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SAUNDERS VETERINARY ANATOMY
ISBN: 978-1-4557-7683-2
FLASH CARDS, SECOND EDITION
Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
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Notices
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S A U N D E R S

VETERINARY ANATOMY
FLASH CARDS
SECOND EDITION

EXPERT CONSULTANT

Baljit Singh, BVSc & AH, MVSc,


PhD, FAAA
3M National Teaching Fellow
Professor and Associate Dean (Research)
Western College of Veterinary Medicine
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
Canada

About the Flash Cards


Welcome to Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards! These cards are
designed to help you succeed in mastering veterinary anatomy. This set
of 435 cards supports learning from any Elsevier veterinary anatomy text
as well as veterinary anatomy texts from other publishers. The unique
design and content also allow the flash cards to be used without a
textbook.
These cards provide a fun way to master canine, feline, equine, porcine,
ruminant, and avian anatomy.
A brand new section on Exotics offers coverage of the anatomy of small
mammals
and reptiles
rodents, rabbits, ferrets, lizards, snakes,
and more!
All cards have beautiful full-color illustrations. Histologic views appear
where relevant.
The first seven sections are divided by regions of the body: The Head
and Ventral Neck; The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column; The Thorax;
The Abdomen; The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs; The Forelimb; and
The Hind Limb.
Headings at the top of each card quickly place the card in its section.
The front of each flash card displays a species-specific icon in the
upper, left corner, allowing students to group the cards by animal for
self-quizzing.
Questions for consideration are sprinkled throughout, and the answers
are on the back of the flash cards that have these questions.

Using Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


The front of the card shows the anatomic image with numbered lead lines
pointing to different anatomic structures. The face of the flash card also
displays the body region associated with the image, a card title and
number, and a species-specific icon in the upper, left corner, allowing
you to quickly reorganize the cards by animal if you choose.
The back of the card shows the answer key to the identification
exercise on the front of the card. This allows you to quickly and easily
check your comprehension of the information. The back of the card also
shows a card title and number, along with additional notes where
applicable.

Illustration Credits
Colville TP, Bassert JM: Clinical anatomy and physiology for veterinary
technicians, ed 3, St Louis, 2015, Mosby/Elsevier.

Dyce KM, Sack WO, Wensing CJG: Textbook of veterinary anatomy, ed 4,


St Louis, 2010, Saunders/Elsevier.
Evans HE, de Lahunta A: Guide to the dissection of the dog, ed 7,
St Louis, 2010, Saunders/Elsevier.
Jepson L: Exotic animal medicine: a quick reference guide, Oxford, 2009,
Saunders/Elsevier.
Mader DR: Reptile medicine and surgery, ed 2, St Louis, 2006, Saunders/
Elsevier.
Quesenberry K, Carpenter JW: Ferrets, rabbits, and rodents, ed 3,
St Louis, 2012, Saunders/Elsevier.
Silverman S, Tell L: Radiology of rodents, rabbits, and ferrets, St Louis,
2005, Saunders/Elsevier.

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Contents
Section 1: The Head and Ventral Neck
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-6
1-7
1-8
1-9
1-10
1-11
1-12
1-13
1-14
1-15
1-16
1-17
1-18
1-19
1-20
1-21
1-22
1-23
1-24
1-25
1-26
1-27
1-28
1-29
1-30
1-31
1-32

Canine: Tympanic Bullae and Petrous Temporal Bones


Canine: Lymph Nodes and Lymphatic Vessels
Canine: Skull (Lateral View)
Canine: Skull (Dorsal View)
Canine: Skull (Ventral View)
Canine: Skull (Lateral View)
Canine: Sagittal Section of Skull (Medial View)
Canine: Mandible
Canine: Hyoid Apparatus and Larynx
Canine: Hard and Soft Palate
Canine: Salivary Glands
Canine: Simple Tooth
Canine: Esophagus
Canine: Head at the Level of P2
Canine: Head at the Level of the Eyeball
Canine: Thyroid Gland
Canine: Arteries of the Head
Canine: Closure of the Neural Plate
Canine: Gray Substance of the Spinal Cord and Medulla
Oblongata
Canine: Spinal Cord
Canine: Brain (Ventral View)
Canine: Cerebral Hemispheres (Dorsal View)
Canine: Brain (Lateral View)
Canine: Ventricles of the Brain
Canine: Cortical Lobes of the Brain
Canine: Visceral and Somatic Nervous System
Canine: Meninges of the Brain
Canine: Production and Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid
Canine: Distribution of Middle Cerebral Artery (Lateral
View)
Canine: Trigeminal Nerve
Canine: Autonomic Innervation of the Structures of the
Head
Canine: Parasympathetic Nervous System

1-33
1-34
1-35
1-36
1-37
1-38
1-39
1-40
1-41
1-42
1-43
1-44
1-45
1-46
1-47
1-48
1-49
1-50
1-51
1-52
1-53
1-54
1-55
1-56
1-57
1-58
1-59
1-60
1-61
1-62
1-63
1-64
1-65
1-66
1-67
1-68

Canine: Sympathetic Nervous System


Canine: Three Tunics of the Eye
Canine: Retina
Canine: Stumps of the Ocular Muscles
Canine: Principal Arteries Supplying the Eye
Canine: CT Showing Ear Structures and Schema of the
Ear
Canine: The Flow of Aqueous Humor
Canine: Left Auricular Cartilage
Canine: Paramedian Section of the Head
Canine: Head, Rostral Part of the Orbit
Canine: Salivary Glands
Canine: Disarticulated Puppy Skull
Canine: Traverse Section of the Nasal Cavity
Canine: CT Image of the Caudal Nasal Cavity
Canine: Superficial Branches of the Facial and Trigeminal
Nerves
Canine: Branches of the Common Carotid Artery
Canine: Muscles, Nerves, and Salivary Glands
Canine: Cranial Nerves Leaving the Skull
Canine: Muscles of the Pharynx and Tongue (Left Lateral
View)
Canine: Meninges and Ventricles of the Brain, Median
Plane
Canine: Sulci of the Brain
Canine: Gyri of the Brain
Canine: Brain, Cranial Nerves, and Brainstem
Feline: Tomogram of the Nasal Cavity
Feline: Ear Canal and Middle Ear
Equine: Superficial Muscles of the Head
Equine: Permanent Dentition
Equine: Paramedian Section of the Head
Equine: Head at the Level of P4
Equine: Laryngeal Cartilages
Equine: Intrinsic Muscles of the Larynx
Equine: Hypophysis
Equine: Superficial Dissection of the Head
Equine: Deeper Dissection of the Head
Equine: Head at the Level of the Rostral Maxillary Sinus
Equine: CT Scan (Bone Window) of Head at Level of the
Rostral Maxillary Sinus

1-69 Equine: Median Section of the Head


1-70 Equine: Topography of Conchofrontal and Maxillary
Sinuses
1-71 Equine: Brain and Frontal and Maxillary Sinuses
1-72 Equine: Tongue and Pharynx
1-73 Equine: Root Convergence of Permanent Inferior Incisors
1-74 Equine: Nasopharynx and Larynx
1-75 Equine: Deep Dissection of the Head
1-76 Equine: Dissection of the Orbit
1-77 Equine: Principal Arteries of the Head
1-78 Equine: Lymphatic Structures of the Head and Neck
1-79 Bovine: Superficial Dissection of the Head
1-80 Bovine: Skull and Skin Innervation of the Head
1-81 Bovine: Paranasal Sinuses
1-82 Bovine: Lymph Drainage of the Head and Neck
1-83 Porcine: Head of a 9-Month-Old
1-84 Porcine: Paranasal Sinuses
1-85 Porcine: Lymph Center of the Head and Neck
1-86 Porcine: Dissection of the Neck to Show Lymph Nodes
1-87 Porcine: Vomeronasal Organ
1-88 Avian: Skull of a Chicken
1-89 Avian: Oropharynx Opened by the Reflection of the
Mandibles

Section 2: The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column


2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8
2-9
2-10
2-11
2-12
2-13

Canine and Porcine: Structure of a Lymph Node


Canine: Cervical Vertebrae
Canine: Thoracic Vertebrae
Canine: Sacrum and Caudal Vertebrae
Canine: Trunk Muscles, Deeper Layers
Canine: Trunk Muscles, Deepest Layers
Canine: Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebrae
Canine: Enlarged Transverse Section of Seventh Lumbar
Section
Canine: Epaxial Muscles
Canine: Epaxial Muscles
Canine: Superficial Nerves of the Neck
Canine: Retropharyngeal Lymph Node and Thyroid Gland
Canine: Veins of the Neck

2-14 Canine: Peripheral Distribution of Sympathetic


and Parasympathetic Divisions
2-15 Feline: Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebrae
2-16 Equine: Nuchal Ligament and Associated
Bursae
2-17 Bovine: Lumbar Intervertebral Disc
2-18 Bovine: Vertebral Canal
2-19 Bovine: Connections of the Major Veins with
the Vertebral Plexus-Azygous System
2-20 Bovine: Longitudinal Section of Tactile Hair
Follicle
2-21 Bovine: Tactile Hair Follicle of a Calf

Section 3: The Thorax


3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-9
3-10
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-14
3-15
3-16
3-17
3-18
3-19
3-20
3-21
3-22
3-23

Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
[Canine
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:

Left Rib
Sternum and Costal Cartilages
Pleura
Thoracic Organs
Lungs and Partial Aorta
Transformation of the Aortic Arches
Pericardium
Right Ventricle
Cardiac Nerves and Related Ganglia
Developing Heart
Vasa Vasorum
Branching of the Aortic Arch
Arteries of the Female Pelvis
Lymph Node (Histology and Structure
and Porcine])
Palpable Lymph Nodes
Thoracic Lymph Nodes
Trunk
Vessels on the Floor of the Thorax
Heart and Lungs Surface Projections
Right Lung Bronchograms
Trunk
Thoracic Cavity (Left Lateral View)
Thoracic Cavity (Right Lateral View)

3-24 Canine: Trunk (Transverse Section at the


Seventh Thoracic Vertebra)
3-25 Canine: Heart (Lateral View)
3-26 Canine: Heart (Ventrodorsal View)
3-27 Canine: Arteries of the Thorax
3-28 Feline: Thoracic, Abdominal, and Pelvic Cavities
3-29 Feline: Palpable Lymph Nodes
3-30 Equine: Structures within the Mediastinum
3-31 Equine: Hyoid Apparatus Suspending the
Larynx from the Base of the Skull
3-32 Equine: Thorax at the Fifth Thoracic Vertebra
3-33 Equine: Conducting System of the Heart and
Sinoatrial Node
3-34 Equine: Thorax at the Level of the
Atrioventricular Valves
3-35 Bovine: Heart (Left View)
3-36 Bovine: Heart (Right View)
3-37 Bovine: Trunk at the Eighth Thoracic Vertebra
3-38 Bovine: Lymph Drainage, Thoracic Wall, and
Mediastinum
3-39 Bovine: Thymus of Calf
3-40 Porcine: Fetus Lung; 1-Day-Old Lung;
Adult Lung
3-41 Porcine: Seven- to Eight-Somite Embryo
3-42 Porcine: Corrosion Cast of Aorta and Coronary
Circulation
3-43 Porcine: Lungs
3-44 Avian: Skeleton of a Chicken
3-45 Avian: Transverse Section of the Thorax

Section 4: The Abdomen


4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4

Canine: Abdomen
Canine: Abdominal Cavity
Canine: Esophagus
Canine: Interior of the Stomach and Histology
of Stomach Wall
4-5 Canine: Pancreas
4-6 Canine: Celiac Artery

4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-16
4-17
4-18
4-19
4-20
4-21
4-22
4-23
4-24
4-25
4-26
4-27
4-28
4-29
4-30
4-31

Canine: Cranial and Caudal Mesenteric Arteries


Canine: Formation of the Portal Vein
Canine: Bile Drainage System
Canine: Developing Simple Stomach
Canine: Development of the Pancreas
Canine: Growth and Rotation of the Midgut
(Stage One, Lateral View)
Canine: Growth and Rotation of the Midgut
(Stage Two, Lateral View)
Canine: Growth and Rotation of the Midgut
(Stage Three, Lateral View)
Canine: Termination of the Abdominal Aorta
Canine: Abdominal Viscera
Canine: Abdominal Walls
Canine: Abdomen (Lateral View)
Canine: Abdomen (Ventrodorsal View)
Canine: Blood Supply of the Stomach and
Spleen
Canine: Abdomen after Administration of
Barium Suspension (Lateral View)
Canine: Abdomen after Administration of a
Barium Suspension (Ventrodorsal View)
Canine: Abdomen at the Level of the First
Lumbar Vertebra
Canine: Abdomen at Level of the First Lumbar
Vertebra
Canine: Abdomen after Administration of a
Barium Suspension (Ventrodorsal View)
Canine: Trunk (Dorsal Section at the Level of
the Kidneys)
Canine: Abdomen at the Level of the Seventh
Lumbar Vertebra
Canine: CT Image of the Abdomen at the Level
of the Seventh Lumbar Vertebra
Canine: Rectus Sheath
Canine: Peritoneal Reflections, Sagittal Section
Canine: Peritoneal Schema, Transverse Section
through the Epiploic Foramen

4-32 Canine: Ileocolic Junction and Its Relation to


the Cecum
4-33 Feline: Abdomen after Administration of a
Barium Suspension (Lateral View)
4-34 Feline: Abdomen after Administration of a
Barium Suspension (Ventrodorsal View)
4-35 Equine: Structures of the Abdominal Floor
4-36 Equine: Permanent Dentition of the Upper and
Lower Jaws
4-37 Equine Visceral Projections: Left Abdominal
Wall
4-38 Equine Visceral Projections: Right Abdominal
Wall
4-39 Equine: Cecum and Related Organs
4-40 Equine Visceral Projections: Ventral Abdominal
Wall
4-41 Equine: Major Arteries of the Gastrointestinal
Tract
4-42 Equine: Abdominal Autonomic Nerves and
Branches of the Abdominal Aorta
4-43 Bovine: Nerves to the Flank and Udder
4-44 Bovine: Stomach
4-45 Bovine: Greater and Lesser Omenta
4-46 Bovine: Trunk at the Thirteenth Thoracic
Vertebra
4-47 Bovine: Disposition of the Greater Omentum
4-48 Bovine: Abdominal Viscera of a Newborn Calf
4-49 Bovine: Abdominal Viscera of a 5-Year-Old
Cow
4-50 Bovine: Abdominal Viscera of a 6-Year-Old
Pregnant Cow
4-51 Bovine: Visceral Surface of the Liver
4-52 Ruminant: Reticulum and Rumen of the Goat
4-53 Porcine: Large Intestine
4-54 Porcine: Liver and Visceral Surface of the Liver
4-55 Porcine: Major Abdominal Arteries and Lymph
Nodes
4-56 Porcine: Lymph Nodes of the Sublumbar Area
4-57 Avian: Stomach and Duodenal Loop

Section 5: The Pelvis and Reproductive


Organs
5-1 Canine: Embryos Showing the Lateral
Mesoderm and Celom
5-2 Canine: Intermediate Mesoderm
5-3 Canine: Development of the Testis
5-4 Canine: Urogenital Sinus
5-5 Canine: Schematic of the Testis and
Gubernaculum with the Peritoneal Fold in
Which Descent Takes Place
5-6 Canine: Development of the Ovary
5-7 Canine: Ovaries and Uterus In Situ (Ventral
View)
5-8 Canine: Formation of the Vagina
5-9 Canine: Peritoneal Disposition
5-10 Canine: Testis and Epididymis and Corrosion
Cast of the Deferent Duct
5-11 Canine: Schematic of the Spermatic Cord and
Its Immediate Investments (Transverse Section)
5-12 Canine: Testis
5-13 Canine: Accessory Reproductive Glands
5-14 Canine: Functional Changes in the Female
Tract
5-15 Canine: Ovary and Its Suspensory System
5-16 Canine: Bursa with Constricted Entrance and
Entrapped Ovary
5-17 Canine: Schematic of the Formation of
Extraembryonic Membranes
5-18 Canine: Topography of Adrenal Glands
5-19 Canine: Development of the Skin
5-20 Canine: Pelvis (Transverse Section at the Level
of the Hip Joint)
5-21 Canine: Reproductive Organs of the Bitch
5-22 Canine: Bladder, Urethra, and Penis
5-23 Canine: Quiescent and Erect Penis
5-24 Feline: Bladder
5-25 Feline: Penis In Situ (Caudal View)

5-26 Feline: Ovaries and Uterus In Situ (Ventral View)


5-27 Feline: Schematic of Fetal Membranes
(Transverse and Longitudinal Section)
5-28 Equine: Bony Pelvis and Sacrosciatic Ligament
(Lateral View)
5-29 Equine: Pelvis of the Mare (Cranial View)
5-30 Equine: Disposition of the Peritoneum in the
Pelvis of the Mare
5-31 Equine: Sections of the Ovaries in Various
Functional States
5-32 Equine: Sections of the Ovaries in Various
Functional States
5-33 Equine: 31-Day-Old Twin Embryos
5-34 Equine: Pelvic Urethra and Accessory
Reproductive Glands
5-35 Equine: Abdominal Pelvic Cavities
5-36 Bovine: Paraxial Mesoderm in an Embryo
5-37 Bovine: Bony Pelvis
5-38 Bovine: Pelvis (Median Section)
5-39 Bovine: Pelvis at the Hip Joint
5-40 Bovine: Blood Supply to the Reproductive Tract
(Semischematic Ventral View)
5-41 Bovine: Pelvis and Related Urogenital Organs
of a Bull (Dorsal View)
5-42 Bovine: Abdominal Floor and Cranial Quarters
of the Udder
5-43 Bovine: Nonlactating and Lactating Mammary
Glands; a Compound Tubuloalveolar Gland
5-44 Bovine: Pelvic Floor and Caudal Quarters of the
Udder
5-45 Porcine: Principal Arteries Supplying the Left
Side of the Female Reproductive Tract
5-46 Porcine: Reproductive Organs of a Boar
5-47 Avian: Male Reproductive Organs (Ventral View)
5-48 Avian: Reproductive Organs of a Female
Chicken (Ventral View)
5-49 Avian: Fertilized Egg

Section 6: The Forelimb


6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
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6-11
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6-13
6-14
6-15
6-16
6-17
6-18
6-19
6-20
6-21
6-22
6-23
6-24
6-25
6-26

Canine: Synovial Joints


Canine: Transection of a Skeletal Muscle
Canine: Architecture of Skeletal Muscles
Canine: Ventral Muscles of the Neck and
Thorax
Canine: Left Scapula
Canine: Left Humerus (Caudal View)
Canine: Left Ulna and Radius
Canine: Carpal Skeleton
Canine: Right Manus (Dorsal View)
Canine: Superficial Muscles of the Shoulder
and Arm
Canine: Intrinsic Muscles of the Left Shoulder
and Arm (Lateral View)
Canine: Muscles of the Left Forearm
(Lateral View)
Canine: Arteries of the Forelimb
Canine: Left Forelimb (Dorsal View)
Canine: Shoulder Joints (Lateral and
Craniocaudal Views)
Canine: Left Shoulder Joint (Lateral and Medial
Views)
Canine: Left Forelimb (Transverse Section Distal
to the Elbow Joint)
Canine: Arteries of the Right Forelimb
Canine: Elbow Joint (Lateral View)
Canine: Elbow Joint (Craniocaudal View)
Canine: Left Elbow Joint (Lateral and Medial
Views)
Canine: Autonomous Zones of the Cutaneous
Innervation of the Forelimb
Canine: Left Forelimb and Flexor Surfaces of
the Joints
Canine: Left Forelimb
Canine: Capsule of the Left Shoulder Joint
Canine: Distribution of Musculocutaneous and
Median Nerves, Right Forelimb (Medial View)

6-27 Canine: Distribution of the Radial Nerve, Right


Forelimb (Lateral View)
6-28 Canine: Distribution of the Ulnar Nerve, Right
Forelimb (Medial View)
6-29 Canine: Veins of the Neck, Thoracic Inlet, and
Proximal Forelimb
6-30 Canine: Blood Supply and Innervation Digits
6-31 Feline: Claw
6-32 Feline: Autonomous Zones of the Cutaneous
Innervation of the Forelimb
6-33 Equine: Carpal Skeleton
6-34 Equine: Synovial Joint
6-35 Equine Joints: Flexion, Extension, and
Overextension
6-36 Equine Muscles: Ventral Surface of the Thorax
6-37 Equine: Deep Muscles Attaching the Forelimb
to the Trunk
6-38 Equine: Left Forelimb (Lateral View)
6-39 Equine: Shoulder Joint (Lateral View)
6-40 Equine Muscles: Medial Surface of the Left
Shoulder and Arm
6-41 Equine: Elbow Joint (Lateral View)
6-42 Equine: Synovial Structures of the Left Shoulder
and Elbow (Lateral View)
6-43 Equine: Carpus (Dorsopalmar View)
6-44 Equine: Carpus (Lateral View)
6-45 Equine: Synovial Structures of the Left Carpus
(Lateral View)
6-46 Equine: Distal Muscles of the Forelimb
(Lateral View)
6-47 Equine: Left Forearm
6-48 Equine: Structures Supporting the Fetlock Joint
6-49 Equine: Fetlock Joint and Digit (Lateral View)
6-50 Equine: Axial Section of the Digit
6-51 Equine: Ground Surface of the Hoof
6-52 Equine: Sagittal Section of the Hoof
6-53 Equine: Transverse Section of the Hoof
6-54 Equine: Dermal Lamellae

6-55 Equine: Dermis Exposed by Removal of the


Hoof
6-56 Equine: Major Arteries of the Right Forelimb
(Medial View)
6-57 Equine: Medial Palmar Nerve
6-58 Bovine: Humerus
6-59 Bovine: Carpal Skeleton
6-60 Bovine: Muscles of the Left Forelimb
(Lateral View)
6-61 Bovine: Foot (Dorsopalmar View)
6-62 Bovine: Foot (Lateromedial View)
6-63 Bovine: Forefoot (Palmar View)
6-64 Bovine: Right Forefoot (Dorsal View)
6-65 Bovine: Forefoot, Ground Surface of the Hoofs
6-66 Bovine: Principal Arteries of the Right Forelimb
(Medial View)
6-67 Bovine: Principal Veins of the Right Forelimb
(Medial View)
6-68 Bovine: Nerves of the Forelimb (Medial View)
6-69 Bovine: Principal Nerves of the Right Forefoot
(Palmer View)
6-70 Porcine: Carpal Skeleton
6-71 Porcine and Other Species Phylogenetic
Development: Horn Structures Associated with
the Distal Phalanx
6-72 Porcine: Palmar Surface of the Foot
6-73 Avian: Skeleton of the Left Wing
6-74 Avian: Superficial Dissection of the Laterally
Extended Left Wing

Section 7: The Hind Limb


7-1
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-5
7-6
7-7

Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:
Canine:

Hip Bone (Left Lateral View)


Hip Bone (Ventral View)
Sacrotuberous Ligament
Left Femur
Left Tibia and Fibula
Bones of the Tarsal Skeleton
Right Pes (Dorsal View)

