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GTSNX 2014

1. Analysis
1.1 Hardening Soil (MMC Hardening)
Improvement in additional parameters to simulate Shear and Compression hardening simultaneously
Three types of Elastic modulus can be defined
Shear hardening parameter can be calculated automatically and Preconsolidation is used for compression hardening behavior
Reasonable and applicable model especially for soils such as sand, silt and OC Clay.

Shear Hardening : can be defined by Equivalent plastic strain related to the mobilized
shear resistance. When the soil is subject to shear hardening, solver recalculates
dilatancy angle. Shear yield surface can expand up to the Mohr-Coulomb failure
surface.

sin sin

: Equivalent deviatoric plastic strain

2 p p
:
3
sin sin cv
sin
1 sin sin cv

: Deviatoric plastic strain

sin cv : Critical state friction angle

Compression Hardening : can be defined by pre-consolidation stress. Cap yield surface


expands as a function of the pre-consolidation stress
1

P m m
m
p
c
0
Pc pref
v
pref

Pc
Pc 0

: Pre-consolidation stress

: Cap hardening parameter

: Pre-overburden pressure (or OCR)

[Yield surface expansion, Hardening behavior]

GTSNX 2014
1. Analysis
1.1 Hardening Soil (Review of model parameters)
Parameter

Description

Reference value (kN, m)

Soil stiffness and failure


E50ref

Secant stiffness in standard drained triaxial test

Ei x (2 Rf) /2 (Ei = Initial stiffness)

Eoedref

Tangent stiffness for primary oedometer loading

E50ref

Eurref

Unload / reloading stiffness

3 x E50ref

Power for stress-level dependency of stiffness

0.5 m 1 (0.5 for hard soil,


1 for soft soil)

C (Cinc)

Effective cohesion (Increment of cohesion)

Failure parameter as in MC model

Effective friction angle

Failure parameter as in MC model

Ultimate dilatancy angle

Advanced parameters (Recommend to use Reference value)


Rf

Failure Ratio (qf / qa)

0.9 (< 1)

Pref

Reference pressure

100

KNC

Ko for normal consolidation

1-sin (< 1)

Dilatancy cut-off
Porosity

Initial void ratio

Porosity(Max)

Maximum void ratio

Porosity < Porosity(Max)

Cap yield surface


OCR / Pc

Over Consolidation Ratio / Pre-overburden pressure

When entering both parameters,


Pc has the priority of usage

Cap Shape Factor (scale factor of preconsolidation stress)

from KNC (Auto)

Cap Hardening Parameter

from Eoedref (Auto)

GTSNX 2014
1. Analysis
1.1 Hardening Soil (Example : Validation of Hardening behavior)
Paramete
r

Input value (kN, m)

50,000

30

36

[MC model]

Paramete
r

Input value (kN, m)

E50ref

25,000

Eoedref

25,000

Eurref

75,000

0.5

30

36

Rf

0.9

Pref

100

KNC

0.5
[MMC model]

Parameter

[MC model]

[MMC model]

[MMC with Hardening]

[Vertical Displacement]

H = 60m

= 20kN/m3

[MC model]

[MMC model]

[MMC with Hardening]

[Horizontal Displacement]

[1st Excavation]

Input value (kN, m)

Auto (Shear Hardening)


Pc

600 (OCR = 1)

Auto (uncheck)

Auto (uncheck)

[MMC with Hardening]

[MC model]

[MMC model]
[Bending Moment of wall]

[MMC with Hardening]

GTSNX 2014
log time

1. Analysis
1.2 Soft Soil Creep (Secondary Consolidation)
Based on the 1D creep theory, an extension was made to a 3D- model.
Stress-dependent stiffness ( Parameters can be estimated from Compression and Recompression index (Cc,Cs))

Consider Secondary (time-dependent) consolidation and pre-consolidation stress


In case that time-dependent behavior is critical, this model is applicable to estimate the creep from FE analysis.

