
5. Flagpoles for clients flags or banners.
6. External and flood lighting consistent with the image of the venue.
7. All external signs using universal/international symbols.
Design standards for Research Laboratory

Research Laboratories are workplaces for the conduct of scientific research. This WBDG
Building Type page will summarize the key architectural, engineering, operational,
safety, and sustainability considerations for the design of Research Laboratories.

Labs designed with overhead connects and
disconnects allow for flexibility and fast hook
up of equipment.

A. Architectural Considerations
Over the past 30 years, architects, engineers,

Labs designed with overhead connects and disconnects

allow for flexibility and fast hook up of equipment.

facility managers, and researchers have

refined the design of typical wet and dry labs to a very high level. The following
identifies the best solutions in designing a typical lab.

Lab Planning Module

The laboratory module is the key unit in any lab facility. When designed correctly, a lab
module will fully coordinate all the architectural and engineering systems. A welldesigned modular plan will provide the following benefits:

Flexibility: The lab module, as Jonas Salk explained, should "encourage change" within
the building. Research is changing all the time, and buildings must allow for reasonable

Many private research companies make physical changes to an average of 25% of their
labs each year. Most academic institutions annually change the layout of 5 to 10% of
their labs.

Expansion: The use of lab planning modules allows the building to adapt easily to
needed expansions or contractions without sacrificing facility functionality.
A common laboratory module has a width of approximately 10 ft. 6 in. but will vary in
depth from 20-30 ft. The depth is based on the size necessary for the lab and the costeffectiveness of the structural system. The 10 ft. 6 in. dimension is based on two rows of

casework and equipment (each row 2 ft. 6 in. deep) on each wall, a 5 ft. aisle, and 6 in.
for the wall thickness that separates one lab from another. The 5 ft. aisle width should be
considered a minimum because of the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities
Act (ADA).
Two-Directional Lab ModuleAnother level of flexibility can be achieved by designing
a lab module that works in both directions. This allows the casework to be organized in
either direction. This concept is more flexible than the basic lab module concept but may
require more space. The use of a two-directional grid is beneficial to accommodate
different lengths of run for casework. The casework may have to be moved to create a
different type or size of workstation.
Three-Dimensional Lab ModuleThe three-dimensional lab module planning concept
combines the basic lab module or a two-directional lab module with any lab corridor
arrangement for each floor of a building. This means that a three-dimensional lab module
can have a single-corridor arrangement on one floor, a two-corridor layout on another,
and so on. To create a three-dimensional lab module:

A basic or two-directional lab module must be defined.

All vertical risers must be fully coordinated. (Vertical risers include fire stairs, elevators,
restrooms, and shafts for utilities.)

The mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems must be coordinated in the ceiling to
work with the multiple corridor arrangements.

Lab Planning Concepts

The relationship of the labs, offices, and corridor will have a significant impact on the
image and operations of the building.

Do the end users want a view from their labs to the exterior, or will the labs be located
on the interior, with wall space used for casework and equipment?

Some researchers do not want or cannot have natural light in their research spaces.
Special instruments and equipment, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
apparatus, electron microscopes, and lasers cannot function properly in natural light.
Natural daylight is not desired invivarium facilities or in some support spaces, so these
are located in the interior of the building.

Zoning the building between lab and non-lab spaces will reduce costs. Labs require
100% outside air while non-lab spaces can be designed with re-circulated air, like
an office building.

Adjacencies with corridors can be organized with a single, two corridor (racetrack), or a
three corridor scheme. There are number of variations to organize each type. Illustrated
below are three ways to organize a single corridor scheme:

Single corridor lab design with labs and office adjacent to each

Single corridor lab design with offices clustered together at the

Single corridor lab design with office clusters accessing main

Open labs vs. closed labs. An increasing number of research institutions are creating
"open" labs to support team-based work. The open lab concept is significantly different
from that of the "closed" lab of the past, which was based on accommodating the
individual principle investigator. In open labs, researchers share not only the space itself
but also equipment, bench space, and support staff. The open lab format facilitates
communication between scientists and makes the lab more easily adaptable for future
needs. A wide variety of labsfrom wet biology and chemistry labs, to engineering labs,
to dry computer science facilitiesare now being designed as open labs.

In today's lab, the ability to expand, reconfigure, and permit multiple uses has become a
key concern. The following should be considered to achieve this:
Flexible Lab Interiors

Equipment zonesThese should be created in the initial design to accommodate

equipment, fixed, or movable casework at a later date.

Generic labs

Mobile caseworkThis can be comprised of mobile tables and mobile base cabinets. It
allows researchers to configure and fit out the lab based on their needs as opposed to
adjusting to pre-determined fixed casework.

Mobile casework (left) and mobile base cabinet (right)

Flexible partitionsThese can be taken down and put back up in another location,
allowing lab spaces to be configured in a variety of sizes.

Overhead service carriersThese are hung from the ceiling. They can have utilities like
piping, electric, data, light fixtures, and snorkel exhausts. They afford maximum
flexibility as services are lifted off the floor, allowing free floor space to be configured as

Flexible Engineering Systems

Labs should have easy connects/disconnects at walls and ceilings to allow for fast and
affordable hook up of equipment.

The Engineering systems should be designed such that fume hoods can be added or

Space should be allowed in the utility corridors, ceilings, and vertical chases for future
HVAC, plumbing, and electric needs.

Building Systems Distribution Concepts

Interstitial Space

An interstitial space is a separate floor located above each lab floor. All services and
utilities are located here where they drop down to service the lab below. This system
has a high initial cost but it allows the building to accommodate change very easily
without interrupting the labs.

Conventional design vs. interstitial design

Service Corridor
Lab spaces adjoin a centrally located corridor where all utility services are located.
Maintenance personnel are afforded constant access to main ducts, shutoff valves, and
electric panel boxes without having to enter the lab. This service corridor can be doubled
up as an equipment/utility corridor where common lab equipment like autoclaves, freezer
rooms, etc. can be located.

B. Engineering Considerations
Typically, more than 50% of the construction cost of a laboratory building is attributed to
engineering systems. Hence, the close coordination of these ensures a flexible and
successfully operating lab facility. The following engineering issues are discussed here:
structural systems, mechanical systems, electrical systems, and piping systems.

Structural Systems
Once the basic lab module is determined, the structural grid should be evaluated. In most
cases, the structural grid equals 2 basic lab modules. If the typical module is 10 ft. 6 in. x

30 ft., the structural grid would be 21 ft. x 30 ft. A good rule of thumb is to add the two
dimensions of the structural grid; if the sum equals a number in the low 50's, then the
structural grid would be efficient and cost-effective.

Typical lab structural grid

Key design issues to consider in evaluating a structural system include:

Framing depth and effect on floor-to-floor height;

Ability to coordinate framing with lab modules;

Ability to create penetrations for lab services in the initial design as well as over the life
of the building;

Potential for vertical or horizontal expansion;

Vibration criteria; and


Mechanical Systems
The location of main vertical supply/exhaust shafts as well as horizontal ductwork is very
crucial in designing a flexible lab. Key issues to consider include: efficiency and flexibility,
modular design, initial costs, long-term operational costs, building height and massing,
and design image.
The various design options for the mechanical systems are illustrated below:

Shafts in the middle of the building

Multiple internal shafts

Shafts at the end of the building

Exhaust at end and supply in the middle

Shafts on the exterior

Electrical Systems

Three types of power are generally used for most laboratory projects:Normal power
circuits are connected to the utility supply only, without any backup system. Loads that
are typically on normal power include some HVAC equipment, general lighting, and
most lab equipment.

Emergency power is created with generators that will back up equipment such as
refrigerators, freezers, fume hoods, biological safety cabinets, emergency lighting,
exhaust fans, animal facilities, and environmental rooms. Examples of safe and efficient
emergency power equipment include distributed energy resources (DER),microturbines,
and fuel cells.

An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is used for data recording, certain computers,
microprocessor-controlled equipment, and possibly the vivarium area. The UPS can be
either a central unit or a portable system, such as distributed energy resources
(DER), microturbines, fuel cells, and building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).
The following should be considered:

Load estimation

Site distribution

Power quality

Management of electrical cable trays/panel boxes

Lighting design

User expectations

Illumination levels


Lighting distributionindirect, direct, combination

Luminaire location and orientationlighting parallel to casework and lighting

perpendicular to casework

Telephone and data systems

Piping Systems
There are several key design goals to strive for in designing laboratory piping systems:

Provide a flexible design that allows for easy renovation and modifications.

Provide appropriate plumbing systems for each laboratory based on the lab

Provide systems that minimize energy usage.

Provide equipment arrangements that minimize downtime in the event of a failure.

Locate shutoff valves where they are accessible and easily understood.

Accomplish all of the preceding goals within the construction budget.

C. Operations and Maintenance

Cost Savings
The following cost saving items can be considered without compromising quality and

Separate lab and non-lab zones.

Try to design with standard building components instead of customized components.

Identify at least three manufacturers of each material or piece of equipment specified to

ensure competitive bidding for the work.