7-8 Canine: Structure of the Adult Skin


7-9 Canine: Left Stifle Joint (Cranial View)
7-10 Canine: Left Stifle Joint Showing the Extent of
the Joint Capsule (Cranial View)
7-11 Canine: Left Stifle Joint with the Patella
Removed (Cranial View)
7-12 Canine: Muscles of the Hindquarter and Thigh
7-13 Canine: Male Perineal Region
7-14 Canine: Muscles of the Left Leg
7-15 Canine: Arteries of the Hind Limb
7-16 Canine: Pelvis with Extended and Flexed Hip
Joints (Ventrodorsal View)
7-17 Canine: Stifle (Lateral View)
7-18 Canine: Left Leg
7-19 Canine: Arteries of the Right Hind Limb
(Medial View)
7-20 Canine: Hocks and Hind Paws (Dorsoplantar
View)
7-21 Canine: Hock (Lateral View)
7-22 Canine: Cutaneous Innervation of the Hind
Limb
7-23 Canine: Bones of the Left Pelvic Limb
7-24 Canine: Muscle Attachments on the Pelvis and
Left Pelvic Limb (Lateral View)
7-25 Canine: Arteries of the Right Pelvic Limb
7-26 Canine: Veins of the Right Pelvic Limb
7-27 Canine: Distribution of Saphenous, Femoral,
and Obturator Nerves of the Right Pelvic Limb
7-28 Canine: Cranial and Caudal Gluteal Nerves and
the Sciatic Nerve of the Right Pelvic Limb
7-29 Canine: Schematic through the Left Hip Joint
7-30 Feline: Pelvis (Ventrodorsal and Lateral Views)
7-31 Feline: Stifle (Craniocaudal View)
7-32 Equine: Bones of the Tarsal Skeleton
7-33 Equine: Muscles of the Croup and Thigh
(Lateral View)
7-34 Equine: Croup Muscles, Resected to Expose
the Ischial Tuber (Lateral View)
7-35 Equine: Left Stifle Joint (Cranial View)

7-36 Equine: Sagittal Section of the Hock Joint


7-37 Equine: Left Stifle and Leg (Lateral View)
7-38 Equine: Principal Arteries of the Right Hind
Limb (Medial View)
7-39 Equine: Lumbosacral Plexus and Nerve Supply
to Hind Limb
7-40 Equine: Nerves of the Right Hind Limb
7-41 Bovine: Bones of the Tarsal Skeleton
7-42 Bovine: Muscles of the Left Hind Limb
(Lateral View)
7-43 Bovine: Left Stifle Joint (Cranial View)
7-44 Bovine: Principal Arteries of the Right Hind
Limb (Medial View)
7-45 Bovine: Major Veins of the Right Hind Limb
(Medial View)
7-46 Bovine: Lymph Nodes of the Pelvis and Hind
Limb
7-47 Bovine: Nerves of the Right Hind Limb
(Medial View)
7-48 Porcine: Bones of the Tarsal Skeleton
7-49 Porcine: Lymph Flow of the Hind Limb
(Lateral View)

Section 8: Exotics
8-1 Murine: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen of
Adult Female Rat (Lateral View)
8-2 Murine: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen of
Adult Female Rat (Ventral View)
8-3 Murine: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen of
Adult Female Rat (Ventral View)
8-4 Murine: Skull of a 5-Month-Old Rat (Lateral
View)
8-5 Murine: Skull of a 5-Month-Old Rat (Ventral
View)
8-6 Murine: Gastrointestinal Positive Contrast Study
in an Adult Male Rat (Lateral View)
8-7 Murine: Gastrointestinal Positive Contrast Study
in an Adult Male Rat (Ventral View)

8-8 Leporine: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen


of Adult Male Rabbit (Lateral View)
8-9 Leporine: Dissected Large Intestine of a Rabbit
8-10 Leporine: Dissected Postparturient Rabbit
Uterus (Dorsal Surface)
8-11 Leporine: Skull of Rabbit (Lateral View)
8-12 Leporine: Rabbit Skull Showing Dentition of
Mandible, Maxilla, and Individual Tooth (Lateral
View)
8-13 Leporine: Stifle Joint of an Adult Male Rabbit
(Lateral View)
8-14 Leporine: Elbow Joint of an Adult Male Rabbit
(Lateral View)
8-15 Musteline: Skeletal Anatomy of a Ferret
8-16 Musteline: Anatomy of the Viscera and Most
Important Blood Vessels in a Ferret (After
Removal of the Lungs, Liver, and
Gastrointestinal Tract)
8-17 Musteline: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen
of Adult Female Ferret (Lateral View)
8-18 Musteline: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen
of Adult Female Ferret (Ventral View)
8-19 Musteline: Skull of a Ferret with Mouth Open
(Lateral View)
8-20 Cavine: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen of
Adult Female Guinea Pig (Lateral View)
8-21 Cavine: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen of
Adult Male Guinea Pig (Lateral View)
8-22 Cavine: Skull of a Guinea Pig (Ventral View)
8-23 Cavine: Distal Thoracic Limb of an Adult Male
Guinea Pig (Palmer View)
8-24 Cricetine: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen
of Adult Female Hamster (Lateral View)
8-25 Cricetine: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen
of Adult Male Hamster (Lateral View)
8-26 Cricetine: Skull of a Hamster (Lateral View)
8-27 Chinchilline: Viscera of the Thorax and
Abdomen of Adult Male Chinchilla (Ventral
View)

8-28 Chinchilline: Gastrointestinal Positive Contrast


Study in an Adult Male Chinchilla (Lateral
Views)
8-29 Cricetine: Internal Anatomy of a Male Gerbil
(Ventral View)
8-30 Erinaceinae: Internal Anatomy of a Female
Hedgehog (Ventral View)
8-31 Erinaceinae: Hedgehog Muscles Used for
Curling Body and Spinal Control
8-32 Lacertilian: Internal Anatomy of a Savannah
Monitor Lizard (Ventral View)
8-33 Lacertilian: Lizard Heart (Dorsal [Top] and
Ventral [Bottom] Views)
8-34 Serpentine: Internal Anatomy of a Male Snake
(Ventral View)
8-35 Serpentine: Snake Heart (Dorsal [Left] and
Ventral [Right] Views)
8-36 Chelonian: Internal Anatomy of a Tortoise
(Lateral View)
8-37 Chelonian: Plastron and Carapace Scutes of a
Tortoise
8-38 Reptilian: General Circulation in a NonCrocodilian Reptile
8-39 Bufotenine: Internal Anatomy of a Frog (Ventral
View)
8-40 Piscine: Internal Anatomy of a Goldfish (Lateral
View)

The Head and Ventral Neck

Section 1: The Head and Ventral Neck


1-1

Canine: Tympanic Bullae and Petrous Temporal Bones

1-2

Canine: Lymph Nodes and Lymphatic Vessels

1-3

Canine: Skull (Lateral View)

1-4

Canine: Skull (Dorsal View)

1-5

Canine: Skull (Ventral View)

1-6

Canine: Skull (Lateral View)

1-7

Canine: Sagittal Section of Skull (Medial View)

1-8

Canine: Mandible

1-9

Canine: Hyoid Apparatus and Larynx

1-10

Canine: Hard and Soft Palate

1-11

Canine: Salivary Glands

1-12

Canine: Simple Tooth

1-13

Canine: Esophagus

1-14

Canine: Head at the Level of P2

1-15

Canine: Head at the Level of the Eyeball

1-16

Canine: Thyroid Gland

1-17

Canine: Arteries of the Head

1-18

Canine: Closure of the Neural Plate

1-19

Canine: Gray Substance of the Spinal Cord and


Medulla Oblongata

1-20

Canine: Spinal Cord

1-21

Canine: Brain (Ventral View)

1-22

Canine: Cerebral Hemispheres (Dorsal View)

1-23

Canine: Brain (Lateral View)

1-24

Canine: Ventricles of the Brain

The Head and Ventral Neck

Table of Contents

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-25

Canine: Cortical Lobes of the Brain

1-26

Canine: Visceral and Somatic Nervous System

1-27

Canine: Meninges of the Brain

1-28

Canine: Production and Circulation of Cerebrospinal


Fluid

1-29

Canine: Distribution of Middle Cerebral Artery (Lateral


View)

1-30

Canine: Trigeminal Nerve

1-31

Canine: Autonomic Innervation of the Structures of


the Head

1-32

Canine: Parasympathetic Nervous System

1-33

Canine: Sympathetic Nervous System

1-34

Canine: Three Tunics of the Eye

1-35

Canine: Retina

1-36

Canine: Stumps of the Ocular Muscles

1-37

Canine: Principal Arteries Supplying the Eye

1-38

Canine: CT Showing Ear Structures and Schema of


the Ear

1-39

Canine: The Flow of Aqueous Humor

1-40

Canine: Left Auricular Cartilage

1-41

Canine: Paramedian Section of the Head

1-42

Canine: Head, Rostral Part of the Orbit

1-43

Canine: Salivary Glands

1-44

Canine: Disarticulated Puppy Skull

1-45

Canine: Traverse Section of the Nasal Cavity

1-46

Canine: CT Image of the Caudal Nasal Cavity

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1
1-47

The Head and Ventral Neck

Canine: Superficial Branches of the Facial and


Trigeminal Nerves

1-48

Canine: Branches of the Common Carotid Artery

1-49

Canine: Muscles, Nerves, and Salivary Glands

1-50

Canine: Cranial Nerves Leaving the Skull

1-51

Canine: Muscles of the Pharynx and Tongue (Left


Lateral View)

1-52

Canine: Meninges and Ventricles of the Brain, Median


Plane

1-53

Canine: Sulci of the Brain

1-54

Canine: Gyri of the Brain

1-55

Canine: Brain, Cranial Nerves, and Brainstem

1-56

Feline: Tomogram of the Nasal Cavity

1-57

Feline: Ear Canal and Middle Ear

1-58

Equine: Superficial Muscles of the Head

1-59

Equine: Permanent Dentition

1-60

Equine: Paramedian Section of the Head

1-61

Equine: Head at the Level of P4

1-62

Equine: Laryngeal Cartilages

1-63

Equine: Intrinsic Muscles of the Larynx

1-64

Equine: Hypophysis

1-65

Equine: Superficial Dissection of the Head

1-66

Equine: Deeper Dissection of the Head

1-67

Equine: Head at the Level of the Rostral Maxillary Sinus

1-68

Equine: CT Scan (Bone Window) of Head at Level of


the Rostral Maxillary Sinus

The Head and Ventral Neck

Table of Contents

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-69

Equine: Median Section of the Head

1-70

Equine: Topography of Conchofrontal and Maxillary


Sinuses

1-71

Equine: Brain and Frontal and Maxillary Sinuses

1-72

Equine: Tongue and Pharynx

1-73

Equine: Root Convergence of Permanent Inferior


Incisors

1-74

Equine: Nasopharynx and Larynx

1-75

Equine: Deep Dissection of the Head

1-76

Equine: Dissection of the Orbit

1-77

Equine: Principal Arteries of the Head

1-78

Equine: Lymphatic Structures of the Head and Neck

1-79

Bovine: Superficial Dissection of the Head

1-80

Bovine: Skull and Skin Innervation of the Head

1-81

Bovine: Paranasal Sinuses

1-82

Bovine: Lymph Drainage of the Head and Neck

1-83

Porcine: Head of a 9-Month-Old

1-84

Porcine: Paranasal Sinuses

1-85

Porcine: Lymph Center of the Head and Neck

1-86

Porcine: Dissection of the Neck to Show Lymph


Nodes

1-87

Porcine: Vomeronasal Organ

1-88

Avian: Skull of a Chicken

1-89

Avian: Oropharynx Opened by the Reflection of the


Mandibles

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Canine: Tympanic Bullae and


Petrous Temporal Bones

1
2

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-1

Canine: Tympanic Bullae and


Petrous Temporal Bones




1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

External acoustic meatus


Tympanic bulla
Cochlea
Round window
Nasopharynx

Note: This transverse image of a 2-mm thick computed tomographic


slice image uses bone settings.

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1-1

Canine: Lymph Nodes and


Lymphatic Vessels

1
2
4
3

10

11

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-2

Canine: Lymph Nodes and


Lymphatic Vessels
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

External and internal jugular veins


Lymph nodes from the head
Lymph nodes from the shoulder and forelimb
Tracheal duct
Thoracic duct
Lymph nodes from the thoracic organs
Cisterna chyli
Lymph nodes from the abdominal organs
Lymph nodes from the lumbar region and kidneys
Lymph nodes of the pelvis
Lymph nodes from the hind limb

Note: Generalized schema presents the dorsal view. The top portion
of the diagram represents the neck region.

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1-2

Canine: Skull (Lateral View)

5
6

7
9

10

2
11

The Head and Ventral Neck

12

1-3

Canine: Skull (Lateral View)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Nasal bone
Incisive bone
Maxilla bone
Lacrimal bone
Orbit bone
Frontal bone
Parietal bone
Occipital bone
Temporal bone
Zygomatic bone
Palatine bone
Pterygoid bone

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1-3

Canine: Skull (Dorsal View)

6
8

5
3

10

9
4
3

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-4

Canine: Skull (Dorsal View)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Nasal bone
Incisive bone
Maxilla bone
Lacrimal bone
Frontal bone
Parietal bone
Occipital bone
Temporal bone
Zygomatic bone
Palatine bone

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1-4

Canine: Skull (Ventral View)

4
5
10
9

11
3
6

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-5

Canine: Skull (Ventral View)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Incisive bone
Maxilla bone
Frontal bone
Occipital bone
Temporal bone
Zygomatic bone
Palatine bone
Presphenoid
Pterygoid bone
Basisphenoid
Vomer bone

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1-5

Canine: Skull (Lateral View)

12
11

10

9
3

The Head and Ventral Neck

5 6 7 8

1-6

Canine: Skull (Lateral View)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Infraorbital foramen
Orbit
Pterygopalatine fossa
Optic canal, orbital fissure, and rostral alar foramen
Retroarticular foramen
External acoustic meatus
Tympanic bulla
Stylomastoid foramen
Occipital condyle
Mastoid process
Zygomatic arch
Temporal fossa

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1-6

Canine: Sagittal Section of Skull


(Medial View)

26

25

4
5

28
28

24
23

28
27
27
27
27

22
21

27

20

6
7

19
18
17

16

9
15

10
11

14
13

12

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-7

Canine: Sagittal Section of Skull


(Medial View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

Groove for middle meningeal artery


Lateral part of frontal sinus
Internal table of frontal sinus
Medial part of frontal sinus
Cribriform plate
Dorsal nasal concha
Ventral nasal concha
Entrance to maxillary recess
Sphenopalatine foramen
Ethmoid foramina
Optic canal
Orbital fissure
Round foramen
Oval foramen
Dorsum sellae
Canal for trigeminal nerve
Petrooccipital fissure
Internal acoustic meatus
Hypoglossal canal
Jugular foramen
Condyloid canal
Mastoid foramen
Cerebellar fossa
Transverse canal
Transverse groove
Tentorium osseum
Endoturbinates in the nasal cavity
Ectoturbinates located in the frontal sinus

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1-7

Canine: Mandible

Lateral view
1
2
3

5
6
Medial view

Q: What nerve passes through 7?

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-8

Canine: Mandible

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Coronoid process
Vertical part (ramus)
Condylar process
Angular process
Horizontal part (body)
Mental foramina
Mandibular foramen
Symphysial surface

A: Inferior alveolar nerve


Note: Lateral and medial views visualize the left half of the canine
mandible.

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1-8

Canine: Hyoid Apparatus


and Larynx

8
7
3

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-9

Canine: Hyoid Apparatus


and Larynx







1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Stylohyoid
Epihyoid
Ceratohyoid
Basihyoid
Thyrohyoid
Epiglottic cartilage
Thyroid cartilage
Cricoid cartilage

Note: Hyoid apparatus and larynx are suspended from the temporal
region of a canine skull.

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1-9

Canine: Hard and Soft Palate

1
2

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-10

Canine: Hard and Soft Palate

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Philtrum
Incisive papilla
Hard palate with rugae
Soft palate
Palatoglossal arch
Palatopharyngeal arches

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1-10

Canine: Salivary Glands

8
3

6 7

4 5

Q: Where does the mandibular duct open?

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-11

Canine: Salivary Glands

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Parotid gland
Parotid duct
Mandibular gland
Mandibular duct
Monostomatic sublingual gland
Polystomatic sublingual gland
Major sublingual duct
Zygomatic gland

A: At the sublingual caruncle

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1-11

Canine: Simple Tooth

1
2

3
5

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-12

Canine: Simple Tooth

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Enamel
Dentine
Cement
Pulp
Apical foramen
Periodontal ligament

Note: Schematic longitudinal section of a simple tooth.

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1-12

Canine: Esophagus

3
70

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-13

Canine: Esophagus

1.
2.
3.
4.

Stratified squamous epithelium


Submucosa
Mucus-secreting tubuloacinar glands
Muscularis interna

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1-13

Canine: Head at the Level of P2

1
2
3
5
4
6

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-14

Canine: Head at the Level of P2

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Dorsal concha
Ventral concha
Nasal septum
Hard palate
Venous plexus in nasal mucosa
Tongue

Note: Transverse section.

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1-14

Canine: Head at the Level


of the Eyeball

1
5
3

2
6

8
4
7

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-15

Canine: Head at the Level


of the Eyeball







1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Frontal sinus
Eyeball
Ethmoid bone, perpendicular lamina
Vomer
Ethmoid turbinates
Ethmoid turbinates
Choana
Zygomatic gland

Note: Transverse section.

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1-15

Canine: Thyroid Gland

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-16

Canine: Thyroid Gland

1. Trachea
2. Cricopharyngeus

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1-16

Canine: Arteries of the Head

10

7
3

6
5

The Head and Ventral Neck

2 4

1-17

Canine: Arteries of the Head

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Common carotid artery


External carotid artery
Occipital artery
Cranial laryngeal artery
Lingual artery
Facial artery
Caudal auricular artery
Maxillary artery
External ophthalmic artery
Infraorbital artery

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1-17

Canine: Closure of the


Neural Plate

5
3

4
5

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-18

Canine: Closure of the


Neural Plate





1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Neural plate
Notochord
Paraxial mesoderm
Endoderm
Neural tube
Somite

Note: Three stages in the closure of the neural plate.

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1-18

Canine: Gray Substance


of the Spinal Cord and
Medulla Oblongata

Spinal cord
5
1 2

3
4

Medulla oblongata

1
2

8
4

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-19

Canine: Gray Substance


of the Spinal Cord and
Medulla Oblongata







1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Somatic afferent column


Visceral afferent column
Visceral efferent column
Somatic efferent column (lower motor neurons)
Dorsal root
Ventral root
Central canal or fourth ventricle
Sulcus limitans

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1-19

Canine: Spinal Cord

3
5
4
6

II

9
8
7

III
10
11

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-20

Canine: Spinal Cord

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Fasciculus gracilis
Fasciculus cuneatus
Lateral corticospinal tract
Rubrospinal tract
Dorsal spinocerebellar tract
Ventral spinocerebellar tract
Spino-olivary and olivospinal tracts
Propriospinal system (fasciculi proprii)
Spinothalamic tract
Vestibulospinal tract
Ventral median fissure

Note: This simplified drawing of the hypothetical transverse section of


the canine spinal cord shows the location of some principal
tracts. The crossing of the pyramidal tracts (dotted lined arrows)
is shown. I, Dorsal funiculus; II, lateral funiculus; III, ventral
funiculus.

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1-20

Canine: Brain (Ventral View)

2
2

2
4
6
7
8

II

3
9

III
IV

VI 12
10
13

VII
VIII

11

15
14

IX

XI
XII

The Head and Ventral Neck

16

1-21

Canine: Brain (Ventral View)

1.
2.
2.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Olfactory bulb
Olfactory tract
Medial olfactory tract
Lateral olfactory tract
Piriform lobe
Rhinal sulcus
Sylvian sulcus
Optic chiasm
Optic tract
Tuber cinereum
Mammillary body
Crus cerebri
Interpeduncular fossa
Pons
Trapezoid body
Cerebellar hemisphere
Pyramidal tract
Crossing of pyramidal tracts

Note: Roman numerals I through XII designate the appropriate cranial


nerves.

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1-21

Canine: Cerebral Hemispheres


(Dorsal View)
1
15

14

12
11

10

12

13

11

2
8
9
57
4

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-22

Canine: Cerebral Hemispheres


(Dorsal View)
1. Longitudinal fissure
2. Transverse fissure
3. Dorsal median sulcus
4. Tractus gracilis
5. Nucleus gracilis
6. Tractus cuneatus
7. Nucleus cuneatus
8. Cerebellar hemisphere
9. Cerebellar vermis
10. Marginal gyrus
11. Ectomarginal sulcus
11. Ectomarginal gyrus
12. Suprasylvian sulcus
12. Suprasylvian gyrus
13. Ectosylvian gyrus
14. Cruciate sulcus
15. Olfactory bulb

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1-22

Canine: Brain (Lateral View)

7

6
5

5

4

4

II

2
10
V

The Head and Ventral Neck

X XI

XII

VI VII VIII IX

1-23

Canine: Brain (Lateral View)

1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.
5.
6.
6.
7.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Olfactory tract
Piriform lobe
Rhinal sulcus
Sylvian sulcus
Sylvian gyrus
Ectosylvian sulcus
Ectosylvian gyrus
Ectomarginal sulcus
Ectomarginal gyrus
Coronal sulcus
Coronal gyrus
Cerebellar vermis
Paraflocculus
Pons

Note: Roman numerals designate the appropriate cranial nerves.

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1-23

Canine: Ventricles of the Brain

3
2

2
6

11
10

4
9
2

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-24

Canine: Ventricles of the Brain

1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Cavity of olfactory bulb


Lateral ventricle
Rostral horn, lateral ventricle
Caudal horn, lateral ventricle
Ventral horn (temporal), lateral ventricle
Mesencephalic aqueduct
Lateral recess, IV ventricle
Central canal
Fourth ventricle
Suprapineal recess, III ventricle
Interventricular foramen
Infundibular recess
Optic recess
Third ventricle

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1-24

Canine: Cortical Lobes


of the Brain

4
3

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-25

Canine: Cortical Lobes


of the Brain




1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Frontal lobe
Parietal lobe
Occipital lobe
Temporal lobe
Olfactory lobe

Note: Lateral view.

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1-25

Canine: Visceral and Somatic


Nervous System

1
a bc d e
3

2
4
6

f
8
7
9

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-26

Canine: Visceral and Somatic


Nervous System
1. Dorsal root ganglion
2. Ventral root
3. Dorsal branch of spinal nerve
4. Ventral branch of spinal nerve
6. White (preganglionic) and gray (postganglionic) communicating
branches, often fused
7. Sympathetic trunk with ganglia
8. Abdominal autonomic plexus ganglion
9. Gut




5,

Note: Comparison of the organization of the visceral (black) and


somatic (open) nervous systems at the thoracolumbar level of
the spinal cord. Afferent fibers (interrupted lines) and efferent
fibers (solid lines) are visualized. The postganglionic sympathetic
fibers are indicated by (alternating black and stippled lines) are
also indicated.
a, Somatic afferent fibers; b, visceral afferent fibers; c, somatic efferent
fibers; d, visceral efferent fibers (preganglionic sympathetic); e, postganglionic sympathetic (to peripheral structures); f, postganglionic
sympathetic (to abdominal organs).

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1-26

Canine: Meninges of the Brain

3
4

6
2
2
2
7

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-27

Canine: Meninges of the Brain

1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Calvaria
Dura mater (also connected to the bone as periosteum)
Periosteum of vertebral canal
Epidural space (with fat)
Dura mater of spinal cord
Subarachnoid space
Pia mater
Membranous tentorium cerebelli
Atlas
Cerebellomedullary cistern

Note: Schematic representation. The needle points to the atlantooccipital space and the cerebellomedullary cistern.

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1-27

Canine: Production and Circulation


of Cerebrospinal Fluid

2
3

9
7

6 5 4

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-28

Canine: Production and Circulation


of Cerebrospinal Fluid








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Dorsal sagittal sinus


Arachnoid villus
Subarachnoid space
Fourth ventricle
Choroid plexus of fourth ventricle
Aperture of fourth ventricle
Third ventricle
Choroid plexus of third ventricle
Interventricular foramen, connecting the lateral and third
ventricles

Note: The blood vessels (black area), subarachnoid spaces (heavily


shaded), ventricles (lightly shaded), and nervous tissue (white)
are illustrated. The direction of the flow of the cerebrospinal fluid
is shown (arrows).