Parameter

Secondary

Primary

Failure parameters as in Mohr-Coulomb model


strain

Description

Reference value (kN, m)

Soil stiffness and failure

Swelling index

Cc / 2.303 / (1 + e)

Compression index

Cs / 2.303 / (1 + e)
(Cc / 5 for a rough estimation)

Creep index

Cc / 20 for a rough estimation

Cohesion

Failure parameter as in MC model

Friction angle

Failure parameter as in MC model

Dilatancy angle

Advanced parameters (Recommend to use Reference value)

KNC

Ko for normal consolidation

1-sin (< 1)

Cap yield surface


OCR / Pc

Over Consolidation Ratio / Pre-overburden pressure

When entering both parameters,


Pc has the priority of usage

Cap Shape Factor (scale factor of preconsolidation stress)

from KNC (Auto)

GTSNX 2014
1. Analysis
1.2 Soft Soil Creep (Example : Validation of Creep behavior)

Parameter

Reference value (kN, m)

0.313

0.063

1.113

OCR

2.05

Auto
[MCC model]
[Embankment with Time]

Parameter

Reference value (kN, m)

0.313

0.063

0.01

10

28

KNC

0.5

OCR

2.05

Auto (uncheck)
[Soft Soil Creep model]

[Result comparison : Secondary consolidation]

GTSNX 2014
1. Analysis
1.3 Hardening Soil with small strain stiffness

Hardening

Soil model with small-strain stiffness

In recent years, due to advances in electronic instrumentation, it has been possible to measure the
behavior of soils more accurately. In particular, it has been found that soils undergo a large and rapid
change in stiffness when initially subjected to relatively small changes in strain. Many of the constitutive
models in existence could not account for such behavior and this, consequently, led to further
developments. One of the earliest models developed specifically to deal with the concept of small strain
behavior was that described by Jardine et al. (1986).

Comparison with the ranges for typical geotechnical problems and different tests

GTSNX 2014
1. Analysis
1.3 Hardening Soil with small strain stiffness
Double hardening model (Shear and Compression hardening simultaneously)
Three types of Elastic modulus can be defined
Modified Hardin-Drnevich relationship for stiffness degradation with strain
Hysteretic behavior of material in loading-unloading cycle (masings rule)

Shear Hardening :
Hyperbolic relation between axial strain and deviatoric stress
Plastic straining due to deviatoric loading
fs

2 1 2
2qa 1 2

ps 0
Ei qa 1 2
Eur

Compression Hardening :
Plastic straining due to compression

fc

qa : asymptotic shear strength


Ei : initial stiffness

ps

q2

p2 p p2
2

: effective plastic deviatoric strain


1
3 sin
1
1 1 2 3 ,

3 sin

: controlling cap surface

p p : pre-consolidation stress
q

[Yield surface expansion, Hardening behavior]

Modified Hardin-Drnevich : can be used to define small-strain stiffness at static


analysis
Hysteretic behavior of material in loading-unloading cycle:
The stiffness regains a maximum recoverable value when the direction of loading is
reverse.
Masings rule:
The shear modulus in unloading is equal to the initial tangent modulus for initial
loading curve
The shape of the unloading and reloadingg curves is equal to initial loading curve,
but twice its size

Gs

G0

1
1 0.385

0.7

GTSNX 2014
1. Analysis
1.3 Hardening Soil with small strain stiffness (Review of model parameters)
Parameter

Description

Reference value (kN, m)

Soil stiffness and failure


E50ref

Secant stiffness in standard drained triaxial test

Ei x (2 Rf) /2 (Ei = Initial stiffness)

Eoedref

Tangent stiffness for primary oedometer loading

E50ref

Eurref

Unload / reloading stiffness

3 x E50ref

Power for stress-level dependency of stiffness

0.5 m 1 (0.5 for hard soil,


1 for soft soil)

Effective cohesion

Failure parameter as in MC model

Effective friction angle

Failure parameter as in MC model

Effective dilatancy angle

Advanced parameters (Recommend to use Reference value)

Failure ratio

Failure Ratio (qf / qa)

0.9 (< 1)

Pref

Reference pressure

100

K0NC

Ko for normal consolidation

1-sin (< 1)

Tensile strength

Cut off value for tensile hydrostatic pressure

Small strain stiffness


Threshold
Shear strain

Shear strain at which shear modulus has decayed


to 70% of initial shear stiffness (G0ref)

G0ref

Shear modulus at small strain

0.7

1
2C 1 cos 2 '1 1 K0 sin 2
9G0

G0ref 33

2.97 e 2
1 e