Locate fume hoods on upper floors to minimize ductwork and the cost of moving air
through the building.

Evaluate whether process piping should be handled centrally or locally. In many cases it
is more cost-effective to locate gases, in cylinders, at the source in the lab instead of

Create equipment zones to minimize the amount of casework necessary in the initial

Provide space for equipment (e.g., ice machine) that also can be shared with other labs
in the entry alcove to the lab. Shared amenities can be more efficient and cost-effective.

Consider designating instrument rooms as cross-corridors, saving space as well as

encouraging researchers to share equipment.

Design easy-to-maintain, energy-efficient building systems. Expose mechanical,

plumbing, and electrical systems for easy maintenance access from the lab.

Locate all mechanical equipment centrally, either on a lower level of the building or on
the penthouse level.

Stack vertical elements above each other without requiring transfers from floor to floor.
Such elements include columns, stairs, mechanical closets, and restrooms.

D. Lab and Personnel Safety and Security

Protecting human health and life is paramount, and safety must always be the first
concern in laboratory building design. Securityprotecting a facility from unauthorized
accessis also of critical importance. Today, research facility designers must work
within the dense regulatory environment in order to create safe and productive lab spaces.

Laboratory classifications: dependent on the amount and type of chemicals in the lab;

Containment devices: fume hoods and bio-safety cabinets;

Levels of bio-safety containment as a design principle;

Radiation safety;

Employee safety: showers, eyewashes, other protective measures; and

Emergency power.

E. Sustainability Considerations
The typical laboratory uses far more energy and water per square foot than the typical
office building due to intensive ventilation requirements and
other health and safety concerns. Therefore, designers should strive to create sustainable,
high performance, and low-energy laboratories that will:

Minimize overall environmental impacts;

Protect occupant safety; and

Optimize whole building efficiency on a life-cycle basis.

F. Three Laboratory Sectors

There are three research laboratory sectors. They are academic laboratories, government
laboratories, and private sector laboratories.

Academic labs are primarily teaching facilities but also include some research labs that
engage in public interest or profit generating research.

Government labs include those run by federal agencies and those operated by state
government do research in the public interest.

Design of labs for the private sector, run by corporations, is usually driven by the need
to enhance the research operation's profit making potential.

G. Example Design and Construction Criteria

For GSA, the unit costs for this building type are based on the construction quality and
design features in the following table . This information is based on GSA's benchmark
interpretation and could be different for other owners.

LEED Application Guide for Laboratory Facilities (LEED-AGL)Because research
facilities present a unique challenge for energy efficiency and sustainable design, the U.S.
Green Building Council(USGBC) has formed the LEED-AGL Committee to develop a
guide that helps project teams apply LEED credits in the design and construction of
laboratory facilities.

Design standards for conference center


The Auditorium space types

are areas for large meetings,
presentations, and
performances. Auditorium
space type facilities may
include assembly halls, exhibit
halls, auditoriums, and theaters.
Auditorium space types do not
include such features as sound
reinforcement systems,
audiovisual systems and
projection screens, food service
facilities, proscenium stages
Guangzhou opera house
with heights greater than 50'- 0"
or fly gallery, orchestra pits, revolving or hydraulic stage platforms, flying balconies,
movable seating, or billboard systems.

Auditorium spaces are designed to accommodate large audiences. As such, they tend to
have wide spans and are multiple-stories high in order to accommodate seating, sightline,
and acoustical requirements. Raised stage/dais floors and special lighting equipment are
often required as well. Typical features of Auditorium space types include the list of
applicable design objectives elements as outlined below. For a complete list and
definitions of the design objectives within the context of whole building design, click on
the titles below.

Functional / Operational

Sloped Floors: Sloped floors, with level

terraces for each row of seating, help provide
the proper sightlines from the audience to
the stage. Note that the bottom and
intermediate rows should be directly
accessible from entry levels to allow
for Americans with Disabilities Act
Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and
Facilities (ADAAG) compliant accessible
seating positions.

Auditorium cross-section

Fixed Seats: Typically, fixed seats with tilting upholstered seat and back, integral arm
and tablet arm are provided with articulated back for maximum occupant passage space
between rows. The seats may be fully upholstered or wood contoured outer back and
seat shells with wood armrests with tablet arm option and aisle light option at row ends.
Seat number/row letters should be Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) compliant.
Wheelchair access option-removable seats in sections of two and accessible end chairs
for mobility limited occupants should be provided.
Special Lighting: Dramatic lighting systems include front lighting, foot lighting, spot
lights, follow spot lights, beam lights, and flood lights, and a projection room/booth with
manual and programmable lighting controls, and space for the spot light operator space.
Lighting systems should be flexible to accommodate various performance venues (e.g.,
lectures, plays, musical performances, etc.) in the Auditorium.
Occupancy: Occupancy Group Classification is Assembly A1 or A3 as per IBC, with
sprinkler protected construction, and GSA Acoustical Class A space requiring special
acoustical design.


Special Acoustical Design: Quality acoustical characteristics are important in Auditorium

spaces so that performances and presentations can be clearly heard and understood.
For performance spaces and general presentation spaces, recommended noise criteria
(NC) rating ranges from NC-20 to NC-30; recommended sound transmission class (STC)
rating ranges from STC 40 to STC 50. Strategies to achieve the recommended NC and
STC ranges include, for example: Type II vinyl wall covering and fabric covered acoustical
wall panels for the interior wall finish in the auditorium; Type II vinyl wall covering for
the stage area; Type II vinyl wall coverings for 1/3 of the front of the orchestra
(audience) sidewalls and fabric covered acoustical panels for 2/3 of the back of the
orchestra (audience) sidewalls; fabric covered acoustical panels for rear walls; and a
plaster and plywood combinationbecause of their reverberation characteristicsfor
the ceiling. For more information.


Increased Cooling Capacity: Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems

for Auditorium spaces are sized and zoned to accommodate varying internal loads,
which are a function of audience sizes, performance lighting loads, and projection
equipment. Particularly, air handling units (AHUs) with increased cooling capacity should
be zoned separately for the auditorium, lobby, projection spaces, stage areas, and
audience seating areas. Also, the Auditorium typically has a separate AHU constant
volume with modulated temperature control for ventilation.

Raised Floor: The recommended system for distribution of HVAC in auditorium spaces is
ducted supply through floor vents with ducted ceiling return air vents in auditorium and
lobby. In other spaces, ducted ceiling supply with return air ceiling plenum is
recommended. Note that there should be transfer ducts at all acoustically rated

Secure / Safe

Fire and Life Safety: Proper notification systems, lighting, and signage are required to
facilitate safe and speedy evacuations during an emergency in the Auditorium spaces.
Step lights recessed into floor risers at each seating tier and wall mounted low light level
sconce lights along side walls are typical. Sprinklers should be provided per code and
under stage platforms to suppress fires.

Example Program
The following building program is representative of Auditorium space types.

Tenant Occupiable Areas
Entrance Vestibules
Coat Check
Retail Area
Media Library
Main Auditorium
Seating (300 seats)
Support Spaces
Projection/Control Room
Equipment Storage
Rear Projection Room
Public Toilets (Male
Public Toilets (Female)
Tenant Suite
Tenant Usable Areas

Qty. SF


Space Sum
Req'd. Actual
1,500 1,500
3,600 3,600
1,200 1,200
8,196 8,196

Tenant Tenant
Usable USF



Example Plans
The following diagram is representative of typical tenant plans.

Design standards that must be observed

in exhibitions
Capital Gate - Abu Dhabi

Architectural Theories for exhibitions

Site Selection

There are general conditions should be available in the site:

1. easy to reach
2. The area should commensurate with the number of suites and the expected public
to avoid crowding.
3. The nature and diversity of the ground while avoiding the elements that are
difficult to control.
4. The nature of the surrounding area of the exhibition and the angles that can show
the site.
5. Exhibition's quality and selecting the appropriate location with a study for its
relation with the city.