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1-28

Canine: Distribution of Middle


Cerebral Artery (Lateral View)

1
7

9
4

10
5

The Head and Ventral Neck

11

1-29

Canine: Distribution of Middle


Cerebral Artery (Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Internal ethmoidal artery


Internal ophthalmic artery
Middle cerebral artery
Rostral cerebral artery
Internal carotid artery
Ventral spinal artery
Vertebral artery
Basilar artery
Caudal cerebellar artery
Labyrinthine artery
Rostral cerebellar artery

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1-29

Canine: Trigeminal Nerve

3
2
1

6
4

11

12

8
13

The Head and Ventral Neck

10

1-30

Canine: Trigeminal Nerve

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Ophthalmic nerve
Frontal nerve
Lacrimal nerve
Maxillary nerve
Infraorbital nerve
Zygomatic nerve
Greater palatine nerve
Mandibular nerve
Masticatory nerve
Buccal nerve
Auriculotemporal nerve
Lingual nerve
Inferior alveolar nerve

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1-30

Canine: Autonomic Innervation


of the Structures of the Head

1
10

2 3 4
5

6
7 11
8 12
9

The Head and Ventral Neck

13
14

1-31

Canine: Autonomic Innervation


of the Structures of the Head
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Parasympathetic oculomotor nucleus (III)


Parasympathetic facial nucleus (VII)
Parasympathetic glossopharyngeal nucleus
Parasympathetic vagus nucleus
Cranial cervical ganglion
Ciliary ganglion
Pterygopalatine ganglion
Mandibular ganglion
Otic ganglion
Short ciliary nerves
Major petrosal nerve
Deep petrosal nerve
Chorda tympani
Tympanic plexus, minor petrosal nerve

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1-31

Canine: Parasympathetic
Nervous System

1
2
3
R

L
5
6

7
8
9
10
10

10

4
11

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-32

Canine: Parasympathetic
Nervous System
1. Parasympathetic oculomotor nucleus
2. Facial and glossopharyngeal parasympathetic nuclei of the
medulla oblongata
3. Vagal parasympathetic nucleus of the medulla
4. Sacral outflow
5. Vagus nerve
6. Recurrent laryngeal nerve
7. Parasympathetic fibers to heart and lungs
8. Ventral vagal trunk
9. Dorsal vagal trunk
10. Parasympathetic fibers to the abdominal organs
11. Pelvic nerves
Note: Origin and distribution of the parasympathetic nervous system.
Ventral view, schematic.

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1-32

Canine: Sympathetic Nervous


System

L
4

6
6

7
6
3

1 2
2
2

10
9
9

11

12
13

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-33

Canine: Sympathetic Nervous


System
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
6.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Sympathetic outflow from T1 to L3


Communicating branches
Sympathetic trunk
Sympathetic trunk
Cranial cervical ganglion
Cervicothoracic ganglion
Middle cervical ganglion
Ansa subclavia
Vertebral nerve
Greater splanchnic nerve
Lesser splanchnic nerve
Celiac ganglion
Cranial mesenteric ganglion
Caudal mesenteric ganglion
Hypogastric nerve

Note: Origin and distribution of the sympathetic nervous system.


Ventral view, schematic. The parasympathetic nuclei in brain
and spinal cord are indicated (in gray).

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1-33

Canine: Three Tunics of the Eye

2
1
4

12

7
11

13

14

The Head and Ventral Neck

8
10

15

1-34

Canine: Three Tunics of the Eye

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Limbus
Superior fornix
Dorsal rectus muscle
Choroid
Sclera
Ora serrata
Optic axis
Visual axis
Area cribrosa
Optic disc
Ciliary body
Iris
Cornea
Conjunctiva
Optic nerve

Note: Eye opened to show the three tunics (drawn thicker than they
actually are).

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1-34

Canine: Retina

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-35

Canine: Retina

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Pigmented cells
Receptor cells (rods and cones)
Bipolar ganglion cells
Multipolar ganglion cells
Incoming light (arrows)

Note: Outer pigmented layer (A) and inner neuroepithelial layer (B) of
retina.

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1-35

Canine: Stumps of the


Ocular Muscles

6

8
7

5
3

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-36

Canine: Stumps of the


Ocular Muscles
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
6.
7.
8.

Dorsal rectus muscle


Lateral rectus muscle
Ventral rectus muscle
Medial rectus muscle
Ventral oblique muscle
Dorsal oblique muscle
Trochlea
Retractor bulbi
Optic nerve

Note: Caudal view of left eyeball.

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1-36

Canine: Principal Arteries


Supplying the Eye

13

12

10

3 8
4
5

12

The Head and Ventral Neck

6
11

1-37

Canine: Principal Arteries


Supplying the Eye





1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Maxillary artery
External ophthalmic artery
Lacrimal artery to lacrimal gland and superior eyelid
Retinal arteries
Long posterior ciliary artery
Anterior ciliary artery (substantial branches to 10 in horse, lesser
branches in the other domestic species)
Greater arterial circle of the iris
Muscular branches
Supraorbital artery and foramen
External ethmoidal artery and foramen
Malar artery
Palpebral branches
Vorticose veins

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1-37

Canine: CT Showing Ear


Structures and Schema of the Ear

6 18

17

5
5

10
19 16 12

1
6

4
13

11

5
18

5

14 15
17
I

II

The Head and Ventral Neck

8
7
III

1-38

Canine: CT Showing Ear


Structures and Schema of the Ear
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Auricle
External acoustic meatus
Annular
Tympanic membrane
Tympanic cavity
Tympanic bulla
Auditory ossicles
Malleus
Auditory tube
Nasopharynx
Chorda tympani
Facial nerve
Vestibule
Semicircular canals
Utricle
Saccule
Cochlear duct
Endolymphatic duct
Cochlea
Internal acoustic meatus
Meninges

Note: Transverse image of a 2-mmthick computed tomographic slice


of the canine tympanic bullae and petrous temporal bones.
(Bone settings are used.) The sizes of the structures shown are
out of proportion to each other. I, Internal ear; II, middle ear; III,
external ear.

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1-38

Canine: The Flow (arrows) of


Aqueous Humor

4
3

8
3
4

7
6

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-39

Canine: The Flow (arrows) of


Aqueous Humor







1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Anterior chamber
Lens
Zonular fibers
Ciliary body
Sclera
Venous plexus
Pectinate ligament
Cornea

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1-39

Canine: Left Auricular Cartilage

7
5

6
8
7

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-40

Canine: Left Auricular Cartilage

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Helix
Apex
Medial crus of helix
Lateral crus of helix
Pretragic notch
Tragus
Intertragic notch
Antitragus
Annular cartilage

Note: Left auricular cartilage of dog compared with the human ear.

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1-40

Canine: Paramedian Section


of the Head

2 3 3 6 7
2
1

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-41

Canine: Paramedian Section


of the Head
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
5.
6.
6.
7.
8.

Ventral nasal concha


Ethmoid turbinates
Cribriform plate
Frontal bone
Frontal sinus
Hard palate
Oropharynx
Soft palate
Nasopharynx
Epiglottis
Basihyoid

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1-41

Canine: Head, Rostral Part


of the Orbit

2

11

3
10
4

12

13

5
9
6

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-42

Canine: Head, Rostral Part


of the Orbit
1.
2.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Frontal sinus
Orbital structures
Eye
Zygomatic gland
Masseter
Facial vein
Mandible
Digastricus
Tongue
Oral cavity and hard palate
Choana
Ethmoid turbinates
Zygomatic arch
Maxillary recess

Note: Transverse section of the canine head through the rostral part
of the orbit, rostral surface.

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1-42

Canine: Salivary Glands

3
2

2

1
4

1

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-43

Canine: Salivary Glands

1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
4.

Mandibular gland
Mandibular duct
Sublingual gland, monostomatic part
Its duct
Parotid gland
Sublingual caruncle

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1-43

Canine: Disarticulated Puppy Skull

1
2

4
5
6

10

14

11
12
13

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-44

Canine: Disarticulated Puppy Skull

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Incisive
Nasal
Maxilla
Ethmoid
Vomer
Zygomatic
Pterygoid
Basisphenoid
Palatine
Presphenoid
Temporal
Basioccipital
Exoccipital
Mandibles

Note: Ventral view.

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1-44

Canine: Traverse Section of the


Nasal Cavity

1
20

19

18

5
6
7
8
17
9

16
10

15
14

11
13

The Head and Ventral Neck

12

1-45

Canine: Traverse Section of the


Nasal Cavity
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Nasal
Dorsal nasal meatus
Dorsal nasal concha
Middle nasal meatus
Duct of lateral nasal gland
Common nasal meatus
Nasolacrimal duct
Cartilage of nasal septum
Ventral nasal meatus
Vascular plexus of hard palate
Vomeronasal organ
Vomeronasal cartilage
Palatine process of incisive
Palatine process of maxilla
First premolar
Lip
Vestibule
Canine tooth
Maxilla
Nasal process of incisive

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1-45

Canine: CT Image of the Caudal


Nasal Cavity

1
9
2

7
5
6

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-46

Canine: CT Image of the Caudal


Nasal Cavity








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Ethmoid turbinates
Maxillary recess
Maxillary foramen
Molar 1
Molar 1
Boxy-mandible
Oral cavity
Nasopharynx-caudal to choanae
Zygomatic bone

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1-46

Canine: Superficial Branches of


the Facial and Trigeminal Nerves

Trigeminal nerve V
Facial nerve VII
5
6
7
8

1
2
3
4

13
17 16 15 14

The Head and Ventral Neck

12 11

10

1-47

Canine: Superficial Branches of


the Facial and Trigeminal Nerves
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Great auricular nerve


C2, ventral branch
Caudal auricular branches
Facial nerve VII
Rostral auricular nerve
Palpebral nerve
Frontal nerve
Zygomaticofacial nerve
Infraorbital nerve
Mental nerves
Buccalis nerve
Branches of mylohyoid nerve
Dorsal buccal branch
Auriculotemporal nerve V
Ventral buccal branch
Auriculopalpebral nerve
Cervical branch

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1-47

Canine: Branches of the Common


Carotid Artery

1
2
19

18
17
16

4
5
6
7
8

13

14

15

10
11

12

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-48

Canine: Branches of the Common


Carotid Artery
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Rostral auricular
Intermediate auricular
Superficial temporal
Maxillary
Caudal auricular
Ascending pharyngeal
Internal carotid
External carotid
Common carotid
Sternohyoideus
Lingual
Facial
Facial
Inferior labial
Middle mental
Superior labial
Malar
Lateral superior palpebral
Transverse facial

Note: Superficial lateral view. A part of the digastricus is removed.

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1-48

Canine: Muscles, Nerves, and


Salivary Glands

16

1
3

15

14
13
12

4
5

10
7

11

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-49

Canine: Muscles, Nerves, and


Salivary Glands
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Mandibular branch of V
Stylopharyngeus
Facial nerve
Glossopharyngeal nerve
Hypoglossal nerve
Thyrohyoideus
Monostomatic sublingual gland
Hyopharyngeus
Hypoglossal nerve
Geniohyoideus
Polystomatic sublingual gland
Lingual nerve
Zygomatic gland
Medial pterygoid
Temporalis
Buccal nerve

Note: Medial to right mandible; lateral view.

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1-49

Canine: Cranial Nerves Leaving


the Skull

22

21

3
4
5

20

19
18
17
16

15
14 13 12

11

The Head and Ventral Neck

10

1-50

Canine: Cranial Nerves Leaving


the Skull
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

Oculomotor nerve
Ophthalmic nerve V
Abducent nerve
Ethmoidal foramina
Optic nerve
Trochlear nerve
Optic canal
Orbital fissure
Rostral alar foramen
Caudal alar foramen
Oval foramen
Tympanic bulla
Stylomastoid foramen
Tympano-occipital fissure
Hypoglossal canal
Hypoglossal nerve
Accessory nerve
Vagus nerve
Glossopharyngeal nerve
Facial nerve
Mandibular nerve V
Maxillary nerve V

Note: Ventrolateral view.

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1-50

Canine: Muscles of the Pharynx


and Tongue (Left Lateral View)

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

26

15
25

24

16
23

The Head and Ventral Neck

22

17
18
21

19
20

1-51

Canine: Muscles of the Pharynx


and Tongue (Left Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

Tongue
Tensor veli palatine
Pterygopharyngeus
Levator veli palatine
Stylohyoid bone
Tympanohyoid cartilage
Stylopharyngeus
Styloglossus
Hyopharyngeus
Thyrohyoid bone
Thyropharyngeus
Thyrohyoideus
Cricopharyngeus
Sternothyroideus
Esophagus
Tracheal
Cricoid cartilage
Cricothyroideus
Thyroid cartilage
Sternohyoideus
Stylohyoideus
Epihyoid bone
Hyoglossus
Mylohyoideus
Geniohyoideus
Genioglossus

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1-51

Canine: Meninges and Ventricles


of the Brain, Median Plane

9
10
11
12
13
14
15

25

24

23

22

16

26

21

The Head and Ventral Neck

20

19

18

17

1-52

Canine: Meninges and Ventricles


of the Brain, Median Plane
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

Cut edge of septum pellucidum


Corpus callosum
Choroid plexus, lateral ventricle
Fornix of hippocampus
Dura
Arachnoid membrane and trabeculae
Subarachnoid space
Pia
Arachnoid villus
Dorsal sagittal sinus
Great cerebral vein
Straight sinus
Transverse sinus
Cerebellomedullary cistern
Lateral aperture of fourth ventricle
Central canal
Choroid plexus, fourth ventricle
Quadrigeminal cistern
Mesencephalic aqueduct
Intercrural cistern
Neurohypophysis
Interthalamic adhesion
Optic nerve
Lateral ventricle over caudate nucleus
Third ventricle
Fourth ventricle

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1-52

Canine: Sulci of the Brain

2
9

11

10
1
8

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-53

Canine: Sulci of the Brain

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Rhinal
Cruciate
Coronal
Marginal
Ectomarginal
Suprasylvian
Ectosylvian
Sylvian
Presylvian
Brainstem
Cerebellum

Note: Left lateral view.

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1-53

Canine: Gyri of the Brain

1
2

13

11

9
10

12

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-54

Canine: Gyri of the Brain

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Marginal
Ectomarginal
Suprasylvian
Ectosylvian
Sylvian
Postcruciate
Precruciate
Prorean
Olfactory peduncle
Olfactory bulb
Piriform lobe
Brainstem
Cerebellum

Note: Right lateral view.

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1-54

Canine: Brain, Cranial Nerves,


and Brainstem
39

1
2

38

3
4

37

6
5

36

35

34

9
10
11
12

33
32
31

13
30

14

29

15

28

16

27
26

17
25

18
24

19
20

23

21
22

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-55

Canine: Brain, Cranial Nerves,


and Brainstem



1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Olfactory bulb
Olfactory peduncle
Medial olfactory tract
Rostral perforated
substance
Lateral olfactory tract
Lateral olfactory gyrus
Rostral rhinal sulcus
Tuber cinereum
Piriform lobe
Mammillary bodies
Caudal rhinal sulcus
Crus cerebri
Pons, transverse fibers
Ventral paraflocculus
Flocculus
Dorsal paraflocculus
Ansiform lobule
Trapezoid body
Pyramids
Ventral median fissure

21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.

Decussation of pyramids
First cervical spinal nerve
Hypoglossal nerve
Accessory nerve
Vagus nerve
Glossopharyngeal nerve
Vestibulocochlear nerve
Facial nerve
Abducent nerve
Trigeminal nerve
Trochlear nerve
Caudal perforated
substance in
interpeduncular fossa
Oculomotor nerve
Infundibulum
Optic tract
Optic chiasm
Optic nerve
Medial rhinal sulcus
Olfactory nerve

Note: Ventral view.

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1-55

Feline: Tomogram of the


Nasal Cavity

4

3
3
2
1

7
5
6

1 cm

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-56

Feline: Tomogram of the


Nasal Cavity
1.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Right nostril
Ventral nasal concha
Ethmoid turbinates
Cribriform plate
Frontal sinus
Frontal bone
Hard palate
Soft palate
Hypophysial fossa

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1-56

Feline: Ear Canal and Middle Ear

1
2

3
5

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-57

Feline: Ear Canal and Middle Ear


2,

1. Ear canal
3. Tympanic cavity
4. Petrous temporal bone
5. Nasopharynx

Note: Transverse CT scan (bone window) of half of a feline head shows


the ear canal and middle ear.

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1-57

Equine: Superficial Muscles


of the Head

6
5 5
4

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-58

Equine: Superficial Muscles


of the Head
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Orbicularis oris
Depressor labii inferioris
Buccinator
Levator nasolabialis
Orbicularis oculi
Levator anguli oculi medialis
Temporalis
Occipitomandibular part of digastricus
Masseter

Note: The cutaneous muscle has been removed.

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1-58

Equine: Permanent Dentition

1
2
3
4
6

5
7

8
9

10

Upper jaw

The Head and Ventral Neck

Lower jaw

1-59

Equine: Permanent Dentition

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

I1
I2
I3
Canine
P1 (wolf tooth)
Diastema
P2
P4
M1
M3

Note: Superior jaw (left) and lower jaw (right) are illustrated.

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1-59

Equine: Paramedian Section


of the Head

4 52

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-60

Equine: Paramedian Section


of the Head




1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Nasal septum
Roof of the nasopharynx
Guttural pouch
Oropharynx
Epiglottis

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1-60

Equine: Head at the Level of P4

2
3
4
6
1

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-61

Equine: Head at the Level of P4

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Nasal septum
Dorsal concha
Ventral concha
Common meatus
Ventral meatus
Venous plexus in nasal mucosa

Note: Transverse section.

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1-61

Equine: Laryngeal Cartilages

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-62

Equine: Laryngeal Cartilages

1.
2.
3.
4.

Epiglottic cartilage
Arytenoid cartilage
Thyroid cartilage
Cricoid cartilage

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1-62

Equine: Intrinsic Muscles


of the Larynx

4
3

6
2

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-63

Equine: Intrinsic Muscles


of the Larynx






1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Cricothyroideus
Cricoarytenoideus dorsalis
Cricoarytenoideus lateralis
Vocalis
Ventricularis (4 + 5 = thyroarytenoideus)
Arytenoideus transversus
Laryngeal ventricle

Note: Caudal (recurrent) laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve supplies


2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.

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1-63

Equine: Hypophysis

5 4

3
2
1

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-64

Equine: Hypophysis

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Adenohypophysis
Intermediate part
Neurohypophysis
Hypophysial stalk
Recess of third ventricle

Note: Median section of the hypophysis of the horse. The rostral


extremity of the gland is to the left.

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1-64

Equine: Superficial Dissection


of the Head

8
5

11

10

The Head and Ventral Neck

6 3

1-65

Equine: Superficial Dissection


of the Head







1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Levator nasolabialis
Buccinator
Depressor labii inferioris
Zygomaticus
Levator labii superioris
Facial artery and vein
Buccal branches of facial nerve
Transverse facial artery and vein and transverse facial branch of
auriculotemporal nerve
9. Great auricular nerve (C2)
10. Linguofacial vein
11. Maxillary vein

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1-65

Equine: Deeper Dissection


of the Head

10

2
1

7 6 5

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-66

Equine: Deeper Dissection


of the Head
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Infraorbital nerve
Dorsal buccal branch of facial nerve
Mental nerve
Transverse facial vein
Deep facial vein
Buccal vein
Masseter
Sternocephalicus
Linguofacial vein
Maxillary vein

Note: Parts of the superficial muscles, masseter, and parotid gland


have been removed.

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1-66

Equine: Head at the Level of the


Rostral Maxillary Sinus

8
5
9
6
7
4

10

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-67

Equine: Head at the Level of the


Rostral Maxillary Sinus
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

P4
Tongue
Buccinator
Nasal septum
Dorsal nasal concha
Ventral nasal concha
Common nasal meatus
Dorsal nasal meatus
Middle nasal meatus
Ventral nasal meatus

Note: Transverse section.

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1-67

Equine: CT Scan (Bone Window)


of Head at Level of the Rostral
Maxillary Sinus

2
4

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-68

Equine: CT Scan (Bone Window)


of Head at Level of the Rostral
Maxillary Sinus



1.
2.
3.
4.

Tongue
Nasal septum
Dorsal nasal concha
Maxillary sinus

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1-68

Equine: Median Section


of the Head

10

8
2

4
5

3
11

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-69

Equine: Median Section


of the Head
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Dorsal nasal concha


Ethmoid turbinates
Right choana
Soft palate
Nasopharynx
Geniohyoideus
Genioglossus
Epiglottis
Medial wall of guttural pouch
Cerebellomedullary cistern
Basihyoid

Note: Most of the nasal septum has been removed.

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1-69

Equine: Topography of
Conchofrontal and
Maxillary Sinuses

1
4
2
3

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-70

Equine: Topography of
Conchofrontal and
Maxillary Sinuses



1.
2.
3.
4.

Conchofrontal sinus
Caudal maxillary sinus
Rostral maxillary sinus
Position of frontomaxillary opening between 1 and 2

Note: Conchofrontal and maxillary sinuses are filled with casting material. The area where the caudal maxillary sinus can be trephined
is shown (circle).

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1-70

Equine: Brain and Frontal and


Maxillary Sinuses

2
2
1
3

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-71

Equine: Brain and Frontal and


Maxillary Sinuses
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Frontal part of the conchofrontal sinus


Dorsal conchal part of the conchofrontal sinus
Caudal maxillary sinus
Position of frontomaxillary opening
Rostral maxillary sinus
Cerebrum
Cerebellum

Note: Projection of the brain and frontal and maxillary sinuses on the
dorsal surface of the skull. The sinuses are filled with casting
material. The frontal sinus extends caudally over the rostral part
of the brain and rostrally beyond the level of the orbit. The center
of the brain and the location where a horse may be shot is
indicated (circle).

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1-71

Equine: Tongue and Pharynx

6
5
3
8

9
10

11

11

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-72

Equine: Tongue and Pharynx

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Entrance into esophagus


Dorsal wall of nasopharynx (split in median plane)
Soft palate (split in median plane)
Corniculate process of arytenoid cartilage
Epiglottis
Free border of soft palate, continued caudally by
palatopharyngeal arch
Palatoglossal arch
Lingual tonsil
Foliate papillae
Vallate papillae
Examples of fungiform papillae

Note: The pharynx has been opened dorsally to expose the entrance
to the larynx.

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1-72

Equine: Root Convergence of


Permanent Inferior Incisors

3
4

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-73

Equine: Root Convergence of


Permanent Inferior Incisors




1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Mounting wire of specimen


Inferior first incisors
Inferior second incisors
Inferior third incisors
Inferior canine tooth, present only in the male

Note: Radiograph of a bone specimen from a 5-year-old (estimated)


horse. Note the funnel-shaped infundibulum visible in each of
the first and second incisors.

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1-73

Equine: Nasopharynx and Larynx

Nasopharynx
3

2
1

Larynx

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-74

Equine: Nasopharynx and Larynx

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Epiglottis
Laryngeal entrance
Pharyngeal recess
Entrance to auditory tube
Arytenoid cartilage
Left and light vocal folds

Note: Endoscopic views.