Exhibition design is the distribution of the elements of a particular program on a

selected site in order to achieve sound functional relations with different functions, such
as entrances, exits, suites, landscapes, water bodies, buildings, transportation and wait
stations. These relations can reach the best solution by:

1. Studying the available possibilities of the site and ensuring that there is natural
advantages and archaeological areas could be used for the benefit of the design.
2. The areas of the site would be divided in line with the type of the assigned service
to each zone.
3. Entrances: You must provide a sufficient number of them and distributing them so
that they do not lead to a movement breakthrough.
4. Suites: they are the key element in the exhibition, distributed according to a
number of considerations such as the nature of the land, buildings, green spaces
and natural and artificial lakes.
The study of the internal transportation:
Speed is divided in internal transportation to
1. Idle speed, which aims to give the nearby idea about the exhibition, consists of
small hanging carts or moving corridors.
2. Quick Speed which gives an idea of the site by a fast electric train. The speed of
stairs depends on the size and quality of the exhibition.
The study of the visual composition of the site:

This study requires the following:

1. Site Treatment
2. The study of the visual relationships between buildings and spaces
3. The base of the site, and this is explained:
Site Treatment: It is either to be towards to confirm the nature of the site and maintain
it or to eliminate what confirms this character and modify it.
Study of visual relationships between buildings and spaces.
There are two types of exhibitions:
1. The one-design exhibitions: This exhibition takes a standard format or a total of
specific forms and the spatial modulation is not difficult, there are similarities in colors,
materials, details and the final composition of the buildings which helps on the visual
coherence and unity that appear to walkers at different speeds.
2. The free design exhibitions: where found the free composition, but the basic problem
is how to find the homogeneity and the vacuum continuation. The success of the design
in terms of the visual side is to achieve a comfort to the viewer emotionally and visually
through satiate the desires and the multifaceted needs of visitors of the exhibition as
much as possible to get to the wanted homogeneity and continuation. Thus, thus we
guarantee a perspective relationship leads to homogeneity and continuation gradually
with the devoted space for the suites. Also, It should study the various relationships for
blocks whether buildings, trees or blanks at night as lighting interferes in materializing
buildings as vacuum units, where lighting brings out the aesthetic aspects of the building
or turning the building from a heavy lit blocks to light Lighting at night. The Site Lighting
is affected by the type of building and the nature of the construction materials and its
size and composition in space. Some believe that the shadows are caused by lighting
and this is wrong, generally lighting must adhere with its architectural foundations to fit
with the demands of her role without emotion or stress.

Site Furniture : includes plants, fountains, light poles and other technical elements
which are not visual Interestingness only but it has a core function as making a strong
influence on the climate of the site. The Fountain and water bodies give a thin and
reversing sense balanced with dryness of the building. The light poles give a sense of
the building's shape; it must be careful not to be ugly during the day, either keeping
them above the eye level or by simplifying its form.
Factors that affect the design of exhibitions buildings:

1. Audience: the public nature limits: number, extension, routes and walk lines,
therefore the design must base on the quality of the expected public in terms of
age and level, therefore diversification in the material presented to satisfy the
public as much as possible. The most important thing in the exhibition design is
walk lines, because poor design leads to the accumulation of people who would
stand in long queues in front of the building, thus this is an expulsion factor for
the exhibition not an attraction.
2. Nature of the exhibits determines the subject of exhibition and the responsible
significantly affect the exhibition. For example, if the exhibition was for the
purpose of trade, it must study and coordinate the exhibits.
The point of the responsible also has a large effect on shape and size of the suite,
in the major international exhibitions, countries compete in the establishment of
huge buildings and innovative structural ideas, contrary to the small surrounding
galleries. The exhibits' nature is affected the quality of presentation, whether
permanent or temporary or mobile.

Suite interior design elements:

Projection (falling) and walk lines

inner emptiness
Projection and walk lines:

The aim of the perfect design is to unite the movement of people in a way to enable
them to see the exhibition easily without misleading the road or feel bored or tired. The
designer should take into account changes that may occur in the expected movement,
to prevent the resulting gathering caused from people slowing and their curiosity.
There are two walk lines: limited (specified) line and unlimited line.

The limited walk line: used if the goal of the exhibition is to provide a sequential topic
and everyone should see everything. It should consider the following:
1. The limited space should not exceed 100 Meter, providing free places to avoid feeling
of unexpected implementation with the diversity of the surrounded axis.
2. Assemble exhibits from single nature in one place
3. Having a sufficient place in front of walk lines, so that the visitor can stand and
contemplate what is displayed without blocking the passage.

4. The art Exhibits must be placed in separate places because People do not stop to see
them all.
The unlimited walk line: It followed in most of exhibitions, which do not need this
sequence, such as commercial markets, where the harmony between the different
suites. This in the free projection to leave a chance for the visitor to walk around. This
kind takes many forms: It can be in a form of a sequence of showrooms bound with
lanes. The routes should not be similar in front of the viewer so did not feel he strayed
the way or that he did not see everything. Also, to avoid the straight lanes in projection.
The winding lanes are the best, offering exciting and change.

Inner emptiness
Inner emptiness: that any architectural vacuum is not only a center contains man who
practices his activities in. The exhibitions do not depart from this definition, there is a
certain relationship between the exhibition and what it contains, who enters and the
success of the exhibition depends on the extent to which this relationship meets right
from the study and through three basic demands:

Persistence and methods of construction: There is no interior architect vacuum for

either display or non-display .Also there is a veneer that needs a means of construction
to implement a close relationship between the vacuum and origin. Now the basic shape
of any structural building arises from several factors, including the form of the
movement or the size of the required vacuum.
Various forms of vacuum:
Exhibitions is required to have your vacuum dynamic, whatever shape and size, it offers
the viewer a sense of excitement and curiosity, with a safe movement without getting

Vacuum forming trends show:

1. In one large vacuum
2. Display in an organic deflate

3. Outdoor display
Coverages used in the premises of exhibitions:

Crusty facilities
Kabilh installations
Steric truss
Membranous installations

Types of Structural Systems

Many different structural systems are used in architecture.
The type of system used depends on the building's needs.
The height of the building, its load bearing capacity, the
soil specifications and the building materials all dictate the
proper structural system needed for a building. In
particular, structural systems have evolved to focus on
building up as undeveloped land has become scarce.

1. Wood Frame

A wood frame is a type of lightweight

structural system. Wood frame
constructions are frequently used for
office buildings, schools, government
buildings, retail buildings, apartments and
homes. Buildings with wood-based
structural systems are strong and
lightweight, which make them very stable
in areas that experience earthquakes. How
strong the wood is depends on the
condition of the wood frame, any knots or
splits in the wood, the moisture content of
the wood and the direction of the grain.

Wood Frame


Precast Concrete

Precast concrete can be used

as part of a structural system or as a
complete structural system. A
precast system uses precast
columns, load bearing precast
walls, hollow core or double tee
flooring and beams with cladding.
Precast systems offer several
advantages because they are fast to
construct. The precast sections can
Precast Concrete
be made as soon as the builder
obtains the permits, and then the
building can be erected immediately. This fast construction makes it possible to
speedily enclose the building so interior tradesmen can start work sooner.

2. Steel and Concrete

Steel and concrete structural systems are a

type of composite system. This type of
system can combine structural steel
framing with concrete tubes or concrete
shear walls with a steel frame. This system
is frequently used to construct tall
buildings, such as high-rises. The steel and
concrete can resist stress from wind and
Steel and Concrete

3. Shear Frame

A shear frame structural system is one in which the joints are placed in orthogonal
directions. This helps the building resist wind force from any direction. The wind
resistance is due to bending of the frame columns and shears. Many times these
systems create grid-like surfaces, particularly when lightweight building material
is used. Ultimately, deeper frames mean less bending. This is because more force
is transferred to the bottom of the building. However, at some point the deepness
of the frame will interfere with other building components, such as ductwork and
HVAC systems.

4. Flat Plate System

The flat plate system was one of the first

systems used in high-rise buildings. This
system uses shear heads or reinforced
steel at the columns, and then flat plates
between the columns. These flat rate
plates are typically made of concrete and
modern versions can be precast. The
design uses bars that form concentric
rings that are then strengthened with
orthogonal and diagonal bars between
the columns. The thickness of the plate
is a main factor in determining the load
bearing of the frame.

Flat Plate System

5. Steel Structures

Steel Structures

There are three different types of

steel structures used in building, each
with its own set of advantages and
disadvantages. These include Quonset
Hut Steel, Steel I-Beam and Hybrid
Steel/Wood combination buildings.
Understanding the importance of the
highlights and downfalls of each
structure can save potential builders
thousands of dollars as well as

unnecessary hassles.

6. Quonset Hut

These steel building structures are in the shape of an arch or a "curve" and are
defined as self-supporting structures. Assembling a Quonset building is begun by

laying each individual piece of the arch onto the ground, bolting them together
and then assembling them onto the foundation. Quonset Hut buildings come in
two different styles: the older full arch structure and the updated, modified
counterpart which is designed to take up less space. Quonset buildings are
frequently used for the storage of feed and grain, as well as other smaller
structures. These types of buildings are the least expensive to construct and the
easiest of the three to build; however, insulating them can be somewhat

7. I-Beam

I-Beam structures are the

most common types of steel
buildings. A steel truss,
which consists of two
sidewall sections and two
roof sections, is what
supports the building. Once
assembled on the ground,
each solid steel beam truss
is raised and then bolted into
the foundation of concrete.
These structures are great
for wide, large buildings
such as airplane hangars.
I-Beam structures
Although they are common
and sturdy structures, they
are usually limited to a boxy rectangular or square shape.

cases studies
1. Qatar National Convention Centre / Arata Isozaki

Qatar National Convention Centre Doha, Qatar

From the architect. Officially opened on 4 December 2011, the

Qatar National Convention Centre (QNCC) is one of the most
sophisticated convention and exhibition centres built to date,
boasting iconic design bearing the Sidra Tree.
Designed by the renowned Japanese architect Arata Isozaki.,
the spectacular faade resembles two intertwined trees
reaching up to support the exterior canopy. The tree is a
beacon of learning and comfort in the desert and a haven for
poets and scholars who gathered beneath its branches to
share knowledge.

Qatar National Convention Centre

QNCC was conceived with a focus on sustainability. The Centre was successfully built
according to U.S. Green Building Councils Leadership in Energy and Environment Design
(LEED) gold certification standards. The building is designed to operate efficiently with
innovations such as water conservation and energy-efficient fixtures.

Qatar National Convention Centre

A member of the Qatar Foundation, QNCC

features a conference hall of 4,000-seat theatre
style, a 2,300-seat theatre, three auditoria and a
total of 52 flexible meetings rooms to
accommodate a wide range of events. It also
houses 40,000 square metres of exhibition
space over nine halls, and is adaptable to seat
10,000 for a conference or banquet. The

Qatar National Convention Centre

Centres stunning architecture and cutting edge facilities are ideal for hosting local,

regional and international conventions and exhibitions, gala events, theatrical

productions and banquet functions.

Qatar National Convention Centre

Access to QNCC - Traffic Flow Site Map

Qatar National Convention Centre _ Traffic Flow Site Map

Ground level map

Qatar National Convention Centre _ Ground level map

Level 1 map

Qatar National Convention Centre _ level 1 map

Level 2 map

Qatar National Convention Centre _ level 2 map

Capacity Chart

Capacity Chart . PDF :

Architecture Research Center / Petros Konstantinou,

Yiorgos Hadjichristou

Institutional Architecture Selected Works Cyprus Nicosia Petros Konstantin ou Yiorgos


Architecture Research Center / Petros Konstantinou, Yiorgos Hadjichristou

Architects: Petros Konstantin ou, Yiorgos Hadjichristou

Location: Engomi, Nicosia, Cyprus
Collaborators: Veronika Antoniou and Joao Teigas
External collaborator: Alessandra Swiny
Owner: University of Nicosia
Constructor: Lois Builders ltd
Year: 2011
Photographs: Agisilaou and Spyrou, Yiorgos Hadjichristou and Petros Konstantin ou,
Nikos Philippou

The University of Nicosia decided to

accommodate the Architecture DepartmentARC Architecture Research Center in an
existing shoe factory of the adjacent Engomi
industrial area. The choice was part of the
strategy of the University to expand the
campus in the neighboring industrial zone, a
vital decision for the regeneration of the area!

Architecture Research Center / Petros Konstantinou, Yiorgos


The needs of the architecture department, the

restrictions of the existing concrete structure
and the low budget defined the approach of
the design, which was thoroughly filtered by
the weight of the responsibility for the
identity of the Architecture Research Center:
this is the sixth year that the Architecture
Program me has been running in the
Architecture Department of the University of
Nicosia and it already claims to be very of high
quality, very Progressive, Experimental with
critical thinking approach.

Architecture Research Center / Petros Konstantinou, Yiorgos


Architecture Research Center / Petros Konstantinou, Yiorgos Hadjichristou

The conversion of the building should respond to the increased needs of the ARC which
demanded various sizes of studio spaces, meeting-lecture-exhibition spaces, workshop,
offices, computer labs, cafeteria etc. These requirements led us to organize a very
flexible interior space: the industrial, high ceiling space may finally keep its original,
completely open plan character or may be divided up to a variety of studios,
amphitheater, lecture and exhibition spaces when it is needed through the sliding
dividing panels. The arrangement of the panels can provide each time different and
diverse spatial conditions, while they serve as well for the acoustic needs and as
surfaces for the pin ups of the students work during reviews and exhibitions.
The central amphitheatrically part serves as a
lecture, exhibition and event space, while it
may be the main recreational, resting area
during various hours of the day. It leads to the
roof of the building from where winter
sunlight may enter the central part of the
building, while it can be used as an organic
link to the future vertical extension of the

Architecture Research Center / Petros Konstantinou, Yiorgos


Architecture Research Center / Petros Konstantinou, Yiorgos Hadjichristou _ Elevations

Elevations 01
The 2 floors of the northern existing part of the building accommodate the entrance
with the receptions box, the cafeteria that ensures the everyday warm welcoming and
the livelihood of the front area of the building, the offices , the computer lab. The
vertical communications are organized in the north extension of the building.

Architecture Research Center / Petros Konstantinou, Yiorgos Hadjichristou _ Elevations

Elevations 02
The envelope of the building is treated with polycarbonate panels in various soft coulour
tones which transmit a controlled, pleasant light condition in the interior of the building.
It is planned to be accomplished in the near future with a shading proposal with mesh
and climbing vegetation.

Ground floor plan 01

Ground floor plan 02

Ground floor plan 03

Ground floor plan 04

Ground floor plan 04

Roof plan

King Abdullah Petroleum

Studies and Research
Buildings with complex geometry need
careful coordination during the design
phase to ensure a successful construction
phase. Even though the facades of the
King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and

Figure 1The KAPSARC complex from a bird's eye view, showing

the Research Center in the upper right of the image. Render
Zaha Hadid Architects.

Research Center (KAPSARC) have a complex faceted geometry with few parallel planes,
they are buildable out of GRC because of careful research and coordination between
architects and engineers during the design phases. The design of projects that have
complicated geometry can suffer if coordination does not occur early enough in the
design process. Undesirable compromises can creep in, especially in the construction
process, which can then undermine the architectural intent. This was avoided in the
design of the facades of KAPSARC through careful design, research, and coordination
between the architects and faade engineers.
To achieve the original aesthetic intent of the facades of the KAPSARC project, Zaha
Hadid Architects worked with Arup Facades Engineering to determine faade systems
and materials and develop a set of facades design parameters early in the design
process. The selection of the faade materials and systems and the parameters
regarding elements of the faade including use of GRC as the cladding material, the
sizing of the GRC panels, the punched window design and interface with the GRC, and
the joint sizes between the GRC panels, were fed into the architect s renderings and 3D
models of the facades. Then the rules developed to establish the parameters GRC of the
facade were used by the design team refine the aesthetic appearance of the faade.

In addition, other metrics such as thermal performance of the faade were taken into
account. Technical and performance drivers also influenced the selection of GRC, from
climate issues to sustainability requirements. For example, rules regarding percentage of
glazing to opaque walling and wall build-up were also developed by the engineers and
coordinated with the architect. In this way a coordinated faade was designed that both
met the aesthetic requirements as well as the functional requirements.

KAPSARC is a center for energy and environmental research and policy studies in Riyadh,
Saudi Arabia. The client is Saudi Aramco, the national oil company of Saudi Arabia and a
global oil company that manages the world s largest crude reserves.i At KAPSARC,
environmental experts will come from around the world to research energy and the
environment. The researchers at KAPSARC will also engage in collaborative research
with similar research centers around the world.ii As a center for energy research the
complex has a sustainable agenda and is targeting a LEED (Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design) rating of Platinum, the highest rating possible. The LEED rating
reflects the projects goals of being in the forefront of sustainability and design, as well
as research. LEED impacted all aspects of the design, from the layout of buildings and
landscaping on the site to the mechanical systems. The faade design was also heavily
impacted by LEED requirements.

King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Centre

(KAPSARC) is a future-oriented research and policy centre committed to energy and

environmental exploration and production and analysis. The 887,000 sq feet KAPSARC
campus is located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabias capital and largest city. Headquartered in an
iconic complex 8 Kms south of King Khalid International Airport and designed by worldrenowned architect Zaha Hadid, the Centre is the first thing visitors see upon arriving in
Riyadh and the last they will glimpse before leaving, by airplane.
The Centres construction employs a variety of sustainable building techniques and
advanced technologies. Arranged to temper the light and heat of the desert
environment, and utilize wind to cool facades and outdoor spaces, the design bathes
interiors in carefully controlled, soft light. Building and landscaping mix with the dryland ecosystem and take advantage of seasonal breeze to offer temperate zones and
improve pedestrian comfort. Energy-efficient light sources such as LEDs, powered

outside the grid using photovoltaic elements, give the landmark a crystal-like identity
during the night.

The Entire complex will be LEED Platinum Rated upon completion, which is the highest
level achievable under U.S. Green Building Council specifications.