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1-74

Equine: Deep Dissection


of the Head

9
10
16
15
8
7
17
14

11 5

The Head and Ventral Neck

13

12
18

1-75

Equine: Deep Dissection


of the Head
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Sublingual gland
Facial artery and vein
Rostral belly of digastricus
Mandibular duct
Stylohyoid
Glossopharyngeal nerve
Linguofacial artery
Hypoglossal nerve
Mandibular nerve
Masseteric nerve
Lingual nerve
Vagus and sympathetic trunk
Cranial laryngeal nerve
Dorsal branch of spinal accessory nerve
Great auricular nerve
Guttural pouch
Medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes
Sternohyoideus

Note: The mandible and masticatory muscles have been removed.

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1-75

Equine: Dissection of the Orbit

11
5

3
4

10

6
8
7

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-76

Equine: Dissection of the Orbit

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Lacrimal gland
Maxillary artery
Major palatine artery
Buccal artery
Oculomotor nerve
Buccal nerve
Lingual nerve
Inferior alveolar nerve
Auriculotemporal nerve
Facial nerve
Auriculopalpebral nerve

Note: The zygomatic arch and periorbita have been removed.

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1-76

Equine: Principal Arteries


of the Head

10

12

12

4 3

11
2

6
7 8

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-77

Equine: Principal Arteries


of the Head
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Common carotid artery


Occipital artery
Internal carotid artery
External carotid artery
Linguofacial artery
Lingual artery
Facial artery
Sublingual artery
Superior labial artery
Angularis oculi artery
Caudal auricular artery
Maxillary artery

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1-77

Equine: Lymphatic Structures


of the Head and Neck

4
2

10

1
5

9
6

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-78

Equine: Lymphatic Structures


of the Head and Neck
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Mandibular lymph nodes


Parotid lymph nodes
Medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes
Lateral retropharyngeal lymph nodes
Cranial deep cervical lymph nodes
Middle deep cervical lymph nodes
Caudal deep cervical lymph nodes
Superficial cervical lymph nodes
Tracheal trunk
Thyroid gland

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1-78

Bovine: Superficial Dissection


of the Head

7
2

8
10

6
3

The Head and Ventral Neck

11

1-79

Bovine: Superficial Dissection


of the Head
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Masseter
Zygomaticus
Buccinator
Ventral buccal branch of facial nerve
Cornual nerve
Parotid duct and facial artery and vein
Parotid gland
Mandibular gland
Lateral retropharyngeal lymph node
Accessory nerve
Mandibular lymph node

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1-79

Bovine: Skull and Skin Innervation


of the Head

1 2

10

13
4
8
11

12
6

9
5

14
15

7
16

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-80

Bovine: Skull and Skin Innervation


of the Head
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Cornual nerve
Temporal line
Auriculopalpebral nerve
Cornual nerve
Auriculotemporal nerve
Infraorbital nerve
Mental nerve
Ophthalmic nerve; frontal nerve
Mandibular nerve; auriculotemporal nerve
Vagus nerve
Zygomatic nerve
Infratrochlear nerve
Zygomaticotemporal branch; cornual nerve
Maxillary nerve; infraorbital nerve
Cervical nerves
Mental nerve

Note: The cornual nerve follows the temporal line to the base of the
horn. The auriculopalpebral nerve is palpable where it crosses
the zygomatic arch.

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1-80

Bovine: Paranasal Sinuses

2
4

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-81

Bovine: Paranasal Sinuses

1.
2.
3.
4.

Maxillary sinus
Rostral frontal sinuses
Caudal frontal sinus
Dorsal conchal sinus

Note: Topographic depiction of the paranasal sinuses, which are filled


with casting material.

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1-81

Bovine: Lymph Drainage


of the Head and Neck

4
5
6

5
1

8
7

6
9

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-82

Bovine: Lymph Drainage


of the Head and Neck








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Mandibular lymph node


Parotid lymph node
Medial retropharyngeal lymph node
Lateral retropharyngeal lymph node
Deep cervical lymph nodes
Superficial cervical lymph nodes
Tracheal trunk
Thoracic duct
Area within which lymphatic vessels enter veins

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1-82

Porcine: Head of a 9-Month-Old

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-83

Porcine: Head of a 9-Month-Old

1. Outline of frontal sinuses


2. Position of brain
3. Point at which pig is best shot for stunning at slaughter

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1-83

Porcine: Paranasal Sinuses

2
1
4
3

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-84

Porcine: Paranasal Sinuses

1.
2.
3.
4.

Rostral frontal sinus


Caudal frontal sinus
Sphenoidal sinus
Maxillary sinus

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1-84

Porcine: Lymph Center


of the Head and Neck

7
3

10
5
12

1
9

The Head and Ventral Neck

11

1-85

Porcine: Lymph Center


of the Head and Neck
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Mandibular lymph center


Parotid lymph center
Retropharyngeal lymph center
Superficial cervical lymph center
Deep cervical lymph center
Mandible
Cleidocephalicus
Subclavius
Tracheal lymph trunk
Lymph from dorsal superficial cervical nodes
Manubrium sterni
First rib

Note: The arrows indicate lymph flow in this schematic illustration.

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1-85

Porcine: Dissection of the Neck


to Show Lymph Nodes

13
12

13

12

11

14
4
3

10

9
7

15

16 8
17

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-86

Porcine: Dissection of the Neck


to Show Lymph Nodes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Mandibular lymph nodes


Accessory mandibular lymph nodes
Parotid lymph nodes
Lateral retropharyngeal lymph nodes
Medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes
Dorsal superficial cervical lymph nodes
Middle superficial cervical lymph nodes
Ventral superficial cervical lymph nodes
Omohyoideus
Omotransversarius
Serratus ventralis cervicis
Splenius
Rhomboideus cervicis et capitis
Cleidocephalicus, occipital part
Mandibular gland
Thyrohyoideus
Sternocephalicus

Note: Left, lateral view.

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1-86

Porcine: Vomeronasal Organ

B
The Head and Ventral Neck

1-87

Porcine: Vomeronasal Organ

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium


Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Basal Cells
Ciliated sustentacular cells
Ciliated neurosensitive cells

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1-87

Avian: Skull of a Chicken

6
2

9
13

7
12

14
11

4
3

The Head and Ventral Neck

10

15

1-88

Avian: Skull of a Chicken

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Premaxilla
Maxilla
Jugal arch
Mandible
Nasal bone
Orbit
Interorbital septum
Frontal bone
Optic foramen
Pterygoid bone
Quadrate bone
Temporal bone
Parietal bone
Occipital bone
Tympanic cavity

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1-88

Avian: Oropharynx Opened by the


Reflection of the Mandibles

6
4

9
7

10
8

11
12

The Head and Ventral Neck

1-89

Avian: Oropharynx Opened by the


Reflection of the Mandibles
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Median and lateral palatine ridges


Openings of salivary glands
Choana
Infundibular cleft (opening of auditory tubes)
Body of tongue
Root of tongue
Mechanical papillae
Laryngeal mound
Glottis
Branchial cornu of hyobranchial apparatus
Esophagus
Position of trachea

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1-89

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral


Column

Section 2: The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column


2-1

Canine and Porcine: Structure of a Lymph Node

2-2

Canine: Cervical Vertebrae

2-3

Canine: Thoracic Vertebrae

2-4

Canine: Sacrum and Caudal Vertebrae

2-5

Canine: Trunk Muscles, Deeper Layers

2-6

Canine: Trunk Muscles, Deepest Layers

2-7

Canine: Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebrae

2-8

Canine: Enlarged Transverse Section of Seventh


Lumbar Section

2-9

Canine: Epaxial Muscles

2-10

Canine: Epaxial Muscles

2-11

Canine: Superficial Nerves of the Neck

2-12

Canine: Retropharyngeal Lymph Node and Thyroid


Gland

2-13

Canine: Veins of the Neck

2-14

Canine: Peripheral Distribution of Sympathetic and


Parasympathetic Divisions

2-15

Feline: Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebrae

2-16

Equine: Nuchal Ligament and Associated Bursae

2-17

Bovine: Lumbar Intervertebral Disc

2-18

Bovine: Vertebral Canal

2-19

Bovine: Connections of the Major Veins with the


Vertebral Plexus-Azygous System

2-20

Bovine: Longitudinal Section of Tactile Hair Follicle

2-21

Bovine: Tactile Hair Follicle of a Calf

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

Table of Contents

This page intentionally left blank

Canine and Porcine: Structure


of a Lymph Node

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-1

Canine and Porcine: Structure


of a Lymph Node
1. Afferent lymphatics
2. Subcapsular sinus
3. Efferent lymphatics
Note: The germinal centers (lymph nodules) occupy the cortical region
(top). The germinal centers lie centrally in the pig (bottom). The
direction of lymph flow is indicated in both regions (arrows).

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2-1

Canine: Cervical Vertebrae

Atlas
(dorsal view)

Axis
(lateral view)
6

4
2

Fifth vertebra
(lateral view)
6

4
3
10

7
11

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-2

Canine: Cervical Vertebrae

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Wing of atlas
Fovea dentis
Lateral vertebral foramen
Transverse foramen
Dens
Spinous process
Caudal articular process
Transverse process
Body
Cranial articular process
Position of vertebral foramen

Note: Cranium is to the left.

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2-2

Canine: Thoracic Vertebrae

4
3

5
6

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-3

Canine: Thoracic Vertebrae

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Spinous process
Caudal articular process
Transverse process with costal fovea
Mammillary process
Caudal vertebral notch
Costal foveae
Body

Note: Left, lateral view.

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2-3

Canine: Sacrum and Caudal


Vertebrae

Ventral view

Dorsal view

1
2
3
3

3
3

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-4

Canine: Sacrum and Caudal


Vertebrae
1.
2.
3.
3.

Promontory
Auricular articular surface
Ventral sacral foramina for ventral branches of sacral nerves
Dorsal sacral foramina for braches of sacral nerves

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2-4

10

11

Canine: Trunk Muscles,


Deeper Layers

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-5

Canine: Trunk Muscles,


Deeper Layers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Longus capitis
Trachea
Esophagus
Splenius
Serratus dorsalis cranialis
Serratus dorsalis caudalis
Internal abdominal oblique
Aponeurosis
Rectus abdominis
Caudal free border of the internal abdominal oblique
Dorsal sacrocaudal muscles

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2-5

6
1

2

2

2

2

5

Canine: Trunk Muscles,


Deepest Layers

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-6

Canine: Trunk Muscles,


Deepest Layers
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
7.

Longus capitis
Transversospinalis system
Multifidus
Spinalis cervicis
Spinalis et semispinalis
Quadratus lumborum
Rectus abdominis
Transversus abdominis
Aponeurosis
External intercostal muscles
Internal intercostal muscles

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2-6

Canine: Thoracic and


Lumbar Vertebrae

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-7

Canine: Thoracic and


Lumbar Vertebrae



1.
2.
3.
4.

Scapular spines
Spinous process of T5
Anticlinal vertebra (T11)
Spinous process of L1

Note: This lateral radiograph was obtained after the injection of a


contrast agent into the subarachnoid space.

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2-7

Canine: Enlarged Transverse


Section of Seventh
Lumbar Section

1
2
3
4
5
6

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-8

Canine: Enlarged Transverse


Section of Seventh
Lumbar Section





1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Central canal
Pia mater
Dura mater
Denticulate ligament
Arachnoid membrane
Subarachnoid space

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2-8

14
13

L2

L3

12
11
10

T6 T7

5
T8 T9 T10
T12 T13
T11

L1

8
L4

L5

L6

L7

15

Canine: Epaxial Muscles

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-9

Canine: Epaxial Muscles

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Transversospinalis system
Longissimus system
Iliocostalis system
Semispinalis
Multifidus
Long rotator
Short rotator
Spinalis
Interspinalis
Iliocostalis thoracis
Iliocostalis lumborum
Longissimus lumborum
Intertransversarius
Longissimus lumborum
Ilium

Note: Each of the muscles shown can be present, spanning other


vertebrae, thus overlapping and obscuring their individual
nature.

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2-9

Canine: Epaxial Muscles

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-10

Canine: Epaxial Muscles

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Splenius
Serratus dorsalis cranialis
Spinalis et semispinalis
Longissimus
Iliocostalis
Longissimus capitis
Longissimus cervicis

Note: Each of the muscles shown can be present, spanning other


vertebrae, thus overlapping and obscuring their individual
nature.

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2-10

Canine: Superficial Nerves


of the Neck

8
9

11

10

12
13

14

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-11

Canine: Superficial Nerves


of the Neck
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Trapezius
Platysma
Cleidocephalicus pars cervicalis
Omotransversarius
Accessory (XI cranial) nerve
Caudal auricular nerve (VII)
Sternocephalicus pars occipitalis
Parotid gland
Ventral buccal branch (VII)
Cervical branch of VII
Mandibular gland
C2, ventral branch
Parotidoauricularis
Sternocephalicus

Note: Lateral aspect.

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2-11

Canine: Retropharyngeal Lymph


Node and Thyroid Gland

2
3

5
6
18
7
17

16

15

10

14
11

13

12

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-12

Canine: Retropharyngeal Lymph


Node and Thyroid Gland
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Second cervical spinal nerve


Medial retropharyngeal lymph node
First cervical spinal nerve
Caudal auricular nerve
Auricular cartilage
Facial nerve
Stylohyoideus
Accessory nerve
Hypoglossal nerve
Cranial laryngeal nerve
Ansa cervicalis
Thyrohyoideus
Thyroid gland
Internal jugular vein
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
Common carotid artery
Vagosympathetic nerve trunk
Mastoid part of cleidocephalicus

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2-12

Canine: Veins of the Neck

11

2
3
4

12
13
14

15
16

17

18
19

20
21
22
9
10

23
24

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-13

Canine: Veins of the Neck

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

Pharyngeal branch
Hyoid venous arch
Facial
Lingual
Cranial thyroid
Middle thyroid
Trachea
Right internal jugular
Internal thoracic trunk
Cranial vena cava
Lingual
Maxillary
Linguofacial
Cranial thyroid
Parathyroid gland
Thyroid gland
External jugular
Esophagus
Left internal jugular
Superficial cervical
Cephalic
Subclavian
Brachiocephalic
Costocervical veins

Note: Ventral aspect.

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2-13

Canine: Peripheral
Distribution of Sympathetic
and Parasympathetic Divisions
Parasympathetic

Sympathetic

III
1 VII
IX
X

8
9
10
11
12

T1

13
14
15

16

17
18

19

L1

20

6
S1

21

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

22
23
24

2-14

Canine: Peripheral
Distribution of Sympathetic
and Parasympathetic Divisions
1. Eye, lacrimal, nasal, and salivary glands
III. Oculomotor nerve
VII. Facial nerve
IX. Glossopharyngeal nerve
X. Vagus nerve
2. Vagus nerve
3. Recurrent laryngeal nerve to larynx and esophagus
4. Heart and lungs
5. Abdominal viscera
6. Pelvic ganglia and plexus
7. Urogenital organs and large intestine
8. Eye, sweat, blood vessels, and mucosal glands
9. Cranial cervical ganglion
10. Vertebral nerve
11. Middle cervical ganglion
12. Heart and lungs
13. To brachial plexus
14. Cervicothoracic ganglion
15. Sympathetic trunk ganglion
16. Sympathetic trunk
17. Greater splanchnic nerve
18. Celiac ganglion
19. Celiacomesenteric plexus
20. Cranial mesenteric ganglion
21. Lumbar splanchnic
22. Caudal mesenteric ganglion and plexus
23. Hypogastric nerve
24. To pelvic plexus

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2-14

Feline: Thoracic and


Lumbar Vertebrae

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-15

Feline: Thoracic and


Lumbar Vertebrae




1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Spinous process of T5
Anticlinal vertebra (T11)
Spinous process of L1
Rudimentary rib
Sublumbar muscles

Note: Lateral radiograph.

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2-15

Equine: Nuchal Ligament


and Associated Bursae

1
2

3
4

4 2
7

5
6

2
1

2

T5

Atlas
Axis
C4

C6
T1

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-16

Equine: Nuchal Ligament


and Associated Bursae
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Funicular part of nuchal ligament


Laminar parts of nuchal ligament
Cranial nuchal bursa
Caudal nuchal (inconstant) bursa
Supraspinous bursae
Fatty crest dorsal to nuchal ligament
Rhomboideus
Dorsoscapular ligament connecting spinous processes of the
withers with the scapula
5. Elastic part of 5
6. Scapula
7. Spinous processes
Note: Lateral view with three transverse sections.

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2-16

Bovine: Lumbar Intervertebral Disc

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-17

Bovine: Lumbar Intervertebral Disc

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Spinous process
Lamina
Synovial intervertebral joint
Articular process of adjacent vertebra
Vertebral canal with contents (spinal cord and meninges
surrounded by epidural fat)
6. Nucleus pulposus
7. Anulus fibrosus

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2-17

Bovine: Vertebral Canal

1
2

12

7
9 8
11 10

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-18

Bovine: Vertebral Canal

1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

First lumbar vertebra


Needle in position for flank anesthesia
Last lumbar vertebra (L6)
Sacrum
Needle in lumbosacral space
First caudal vertebra
Needle between first and second caudal vertebrae (tail block)
Epidural space
Dura mater
Subarachnoid space
Spinal cord
Central canal
Intervertebral disc

Note: Caudal part of the bovine vertebral canal and its contents, schematic. Epidural injection sites are indicated by the needles.

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2-18

Bovine: Connections of the


Major Veins with the Vertebral
Plexus-Azygous System

15

7 10

15 9

11

3
8

13

12

1
2
4

14

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-19

Bovine: Connections of the


Major Veins with the Vertebral
Plexus-Azygous System
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Internal jugular vein


External jugular vein
Occipital vein
Axillary vein
Cranial vena cava
Vertebral vein
Supreme intercostal vein
Left azygous vein
Caudal vena cava
Intercostal veins
Internal iliac vein
External iliac vein
Deep circumflex iliac vein
Cranial epigastric vein
Internal vertebral plexus (red)

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2-19

Bovine: Longitudinal Section


of Tactile Hair Follicle

1
3

4
5

6
7
8

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-20

Bovine: Longitudinal Section


of Tactile Hair Follicle







1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Internal wall of blood sinus


External wall of blood sinus
Sebaceous gland
Root of hair
Epidermal wall of hair follicle
Nerve ending in wall of blood sinus
Blood sinus
Dermal papilla

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2-20

Bovine: Tactile Hair Follicle


of a Calf

2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9

10

The Neck, Back, and Vertebral Column

2-21

Bovine: Tactile Hair Follicle


of a Calf
1. Epidermis
2. Sebaceous gland
3. Hair
4. Inner hair root sheath
5. Outer hair root sheath
6,7. Trabeculated blood sinus
8. Inner and outer layer dermal sheath
9. Nerve ending
10. Trabecula

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2-21

The Thorax

Section 3: The Thorax


3-1

Canine: Left Rib

3-2

Canine: Sternum and Costal Cartilages

3-3

Canine: Pleura

3-4

Canine: Thoracic Organs

3-5

Canine: Lungs and Partial Aorta

3-6

Canine: Transformation of the Aortic Arches

3-7

Canine: Pericardium

3-8

Canine: Right Ventricle

3-9

Canine: Cardiac Nerves and Related Ganglia

3-10

Canine: Developing Heart

3-11

Canine: Vasa Vasorum

3-12

Canine: Branching of the Aortic Arch

3-13

Canine: Arteries of the Female Pelvis

3-14

Canine: Lymph Node (Histology and Structure [Canine


and Porcine])

3-15

Canine: Palpable Lymph Nodes

3-16

Canine: Thoracic Lymph Nodes

3-17

Canine: Trunk

3-18

Canine: Vessels on the Floor of the Thorax

3-19

Canine: Heart and Lungs Surface Projections

3-20

Canine: Right Lung Bronchograms

3-21

Canine: Trunk

3-22

Canine: Thoracic Cavity (Left Lateral View)

3-23

Canine: Thoracic Cavity (Right Lateral View)

The Thorax

Table of Contents

The Thorax

3-24

Canine: Trunk (Transverse Section at the Seventh


Thoracic Vertebra)

3-25

Canine: Heart (Lateral View)

3-26

Canine: Heart (Ventrodorsal View)

3-27

Canine: Arteries of the Thorax

3-28

Feline: Thoracic, Abdominal, and Pelvic Cavities

3-29

Feline: Palpable Lymph Nodes

3-30

Equine: Structures within the Mediastinum

3-31

Equine: Hyoid Apparatus Suspending the Larynx from


the Base of the Skull

3-32

Equine: Thorax at the Fifth Thoracic Vertebra

3-33

Equine: Conducting System of the Heart and


Sinoatrial Node

3-34

Equine: Thorax at the Level of the Atrioventricular


Valves

3-35

Bovine: Heart (Left View)

3-36

Bovine: Heart (Right View)

3-37

Bovine: Trunk at the Eighth Thoracic Vertebra

3-38

Bovine: Lymph Drainage, Thoracic Wall, and


Mediastinum

3-39

Bovine: Thymus of Calf

3-40

Porcine: Fetus Lung; 1-Day-Old Lung; Adult Lung

3-41

Porcine: Seven- to Eight-Somite Embryo

3-42

Porcine: Corrosion Cast of Aorta and Coronary


Circulation

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The Thorax

3-43

Porcine: Lungs

3-44

Avian: Skeleton of a Chicken

3-45

Avian: Transverse Section of the Thorax

The Thorax

Table of Contents

This page intentionally left blank

Canine: Left Rib

The Thorax

3-1

Canine: Left Rib

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Tubercle
Head
Neck
Angle
Body
Costochondral junction
Costal cartilage

Note: Caudal view.

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3-1

Canine: Sternum and


Costal Cartilages

2
3
4

The Thorax

3-2

Canine: Sternum and


Costal Cartilages






1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Manubrium
First rib
Sternebra
Costochondral junction
Xiphoid cartilage
Costal arch
Floating rib

Note: Ventral view.

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3-2

Canine: Pleura

5
5
1
3

The Thorax

3-3

Canine: Pleura

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
7.

Costal pleura
Diaphragmatic pleura
Mediastinal pleura
Visceral (pulmonary) pleura
Cranial mediastinum
Cupula pleurae
Plica venae cavae
Costodiaphragmatic recess

Note: The distribution of the pleura (heavy black lines) is illustrated.

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3-3

Canine: Thoracic Organs


(Left View [Top] and
Right View [Bottom])

2
1
3

The Thorax

3-4

Canine: Thoracic Organs


(Left View [Top] and
Right View [Bottom])
1. Cranial lobe
2. Caudal lobe
3. Costodiaphragmatic recess (arrow)
Note: The outline of the heart is indicated (broken line).

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3-4

Canine: Lungs and Partial Aorta

The Thorax

3-5

Canine: Lungs and Partial Aorta

1.
2.
3.
4.

Trachea
Aorta
Bronchial artery
Caudal lobe of left lung

Note: Corrosion specimen of the lungs and part of the canine aorta.
On the right side, the resins in the bronchioli and smaller bronchi
have been removed to expose the main tracheobronchial tree.

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3-5

Canine: Transformation
of the Aortic Arches

7
3
8

3
2

2
3
2
2

2
1

4
2

1
1

D
The Thorax

6
9

3-6

Canine: Transformation
of the Aortic Arches








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Aortic arches
Pharyngeal pouches
Ventral and dorsal aortae
Internal carotid artery
Ductus arteriosus
Left pulmonary artery
Brain vesicle
Foregut
Lung bud

Note: Left lateral view. A, Dorsal and ventral aortae are connected by
the first aortic arches. B, First and second aortic arches are
present. C, The first arch begins to disappear, the third is complete, and the fourth and sixth develop. D, The third arch and
the cranial part of the dorsal aorta are now transformed into the
internal carotid artery, whereas the sixth gives rise to the pulmonary trunk and ductus arteriosus.