Architectural highlights of development

The KAPSARC centre resembles a cellular structure of crystalline forms. Composed of a
network of three-dimensional, six-sided cells with many junctions and bonds, its design
is based on the concept of connections. The modular, adaptive building is made up of a
series of shaded outdoor spaces, courtyards, entrances, meeting areas, indoor gardens,
corridors, underground tunnels and roof terraces.
The Centre consists of 8 basic areas.
1. Basement
2. Research Center
3. Library
4. Conference Center
5. Musalla
6. IT Center and Backup
7. Ancillary Buildings
8. Canopy
The Basement area links the Research Center, Library, and Conference Center. It has a
Public Access Tunnel and also contains all major plant rooms area. The basement level is
at 6.70 SSL and a total gross area of 16,785 m2. As it lies below the flood level, the
basement area is waterproofed on all sides.
Research Center

The Research Center is the hub of KAPSARC. It consists of 3 levels, measuring 23,685 Sq.
m. This area combines the three main departments: Administration, Research and
Executive. The Research Center accommodates a daily population of around 350. The
building is made of a group of similar 3 dimensional cells, organized around a central
courtyard with North-South orientation. A multi level public lobby also links all
departments from parking to the place of the ICON.
The public face of , the Library is directly connected to the Place of the Icon. It is made
up of 5 interlocking hexagonal cells that vary in height. It consists of 2 levels spread over
14,832 m2. The KAPSARC library has been designed to be cutting edge, and houses both
a digital library (books obtained from online sources, to save paper) and physical shelves
to store books.
Conference Center
The Conference Center is a premium
venue for meeting and large conferences.
It consists of 5 cells, built on 2 levels
spread over 21,318 m2. The Conference
Center has been designed to host
external events and conferences and
seats around 320 people.

Conference Center

Musalla is located in the center of the Master Plan. The Musallla comprises of 4 cells,
and combines a lobby, courtyard and a Prayer Room. The Musalla is spread over 1320
m2, with Structural Steel, Faade and Finishes.
IT Center and IT Back-up

The state of the art IT Center is a one storey building for Data Center and Office spaces,
housing the computational power of the KAPSARC center. The building has 3 cells,
spread over 4504 m2 on two floors.
The entire site is under the cover of a unique Canopy at the ground level, which covers
an area of 11,800 m2, made in a hexagonal grid, with Treated Exposed Steel and PTFE
(Polytetra- Fluoro-Ethylene-Teflon based material) as the shading material.

site analysis

High-Performance HVAC
Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC systems) account for 39% of the energy
used in commercial buildings in the United States. Consequently, almost any business or
government agency has the potential to realize significant savings by improving its
control of HVAC operations and improving the efficiency of the system it uses.
The use of high performance HVAC equipment can result in considerable energy,
emissions, and cost savings (10%-40%). Whole building design coupled with an
"extended comfort zone" can produce much greater savings (40%-70%). Extended
comfort includes employing concepts such as providing warmer, but drier air using
desiccant dehumidification in summer, or cooler air with warmer windows and warmer
walls in winter. In addition, high-performance HVAC can provide increased user thermal
comfort, and contribute to improved indoor environmental quality (IEQ).
Given the range and complexity of the subject, this information should be viewed as
only a starting point to access information from the many trade associations, agencies,
and manufacturers linked throughout the text.

Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC)
The term HVAC refers to the three disciplines of Heating, Ventilating, and AirConditioning. A fourth discipline, Controls, pervades the entire HVAC field. Controls
determine how HVAC systems operate to meet the design goals of comfort, safety, and
cost-effective operation.

Heating can be accomplished by heating the air within a space (e.g. supply air systems,
perimeter fin-tube "radiators"), or by heating the occupants directly by radiation (e.g.
floor/ceiling/wall radiation or radiant panels).

Ventilating maintains an adequate mixture of gases in the air we breath (e.g. not too
much CO2), controls odors, and removes contaminants from occupied spaces. "Clean"
air helps keep occupants healthy and productive. Ventilation can be accomplished
passively through natural ventilation, or actively through mechanical distribution
systems powered by fans.

Air-conditioning refers to the sensible and latent cooling of air. Sensible cooling involves
the control of air temperature while latent cooling involves the control of air humidity.
Room air is cooled by transferring heat between spaces, such as with a water loop heat
pump system, or by rejecting it to the outside air via air-cooled or water-cooled
equipment. Heat can also be rejected to the ground using geothermal exchange. Cool air
is not comfortable if it is too humid. Air is dehumidified by condensing its moisture on a
cold surface, such as part of mechanical cooling), or by removing the moisture through
absorption (desiccant dehumidification). In dry climates, humidification may be required
for comfort instead of dehumidification. Evaporative humidification also cools the air.
Further, in such climates it is possible to use radiant cooling systems, similar to the
radiant heating systems mentioned above.

Controls ensure occupant comfort, provide safe operation of the equipment, and in a
modern HVAC control system enable judicious use of energy resources. HVAC systems
are sized to meet heating and cooling loads that historically occur only 1% to 2.5% of the
time. It is the function of the controls to ensure that the HVAC systems perform
properly, reliably, and efficiently during those conditions that occur 97.5% to 99% of the
Each HVAC discipline has specific design requirements and each has opportunities for
energy savings. It must be understood, however, that energy savings in one area may
augment or diminish savings in another. This applies to interactions between
components of an HVAC system, as well as between the HVAC system and the lighting
and envelope systems. Therefore, understanding how one system or subsystem affects
another is essential to making the most of the available opportunities for energy
savings. This design approach is known as whole building design.

Impact on Building Energy Performance Goals

Employing high-performance HVAC equipment in conjunction with whole building
design can result in significant energy savings. Typically, a 30% reduction in annual
energy costs can be achieved with a simple payback period of about three to five years.
And, if the payback threshold is extended to seven years, the savings can be about 40%.
These figures apply to buildings that offer conventional comfort (e.g., 70F in winter,
76F in summer).
If the comfort zone is extended through natural ventilation and air movement in
summer, and through lower air temperatures in winter (made possible by highlyinsulated and, therefore, warmer wall and window surfaces), even higher savings can be
achieved. For example, a typical office building minimally complying with the ASHRAE
Standard 90.1-1989 might use 75,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr. The goal for many federal buildings
is 50,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr. A highly energy-efficient building using conventional comfort
could have an energy use of 40,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr. or even less. A building designed and
operated with extended comfort strategies might only use 20,000 to 30,000
However, note that highly energy-efficient design utilizing high-performance HVAC
equipment often requires more effort and more collaboration from the design team
than a conventional, sequential approach.

Fundamentals of Energy- and Resource-Efficient

HVAC Design
Consider all

Energy-efficient, climate responsive construction requires a whole

aspects of the

building perspective that integrates architectural and engineering


concerns early in the design process. For example, the evaluation of


a building envelope design must consider its effect on cooling loads

and day lighting. An energy-efficient building envelope, coupled

with a state-of-the-art lighting system and efficient, properly-sized

HVAC equipment will cost less to purchase and operate than a
building whose systems are selected in isolation from each other.
Decide on

A building that only meets energy code requirements will often have

design goals as

a different HVAC system than one that uses 40% less energy than

early as

the code. And the difference is likely to be not only component size,


but also basic system type.

"Right Size"

Safety factors for HVAC systems allow for uncertainties in the final

HVAC systems

design, construction and use of the building, but should be used

to ensure

reasonably. Greatly oversized equipment operates less efficiently


and costs more than properly sized equipment. For example,


oversized cooling systems may not dehumidify the air properly,

resulting in cool but "clammy" spaces. It is unreasonable and
expensive to assume a simultaneous worst-case scenario for all load
components (occupancy, lighting, shading devices, weather) and
then to apply the highest safety factors for sizing.

Consider part-

Part-load performance of equipment is a critical consideration for


HVAC sizing. Most heating and cooling equipment only operate at


their rated, peak efficiency when fully loaded (that is, working near

when selecting

their maximum output). However, HVAC systems are sized to meet


design heating and cooling conditions that historically occur only 1%

to 2.5% of the time. Thus, HVAC systems are intentionally oversized
at least 97.5% to 99% of the time. In addition, most equipment is
further oversized to handle pick-up loads and to provide a factor of
safety. Therefore, systems almost never operate at full load. In fact,
most systems operate at 50% or less of their capacity.

Shift or shave

Many electric utilities offer lower rates during off-peak periods that

electric loads

typically occur at night. Whenever possible, design systems to take

during peak

advantage of this situation. For example, energy management


systems can shed non-critical loads at peak periods to prevent short


duration electrical demands from affecting energy bills for the entire
year. Or, off-peak thermal ice storage systems can be designed to
run chillers at night to make ice that can be used for cooling the
building during the next afternoon when rates are higher.

Plan for

A change in building use or the incorporation of new technologies

expansion, but

can lead to an increased demand for cooling. But, it is wasteful to

don't size for it

provide excess capacity nowthe capacity may never be used or

the equipment could be obsolete by the time it is needed. It is
better to plan equipment and space so that future expansion is
possible. For example, adequately size mechanical rooms and
consider the use of modular equipment.


Commercial HVAC systems do not always work as expected.

the HVAC

Problems can be caused by the design of the HVAC system or


because equipment and controls are improperly connected or

installed. A part of commissioning involves testing the HVAC
systems under all aspects of operation, revealing and correcting
problems, and ensuring that everything works as intended.
A comprehensive commissioningprogram will also ensure that O&M
personnel are properly trained in the functioning of all systems.

Establish an

Proper performance and energy-efficient operation of HVAC


systems can only be ensured through a successful O&M program.


The building design team should provide systems that will perform


effectively at the level of maintenance that the owner is able to


provide. In turn, the owner must understand that different


components of the HVAC system will require different degrees of

maintenance to perform properly.

Design Recommendations
Consider all aspects of the building simultaneously. The building should incorporate as
many features as possible that reduce heating and cooling loads, for example:
1. In skin-load dominated structures, employ passive heating or cooling strategies
(e.g., sun control and shading devices, thermal mass).
2. In internal-load dominated structures, include glazing that has a high cooling index.
3. Specify exterior wall constructions that avoid thermal bridging.
4. Detail the exterior wall constructions with air retarder systems.
5. Incorporate the highest R-value wall and roof construction that is cost-effective.
6. Design efficient lighting systems.
7. Use daylight dimming controls whenever possible.
8. Specify efficient office equipment (e.g., EPA Energy Star Office Equipment).
9. Accept life-cycle horizons of 20 to 25 years for equipment and 50 to 75 years for walls
and glazings.
Decide on design goals as early as possible. It is important that the design team knows
where it is headed long before the construction documents phase.
a. Emphasize communication between all members of the design team throughout the
design process.
b. Develop a written "Basis of Design" that conveys to all members of the project goals for
energy efficiency. For example, such a BOD might highlight the intent to incorporate
daylighting and the attendant use of high-performance glazing, suitable lighting controls
and interior layout.
c. Establish a quantitative goal for annual energy consumption and annual energy costs.
d. Clarify goals to meet or exceed the minimum requirements of codes or regulations
during schematic design.
"Right Size" HVAC systems to ensure efficient operation.
a. Accept the HVAC safety factors and pick-up load allowance stated in ASHRAE/IES 90.1 as
an upper limit.

b. Apply safety factors to a reasonable baseline. It is unreasonable to assume that on the

hottest clear day if no shades are drawn and all lights are on that each room is occupied
by the maximum number of people allowed by fire codes (thus, far in excess of the
maximum number of people that can be expected in the building), and then apply safety
factors. Safety factors should be applied to a baseline that was created using reasonable
c. Take advantage of the new generation of dependable computerized analysis tools, such
as DOE 2.1E, to reduce uncertainty and eliminate excess oversizing. Hour-by-hour
computer simulations can anticipate how building design and operation affect peak
loads. Issues such as diversity, pick-up requirements, and self-shading due to building
geometry can be quantified. As uncertainties are reduced, oversizing factors can also be
reduced or at least can be applied to a more realistic baseline.
Consider part-load performance when selecting equipment.
a. Select systems that can operate efficiently at part-load. For example:

Variable volume fan systems and variable speed drive controls for fan motors;

Variable capacity boiler plants (e.g., step-fired (hi/lo) boilers, modular boiler plants,
modulating flame boilers);

Condensing boilers operate more efficiently (95%-96%) as the part-load decreases to

the minimum turn-down ratio;

Variable capacity cooling plants (e.g., modular chiller plants, multiple compressor
equipment, and variable speed chillers);

Variable capacity cooling towers (e.g., multiple cell towers with variable speed or two
speed fans, reset controls);

Variable capacity pump systems (e.g., primary/secondary pump loops, variable speed
pump motors); and,

Temperature reset controls for hot water, chilled water, and supply air.
Shift or shave the load.

a. Investigate the utility company's rate structure; negotiate for a favorable rate structure.
b. Take advantage of the on-peak and off-peak rate differences.

c. Use energy management controls systems to avoid unnecessary peak demand charges
(peak shaving and demand limiting).
d. Explore thermal storage systems (e.g., thermal ice storage).
e. Examine alternate fuel sources for heating and cooling systems (e.g., district steam vs.
natural gas vs. fuel oil; steam or natural gas chillers; dual fuel boilers).
Plan for future expansion instead of greatly oversizing the equipment. "Right sizing" the
systems means avoiding systems that have more capacity than currently required. This
concept extends to accommodating for planned expansion. Don't provide excess
capacity today for a future load that may never exist, instead:
a. Provide the physical space required for additional equipment: boilers, chillers, pumps,
cooling towers.
b. Design distribution systems that can easily accept additional equipment, and can be
expanded to provide for the requirements of the future expansion.
The result is savings in first cost and operating cost, and savings in construction cost and
down time when making expansion alterations.
Commission the HVAC systems. ASHRAE Guideline 1 presently recommends a
comprehensive commissioning protocol for HVAC equipment. Many advocates of highperformance buildings are urging that more general, Total Building Commissioning (TBC)
be implemented. More information on commissioning can be found at:

Building Commissioning Association

National Institute of Building Sciences' Total Building Commissioning Program

Portland Energy Conservation, Inc.

Establish an Operations and Maintenance Program.

a. Specify systems that can be properly maintained by the owner, based on the owner's
stated resources.
b. Provide as part of construction, contract system interfaces to allow personnel to easily
monitor and adjust system parameters.

c. Make systems control, operation, and maintenance training part of the construction
d. Include complete documentation regarding operation and maintenance of all
equipment and controls systems as part of the construction contract.
e. Establish a written, comprehensive operation and maintenance program, based on the
requirements of the facility, equipment, and systems installed.

Types of HVAC Systems

Heating Systems
1. Boilers are used to generate steam or hot water and can be fired by natural gas, fuel oil,
or coal.
a. The following boilers have combustion efficiencies between 78% and 86%.

Firetube steel boilers are constructed so that hot gases from the combustion chamber
pass through tubes that are surrounded by water. Typically, firetube boilers do not
exceed 25 million Btu/hr (MMBtu/hr), but capacities up to 70 MMBtu/hr are available.

Watertube steel boilers pass hot combustion gases over water-filled tubes. Sizes for
packaged watertube boilers range from small, low pressure units (e.g., around 10
MMBtu/hr) to very large, high-pressure units with steam outputs of about 300

Cast iron boilers are used in small installations (0.35 to 10 MMBtu/hr) where long
service life is important. Since these boilers are composed of precast sections, they can
be more readily field-assembled than watertube or firetube boilers. At similar
capacities, cast-iron boilers are more expensive than firetube or watertube boilers.

b. Condensing boilers achieve higher system efficiencies by extracting so much heat from
the flue gases that the moisture in the gas condenses. The gases that remain can often
be vented directly to the outside, simplifying and reducing the cost of breeching. They
are typically fired with natural gas and operate between 95% and 96% combustion
efficiencies. They also operate more efficiently than non-condensing boilers at part-

load. Condensing boilers are available in capacities between 0.3 and 2 MMBtu/hr, and
can be connected in modular installations.
2. Furnaces can be used for residential and small commercial heating systems. Furnaces
use natural gas, fuel oil, and electricity for the heat source. Natural gas furnaces are
available in condensing and non-condensing models. The cooling can be packaged
within the system, or a cooling coil can be added. When direct expansion systems with
coils are used, the condenser can be part of the package or remote.
3. Heat pumps are devices that add heat to or extract heat from a conditioned space. Both
refrigerators and air conditioners are types of heat pumps that extract heat from a
cooler, conditioned space and reject it to a warmer space (i.e., the outdoors). Heating
can be obtained if this cycle is reversed: heat is moved from the outdoors to the
conditioned space indoors. Heat pumps are available in two major types: conventional
packaged (air-source) and water-source (conventional or geothermal).
Geothermal heat pump system on the Georgia Institute
of Technology Campus
Courtesy of U.S. DOE, Craig Miller Productions
More information on heat pumps can be found at:

Energy StarAir-Source Heat


Energy StarGeothermal Heat Pumps

Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium, Inc.

International Energy Agency (IEA) Heat Pump Centre

International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (IGSHPA)

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)Geothermal Energy Program

Heating Controls

The first three controls increase energy efficiency by reducing on/off cycling of boilers.
The fourth improves the efficiency during operation.
1. Modulating flameThe heat input to the boiler can be adjusted continually (modulated)
up or down to match the heating load required. Modulating flame boilers have a
minimum turn-down ratio, below which the boiler cycles off. This ratio is 25% for most
boilers, but some can be turned down to as low as 10%.
2. Step-firedThe heat input to the boiler changes in steps, usually high/low/off.
Compared to steady-state units, the capacity of the boiler can come closer to the
required heating load.
3. Modular boilersAnother energy-efficient measure is to assemble groups of smaller
boilers into modular plants. As the heating load increases, a new boiler enters on-line,
augmenting the capacity of the heating system in a gradual manner. As the heating load
decreases, the boilers are taken off-line one by one.
4. Oxygen trim systems continuously adjust the amount of combustion air to achieve high
combustion efficiency. They are usually cost-effective for large boilers that have
modulating flame controls.