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3-6

Canine: Pericardium

2
3
4
5
6

The Thorax

3-7

Canine: Pericardium

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Great vessels
Visceral pericardium (epicardium)
Pericardial cavity (exaggerated in size)
Parietal pericardium
Fibrous pericardium
Mediastinal pleura
Sternopericardial ligament

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3-7

Canine: Right Ventricle

2
3

The Thorax

3-8

Canine: Right Ventricle

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Cusp of right atrioventricular valve


Chordae tendineae
Papillary muscles
Pulmonary valve
Right atrium

Note: Cranioventral view of the interior of the right ventricle.

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3-8

Canine: Cardiac Nerves


and Related Ganglia

9

9
10

11

2 3

6
4

7
12

The Thorax

3-9

Canine: Cardiac Nerves


and Related Ganglia
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Vagosympathetic trunk
Sympathetic trunk
Middle cervical ganglion
Cranial limbs of ansa subclavia
Vertebral nerve
Cervicothoracic ganglion
Caudodorsal cervicothoracic cardiac nerves
Cardiac nerves from middle cervical ganglion
Third thoracic ganglia
Seventh thoracic ganglia
Thoracic cardiac nerves
Left recurrent laryngeal nerve
Left vagus nerve

Note: Left lateral view.

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3-9

Canine: Developing Heart

4
5

3
2

The Thorax

3-10

Canine: Developing Heart

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Vitelline vein
Umbilical vein
Caudal cardinal vein
Cranial cardinal vein
Left horn of sinus venosus
Right horn of sinus venosus
Atrium
Ventricle
Truncus arteriosus

Note: Dorsal view.

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3-10

Canine: Vasa Vasorum

4
3

The Thorax

3-11

Canine: Vasa Vasorum

1.
2.
3.
4.

Vasa vasorum
Tunica adventitia
Tunica media
Tunica interna

Note: Vasa vasorum in the wall of a large artery.

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3-11

Canine: Branching of the


Aortic Arch

2
5

3
7

8
9

The Thorax

3-12

Canine: Branching of the


Aortic Arch








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Pulmonary trunk
Dorsal intercostal arteries
Left subclavian artery
Brachiocephalic trunk
Vertebral artery
Left and right common carotid arteries
Superficial cervical artery
Axillary artery
Internal thoracic artery

Note: Not all arteries depicted are named.

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3-12

Canine: Arteries of the


Female Pelvis

4
2

8
5

8
10

The Thorax

11

3-13

Canine: Arteries of the


Female Pelvis
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Abdominal aorta
External iliac artery
Internal iliac artery
Median sacral artery
Umbilical artery
Caudal gluteal artery
Cranial gluteal artery
Internal pudendal artery
Vaginal artery
Urethral artery (frequently a branch of the vaginal artery)
Ventral perineal artery

Note: Left lateral view.

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3-13

Canine: Lymph Node


(Histology and Structure
[Canine and Porcine])

3
1

28
6

The Thorax

3-14

Canine: Lymph Node


(Histology and Structure
[Canine and Porcine])





1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Cortex with lymph nodules


Medulla
Afferent lymph vessels
Afferent lymphatics
Subcapsular sinus
Efferent lymphatics

Note: The germinal centers (lymph nodules) occupy the cortical region
(left). The germinal centers lie centrally in the pig (right). The
direction of lymph flow is indicated in both regions (arrows).

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3-14

Canine: Palpable Lymph Nodes

1
3
2
4

7
9 8

5
6

The Thorax

3-15

Canine: Palpable Lymph Nodes

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Parotid
Mandibular
Lateral retropharyngeal (inconstant)
Superficial cervical
Axillary
Accessory axillary (inconstant)
Superficial inguinal
Popliteal
Femoral (inconstant)

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3-15

Canine: Thoracic Lymph Nodes

1
3

10

The Thorax

3-16

Canine: Thoracic Lymph Nodes

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Diaphragm
Thoracic aorta
Left bronchus
Pulmonary vessels
Tracheobronchial nodes
Intercostal node
Thoracic duct
Cranial mediastinal nodes
Caudal deep cervical node
Sternal node

Note: The left lung is removed. The outline of the heart is visible within
the mediastinum.

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3-16

Canine: Trunk

1
6

7
2

3
4
8
9

10

The Thorax

3-17

Canine: Trunk

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Cephalic vein
Triceps
Cranial, middle, caudal, and accessory lobes of the right lung
Right atrium
Aortic arch
Cranial vena cava
Pulmonary valve
Left atrioventricular valve
Divided cranial and caudal lobes of the left lung
Caudal mediastinum

Note: The canine trunk is level with the base of the heart. Dorsal view.

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3-17

Canine: Vessels on the Floor


of the Thorax
1
2
3
4
5

9
10

The Thorax

3-18

Canine: Vessels on the Floor


of the Thorax
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Internal jugular vein


External jugular vein
Vertebral artery
Right subclavian artery
Cranial vena cava
Internal thoracic artery
Transversus thoracis
Musculophrenic artery
Xiphoid cartilage
Cranial epigastric artery

Note: The transversus thoracis has been removed on the right.

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3-18

Canine: Heart and Lungs Surface


Projections (Left Projection [Top]
and Right Projection [Bottom])

6
3

2
1

1

The Thorax

3-19

Canine: Heart and Lungs Surface


Projections (Left Projection [Top]
and Right Projection [Bottom])
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Left atrioventricular valve


Right atrioventricular valve
Aortic valve
Pulmonary valve
Apex of left lung (broken line) in cupula pleurae
Heart
Basal border of the lung
Line of pleural reflection
Diaphragm

Note: Puncta maxima of the left atrioventricular valve.

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3-19

Canine: Right Lung Bronchograms


(Lateral View [Top] and
Ventrodorsal View [Bottom])

5
4

2
3

The Thorax

3-20

Canine: Right Lung Bronchograms


(Lateral View [Top] and
Ventrodorsal View [Bottom])



1.
2.
3.
4.

Sternum
Heart
Liver behind diaphragm
Paired shadows of the cranial extent of the crura of the
diaphragm
5. Lobar bronchi
6. Scapula
7. Left ventricle

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3-20

Canine: Trunk

1
2
6

3
4
5

5
7
8

14
11

12
10

13

The Thorax

3-21

Canine: Trunk

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Caudal angle of scapula


Sixth thoracic vertebra
Esophagus
Aorta
Tracheal bifurcation
Large blood vessels accompanying principal bronchi, likely right
and left pulmonary arteries
Right lung
Tracheobronchial lymph nodes
Right atrium
Origin of aorta
Right ventricle
Interventricular septum
Fifth rib
Sternum
Left auricle

Note: Craniocaudal view of transverse section of the canine trunk at


the level of the sixth thoracic vertebra.

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3-21

Canine: Thoracic Cavity


(Left Lateral View)

The Thorax

3-22

Canine: Thoracic Cavity


(Left Lateral View)








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Internal thoracic vessels


Thymus
Pulmonary trunk
Esophagus
Pulmonary veins entering left atrium
Aorta
Sympathetic trunk
Phrenic nerve
Diaphragm

Note: The lung and most of the pericardium have been removed.

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3-22

Canine: Thoracic Cavity


(Right Lateral View)

The Thorax

3-23

Canine: Thoracic Cavity


(Right Lateral View)





1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Caudal vena cava


Plica venae cavae
Root of lung and phrenic nerve
Right vagus
Right azygous vein
Cranial vena cava

Note: The right lung and most of the pericardium have been removed.

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3-23

Canine: Trunk (Transverse Section


at the Seventh Thoracic Vertebra)

2
3
4
7

8
9

The Thorax

3-24

Canine: Trunk (Transverse Section


at the Seventh Thoracic Vertebra)








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Sixth rib
Seventh thoracic vertebra
Aorta
Esophagus
Right cranial lobe
Caudal vena cava
Pulmonary veins passing to left atrium
Great cardiac vein
Left ventricle

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3-24

Canine: Heart (Lateral View)

5
6
4
1
3
2

The Thorax

3-25

Canine: Heart (Lateral View)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Right auricle
Right ventricle
Left ventricle
Left atrium
Aorta
Caudal vena cava
Trachea

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3-25

Canine: Heart (Ventrodorsal View)

2
1

The Thorax

3-26

Canine: Heart (Ventrodorsal View)

1.
2.
3.
4.

Right ventricle
Left ventricle
Right atrium
Pulmonary trunk

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3-26

Canine: Arteries of the Thorax

25

24
2

23
22

3
4
5
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
6
7

The Thorax

10

11

12

13

3-27

Canine: Arteries of the Thorax

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

Intercostal artery
Esophageal branch
Azygos vein
Aorta
Esophagus
Cranial epigastric artery
Diaphragm
Phrenic artery
Caudal vena cava
Internal thoracic artery
Heart
Thymus
Brachiocephalic trunk
Pericardiacophrenic artery
External thoracic artery
Axillary artery
Right subclavian artery
Superficial cervical artery
First intercostal artery
Phrenic nerve
Right common carotid artery
Vertebral artery
Costocervical trunk
Deep cervical artery
Thoracic vertebral artery

Note: Right lateral view.

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3-27

Feline: Thoracic, Abdominal,


and Pelvic Cavities

3 6

The Thorax

3-28

Feline: Thoracic, Abdominal,


and Pelvic Cavities






1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Thoracic cavity (with lung)


Diaphragm
Abdominal cavity
Pelvic cavity
Sacrum
Right kidney
Esophagus

Note: View is from the right.

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3-28

Feline: Palpable Lymph Nodes

2
1
3

The Thorax

6
8

3-29

Feline: Palpable Lymph Nodes

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Mandibular
Lateral retropharyngeal
Dorsal superficial cervical
Axillary
Accessory axillary
Superficial inguinal
Caudal epigastric
Popliteal

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3-29

Equine: Structures
within the Mediastinum

9
3

7

10 4

8
1

The Thorax

3-30

Equine: Structures
within the Mediastinum
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Axillary vessels
Sixth rib
Diaphragm
Left auricle
Left ventricle
Pulmonary trunk
Vagus
Dorsal and ventral vagal trunks
Phrenic nerve
Thoracic duct
Tracheobronchial lymph nodes

Note: The mediastinal pleura cranial to the heart have been removed,
exposing the cranial lobe of the right lung.

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3-30

Equine: Hyoid Apparatus


Suspending the Larynx
from the Base of the Skull

The Thorax

3-31

Equine: Hyoid Apparatus


Suspending the Larynx
from the Base of the Skull








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Cartilage of auditory tube


Stylohyoid
Keratohyoid
Thyrohyoid
Lingual process of basihyoid
Epiglottic cartilage
Thyroid cartilage
Arytenoid cartilage
Cricoid cartilage

Note: The broken line indicates the mandible.

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3-31

Equine: Thorax at the Fifth


Thoracic Vertebra

3
5
6

The Thorax

3-32

Equine: Thorax at the Fifth


Thoracic Vertebra








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Caudal angle of scapula


Esophagus
Bifurcation of the trachea
Aorta
Bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk
Left atrium
Left ventricle
Right atrium
Right ventricle

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3-32

Equine: Conducting System


of the Heart (Top) and
Sinoatrial Node (Bottom)

2
3

8
279

The Thorax

3-33

Equine: Conducting System


of the Heart (Top) and
Sinoatrial Node (Bottom)







1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Sinuatrial node
Atrioventricular node
Atrioventricular bundle
Left limb
Right limb
Branch of right limb traversing the septomarginal band
Nodal myofibers
Bundle of nerve fibers

Note: Top, The broken lines suggest the passage of the excitation
wave through the atrial wall.

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3-33

Equine: Thorax at the Level


of the Atrioventricular Valves

2
5
4

6
7

11

5
10

The Thorax

3-34

Equine: Thorax at the Level


of the Atrioventricular Valves
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Head of humerus
First rib
Formation of cranial vena cava
Cranial mediastinum
Cranial lobe of the left lung
Caudal lobe of the left lung
Pulmonary valve
Aortic valve
Left atrioventricular valve
Right atrioventricular valve
Coronary sinus
Plica venae cavae

Note: Dorsal surface of dorsal plane section.

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3-34

Bovine: Heart (Left View)

10

11

4
9
3

2

The Thorax

3-35

Bovine: Heart (Left View)

1.
2.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Left ventricle
Paraconal interventricular branch of left coronary artery
Circumflex branch of left coronary artery
Pulmonary trunk
Right auricle
Aorta
Ligamentum arteriosum
Cranial vena cava
Left and right pulmonary veins
Left azygous vein
Right azygous vein
Caudal vena cava

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3-35

Bovine: Heart (Right View)

5
3

4
6
7

The Thorax

3-36

Bovine: Heart (Right View)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Left ventricle
Aorta
Cranial vena cava
Left pulmonary vein
Right azygous vein
Caudal vena cava
Right coronary artery

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3-36

Bovine: Trunk at the Eighth


Thoracic Vertebra

11

2
10
1

5
7
9
6

The Thorax

3-37

Bovine: Trunk at the Eighth


Thoracic Vertebra
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Caudal lobe of right lung


Aorta
Esophagus
Caudal vena cava
Liver
Seventh rib
Reticular groove
Reticulum
Ruminoreticular fold
Caudal mediastinal lymph node
Supraspinous ligament

Note: Caudal surface of transverse section.

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3-37

Bovine: Lymph Drainage,


Thoracic Wall, and Mediastinum

5
8

4
1

The Thorax

3-38

Bovine: Lymph Drainage,


Thoracic Wall, and Mediastinum







1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Thoracic duct
Cranial sternal lymph nodes
Caudal sternal lymph node
Cranial mediastinal lymph nodes
Middle mediastinal lymph nodes
Caudal mediastinal lymph nodes
Intercostal and thoracic aortic lymph nodes
Tracheobronchial node

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3-38

Bovine: Thymus of Calf

70

The Thorax

3-39

Bovine: Thymus of Calf

1. Thymic lobules
2. Capsule

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3-39

Porcine: Fetus Lung (Top);


1-Day-Old Lung (Middle);
Adult Lung (Bottom)

3
2
1
3
140

2
3

1
140

21
4

The Thorax

140

3-40

Porcine: Fetus Lung (Top);


1-Day-Old Lung (Middle);
Adult Lung (Bottom)



1.
2.
3.
4.

Terminal bronchioles
Bronchiolar exocrinocyte (Clara) cells
Alveolar sac
Bronchiole

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3-40

Porcine: Seven- to
Eight-Somite Embryo

1
8
1
2
3
7
4

The Thorax

3-41

Porcine: Seven- to
Eight-Somite Embryo
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Neural tube
Neural crest
Somite
Foregut
Epimyocardial wall of the fused endocardial tubes
Endocardial tube
Pericardial cavity
Dorsal mesocardium
Notochord and dorsal aortae

Note: Transverse section of a seven- to eight-somite embryo taken at


the fifth thoracic vertebra.

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3-41

Porcine: Corrosion Cast of Aorta


and Coronary Circulation

1
3

The Thorax

3-42

Porcine: Corrosion Cast of Aorta


and Coronary Circulation
1. Left coronary artery
2. Ramus circumflexus
3. Right coronary artery

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3-42

Porcine: Lungs

7
1

The Thorax

3-43

Porcine: Lungs

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Right cranial lobe


Right middle lobe
Right caudal lobe
Accessory lobe of right lung
Divided left cranial lobe
Trachea
Tracheal bronchus
Right cardiac notch
Basal border

Note: Dorsal view.

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3-43

Avian: Skeleton of a Chicken

10

5
3
4

9
11

12

8
13
14
15

The Thorax

3-44

Avian: Skeleton of a Chicken

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Fused thoracic vertebrae (notarium)


Free thoracic vertebra
Synsacrum
Free caudal vertebrae
Ilium
Ischium
Pubis
Femur
Ribs
Scapula
Coracoid bone
Fused clavicles
Manubrium sterni
Sternum
Carina

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3-44

Avian: Transverse Section


of the Thorax

4
1

c
8

b
10

The Thorax

3-45

Avian: Transverse Section


of the Thorax
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Pectoralis
Supracoracoideus
Liver
Sternum
Left ventricle
Right atrium
Esophagus
Descending aorta
Primary bronchus in right lung
Thoracic vertebra (notarium)

Note: Shown at the level of the heart and lungs. Left lung showing
areas supplied by medioventral (a), mediodorsal (b), lateroventral (c), and laterodorsal (d) secondary bronchi.

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3-45

The Abdomen

Section 4: The Abdomen


4-1

Canine: Abdomen

4-2

Canine: Abdominal Cavity

4-3

Canine: Esophagus

4-4

Canine: Interior of the Stomach and Histology of


Stomach Wall

4-5

Canine: Pancreas

4-6

Canine: Celiac Artery

4-7

Canine: Cranial and Caudal Mesenteric Arteries

4-8

Canine: Formation of the Portal Vein

4-9

Canine: Bile Drainage System

4-10

Canine: Developing Simple Stomach

4-11

Canine: Development of the Pancreas

4-12

Canine: Growth and Rotation of the Midgut (Stage


One, Lateral View)

4-13

Canine: Growth and Rotation of the Midgut (Stage


Two, Lateral View)

4-14

Canine: Growth and Rotation of the Midgut (Stage


Three, Lateral View)

4-15

Canine: Termination of the Abdominal Aorta

4-16

Canine: Abdominal Viscera

4-17

Canine: Abdominal Walls

4-18

Canine: Abdomen (Lateral View)

4-19

Canine: Abdomen (Ventrodorsal View)

4-20

Canine: Blood Supply of the Stomach and Spleen

The Abdomen

Table of Contents

The Abdomen

4-21

Canine: Abdomen after Administration of Barium


Suspension (Lateral View)

4-22

Canine: Abdomen after Administration of a Barium


Suspension (Ventrodorsal View)

4-23

Canine: Abdomen at the Level of the First Lumbar


Vertebra

4-24

Canine: Abdomen at Level of the First Lumbar Vertebra

4-25

Canine: Abdomen after Administration of a Barium


Suspension (Ventrodorsal View)

4-26

Canine: Trunk (Dorsal Section at the Level of the


Kidneys)

4-27

Canine: Abdomen at the Level of the Seventh Lumbar


Vertebra

4-28

Canine: CT Image of the Abdomen at the Level of the


Seventh Lumbar Vertebra

4-29

Canine: Rectus Sheath

4-30

Canine: Peritoneal Reflections, Sagittal Section

4-31

Canine: Peritoneal Schema, Transverse Section


through the Epiploic Foramen

4-32

Canine: Ileocolic Junction and Its Relation to the


Cecum

4-33

Feline: Abdomen after Administration of a Barium


Suspension (Lateral View)

4-34

Feline: Abdomen after Administration of a Barium


Suspension (Ventrodorsal View)

4-35

Equine: Structures of the Abdominal Floor

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4
4-36

The Abdomen

Equine: Permanent Dentition of the Upper and Lower


Jaws

4-37

Equine Visceral Projections: Left Abdominal Wall

4-38

Equine Visceral Projections: Right Abdominal Wall

4-39

Equine: Cecum and Related Organs

4-40

Equine Visceral Projections: Ventral Abdominal Wall

4-41

Equine: Major Arteries of the Gastrointestinal Tract

4-42

Equine: Abdominal Autonomic Nerves and Branches


of the Abdominal Aorta

4-43

Bovine: Nerves to the Flank and Udder

4-44

Bovine: Stomach

4-45

Bovine: Greater and Lesser Omenta

4-46

Bovine: Trunk at the Thirteenth Thoracic Vertebra

4-47

Bovine: Disposition of the Greater Omentum

4-48

Bovine: Abdominal Viscera of a Newborn Calf

4-49

Bovine: Abdominal Viscera of a 5-Year-Old Cow

4-50

Bovine: Abdominal Viscera of a 6-Year-Old Pregnant


Cow

4-51

Bovine: Visceral Surface of the Liver

4-52

Ruminant: Reticulum and Rumen of the Goat

4-53

Porcine: Large Intestine

4-54

Porcine: Liver and Visceral Surface of the Liver

4-55

Porcine: Major Abdominal Arteries and Lymph Nodes

4-56

Porcine: Lymph Nodes of the Sublumbar Area

4-57

Avian: Stomach and Duodenal Loop

The Abdomen

Table of Contents

This page intentionally left blank

Canine: Abdomen

4
7

4
3

1
6
2

The Abdomen

4-1

Canine: Abdomen

1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Visceral peritoneum (continuous line)


Parietal peritoneum (broken line)
Root of mesentery
Right kidney (retroperitoneal)
Left kidney (retroperitoneal)
Spleen
Jejunum
Descending duodenum

Note: Schematic transverse section, caudal view.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-1

Canine: Abdominal Cavity

5
13

10

3
4

8 9

11

12

The Abdomen

4-2

Canine: Abdominal Cavity

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Aorta
Esophagus
Caudal vena cava
Lesser omentum
Root of mesentery
Omental bursa
Small intestine
Deep wall of the greater omentum
Superficial wall of the greater omentum
Parietal peritoneum
Bladder
Prostate
Rectum

Note: Schematic paramedian section shows the disposition of the


peritoneum.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-2

Canine: Esophagus

2
3 1

3
4
1
2

5
7

6
70

The Abdomen

4-3

Canine: Esophagus

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Mucosa
Muscular layer (longitudinal and circular)
Adventitia
Stratified squamous epithelium
Submucosa
Mucus-secreting tubuloacinar glands
Muscularis interna

Note: Top, Semischematic drawing of the structure of the esophagus


sectioned longitudinally and transversely.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-3

Canine: Interior of the Stomach (A)


and Histology of Stomach Wall (B)

1
2
4

6
6
5
70

The Abdomen

4-4

Canine: Interior of the Stomach (A)


and Histology of Stomach Wall (B)






1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Cardiac opening
Fundus
Pyloric antrum
Pyloric canal
Gastric pit
Mucopolysaccharide-secreting cells
Lamina muscularis mucosae

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


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4-4

Canine: Pancreas

6
2
5
10

7
4

The Abdomen

4-5

Canine: Pancreas

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Esophagus
Stomach
Cranial flexure of duodenum
Descending duodenum
Left lobe of pancreas
Body
Right lobe of pancreas
Caudal flexure of duodenum
Bile duct
Mesoduodenum

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-5

Canine: Celiac Artery

5
8

6
3

The Abdomen

9
1

4-6

Canine: Celiac Artery

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Aorta
Celiac artery
Hepatic artery
Splenic artery
Left gastric artery
Left gastroepiploic artery
Gastroduodenal artery
Right gastric artery
Cranial mesenteric artery

Note: Ventral view.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-6

Canine: Cranial and Caudal


Mesenteric Arteries

3
1

d
c
2

7
6

a
a

The Abdomen

4-7

Canine: Cranial and Caudal


Mesenteric Arteries







1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Cranial mesenteric artery


Common trunk
Middle colic artery
Right colic artery
Jejunal arteries
Caudal mesenteric artery
Left colic artery
Cranial rectal artery

Note: Distribution of the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries to


the intestines (dorsal view). a, Jejunum; b, ileum; c, cecum;
d, ascending colon; e, transverse colon; f, descending colon;
g, rectum.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-7

Canine: Formation of the


Portal Vein

2
1

6
7

5
4

The Abdomen

4-8

Canine: Formation of the


Portal Vein






1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Portal vein
Splenic vein
Gastroduodenal vein
Cranial mesenteric vein
Caudal mesenteric vein
Left gastric vein
Right gastroepiploic vein

Note: Semischematic dorsal view.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


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4-8

Canine: Bile Drainage System

The Abdomen

4-9

Canine: Bile Drainage System

1.
2.
3.
4.

Gallbladder
Bile duct
Cystic duct
Hepatic ducts

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-9

Canine: Developing Simple


Stomach
2
3
4

1
5

7
8

1
6

Lateral aspect

8
Caudal aspects
2

4
Three dorsal aspects
5
9

8
Adult

The Abdomen

4-10

Canine: Developing Simple


Stomach
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
8.
9.

Longitudinal axis
Dorsoventral (vertical) axis
Dorsal mesogastrium
Stomach primordium
Esophagus
Ventral mesogastrium
Developing spleen
Greater omentum
Omental bursa
Lesser omentum

Note: The reorientation of the developing simple stomach rotates


counterclockwise (as seen from behind) around a longitudinal
axis (caudal aspects) and continues counterclockwise (as seen
from above) around a dorsoventral axis (three dorsal aspects).

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


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4-10

Canine: Development
of the Pancreas
4

3
2
1

4
5

6
3

1

1

4
3

1

C
The Abdomen

4-11

Canine: Development
of the Pancreas
1.
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Liver primordium
Hepatic ducts
Bile duct
Gallbladder
Ventral primordium of the pancreas
Dorsal primordium of the pancreas
Stomach
Duodenum

Note: A, Early stage. B, Later stage shows separate duct systems in


the two primordia. C, Two primordia have fused after the migration of the ventral pancreas. The dorsal pancreas now drains
mainly via the ventral duct system.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-11

Canine: Growth and


Rotation of the Midgut
(Stage One, Lateral View)

1
3

The Abdomen

4-12

Canine: Growth and


Rotation of the Midgut
(Stage One, Lateral View)





1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Cranial mesenteric artery


Caudal mesenteric artery
Dorsal mesogastrium
Ventral mesogastrium with developing liver
Vitelline duct
Cecal primordium

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-12

Canine: Growth and


Rotation of the Midgut
(Stage Two, Lateral View)

The Abdomen

4-13

Canine: Growth and


Rotation of the Midgut
(Stage Two, Lateral View)
1. Greater omentum, fenestrated to expose stomach (see Flash
Card 4-14)
2. Cecal primordium

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-13

Canine: Growth and


Rotation of the Midgut
(Stage Three, Lateral View)

1
2

The Abdomen

4-14

Canine: Growth and


Rotation of the Midgut
(Stage Three, Lateral View)
1. Greater omentum, fenestrated to expose the stomach
2. Ileocecal fold

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-14

Canine: Termination of the


Abdominal Aorta

2
3
4

10
9

11
6

The Abdomen

4-15

Canine: Termination of the


Abdominal Aorta
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Aorta
External iliac artery
Internal iliac artery
Median sacral artery
Internal pudendal artery
Caudal gluteal artery
Iliolumbar artery
Cranial gluteal artery
Deep femoral artery
Pudendoepigastric trunk
Femoral artery

Note: Ventral view.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-15

Canine: Abdominal Viscera

3
4

The Abdomen

4-16

Canine: Abdominal Viscera

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Liver
Stomach
Spleen
Small intestine
Bladder

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-16

Canine: Abdominal Walls

Left canine abdominal wall


4

5
8

Right canine abdominal wall


6

The Abdomen

4-17

Canine: Abdominal Walls

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Liver
Stomach
Spleen
Left kidney
Descending colon
Small intestine
Descending duodenum
Pancreas
Rectum
Female urogenital tract

Note: Visceral projections.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-17

Canine: Abdomen (Lateral View)

2

2
3

The Abdomen

4-18

Canine: Abdomen (Lateral View)

1.
2.
2.
3.
4.

Liver
Pyloric part of stomach
Descending duodenum
Spleen
Os penis

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-18

Canine: Abdomen
(Ventrodorsal View)

1
3

L
4

The Abdomen

4-19

Canine: Abdomen
(Ventrodorsal View)



1.
2.
3.
4.

Cecum
Fundus of stomach
Left kidney
Bladder

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-19

Canine: Blood Supply of the


Stomach and Spleen

1
2

3
6
5

7
8

The Abdomen

4-20

Canine: Blood Supply of the


Stomach and Spleen








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Aorta
Celiac artery
Splenic artery
Hepatic artery
Left gastric artery
Gastroduodenal artery
Right gastric artery
Cranial pancreaticoduodenal artery
Right gastroepiploic artery

Note: Caudal view; schematic drawing.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-20

Canine: Abdomen after


Administration of Barium
Suspension (Lateral View)

4
2

1
5

The Abdomen

4-21

Canine: Abdomen after


Administration of Barium
Suspension (Lateral View)




1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Stomach
Pyloric part
Descending duodenum
Caudal flexure of the duodenum
Jejunum

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-21

Canine: Abdomen after


Administration of a Barium
Suspension (Ventrodorsal View)

2
1
3

The Abdomen

4-22

Canine: Abdomen after


Administration of a Barium
Suspension (Ventrodorsal View)



1.
2.
3.
4.

Stomach
Pyloric part
Descending duodenum
Caudal flexure of the duodenum

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-22

Canine: Abdomen at the Level


of the First Lumbar Vertebra

1
7

5
3

8
9
4

L
10

The Abdomen

4-23

Canine: Abdomen at the Level


of the First Lumbar Vertebra



1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Last rib
Descending colon
Transverse colon
Lymph nodes and blood vessels in the mesentery; ventral to
them is the jejunum
Caudal vena cava
Aorta, between crura of the diaphragm
Right kidney
Descending duodenum and pancreas
Greater omentum
Linea alba

Note: Cranial view.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-23

Canine: Abdomen at Level


of the First Lumbar Vertebra

6'

4
7

9
3

L
8

The Abdomen

4-24

Canine: Abdomen at the Level


of the First Lumbar Vertebra
1. Descending colon
2. Transverse colon
3. Lymph nodes and blood vessels in the mesentery; ventral to
them is the jejunum
4. Caudal vena cava
5. Aorta, between the crura of the diaphragm
6. Right kidney
6. Cranial pole of the left kidney
7. Descending duodenum and pancreas
8. Linea alba
9. Spleen
Note: Cranial view. The dog was lying on its back during the computed
tomography (CT) procedure. This CT image is slightly more
caudal than the illustration Flash Card 4-23.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-24

Canine: Abdomen after


Administration of a Barium
Suspension (Ventrodorsal View)

1
6

4
7
3

The Abdomen

4-25

Canine: Abdomen after


Administration of a Barium
Suspension (Ventrodorsal View)
1.
2.
3.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Residue of barium in the stomach


Jejunum
Ileum
Ileocolic junction
Cecum
Ascending colon
Transverse colon
Descending colon
Rectum

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-25

Canine: Trunk (Dorsal Section


at the Level of the Kidneys)

18

4 5 6

14

16 15
13

17

11

L
7

The Abdomen

10

12

4-26

Canine: Trunk (Dorsal Section


at the Level of the Kidneys
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Supraspinatus and scapula


Spinal cord
Sixth and seventh thoracic vertebrae
Right azygous vein
Thoracic aorta
Right lung
Left lung
Fundus of stomach
Celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries
Splenic vessels and spleen
Left kidney
Left adrenal gland and abdominal aorta
Caudal vena cava
Right ureter
Right kidney (The right adrenal gland is shown medial to the
cranial pole.)
16. Liver
17. Right crus of diaphragm
18. Last rib

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-26

Canine: Abdomen at the Level


of the Seventh Lumbar Vertebra

2
3
4

7

7
7

The Abdomen

L
9

4-27

Canine: Abdomen at the Level


of the Seventh Lumbar Vertebra





1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Wing of ilium
Seventh lumbar vertebra
Sacral lymph nodes
Iliopsoas
Descending colon
Internal iliac artery (most dorsal), external iliac vein, and external
iliac artery
7. Bladder
7. Uterine horns
8. Mammary gland
Note: Transverse section.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-27

Canine: CT Image of the


Abdomen at the Level of the
Seventh Lumbar Vertebra

2
3

5
4
6

The Abdomen

4-28

Canine: CT Image of the


Abdomen at the Level of the
Seventh Lumbar Vertebra




1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Wing of ilium
Seventh lumbar vertebra
Iliopsoas
Descending colon
Internal iliac artery (most dorsal), external iliac vein, and external
iliac artery
6. Bladder
7. Penis with os penis
8. Fat

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-28

Canine: Rectus Sheath

2 3

6
1

5
10

2 3

11

12
9

13

The Abdomen

9

4-29

Canine: Rectus Sheath

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

External abdominal oblique


Internal abdominal oblique
Transversus abdominis
Peritoneum
Cranial epigastric vessels
Cranial superficial epigastric vessels
Rectus abdominis
Fat-filled falciform ligament
Linea alba
Caudal epigastric vessels
Caudal superficial epigastric vessels
Internal lamina of the rectus sheath
External lamina of the rectus sheath
Skin
Median ligament of the bladder

Note: Transverse sections taken cranial (A) and caudal (B) to the
umbilicus and near the pubis (C).

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-29

Canine: Peritoneal Reflections,


Sagittal Section

21

8
9

20

10
19

11

18

The Abdomen

17

16

15

14

13 12

4-30

Canine: Peritoneal Reflections,


Sagittal Section
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

Lesser omentum
Lymph nodes
Left lobe, pancreas
Transverse mesocolon
Mesentery
Descending colon
Uterus
Pararectal fossa
Rectogenital pouch
Vesicogenital pouch
Pubovesical pouch
Symphysis
Bladder
Omental bursa
Greater omentum, deep and superficial leaves
Transverse colon
Parietal peritoneum
Stomach
Liver
Diaphragm
Coronary ligament

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-30

Canine: Peritoneal Schema,


Transverse Section through
the Epiploic Foramen

1
2

17

3
16
4
15
5
14
6
13
7
12

10
11

The Abdomen

4-31

Canine: Peritoneal Schema,


Transverse Section through
the Epiploic Foramen
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Liver
Omental bursa
Pancreas
Hepatic artery
Parietal peritoneum
Stomach
Spleen
Omental bursa
Aorta
Twelfth thoracic vertebra
Azygos vein
Caudal vena cava
Epiploic foramen
Peritoneal cavity
Duodenum
Portal vein
Greater omentum

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-31

Canine: Ileocolic Junction and


Its Relation to the Cecum

1
4

The Abdomen

4-32

Canine: Ileocolic Junction and


Its Relation to the Cecum




1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Ileum
Cecum
Ascending colon
Ileal orifice surrounded by annular fold
Cecocolic orifice

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-32

Feline: Abdomen after


Administration of a Barium
Suspension (Lateral View)

6

1
2

The Abdomen

4-33

Feline: Abdomen after


Administration of a Barium
Suspension (Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
6.

Liver
Gas and barium in stomach
Jejunum
Ascending colon
Transverse colon
Descending colon
Gas in descending colon

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-33

Feline: Abdomen after


Administration of a Barium
Suspension (Ventrodorsal View)

1
1

The Abdomen

4-34

Feline: Abdomen after


Administration of a Barium
Suspension (Ventrodorsal View)
1. Fundus
1. Pyloric part of stomach
2. Descending duodenumthe striking string-of-pearls
appearance (characteristic of cats) is due to segmental
peristalsis
3. Jejunum

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-34

Equine: Structures of the


Abdominal Floor

6

1
2
6

1
A

2
6

7
B

2

1
A

B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I

4
1

2
5

2

F
10

2
5

2
3
2

I
4

The Abdomen

4-35

Equine: Structures of the


Abdominal Floor
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.
6.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Sternum
Xiphoid cartilage
Costal arch
Rectus abdominis
Rectus sheath
Internal oblique
Linea alba
Prepubic tendon
Cutaneus trunci
Pectoralis ascendens
Diaphragm
Skin
Superficial inguinal lymph nodes
Penis
Scrotum

Note: Changes in the structure of the abdominal floor is shown by


means of a series of transverse sections (A through I) of a
gelding.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


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4-35

Equine: Permanent Dentition


of the Upper and Lower Jaws
3
4
5

6
2

1
7

8
9

10

A
The Abdomen

B
4-36

Equine: Permanent Dentition


of the Upper and Lower Jaws
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Wolf tooth
Diastema
First incisors
Second incisors
Third incisors
Canines
Second premolars
Fourth premolars
First molars
Third molars

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-36

Equine Visceral Projections:


Left Abdominal Wall

4
6

7
1

The Abdomen

4-37

Equine Visceral Projections:


Left Abdominal Wall
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Cut edge of diaphragm


Sixth rib
Liver
Spleen
Descending colon (banded)
Jejunum (smooth)
Left dorsal colon
Left ventral colon

Note: Visceral projections include the diaphragm.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-37

Equine Visceral Projections:


Right Abdominal Wall

43

2
6
7

The Abdomen

1

4-38

Equine Visceral Projections:


Right Abdominal Wall
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Cut edge of diaphragm


Sixth rib
Liver
Right kidney
Descending duodenum
Body of cecum
Right ventral colon
Right dorsal colon

Note: Visceral projections include the diaphragm.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-38

Equine: Cecum and


Related Organs

4
1

2
5
3
7

8
2

The Abdomen

4-39

Equine: Cecum and


Related Organs
1.
2.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Coxal tuber
Base of cecum
Body of cecum
Position of cecocolic orifice
Position of last rib
Descending duodenum
Right lobe of liver (elevated)
Right dorsal colon
Right ventral colon
Tenth rib and costal arch

Note: Cecum and related organs lie against the right abdominal wall
and flank. The position of the cranial branch of the deep circumflex iliac artery that crosses the flank is indicated (broken line).

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-39

Equine Visceral Projections:


Ventral Abdominal Wall

1
5

The Abdomen

4-40

Equine Visceral Projections:


Ventral Abdominal Wall






1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Xiphoid cartilage
Body of cecum
Apex of cecum
Right ventral colon
Sternal flexure
Left ventral colon
Diaphragmatic flexure

Note: The position of the apex of the cecum can vary.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4-40

Equine: Major Arteries


of the Gastrointestinal Tract

3
A

5
2

6
10

11
12

13

R
E

G
15
14 F
17
I

16
18
H

The Abdomen

4-41

Equine: Major Arteries


of the Gastrointestinal Tract
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Celiac artery
Hepatic artery
Left gastroepiploic artery
Right gastroepiploic artery
Right gastric artery
Gastroduodenal artery
Cranial pancreaticoduodenal artery
Cranial mesenteric artery
Jejunal arteries
Right colic artery
Middle colic artery
Ileocolic artery
Colic branch of ileocolic artery
Medial cecal artery
Mesenteric ileal artery
Caudal mesenteric artery
Left colic artery
Cranial rectal artery

Note: Dorsal view. The structures have been stretched craniocaudally


for clarity. A, stomach; B, spleen; C, liver; D, duodenum;
E, jejunum; F, ileum; G, cecum; H, pelvic flexure; I, descending
colon.

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4-41

Equine: Abdominal Autonomic


Nerves and Branches
of the Abdominal Aorta

8
7

R
6

9
2

11

12
10

15

13

14

The Abdomen

4-42

Equine: Abdominal Autonomic


Nerves and Branches
of the Abdominal Aorta
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Aorta
Cranial mesenteric artery
Renal artery
Testicular (ovarian) artery
External iliac artery
Adrenal glands
Crus of diaphragm
Major splanchnic nerves
Minor splanchnic nerves
Lumbar splanchnic nerves
Combined celiac and cranial mesenteric ganglia
Renal plexus
Caudal mesenteric ganglion
Hypogastric nerve
Testicular (ovarian) plexus

Note: Ventral view.

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4-42

Bovine: Nerves to the


Flank and Udder

9
3

6
7

10
1

The Abdomen

4-43

Bovine: Nerves to the


Flank and Udder
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Last rib
Spinous process of second lumbar vertebra
Coxal tuber
Twelfth intercostals nerve (T12)
Costoabdominal nerve (T13)
Iliohypogastric nerve (L1)
Ilioinguinal nerve (L2)
Genitofemoral nerve (L3, L4)
L5 nerve
Ventral perineal nerve

Note: Simplified topographic illustration. The dorsal branches of the


spinal nerves to the upper part of the flank are not shown.

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4-43

Bovine: Stomach

1
4
3
2

2
4
3

The Abdomen

4-44

Bovine: Stomach

1.
2.
3.
4.

Reticulum
Omasum
Abomasum
Rumen

Note: A, Left side. B, Right side.

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4-44

Bovine: Greater and


Lesser Omenta

2
10

4 11

1
9

1

7

8
7

The Abdomen

4-45

Bovine: Greater and


Lesser Omenta
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Esophagus
Cardia
Atrium ruminis
Dorsal sac of the rumen
Ventral sac of the rumen
Reticulum
Omasum
Abomasum
Pylorus
Greater omentum
Lesser omentum
Part of the greater curvature corresponding to the right
longitudinal groove of the rumen
11. Part of the greater curvature corresponding to the left
longitudinal groove of the rumen
Note: The attachments of the greater and lesser omenta are depicted
on the developing ruminant stomach. The simple stomach (right)
shows the correspondence of its parts to the compartments of
the ruminant stomach.

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4-45

Bovine: Trunk at the Thirteenth


Thoracic Vertebra

L
11

12

1
2
3

10

8
7

The Abdomen

4-46

Bovine: Trunk at the Thirteenth


Thoracic Vertebra
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Aorta
Right crus of the diaphragm
Caudal vena cava
Doral sac of the rumen
Ventral sac of the rumen
Abomasum
Omasum
Duodenum
Gallbladder
Liver
Cranial pole of the right kidney
Right adrenal gland

Note: Transverse section, cranial view.

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4-46

Bovine: Disposition of the


Greater Omentum

12

R
8

9
10

6
7

11

2
3

The Abdomen

4-47

Bovine: Disposition of the


Greater Omentum
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Dorsal sac of the rumen


Ventral sac of the rumen
Superficial wall of the greater omentum
Deep wall of the greater omentum
Omental bursa
Descending duodenum
Intestinal mass
Right kidney
Aorta
Caudal vena cava
Supraomental recess
Retroperitoneal attachment of the rumen

Note: Schematic transverse section of the abdominal cavity.

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4-47

Bovine: Abdominal Viscera


of a Newborn Calf

4
2

The Abdomen

4-48

Bovine: Abdominal Viscera


of a Newborn Calf



1.
2.
3.
4.

Abomasum
Liver
Intestinal mass
Rumen

Note: Ventral view, based on the reconstruction of a transverse section


of an animal frozen in the standing position.

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4-48

Bovine: Abdominal Viscera


of a 5-Year-Old Cow

5
4

The Abdomen

4-49

Bovine: Abdominal Viscera


of a 5-Year-Old Cow





1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Reticulum
Abomasum
Rumen
Omasum
Liver
Intestinal mass

Note: Ventral view, based on the reconstruction of a transverse section


of an animal frozen in the standing position.

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4-49

Bovine: Abdominal Viscera


of a 6-Year-Old Pregnant Cow

1
3

5
4
6
7

The Abdomen

4-50

Bovine: Abdominal Viscera


of a 6-Year-Old Pregnant Cow






1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Reticulum
Liver
Rumen
Abomasum
Omasum
Intestinal mass
Uterus

Note: Based on the reconstruction of a transverse section of an animal


frozen in the standing position.

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4-50

Bovine: Visceral Surface


of the Liver

9
7
8

4

10
4

11
3
12
13
14

2
5

The Abdomen

1

4-51

Bovine: Visceral Surface


of the Liver
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Left lobe
Omasal impression
Quadrate lobe
Right lobe
Papillary process of the caudate lobe
Caudate process of the caudate lobe
Round ligament
Left triangular ligament
Right triangular ligament
Caudal vena cava
Right kidney
Portal vein
Hepatic lymph node
Bile duct
Cystic duct
Gallbladder

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4-51

Ruminant: Reticulum (Top)


and Rumen (Bottom) of the Goat

3
1

28

1
2

The Abdomen

28

4-52

Ruminant: Reticulum (Top)


and Rumen (Bottom) of the Goat




1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Stratified squamous epithelium


Lamina propria
Lamina muscularis mucosae
Submucosa
Muscularis interna

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4-52

Porcine: Large Intestine

9
7

10
5
7

The Abdomen

4-53

Porcine: Large Intestine

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Aorta
Caudal mesenteric artery
Cranial mesenteric artery
Celiac artery
Ileum
Cecum
Ascending colon
Transverse colon
Descending colon
Rectum

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4-53

Porcine: Liver (Top) and Visceral


Surface of the Liver (Bottom)

5
2
1

4
3

28

15

11

12

10
8
9
7
13

14

The Abdomen

4-54

Porcine: Liver (Top) and Visceral


Surface of the Liver (Bottom)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Central vein
Interlobular artery
Hepatic lobule
Interlobular connective tissue
Centrolobular venule
Left lateral lobe
Left medial lobe
Right lateral lobe
Right medial lobe
Quadrate lobe
Caudate process
Porta
Gallbladder
Approximate position of median plane
Caudal vena cava

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4-54

Porcine: Major Abdominal


Arteries and Lymph Nodes

5
1 2

6
11
13

10

15
12

9
14

The Abdomen

4-55

Porcine: Major Abdominal


Arteries and Lymph Nodes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Celiac artery
Cranial mesenteric artery
Caudal mesenteric artery
Deep circumflex iliac artery
Lumbar aortic nodes
Renal nodes
Celiac nodes
Splenic nodes
Gastric nodes
Hepatic nodes
Pancreaticoduodenal nodes
Lateral iliac nodes
Ileocolic nodes
Colic nodes
Caudal mesenteric nodes

Note: A, Schema of the major abdominal arteries and lymph nodes.


B, Part of the jejunum, showing the inclusion of jejunal lymph
nodes in the mesentery.

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4-55

Porcine: Lymph Nodes


of the Sublumbar Area

8
9

The Abdomen

4-56

Porcine: Lymph Nodes


of the Sublumbar Area








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Aorta
External iliac vein
Internal iliac vein
Cisterna chyli
Lumbar trunks and lumbar aortic nodes
Intestinal trunk
Thoracic duct
Medial iliac nodes
Lateral iliac node

Note: Ventral view.

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4-56

Avian: Stomach and


Duodenal Loop

1
5

4
3

The Abdomen

4-57

Avian: Stomach and


Duodenal Loop





1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Proventriculus
Gizzard
Duodenal loop
Pancreas
Spleen
Esophagus

Note: The pancreas is within the loop.