Ventilation Systems
Ventilation systems deliver conditioned air to occupied spaces. Depending on the
building type, ventilation air may be comprised of 100% outside air, such as in a
laboratory building, or some mixture of re-circulated interior air and outside air. In
commercial and institutional buildings, there are a number of different types of systems
for delivering this air:
1. Constant air volume (CAV) systems deliver a constant rate of air while varying the
temperature of the supply air. If more than one zone is served by a CAV system, the
supply air is cooled at a central location to meet the need of the zone with highest
demand. The other zones get overcooled or, if comfort is to be maintained, the air is

reheated at the terminal units. CAV systems with reheat are inefficient because they
expend energy to cool air that will be heated again. CAV systems with reheat, however,
provide superior comfort in any zone. Constant airflow reduces pockets of "dead" air,
and reheat provides close control of the space temperature.
2. Variable air volume (VAV) systems vary the amount of air supplied to a zone while
holding the supply air temperature constant. This strategy saves fan energy and uses
less reheat than in a CAV system. VAV systems, however, can have problems assuring
uniform space temperature at low airflow rates. At times, the minimum airflow required
for ventilation or for proper temperature control may be higher than is required to meet
the space load. When this occurs reheat may be required.
3. Low-flow air diffusers in VAV systems help maintain uniform air distribution in a space at
low airflows. These devices can be passive or active. Passive low flow diffusers are
designed to mix the supply air with the room air efficiently at low flow. Active diffusers
actually move the outlet vanes of the diffuser to maintain good mixing at low flow.
Active diffusers can also be used as VAV terminal units.
4. Fan-powered VAV terminal units provide another method to improve air distribution at
low load conditions. These units combine the benefits of a VAV system, by reducing
central fan energy and reheat energy, with the benefits of a CAV system, by maintaining
good airflow. There are two major types, series and parallel: Series fan-powered units
maintain constant airflow to the zone at all times; parallel fan-powered units allow the
airflow to the zone to vary somewhat, but do not allow the airflow in the zone to drop
below a desired level. Both, however, allow the central fan to throttle down to the
minimum airflow required for ventilation.
5. Raised floor air distribution delivers air low in the space, at low velocity and relatively
high temperature compared to traditional plenum mounted distribution systems.
Delivering air through a series of adjustable floor-mounted registers permits room air to
be stratified with lower temperatures in the bottom portion of the room where people
are located and high temperatures towards the ceiling. This system type is attracting
increasing interest because it has the potential to save energy and to provide a high

degree of individual comfort control. These systems have historically used constantvolume air delivery. Manufacturers are now beginning to offer VAV systems that are
more easily designed, installed, and operated with raised floor plenum systems.

Ventilation System Controls

In recent years, ventilation control systems have
become more complex and, if installed and
maintained properly, more dependable. Among the
advancements are:
1. Direct digital control (DDC) systems using digital-logic
controllers and electrically-operated actuators are

Underfloor air distribution

replacing traditional pneumatic controls. Pneumatic

systems use analog-logic controllers and air-pressure actuators. DDC systems are
repeatable and reliable, provide accurate system responses, and can be monitored from
a central computer station. DDC systems also require less maintenance than pneumatic
systems. However, pneumatic controllers can be less expensive than electric actuators.
Hybrid systems use a combination of digital logic controllers and pneumatic actuators.
2. CAV systems should have controls to reset the supply air temperature at the cooling coil
to provide the warmest air possible to the space with the highest cooling load. This
reduces reheat throughout the system. However, the temperature should be no higher
than is necessary to properly dehumidify the air. Another option to reduce reheat is to
use a bypass system. Bypass systems work like variable volume systems at the zones,
but have constant airflow across the central fan.
3. VAV systems can now be designed to serve areas with as little as six tons of cooling load.
Inlet vanes or, better yet, variable speed fans should be used to control air volume. In
systems that have supply and return fans, airflow monitoring stations should be used to
maintain the balance between supply and return airflow.

4. CO2-based control systems control the amount of outside air required for ventilation.
These systems monitor the CO2 in the return air and modulate the outside air damper to
provide only the amount of outside air required to maintain desired levels. Since
CO2 does not account for contaminants released by the building materials (e.g., carpets,
furniture), there must be a minimum amount of outside air even when the spaces are
unoccupied. Alternately, detectors of volatile organic compounds (VOC) can supplement
the CO2 monitoring system.
Air-Conditioning Equipment
1. Chillers. In large commercial and institutional buildings, devices used to produce cool
water are called chillers. The water is pumped to air handling units to cool the air. They
use either mechanical refrigeration processes or absorption processes.
a. Mechanical refrigeration chillers may have one or more compressors. These
compressors can be powered by electric motors, fossil fuel engines, or turbines.
Refrigeration systems achieve variable capacity by bringing compressors on or off line,
by unloading stages within the compressors, or by varying the speed of the compressor.
The major types of compressors are described below:
1. Reciprocating compressors are usually found in air-cooled direct expansion (DX) systems
for residential and small commercial systems. They can also be found in chillers with
capacities of 10 through 200 tons. To better match part-load conditions and achieve
higher operating efficiencies, multiple compressors can be employed in a single system.
2. Scroll compressors are manufactured in the 1 to 15 ton range. Multiple compressors can
be found in water chillers with capacities of 20 to 500 tons. Scroll compressors require
less maintenance than reciprocating compressors.
3. Rotary screw compressors are found in chillers with capacities of 70 to 500 tons.
4. Centrifugal compressors are used in chillers with typical capacities of 100 to 7,000 tons.
Centrifugal chillers are the most efficient of the large-capacity chillers.
b. Absorption chillers are heat-operated devices that produce chilled water via an
absorption cycle. Absorption chillers can be direct-fired, using natural gas or fuel oil, or
indirect-fired. Indirect-fired units may use different sources for heat: hot water or steam

from a boiler, steam from district heating, or waste heat in the form of water, air, or
other gas. Absorption chillers can be single-effect or double-effect, where one or two
vapor generators are used. Double-effect chillers use two generators sequentially to
increase efficiency. Several manufacturers offer absorption chiller/heater units, which
use the heat produced by firing to provide space heating and service hot water.
c. Evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, are packaged units that cool the air by
humidifying it and then evaporating the moisture. The equipment is most effective in
dry climates. It can significantly reduce the peak electric demand when compared to
electric chillers.
d. Typical full-load operating efficiencies for chillers are noted below:

Small air-cooled electric chillers have 1.6-1.1 kW/ton (Coefficient of Performance (COP)
of 2.2 to 3.2).

Large and medium-sized air-cooled electric chillers have 0.95-0.85 kW/ton (COP of 3.7
to 4.1).

Similar water-cooled electric chillers have 0.8-0.7 kW/ton (COP of 4.4 to 5.0). Lower
values such as 0.6-0.5 kW/ton chillers (COP of 5.9 to 7.0) may indicate energy efficient
equipment, but part-load performance should also be examined.

The COP of absorption units is in the range of 0.4-0.6 for single-effect chillers, and 0.81.05 for double-effect chillers.

Engine-driven chillers attain COPs of 1.2 to 2.0.

2. Condensers are heat exchangers that are

required for chillers to reject heat that has
been removed from the conditioned spaces.
Condensers can be either air-cooled or watercooled. Water-cooled condensers often rely on
rooftop cooling towers for rejecting heat into

Cooling tower

the environment; however, it is possible to reject the to the ground or river water.

a. Air-cooled condensers are offered on smaller, packaged systems (typically from less
than one ton to 120 tons). They are initially less costly than water-cooled condensers,
but do not allow the chiller to operate as efficiently.
b. Water-cooled condensers use water that is cooled directly from the evaporative
condenser or indirectly via a cooling tower. The lower temperature achieved by
evaporating water allows chillers served by water-cooled condensers to operate more
c. A waterside economizer consists of controls and a heat exchanger installed between the
cooling tower water loop and the chilled water loop. When the outdoor air temperature
is low and/or the air is very dry (i.e., when the wet-bulb temperature is low), the
temperature of the cooling tower water may be low enough to directly cool the chilled
water loop without use of the chiller, resulting in significant energy savings.

Air-Conditioning Equipment Controls

1. Controls that significantly affect the energy efficiency of chillers include:
a. Variable speed drives achieve good part-load performance by matching the motor
output to the chiller load, and by cycling off at a lower fraction of capacity than
constant-speed chillers.
b. Multiple compressor achieves a closer match of the load than single-compressor chillers
by sequencing the compressors as needed.
c. Water temperature reset controls raise the water temperature as the demand
decreases, allowing for more efficient chiller operation.
2. Strategies that significantly affect the energy efficiency of cooling towers include the use
a. Variable-speed or multiple-speed fans
b. Wet-bulb reset strategies, where the temperature of the cooling water is adjusted
according to the temperature and humidity of outside air (instead of maintaining it

c. Fans and pumps that use variable frequency drive (VFD) controls to reduce energy use
at part-load
3. Integrated chiller plant controls use monitoring and computational strategies to yield
the minimum combined energy cost for the chillers, cooling towers, fans, and pumps.
This approach can be significantly more effective (though more difficult to implement)
than optimizing the operation of each piece of equipment independently.

Heat Recovery
Air is blown across copper coils to reject heat from this residential air-cooled condenser.
Heat Recovery is an important component of many energy efficient HVAC systems.