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4-57

The Pelvis and Reproductive


Organs

Section 5: The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs


5-1

Canine: Embryos Showing the Lateral Mesoderm and


Celom

5-2

Canine: Intermediate Mesoderm

5-3

Canine: Development of the Testis

5-4

Canine: Urogenital Sinus

5-5

Canine: Schematic of the Testis and Gubernaculum


with the Peritoneal Fold in Which Descent Takes
Place

5-6

Canine: Development of the Ovary

5-7

Canine: Ovaries and Uterus In Situ (Ventral View)

5-8

Canine: Formation of the Vagina

5-9

Canine: Peritoneal Disposition

5-10

Canine: Testis and Epididymis and Corrosion Cast


of the Deferent Duct

5-11

Canine: Schematic of the Spermatic Cord and Its


Immediate Investments (Transverse Section)

5-12

Canine: Testis

5-13

Canine: Accessory Reproductive Glands

5-14

Canine: Functional Changes in the Female Tract

5-15

Canine: Ovary and Its Suspensory System

5-16

Canine: Bursa with Constricted Entrance and


Entrapped Ovary

5-17

Canine: Schematic of the Formation of


Extraembryonic Membranes

5-18

Canine: Topography of Adrenal Glands

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

Table of Contents

The Pelvis and Reproductive


Organs

5-19

Canine: Development of the Skin

5-20

Canine: Pelvis (Transverse Section at the Level

5-21

Canine: Reproductive Organs of the Bitch

5-22

Canine: Bladder, Urethra, and Penis

5-23

Canine: Quiescent and Erect Penis

5-24

Feline: Bladder

5-25

Feline: Penis In Situ (Caudal View)

5-26

Feline: Ovaries and Uterus In Situ (Ventral View)

5-27

Feline: Schematic of Fetal Membranes (Transverse

of the Hip Joint)

and Longitudinal Section)


5-28

Equine: Bony Pelvis and Sacrosciatic Ligament


(Lateral View)

5-29

Equine: Pelvis of the Mare (Cranial View)

5-30

Equine: Disposition of the Peritoneum in the Pelvis of


the Mare

5-31

Equine: Sections of the Ovaries in Various Functional


States

5-32

Equine: Sections of the Ovaries in Various Functional


States

5-33

Equine: 31-Day-Old Twin Embryos

5-34

Equine: Pelvic Urethra and Accessory Reproductive


Glands

5-35

Equine: Abdominal Pelvic Cavities

5-36

Bovine: Paraxial Mesoderm in an Embryo

5-37

Bovine: Bony Pelvis

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The Pelvis and Reproductive


Organs

5-38

Bovine: Pelvis (Median Section)

5-39

Bovine: Pelvis at the Hip Joint

5-40

Bovine: Blood Supply to the Reproductive Tract


(Semischematic Ventral View)

5-41

Bovine: Pelvis and Related Urogenital Organs of a Bull


(Dorsal View)

5-42

Bovine: Abdominal Floor and Cranial Quarters

5-43

Bovine: Nonlactating and Lactating Mammary Glands;

of the Udder
a Compound Tubuloalveolar Gland
5-44

Bovine: Pelvic Floor and Caudal Quarters of the Udder

5-45

Porcine: Principal Arteries Supplying the Left Side of


the Female Reproductive Tract

5-46

Porcine: Reproductive Organs of a Boar

5-47

Avian: Male Reproductive Organs (Ventral View)

5-48

Avian: Reproductive Organs of a Female Chicken


(Ventral View)

5-49

Avian: Fertilized Egg

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

Table of Contents

This page intentionally left blank

Canine: Embryos Showing the


Lateral Mesoderm and Celom

5 5

2
3

2

9
8

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

7
10

5-1

Canine: Embryos Showing the


Lateral Mesoderm and Celom
1.
2.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Ectoderm
Lateral plate of mesoderm
Intermediated mesoderm
Endoderm
Notochord
Neural tube
Neural crest cells
Somite
Somatopleure
Splanchnopleure
Celom
Primitive gut

Note: Transections of an early discoidal embryo (top) and of an older


ventrally closed one (bottom) shows the splitting of the lateral
mesoderm and the development of the celom.

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5-1

Canine: Intermediate Mesoderm

1
2 2
2

4
5

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-2

Canine: Intermediate Mesoderm

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Pronephros
Mesonephros, segmented cranially but continuous caudally
Metanephros
Pronephric (later mesonephric) duct
Ureteric bud
Urachus

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5-2

Canine: Development of the Testis

8
5
8
1
2

4
6

B
The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-3

Canine: Development of the Testis

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
8.
9.

Celom epithelium
Tunica albuginea
Epithelial cords, seminiferous tubules
Rete testis
Mesonephric tubules, efferent ductules
Mesonephric (later deferent) duct
Paramesonephric duct
Cranial remnant of mesonephric tubules (aberrant ductules)
Remnant of mesonephric duct (appendix of epididymis)
Caudal remnant (paradidymis)

Note: Two stages in the development of the testis. A, The epithelial


cords are isolated from the surface epithelium by the formation
of the tunica albuginea. B, The epithelial cords become seminiferous tubules, and the mesonephros is gradually transformed
into part of the epididymis.

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5-3

Canine: Urogenital Sinus

6
7

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-4

Canine: Urogenital Sinus

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Testis
Epididymis
Deferent duct
Gubernaculum
Vesicular gland
Prostate
Bulbourethral gland
Genital tubercle

Note: Differentiation of the urogenital sinus. The budding of the prostate and bulbourethral glands and the enlargement of the genital
tubercle are noted. The regressed paramesonephric ducts are
indicated (broken lines).

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5-4

Canine: Schematic of the Testis and


Gubernaculum with the Peritoneal
Fold in Which Descent Takes Place

1
2

2

3
2

2

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-5

Canine: Schematic of the Testis and


Gubernaculum with the Peritoneal
Fold in Which Descent Takes Place
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
4.

Testis
Gubernaculum
Pars propria
Pars infravaginalis
Pars vaginalis
Vaginal process
Testicular artery

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5-5

Canine: Development of the Ovary

2
1

1
7

1
7

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-6

Canine: Development of the Ovary

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Celomic epithelium
Epithelial cords, penetrating (A) and regressing (B)
Second formation of sex cords (C)
Primitive follicles
Remnants of mesonephric tubules
Mesonephric duct
Paramesonephric duct (D)

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5-6

Canine: Ovaries and Uterus In Situ


(Ventral View)

1
3

2
4
6

5

4
7
9

8
10

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-7

Canine: Ovaries and Uterus In Situ


(Ventral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Psoas muscles
Aorta
Caudal vena cava
Left kidney and ureter
Ovary
Ovarian vessels
Suspensory ligament of ovary
Uterine horn
Body of uterus
Rectum
Bladder (reflected caudally)

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5-7

Canine: Formation of the Vagina

1
5
3

4
2

7
6

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-8

Canine: Formation of the Vagina

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Rectum
Caudal part of urogenital sinus (vestibule)
Cranial part of urogenital sinus (bladder, urethra)
Bud from urogenital sinus
Fused paramesonephric ducts
Vagina
Cervix uteri
Uterine horn

Note: The fusion of the combined paramesonephric ducts with a bud


from the urogenital sinus forms the vagina.

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5-8

Canine: Peritoneal Disposition

6
7

2
4

4
3
5

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-9

Canine: Peritoneal Disposition

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Colon
Uterus
Bladder
Lateral vesical ligaments
Median vesical ligament
Ureter
Broad ligament of uterus (mesometrium)

Note: Peritoneal disposition in the caudal part of the abdomen.

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5-9

Canine: Testis and Epididymis


(Left) and Corrosion Cast of
the Deferent Duct (Right)

11
8
6

7
6

1
5
3

13

4
12

10

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

14

5-10

Canine: Testis and Epididymis


(Left) and Corrosion Cast of
the Deferent Duct (Right)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Tunica albuginea
Mediastinum
Seminiferous tubules
Straight tubules
Rete testis
Efferent ductules
Epididymal duct
Deferent duct
Head of epididymis
Body of epididymis
Tail of epididymis
Pampiniform plexus
Testicular artery (red)
Pampiniform plexus (blue)
Deferent duct (yellow)

Note: Schematic illustrates the longitudinal section of a testis and


epididymis.

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5-10

Canine: Schematic of the


Spermatic Cord and Its Immediate
Investments (Transverse Section)

3
4

5
10
6

11

7
8

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-11

Canine: Schematic of the


Spermatic Cord and Its Immediate
Investments (Transverse Section)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Deferent duct
Testicular artery (coiled)
Pampiniform plexus
Testicular nerves and lymph vessels
Visceral layer of vaginal tunic
Parietal layer of vaginal tunic
Cremaster muscle
External spermatic fascia
Vaginal cavity
Mesorchium
Mesoductus

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5-11

Canine: Testis

2
2

140

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-12

Canine: Testis

1. Seminiferous tubules (showing spermatogenesis)


2. Interstitial tissue with androgen producing (Leydig) cells

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5-12

Canine: Accessory Reproductive


Glands

Stallion

Bull

2
3

6
5

1 4

Boar

Dog

1
6

2
4

5
6
7

Q: Is this a dorsal or ventral view? Why?

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-13

Canine: Accessory Reproductive


Glands






1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Deferent duct
Ampullary gland
Vesicular gland
Body of prostate
Bulbourethral gland
Urethra
Bulb of penis

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5-13

Canine: Functional Changes


in the Female Tract

Ovary

Inactive corpus luteum

1
2 3

4
1
1

2
140

140

1
1

140
Active corpus luteum

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-14

Canine: Functional Changes


in the Female Tract



1.
2.
3.
4.

Oocyte
Granulosa cells
Theca cells
Stroma

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5-14

Canine: Ovary and Its


Suspensory System

5
3
4
6

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-15

Canine: Ovary and Its


Suspensory System





1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Mesovarium
Mesosalpinx
Abdominal opening of uterine tube
Infundibulum
Ovary
Arrow in the ovarian bursa

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5-15

Canine: Bursa with Constricted


Entrance and Entrapped Ovary

4
1

2
6
Medial

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-16

Canine: Bursa with Constricted


Entrance and Entrapped Ovary





1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Uterine tube
Ovary
Mesovarium
Mesosalpinx
Arrow entering the ovarian bursa
Infundibulum

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5-16

Canine: Schematic
of the Formation of
Extraembryonic Membranes
1

4

5
6

5
4
6

5

5
4

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-17

Canine: Schematic
of the Formation of
Extraembryonic Membranes
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.
5.
6.
6.
7.

Embryo
Chorion
Extraembryonic celom
Yolk sac
Yolk sac cavity
Allantois
Allantoic cavity
Amnion
Amniotic cavity
Chorioallantois

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5-17

Canine: Topography
of Adrenal Glands
2

1

4
5

6
7

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-18

Canine: Topography
of Adrenal Glands
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Right adrenal gland


Left adrenal glands
Aorta
Caudal vena cava
Phrenicoabdominal vessels
Renal vessels
Ovarian vein
Ureter

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5-18

Canine: Development of the Skin

Skin of an early embryo


1
2
Differentiaion of epidermis and dermis
3

Complete differentiation of the epidermis and dermis


8
7

5
4

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-19

Canine: Development of the Skin

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Ectoderm
Mesoderm (mesenchyme)
Primitive stratum basale
Dermis
Stratum basale
Stratum spinosum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum corneum

Note: Top, Skin of an early embryo. Middle, Differentiation of epidermis and dermis. Bottom, Complete differentiation of the
epidermis and dermis.

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5-19

Canine: Pelvis (Transverse Section


at the Level of the Hip Joint)

5
7

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-20

Canine: Pelvis (Transverse Section


at the Level of the Hip Joint)








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Caudal vertebra
Superficial gluteal muscle
Head of the femur in the acetabulum
Rectum suspended by a short mesorectum
Vagina
Urethra
Levator ani
Inguinal mammary gland
Femoral artery and vein

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5-20

Canine: Reproductive Organs


of the Bitch

13

12

10
11

3
4
5

8
6

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-21

Canine: Reproductive Organs


of the Bitch
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Ovarian artery
Uterine branch of ovarian artery
Uterine artery
Dorsomedian fold continuing the cervix
Vaginal artery
Vestibule
Clitoris
External urethral orifice
Cervix
Right uterine horn
Broad ligament
Right ovary
Suspensory ligament of ovary

Note: Blood supply of the reproductive organs of the bitch (dorsal


view). The right ovarian bursa and the caudal parts of the tract
have been opened.

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5-21

Canine: Bladder, Urethra,


and Penis

1

3
2
1

4
9

5
7

5

4
6

7
3 6

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-22

Canine: Bladder, Urethra,


and Penis
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.
5.
6.
6.
7.
7.
8.
9.

Bladder
Left ureter
Left deferent duct
Urethra
Corpus cavernosum
Left crus
Os penis
Urethral groove
Corpus spongiosum
Bulb of penis
Bulbus glandis
Pars longa glandis
Prepuce
Prostate

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5-22

Canine: Quiescent (Top) and


Erect (Bottom) Penis

1
1
7

1

7

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-23

Canine: Quiescent (Top) and


Erect (Bottom) Penis
1.
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
7.

Internal pudendal vessels


Artery of the penis
Perineal branches
Artery of the bulb
Deep artery of the penis
Dorsal artery of the penis
Corpus spongiosum
Corpus cavernosum
Bulbus glandis
Pars longa glandis

Note: Arrows indicate blood flow.

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5-23

Feline: Bladder

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-24

Feline: Bladder

1. Preprostatic urethra: Urethral crest (upper gray part); lumen filled


with contrast medium (lower white part)
2. Seminal colliculus (slight dorsal dip)
3. Isthmus, narrowing of lumen
Note: Radiographs of the feline bladder when moderately (A) and
significantly (B) full.

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5-24

Feline: Penis In Situ (Caudal View)

3
9
5

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-25

Feline: Penis In Situ (Caudal View)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Tail (raised)
Gluteofemoralis
Anus
Coccygeus
Internal obturator
Ischiocavernosus
Penis
Left retractor penis
Left bulbourethral gland

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5-25

Feline: Ovaries and Uterus In Situ


(Ventral View)
2

L
3
6
5
4
7

9
8

10

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-26

Feline: Ovaries and Uterus In Situ


(Ventral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Aorta
Caudal vena cava
Left kidney
Ureter
Ovary
Suspensory ligament of ovary
Uterine horn
Body of uterus
Rectum
Bladder (reflected caudally)

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5-26

Feline: Schematic of Fetal


Membranes (Transverse and
Longitudinal Section)

2
1

4
1
3
6

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-27

Feline: Schematic of Fetal


Membranes (Transverse and
Longitudinal Section)





1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Amnion
Amniotic cavity
Yolk sac
Chorioallantois
Allantoic cavity
Zonary placenta

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5-27

Equine: Bony Pelvis and


Sacrosciatic Ligament
(Lateral View)

8
9

12

13
7

1
11
10

5
6

14

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-28

Equine: Bony Pelvis and


Sacrosciatic Ligament
(Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Coxal tuber
Sacral tuber
Lateral border of sacrum
First caudal vertebra
Ischial tuber
Caudal part of greater trochanter
Sacrosciatic ligament
Dorsal sacroiliac ligament
Greater sciatic foramen
Gluteus profundus
Cranial gluteal nerve
Sciatic nerve
Caudal gluteal nerve
Trochanteric bursa

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5-28

Equine: Pelvis of the Mare


(Cranial View)

1
3

5
8

8
7

6
9

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-29

Equine: Pelvis of the Mare


(Cranial View)








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Coxal tuber
Sacral tuber
Wing of ilium
Promontory
Shaft of ilium
Acetabulum
Brim of pubis
Ischial spines
Ischial tuber

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5-29

Equine: Disposition
of the Peritoneum
in the Pelvis of the Mare

7
7
1
10
8

5
3
4
9

4
6

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-30

Equine: Disposition of
the Peritoneum
in the Pelvis of the Mare
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Rectum
Vagina
Bladder
Parietal peritoneum
Lateral ligament of bladder
Median ligament of bladder
Rectogenital pouch
Pararectal fossa
Vesicogenital pouch
Pubovesical pouch
Ureter

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5-30

Equine: Sections of the Ovaries


in Various Functional States

1
3
2

3
1
2
B

4
2
1

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-31

Equine: Sections of the Ovaries


in Various Functional States



1.
2.
3.
4.

Corpora lutea
Follicles
Blood vessels
Ovulation fossa

Note: A, Ovary with corpora lutea and small follicles. B, Ovary with
developing corpus luteum. C, Ovary with fully developed corpus
luteum.

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5-31

Equine: Sections of the Ovaries


in Various Functional States

2
2

1
2

3
2
1

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-32

Equine: Sections of the Ovaries


in Various Functional States



1.
2.
3.
4.

Corpora lutea
Follicles
Blood vessels
Ovulation fossa

Note: A, Ovary with mature follicle. B, Ovary with follicles of various


sizes and a rather large corpus luteum. The corpus luteum of
the mare does not protrude from the ovary as in other species.

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5-32

Equine: 31-Day-Old Twin Embryos

1
1
4
3

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-33

Equine: 31-Day-Old Twin Embryos

1.
2.
3.
4.

Twin embryos
Junction of the two conceptuses
Developing allantoic membrane
Uterine wall

Note: Ultrasound image. The scale is in centimeters.

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5-33

Equine: Pelvic Urethra and


Accessory Reproductive Glands

2
3
4
5
6

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

10

5-34

Equine: Pelvic Urethra and


Accessory Reproductive Glands
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Genital fold
Ampulla of deferent duct
Vesicular gland
Prostate
Urethralis
Bulbourethral gland
Bladder
Lateral ligament of bladder
Bulbospongiosus
Ischiocavernosus

Note: Dorsal view of the pelvic urethra and accessory reproductive


glands (in situ).

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5-34

Equine: Abdominal Pelvic Cavities

L1

2
5
1

1
7

1

5

2
11

12
13

10

9
L1

9
7

3
3

8
5

B
The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-35

Equine: Abdominal Pelvic Cavities

1.
1.
1.
2.
3.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Thoracic cavity
Thoracic inlet
Costal arch
Diaphragm
Coxal tuber
Shaft of ilium
Terminal line
Pelvic cavity
Inguinal canal
Thigh and stifle
Approximate range in rectal palpation in the median plane
(A) and directly ventral to the kidneys (B)
Deep inguinal ring
Left kidney
Right kidney
Spleen
Stomach
Liver
Pancreas

Note: Left lateral (A) and dorsal (B) outline indicate the scope of rectal
exploration. The dorsal outline encloses a ring of the relatively
fixed organs (9, 9, 10, 11, 12) with the pancreas (13) in the
center.

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5-35

Bovine: Paraxial Mesoderm


in an Embryo

1
1

6
5
2
3

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

4

5-36

Bovine: Paraxial Mesoderm


in an Embryo
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.



5.
6.
7.
8.

Somite
Forelimb bud
Myotome
Sclerotome
Notochord
Notochord giving rise to the nucleus pulposus in the center of
the intervertebral disc
Intersegmental artery
Intervertebral disc
Body of vertebra
Myotome with segmental nerve

Note: Segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm is shown in a 10-mm


bovine embryo (top) together with two stages in the development of the vertebrae and related vessels and nerves. The formation of each vertebra from two pairs of adjacent somites is
noted (arrows).

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5-36

Bovine: Bony Pelvis

12
13

11

10

4
5

14

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

15

5-37

Bovine: Bony Pelvis

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Coxal tuber
Sacroiliac joint
Sacrum
Shaft of ilium
Cranial border of acetabulum
Pecten ossis pubis
Obturator foramen
Symphysis
Ischial tuber
Lesser sciatic foramen
Sacrosciatic ligament
Greater sciatic foramen
Promontory
Conjugate
Vertical diameter

Note: Median section. The roof and floor of the pelvic cavity are indicated in green.

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5-37

Bovine: Pelvis (Median Section)

2 4

1
3
9
13
10
12

6
5
11

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

14

5-38

Bovine: Pelvis (Median Section)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Sacrum
First caudal vertebra
Rectum
Anal canal
Right uterine horn
Left uterine horn (mostly removed)
Cervix
Vagina
Vestibule
Vulva
Bladder
Urethra
Suburethral diverticulum
Symphysis

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5-38

Bovine: Pelvis at the Hip Joint

3
2
4
5

10
11

6
7

1
8

Q: Name the muscles in this figure.

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-39

Bovine: Pelvis at the Hip Joint

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Hip joint
Sacrosciatic ligament
Rectum
Rectogenital pouch
Broad ligament of uterus
Lateral ligament of bladder
Uterus sectioned where the two horns are conjoined
Bladder
Vesiocogenital pouch
Pubovesical pouch
Median ligament of bladder

Note: Transverse section of the bovine pelvis at the level of the hip
joint (cranial surface). A large amount of retroperitoneal fat is
evident in the pelvis.

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5-39

Bovine: Blood Supply to


the Reproductive Tract
(Semischematic Ventral View)

1

1
4
5

2
6

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-40

Bovine: Blood Supply to


the Reproductive Tract
(Semischematic Ventral View)
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Ovarian artery
Uterine branch
Uterine artery
Vaginal artery
Ovarian vein
Accessory vaginal vein
Vaginal vein

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5-40

Bovine: Pelvis and Related


Urogenital Organs of a Bull
(Dorsal View)

5
2

4
7

11

8
9

10

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-41

Bovine: Pelvis and Related


Urogenital Organs of a Bull
(Dorsal View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Bladder
Genital fold
Right deferent duct
Ampulla of deferent duct
Left ureter
Vesicular gland
Body of prostate
Urethralis (surrounding urethra)
Bulbourethral gland
Bulbospongiosus
Caudal extent of the rectogenital pouch (broken line)

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5-41

Bovine: Abdominal Floor and


Cranial Quarters of the Udder

12

4
6
7
8

3
5

12

12
9

10

11

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-42

Bovine: Abdominal Floor and


Cranial Quarters of the Udder
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

External abdominal oblique


Internal abdominal oblique
Rectus abdominis
Peritoneum
Linea alba
Lymph vessel
External pudendal vein
External pudendal (mammary) artery
Medial lamina of suspensory apparatus
Lactiferous sinus
Papillary duct
Lateral laminae of suspensory apparatus

Note: Transverse section.

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5-42

Bovine: Nonlactating (Top) and


Lactating (Bottom) Mammary Glands;
a Compound Tubuloalveolar Gland

1
2

70

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

1
70

5-43

Bovine: Nonlactating (Top) and


Lactating (Bottom) Mammary Glands;
a Compound Tubuloalveolar Gland
1. Alveolus
2. Interlobular septum

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5-43

Bovine: Pelvic Floor and Caudal


Quarters of the Udder

6
4
3

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-44

Bovine: Pelvic Floor and Caudal


Quarters of the Udder





1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Pelvic symphysis
Symphysial tendon
Lateral suspensory laminae
Mammary (superficial inguinal) lymph node
Medial suspensory laminae
Tributary of external pudendal vein

Note: Transverse section.

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5-44

Porcine: Principal Arteries


Supplying the Left Side of the
Female Reproductive Tract

1
2

12

6
10

5
8

11

4
9

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-45

Porcine: Principal Arteries


Supplying the Left Side of the
Female Reproductive Tract



1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Aorta
Ovarian artery with the cranial uterine branch
Internal iliac artery
External iliac artery continued by the femoral artery into the left
thigh
Umbilical artery
Left uterine artery crossing the medial surface of the external
iliac
Vaginal artery with the caudal uterine branch
Left uterine horn
Bladder
Urethra
Vagina
Rectum

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5-45

Porcine: Reproductive Organs


of a Boar

12

5
11
10

2
4

6
9

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-46

Porcine: Reproductive Organs


of a Boar
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Scrotum
Left testis
Tail of epididymis
Deferent duct
Bladder
Rudimentary teat
Vesicular gland covering the small body of the prostate
Bulbourethral gland
Prepuce
Penis
Preputial diverticulum
Right hip bone

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5-46

Avian: Male Reproductive Organs


(Ventral View)

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-47

Avian: Male Reproductive Organs


(Ventral View)



1.
2.
3.
4.

Testis (breeding condition)


Kidney (three lobes)
Deferent duct
Cloaca

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5-47

Avian: Reproductive Organs of a


Female Chicken (Ventral View)

1
1

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-48

Avian: Reproductive Organs of a


Female Chicken (Ventral View)




1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Ovary with follicles in different stages of maturation


Oviduct or shell gland
Uterus (with an egg within)
Colon
Cloaca

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5-48

Avian: Fertilized Egg

2
1

1
3
5
3
4

The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs

5-49

Avian: Fertilized Egg

1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.
5.
5.
6.
7.