Types of heat recovery include:


Air-to-air heat exchangers transfer

heat or "coolth" from one air stream to

another. They are usually classified as one of
Enthalpy recovery wheel

the following:

Plate heat exchangers, with 60%-75% efficiencies

Glycol loop heat exchangers, with 50%-70% efficiencies (including pump energy use)

Heat pipe heat exchangers, with efficiencies as high as 80%

b. Desiccant wheels retrieve both sensible and latent heat, with efficiencies as high as 85%.
Desiccant dehumidification of the air is achieved by inserting a rotating wheel in the air
stream that needs to be dried. The desiccant extracts moisture from the air stream. The
wheel then rotates, exposing the moist part to another air stream that dries (or
regenerates) the desiccant material. Two methods of regeneration are typical:

Energy (Enthalpy) recovery wheels are located in the outside intake and the exhaust air
streams. The exhaust air regenerates the desiccant.

Gas-fired desiccant dehumidification packages are located in the outside intake air
stream or in the entire supply air stream. Outside air is heated by the gas furnace and is
blown over the wheel to regenerate the desiccant.

c. Other forms of heat exchange include:


Indirect evaporative cooling (IDEC) uses water-to-air heat exchange to precool air.

a. Electric heat recovery chillers receive up to 50% of rejected heat, usually though split or
multiple condensers.

Absorption chiller/heaters can use a fraction (typically 50%) of the heat input for cooling
and the rest for heating.

Gas-fired, engine driven chillers retrieve much of the heat rejected (usually 20% - 50%).

Cogeneration is a process in which electric power is generated at the facility where the
waste heat is recovered to produce service hot water, process heat, or absorption
cooling. Currently, packaged cogeneration systems between about 60-600 kW are
widely available. Extensive research and marketing efforts are underway for smaller
systems (as low as 4 kW).

Fuel Cells
Fuel cells use chemical processes to generate electricity. The heat generated by fuel
cells can also be recovered, as in cogeneration. Currently, the minimum size for a fuel
cell in building applications is 200 kW. Note that fuel cells need continuous, full-load

The benefits of high performance, energy-efficient HVAC systems are universal.
Therefore, high performance HVAC systems can be installed in all different types of
buildings, including office buildings, schools, hospitals, and courthouses.


Planning a Conference Centre February 2008 _

29 CFR 1910.1450: OSHAOccupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals in
ISEA Z358.1Emergency Eyewash and Shower Equipment
ANSI/AIHAAmerican National Standard Z9.5 for Laboratory Ventilation
Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care
(AAALAC) standards

Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
and National Institutes of HealthBiosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical
Laboratories (BMBL) 5th Edition. December 2009.
Department of Veterans Affairs Research Laboratory Design Guide
Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service, P100 by the General Services
Administration (GSA).
National Institutes of HealthNIH Design Policy and Guidelines
National Institutes of Health (NIH)Guidelines for the Laboratory Use of Chemical
Carcinogens, Pub. No. 81-2385
NFPA 30Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code
NFPA 45Fire Protection for Laboratories using Chemical
Tri-Services Unified Facilities Guide Specifications (UFGS)UFGS, organized by
MasterFormat divisions, are for use in specifying construction for the military services.
Several UFGS exist for safety-related topics.


Building Type Basics for Research Laboratories, 2nd Edition by Daniel Watch. New York:
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008. ISBN# 978-0-470-16333-7.
CRC Handbook of Laboratory Safety, 4th ed. by A. K. Furr. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press,
Design and Planning of Research and Clinical Laboratory Facilities by Leonard Mayer.
New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1995.
Design for Research: Principals of Laboratory Architecture by Susan Braybrooke. New
York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993.
Guidelines for Laboratory Design: Health and Safety Considerations, 4th Edition by Louis
J. DiBerardinis, et al. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
Guidelines for Planning and Design of Biomedical Research Laboratory Facilities by The
American Institute of Architects, Center for Advanced Technology Facilities Design.
Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1999.
Handbook of Facilities Planning, Vol. 1: Laboratory Facilities by T. Ruys. New York, NY:
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990.
Laboratories, A Briefing and Design Guide by Walter Hain. London, UK: E & FN Spon,
Laboratory by Earl Walls Associates, May 2000.
Laboratory Design from the Editors of R&D Magazine.
Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product by
National Research Council, Committee on Design, Construction, and Renovation of
Laboratory Facilities. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.
Planning Academic Research Facilities: A Guidebook by National Science Foundation.
Washington, DC: National Science Foundation, 1992.
Research and Development in Industry: 1995-96 by National Science Foundation,
Division of Science Resources Studies. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 1998.

Science and Engineering Research Facilities at Colleges and Universities by National

Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies. Arlington, VA, 1998.
Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21)Sponsored by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, Labs21 is a voluntary program
dedicated to improving the environmental performance of U.S. laboratories.

Government Agencies and Initiatives

Department of Energy (DOE)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Energy Star Program
Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)Information on Energy Technologies
National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
National Energy Information Center, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Forrestal
Building, Room 1F-048, Washington, DC 20585, Phone: (202) 586-8800
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 0899-0001,
Phone: (301) 975-3058
Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831,
Phone: (615) 576-8401
U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. NOTE: This
is a repository for all publications by the federal labs and contractors.
U.S. EPA Atmospheric Pollution, Prevention Division, 401 M Street SW, (6202J)
Washington, DC 20460, Phone: (202) 564-9190, Toll Free: (888) STAR-YES, TDD: (888)
588-9920, Fax: (202) 264-9569

National Laboratories and Research Centers

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories (LBNL) Building 90, Room 4000, 1 Cyclotron
Road, Berkeley, CA 94720
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 1617 Cole Boulevard, Building 15, Phone:
(303) 275-4363
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37830,
Phone: (423) 576-2900, Fax: (423) 574-4444
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington
99352, Phone: (509) 375-2121, Fax: (509) 372-4791

Professional and Trade Associations, and Interest Groups

Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI), 4100 North Fairfax, Arlington, VA,
Phone: (703) 524-8800, Fax: (703) 528-3816

American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA), 4001 North 9th Street, Suite 226,
Arlington, VA 22203-1900, Phone: (703) 522-7350, Fax: (703) 522-2665
ASHRAE, 1791 Tullie Circle, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30329-2305, Phone: (404) 636-8400, Fax:
(404) 321-5478
Association of Energy Engineers (AEE), Dept. 192, P.O. Box 1026, Lilburn, GA 30226,
Phone: (404) 925-9558, Fax: (404) 381-9865
Cooling Technology Institute, 2611 FM 1960 West, Suite H-200, Houston, TX 770683730, Phone: (281) 583-4087, Fax: (281) 537-1721
Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304
Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium, Inc., 6700 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 120,
Columbia, MD 21046, Phone: (410) 953-7150, Fax: (410) 953-7151
Geothermal Resources Council (GRC), P.O. Box 1350 - 2001 Second Street, Suite 5, Davis,
CA 95617-1350, Phone: (530) 758-2360, Fax: (530) 758-2839
International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (IGSHPA)
International Energy Agency (IEA) Heat Pump Centre, SP Energy Technology,
Industrigatan 4, Box 857 SE-501 15 Bors, Sweden, Phone: +46 33 16 5519 (contact:
Monica Axell), Fax: +46 33 13 1979
Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association (SMACNA), P.O. Box
221230, Chantilly, VA 20153-1230, Phone: (703) 803-2980, Fax: (703) 803-3732

Trade Publications

Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration News, P.O. Box 3210, Northbrook, IL 600653210, Phone: (800) 837-8337, Fax: (248) 362-0317
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
Consulting-Specifying Engineer, 1350 E. Touhy Ave, Des Plaines IL 60018
Energy User News, 1 Chilton Way, Radnor, PA 19089, Phone: (610) 964-4161, Fax: (610)
Engineered Systems Magazine, P.O. Box 4270, Troy, MI 48099-4270, Phone: (248) 3623700, Fax: (248) 362-0317
HPAC Interactive (Heating/Piping/Air-Conditioning Magazine), 1100 Superior Ave.,
Cleveland, OH 44114, Phone: (216) 696-7000, Fax: (216) 696-3432


Building Technology: Mechanical and Electrical Systems, 2nd Edition by Stein, Benjamin.
New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997.
Energy-Efficient Design and Construction for Commercial Buildings by Steven Winter
Associates, Inc. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997. ISBN 0-07-071159-3.
Energy-Efficient Operation of Commercial Buildings: Redefining the Energy Manager's
Job by Herzog, Peter. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997. ISBN 0-07-028468-7.
Simplified Design of HVAC Systems, by Bobenhausen, William. New York: John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., 1994.


HVAC Characteristics and Occupant Health (PDF 430 KB, 4 pgs) by W.K. Sieber, M.R.
Petersen, L.T. Stayner, R. Malkin, M.J. Mendell, K.M. Wallingford, T.G. Wilcox, M.S.
Crandall, and L. Reed.ASHRAE Journal, September 2002.
Ventilation Rates and Health (PDF 115 KB, 5 pgs) by Olli Seppnen, Fellow ASHRAE,
William J. Fisk, P.E., Member ASHRAE, and Mark J. Mendell, Ph.D. ASHRAE Journal,
August 2002.