Yolk
Yolk membrane
Latebra
Germinal disc
Chalaziferous layer
Chalaza
Thin albumen
Dense albumen
Internal and external shell membranes
Air cell
Shell
Cuticle

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5-49

The Forelimb

Section 6: The Forelimb


6-1

Canine: Synovial Joints

6-2

Canine: Transection of a Skeletal Muscle

6-3

Canine: Architecture of Skeletal Muscles

6-4

Canine: Ventral Muscles of the Neck and Thorax

6-5

Canine: Left Scapula

6-6

Canine: Left Humerus (Caudal View)

6-7

Canine: Left Ulna and Radius

6-8

Canine: Carpal Skeleton

6-9

Canine: Right Manus (Dorsal View)

6-10

Canine: Superficial Muscles of the Shoulder and Arm

6-11

Canine: Intrinsic Muscles of the Left Shoulder


and Arm (Lateral View)

6-12

Canine: Muscles of the Left Forearm (Lateral View)

6-13

Canine: Arteries of the Forelimb

6-14

Canine: Left Forelimb (Dorsal View)

6-15

Canine: Shoulder Joints (Lateral and Craniocaudal


Views)

6-16

Canine: Left Shoulder Joint (Lateral and Medial Views)

6-17

Canine: Left Forelimb (Transverse Section Distal to


the Elbow Joint)

6-18

Canine: Arteries of the Right Forelimb

6-19

Canine: Elbow Joint (Lateral View)

6-20

Canine: Elbow Joint (Craniocaudal View)

6-21

Canine: Left Elbow Joint (Lateral and Medial Views)

The Forelimb

Table of Contents

The Forelimb

6-22

Canine: Autonomous Zones of the Cutaneous


Innervation of the Forelimb

6-23

Canine: Left Forelimb and Flexor Surfaces

6-24

Canine: Left Forelimb

6-25

Canine: Capsule of the Left Shoulder Joint

6-26

Canine: Distribution of Musculocutaneous and Median

of the Joints

Nerves, Right Forelimb (Medial View)


6-27

Canine: Distribution of the Radial Nerve, Right


Forelimb (Lateral View)

6-28

Canine: Distribution of the Ulnar Nerve, Right Forelimb


(Medial View)

6-29

Canine: Veins of the Neck, Thoracic Inlet, and


Proximal Forelimb

6-30

Canine: Blood Supply and Innervation Digits

6-31

Feline: Claw

6-32

Feline: Autonomous Zones of the Cutaneous


Innervation of the Forelimb

6-33

Equine: Carpal Skeleton

6-34

Equine: Synovial Joint

6-35

Equine Joints: Flexion, Extension, and Overextension

6-36

Equine Muscles: Ventral Surface of the Thorax

6-37

Equine: Deep Muscles Attaching the Forelimb to


the Trunk

6-38

Equine: Left Forelimb (Lateral View)

6-39

Equine: Shoulder Joint (Lateral View)

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6
6-40

The Forelimb

Equine Muscles: Medial Surface of the Left Shoulder


and Arm

6-41

Equine: Elbow Joint (Lateral View)

6-42

Equine: Synovial Structures of the Left Shoulder and


Elbow (Lateral View)

6-43

Equine: Carpus (Dorsopalmar View)

6-44

Equine: Carpus (Lateral View)

6-45

Equine: Synovial Structures of the Left Carpus


(Lateral View)

6-46

Equine: Distal Muscles of the Forelimb (Lateral View)

6-47

Equine: Left Forearm

6-48

Equine: Structures Supporting the Fetlock Joint

6-49

Equine: Fetlock Joint and Digit (Lateral View)

6-50

Equine: Axial Section of the Digit

6-51

Equine: Ground Surface of the Hoof

6-52

Equine: Sagittal Section of the Hoof

6-53

Equine: Transverse Section of the Hoof

6-54

Equine: Dermal Lamellae

6-55

Equine: Dermis Exposed by Removal of the Hoof

6-56

Equine: Major Arteries of the Right Forelimb


(Medial View)

6-57

Equine: Medial Palmar Nerve

6-58

Bovine: Humerus

6-59

Bovine: Carpal Skeleton

6-60

Bovine: Muscles of the Left Forelimb (Lateral View)

6-61

Bovine: Foot (Dorsopalmar View)

The Forelimb

Table of Contents

The Forelimb

6-62

Bovine: Foot (Lateromedial View)

6-63

Bovine: Forefoot (Palmar View)

6-64

Bovine: Right Forefoot (Dorsal View)

6-65

Bovine: Forefoot, Ground Surface of the Hoofs

6-66

Bovine: Principal Arteries of the Right Forelimb


(Medial View)

6-67

Bovine: Principal Veins of the Right Forelimb


(Medial View)

6-68

Bovine: Nerves of the Forelimb (Medial View)

6-69

Bovine: Principal Nerves of the Right Forefoot


(Palmer View)

6-70

Porcine: Carpal Skeleton

6-71

Porcine and Other Species Phylogenetic


Development: Horn Structures Associated with the
Distal Phalanx

6-72

Porcine: Palmar Surface of the Foot

6-73

Avian: Skeleton of the Left Wing

6-74

Avian: Superficial Dissection of the Laterally Extended


Left Wing

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Canine: Synovial Joints

The Forelimb

6-1

Canine: Synovial Joints

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Condylar joint: Canine femorotibial joint (stifle)


Ellipsoidal joint: Canine carpus
Radius
Ulna
Proximal row of the carpal bones
Saddle joint: Canine distal interphalangeal joint
Spheroidal joint: Canine hip joint (caudodorsal view)

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6-1

Canine: Transection
of a Skeletal Muscle

3
2
1

The Forelimb

6-2

Canine: Transection
of a Skeletal Muscle
1. Epimysium
2. Perimysium
3. Endomysium
Note: The fibrous tissue has been emphasized in this skeletal muscle.

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6-2

Canine: Architecture
of Skeletal Muscles

The Forelimb

6-3

Canine: Architecture
of Skeletal Muscles




1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Strap muscle
Spindle-shaped muscle
Pennate muscle
Bipennate muscle
Multipennate muscle

Note: The anatomical transverse sections (broken lines) and the physiological transverse sections (solid lines) are both represented.

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6-3

Canine: Ventral Muscles


of the Neck and Thorax

2
3

3
4
5

The Forelimb

6-4

Canine: Ventral Muscles


of the Neck and Thorax
1.
2.
3.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Combined sternohyoideus and sternothyroideus


Sternocephalicus
Cleidocephalicus, cervical part
Brachiocephalicus, cleidobrachialis
Pectoralis descendens
Pectoralis transversus
Pectoralis profundus

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6-4

Canine: Left Scapula

2
4

3
2
5
10

9
6

10

Lateral view

Medial view
Ventral view

Q: Which muscle originates from 6?

The Forelimb

6-5

Canine: Left Scapula

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Cranial angle
Spine
Supraspinous fossa
Infraspinous fossa
Neck
Supraglenoid tubercle
Infraglenoid tubercle
Caudal angle
Coracoid process
Glenoid cavity

A: Biceps brachii.

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6-5

Canine: Left Humerus


(Caudal View)

7
8

The Forelimb

6-6

Canine: Left Humerus


(Caudal View)







1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Greater tubercle
Head
Lesser tubercle
Teres (major) tuberosity
Deltoid tuberosity
Lateral supracondylar crest
Olecranon fossa (with supratrochlear foramen in the dog)
Medial epicondyle

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6-6

Canine: Left Ulna and Radius

Left ulna

Left radius

1
2

3
4

4

7
8

The Forelimb

6-7

Canine: Left Ulna and Radius

1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Olecranon
Anconeal process
Trochlear notch
Lateral coronoid process
Medial coronoid process
Distal articular facet for radius
Lateral styloid process (with facet for the ulnar carpal bone)
Articular facet for ulna
Medial styloid process
Articular circumference

Note: In sequence from the left: cranial view of the ulna, craniolateral
and cranial views of the radius and ulna, and caudal view of the
radius alone.

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6-7

Canine: Carpal Skeleton

34

The Forelimb

10

11

12

13

14

15

6-8

Canine: Carpal Skeleton

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Radius
Ulna
Radial carpal bone
Intermediate carpal bone
Ulnar carpal bone
Accessory carpal bone
First carpal bone
Second carpal bone
Third carpal bone
Fourth carpal bone
First metacarpal bone
Second metacarpal bone
Third metacarpal bone
Fourth metacarpal bone
Fifth metacarpal bone

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6-8

Canine: Right Manus (Dorsal View)

1
3
4 6

2
5

I
V

IV

III

II

8
7

The Forelimb

6-9

Canine: Right Manus (Dorsal View)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Accessory carpal
Ulnar carpal
Radial carpal (intermedioradial in the dog)
First of the distal row of carpal bones
Fourth of the distal row of carpal bones
Sesamoid bone
Proximal sesamoid bones
Dorsal sesamoid bone
Axis of manus

Note: The metacarpal bones (Roman numerals) are identified.

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6-9

Canine: Superficial Muscles


of the Shoulder and Arm

5

7
3
6
8
2

8

10

The Forelimb

6-10

Canine: Superficial Muscles


of the Shoulder and Arm
1.
2.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
7.
8.
8.
9.
10.

Sternocephalicus
Brachiocephalicus; cleidocephalicus, cervical part
Brachiocephalicus, cleidobrachialis
Omotransversarius
Superficial cervical lymph node
Cervical part of the trapezius
Thoracic part of the trapezius
Deltoideus
Latissimus dorsi
Long head of triceps
Lateral head of triceps
Pectoralis profundus (ascendens)
Accessory axillary lymph node

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6-10

Canine: Intrinsic Muscles


of the Left Shoulder and
Arm (Lateral View)

2
3

5
6

4

6

The Forelimb

6-11

Canine: Intrinsic Muscles


of the Left Shoulder and
Arm (Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.
6.
6.
7.
8.

Rhomboideus
Teres major
Supraspinatus
Scapular part of deltoideus
Acromial part of deltoideus
Latissimus dorsi
Long head of triceps
Lateral head of triceps
Brachiocephalicus, cleidobrachialis
Brachialis

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6-11

Canine: Muscles of the


Left Forearm (Lateral View)

1 2

5
3

7
8

Q: Which nerve supplies 1, 2, and 3?

The Forelimb

6-12

Canine: Muscles of the


Left Forearm (Lateral View)







1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Extensor carpi radialis


Common digital extensor
Lateral digital extensor
Ulnaris lateralis
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Abductor digiti I longus
Extensor retinaculum
Carpal pad

A: Radial nerve.

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6-12

Canine: Arteries of the Forelimb

1
2
3
5

4
6
7
8

9
10

11
12
13

14
12
16
15

The Forelimb

6-13

Canine: Arteries of the Forelimb

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Axillary artery
Lateral thoracic artery
Subscapular artery
Caudal circumflex humeral artery
Cranial circumflex humeral artery
Brachial artery
Deep brachial artery
Collateral ulnar artery
Superficial brachial artery
Transverse cubital artery
Common interosseous artery
Median artery
Ulnar artery
Radial artery
Superficial palmar arch
Deep palmar arch

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6-13

Canine: Left Forelimb


(Dorsal View)

Medial
2
8

5
4
3
1

The Forelimb

7
6

6-14

Canine: Left Forelimb


(Dorsal View)







1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Cleidocephalicus, cervical part


Superficial cervical lymph nodes
Omotransversarius
Supraspinatus
Subscapularis
Deltoideus
Long head of the triceps
Teres major

Note: Transverse section at the level of the scapula.

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6-14

Canine: Shoulder Joints


(Lateral [Left] and Craniocaudal
[Right] Views)

1
3
2

The Forelimb

4
2

6-15

Canine: Shoulder Joints


(Lateral [Left] and Craniocaudal
[Right] Views)
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Scapular spine
Acromion
Supraglenoid tubercle
Greater tubercle of the humerus
Head of the humerus

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6-15

Canine: Left Shoulder Joint


(Lateral [Left] and Medial
[Right] Views)

7
6

2
3

8
9

5
4

The Forelimb

6-16

Canine: Left Shoulder Joint


(Lateral [Left] and Medial
[Right] Views)








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Scapula
Joint capsule opened to expose biceps tendon
Tendon of infraspinatus
Infraspinatus bursa
Humerus
Joint capsule (stretched by pulling bones apart)
Tendon of coracobrachialis
Tendon of subscapularis (reflected ventrally)
Biceps tendon emerging from intertubercular groove

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6-16

Canine: Left Forelimb (Transverse


Section Distal to the Elbow Joint)

2
1

4
4

12

Cranial

6
7
11
8

The Forelimb

10

6-17

Canine: Left Forelimb (Transverse


Section Distal to the Elbow Joint)
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Cephalic vein and branches of superficial radial nerve


Pronator teres
Median vessels and nerve, and flexor carpi radialis
Humeral head of the deep digital flexor
Radial head of the deep digital flexor
Pronator quadratus
Ulna
Extensor carpi radialis
Common digital extensor
Lateral digital extensor
Ulnaris lateralis
Flexor carpi ulnaris; its small ulnar head lies on its caudal, and
the ulnar vessels and nerve on its cranial aspect
12. Superficial digital flexor

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6-17

Canine: Arteries of the


Right Forelimb

3
5

5
6

8
10

12
10

7
9

11
13

14

The Forelimb

6-18

Canine: Arteries of the


Right Forelimb
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Subscapular artery
Teres major
Deep brachial artery
Brachial artery
Biceps
Triceps
Collateral ulnar artery
Deep antebrachial artery
Radial artery
Ulnar artery
Median artery
Accessory carpal bone
Deep palmar arch
Superficial palmar arch
Superficial digital flexor, reflected

Note: The topography of the major arteries of the right canine forelimb
is illustrated in the medial view. The caudomedial muscles of the
forearm have been removed.

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6-18

Canine: Elbow Joint (Lateral View)

1

3

3

2

Q: What is the action of muscles on digits that originate from 1?

The Forelimb

6-19

Canine: Elbow Joint (Lateral View)

1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
3.
4.

Humerus
Medial epicondyle
Radius
Proximal epiphysial cartilage
Ulna
Olecranon
Apophysis of tuber olecrani
Anconeal process

A: Extension.

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6-19

Canine: Elbow Joint


(Craniocaudal View)

3

Medial

4
2
3

The Forelimb

6-20

Canine: Elbow Joint


(Craniocaudal View)
1.
2.
3.
3.
4.

Supratrochlear foramen
Radius
Ulna
Olecranon
Medial coronoid process

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6-20

Canine: Left Elbow Joint (Lateral


[Left] and Medial [Right] Views)

9
10
8
7

2
3
4

11

13

12

6
5

The Forelimb

6-21

Canine: Left Elbow Joint (Lateral


[Left] and Medial [Right] Views)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Humerus
Stump of extensor carpi radialis and common digital extensor
Lateral collateral ligament
Annular ligament of radius
Radius
Ulna
Joint capsule
Stump of ulnaris lateralis
Common stump of carpal and digital flexors
Stump of pronator teres
Biceps
Brachialis
Medial collateral ligament

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6-21

Canine: Autonomous Zones


of the Cutaneous Innervation
of the Forelimb

3
9
4
1
5
6

2
3

3
4

The Forelimb

6-22

Canine: Autonomous Zones


of the Cutaneous Innervation
of the Forelimb








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Axillary nerve
Musculocutaneous nerve
Ulnar nerve
Radial nerve
Median nerve
Mixture of median and ulnar nerves
Digital pads
Metacarpal pad
Carpal pad

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6-22

Canine: Left Forelimb and Flexor


Surfaces of the Joints

11

3
4
12
5
6
7

13

10

The Forelimb

14

6-23

Canine: Left Forelimb and Flexor


Surfaces of the Joints
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Scapula
Clavicle (collarbone)
Humerus
Brachium (arm)
Flexor surface
Radius and ulna
Antebrachium (forearm)
Carpus
Metacarpus
Digits
Flexor surface of the shoulder joint
Elbow joint
Flexor surface of the carpal joints
Flexor surface of the digital joints

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6-23

Canine: Left Forelimb

14

15
16

17
18

3
4

19
20

21
22

6
7

23

24

25
10

27
12

28

13

11
26

12
13

The Forelimb

27
28

6-24

Canine: Left Forelimb

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

Rhomboideus
Triceps, long head
Subscapularis
Triceps, accessory head
Brachialis
Triceps
Tensor fasciae antebrachii
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Biceps and brachialis
Deep digital flexor
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Superficial digital flexor
Deep digital flexor
Serratus ventralis
Subscapularis
Coracobrachialis
Biceps
Supraspinatus
Deep pectoral
Triceps, medial head
Teres major and latissimus dorsi
Superficial pectoral
Pronator teres
Flexors of carpus and digits
Supinator
Extensor carpi radialis
Lateral digital extensor
Lateral and common digital extensors

Note: Medial view of muscle attachments.

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6-24

Canine: Capsule of the Left


Shoulder Joint

1
3

Lateral

The Forelimb

Medial

6-25

Canine: Capsule of the Left


Shoulder Joint
1. Medial and lateral glenohumeral ligaments
2. Joint capsule
3. Transverse humeral retinaculum

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6-25

Canine: Distribution of
Musculocutaneous and Median Nerves,
Right Forelimb (Medial View)

6
2
3

8
9
10

5
11
12

12

The Forelimb

6-26

Canine: Distribution of
Musculocutaneous and Median
Nerves, Right Forelimb (Medial View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Musculocutaneous nerve
Coracobrachialis
Biceps brachii
Brachialis
Skin of the medial antebrachium
Median nerve
Pronator teres
Flexor carpi radialis
Pronator quadratus
Superficial digital flexor
Deep digital flexor, humeral, ulnar, and radial heads
Skin of the caudal antebrachium and palmar paw

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6-26

Canine: Distribution of the


Radial Nerve, Right Forelimb
(Lateral View)

2
1
1

3
4
8
7
9

5
6

10

The Forelimb

6-27

Canine: Distribution of the


Radial Nerve, Right Forelimb
(Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Triceps brachii
Tensor fasciae antebrachii
Anconeus
Extensor carpi radialis
Supinator
Common digital extensor
Lateral digital extensor
Ulnaris lateralis
Abductor digiti I longus
Skin of the cranial and lateral antebrachium and dorsal paw

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6-27

Canine: Distribution of the


Ulnar Nerve, Right Forelimb
(Medial View)

1
2

1
2

3
6

The Forelimb

6-28

Canine: Distribution of the


Ulnar Nerve, Right Forelimb
(Medial View)





1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Flexor carpi ulnaris, ulnar and humeral heads


Deep digital flexor, ulnar and humeral heads
Interossei
Skin of caudal antebrachium
Skin of palmar paw
Skin of fifth metacarpal, lateral surface of digit

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6-28

Canine: Veins of the Neck,


Thoracic Inlet, and
Proximal Forelimb

1
2

11
12

13
14

15

16

17
7

18

19

20

21

10
22

The Forelimb

6-29

Canine: Veins of the Neck,


Thoracic Inlet, and
Proximal Forelimb
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

External jugular
Omobrachial
Superficial cervical
Cephalic
Subclavian
Axillary
Axillobrachial
Cranial vena cava
Internal thoracic
Median
Internal jugular
Omobrachial
Subscapular
Caudal thyroid
Left brachiocephalic
Costocervical
Omobrachial
Cephalic
Axillobrachial
Brachial
Median cubital
Cephalic

Note: Cranial aspect.

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6-29

Canine: Blood Supply and


Innervation Digits

1
4

2
5

The Forelimb

6-30

Canine: Blood Supply and


Innervation Digits








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Dorsal common digital artery, vein, nerve


Dorsal metapodial artery, vein, nerve
Axial dorsal digital artery, vein, nerve
Palmar/plantar common digital artery, vein, nerve
Palmar/plantar metapodial artery, vein, nerve
Axial palmar/plantar digital artery, vein, nerve
Dorsal common digital artery, vein, nerve
Dorsal metapodial artery, vein, nerve
Axial dorsal digital artery, vein, nerve

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6-30

Feline: Claw

Feline claw retracted

1
2
3

9
7

6
5

Feline claw protruded


3
10
4

The Forelimb

6-31

Feline: Claw

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Claw
Unguicular process of distal phalanx
Medial dorsal elastic ligament
Distal phalanx
Deep digital flexor tendon
Digital pad
Metacarpal pad
Proximal phalanx
Proximal sesamoid bone
Lateral dorsal elastic ligament

Note: Fully retracted and protruded illustrations show the division


(broken line) of the distal phalanx in declawing. The arrangement
of the elastic ligaments has been greatly simplified.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-31

Feline: Autonomous Zones


of the Cutaneous Innervation
of the Forelimb

6
4

3
4
3

The Forelimb

6-32

Feline: Autonomous Zones


of the Cutaneous Innervation
of the Forelimb





1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Axillary nerve
Musculocutaneous nerve
Ulnar nerve
Radial nerve
Median nerve
Mixture of median and ulnar nerves

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-32

Equine: Carpal Skeleton

1
2

3
7 8

11

The Forelimb

4
9

12

6
5
10

13

6-33

Equine: Carpal Skeleton

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Radius
Ulna
Radial carpal bone
Intermediate carpal bone
Ulnar carpal bone
Accessory carpal bone
First carpal bone
Second carpal bone
Third carpal bone
Fourth carpal bone
Second metacarpal bone
Third metacarpal bone
Fourth metacarpal bone

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-33

Equine: Synovial Joint

1
2

3
4

5
6

The Forelimb

6-34

Equine: Synovial Joint

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Joint cavity
Synovial membrane
Articular cartilage
Fibrous layer of joint capsule
Periosteum
Compact bone

Note: A synovial joint (in section) is projecting from the synovial membrane of the fetlock joint (greatly enlarged).

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-34

Equine Joints: Flexion, Extension,


and Overextension

1
2

Flexion

Extension

The Forelimb

Over extension

6-35

Equine Joints: Flexion, Extension,


and Overextension




1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Flexed carpal joint


Extended carpal joint
Flexed fetlock joint
Extended fetlock joint
Overextended fetlock joint

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-35

Equine Muscles: Ventral Surface


of the Thorax

1
2
3

2
4

The Forelimb

6-36

Equine Muscles: Ventral Surface


of the Thorax





1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Sternocephalicus
Cleidocephalicus
Cutaneus colli
Pectoralis descendens
Pectoralis transversus
Pectoralis profundus (ascendens)

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-36

Equine: Deep Muscles Attaching


the Forelimb to the Trunk

1
4
1

2
5

The Forelimb

6-37

Equine: Deep Muscles Attaching


the Forelimb to the Trunk




1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Serratus ventralis
Subclavius
Pectoralis profundus
Rhomboideus
Axillary vessels turning around the first rib into the limb

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-37

Equine: Left Forelimb


(Lateral View)

5
3

A
6

2
4
97

10

12
13
C

11
14

15
D
16

18
19
20

24
25

The Forelimb

23

17
21

22

6-38

Equine: Left Forelimb


(Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

Scapular cartilage
Scapular spine
Tuberosity of scapular spine
Supraglenoid tubercle
Supraspinous fossae
Infraspinous fossae
Head of humerus
Cranial part of the greater tubercle
Caudal part of the greater tubercle
Deltoid tuberosity
Condyle
Olecranon fossa
Olecranon
Tubercle for lateral collateral ligament
Interosseous space
Lateral styloid process
Accessory carpal
Proximal row of carpal bones
Distal row of carpal bones
Large metacarpal (cannon/third metacarpal) bone
Small metacarpal (splint bone)
Proximal sesamoid bones
Proximal phalanx
Middle phalanx
Distal phalanx

Note: A, Scapula; B, humerus; C, ulna; D, radius.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-38

Equine: Shoulder Joint


(Lateral View)

The Forelimb

6-39

Equine: Shoulder Joint


(Lateral View)
1.
2.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Sixth cervical vertebra


Supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula
Coracoid process
Glenoid cavity
Trachea
Head of the humerus
Superimposed greater, lesser, and intertubercular tubercles
Deltoid tuberosity

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-39

Equine Muscles: Medial Surface


of the Left Shoulder and Arm

4
5
3
6
7
8

11
10
9

12

The Forelimb

6-40

Equine Muscles: Medial Surface


of the Left Shoulder and Arm
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Subscapularis
Latissimus dorsi
Teres major
Subclavius
Supraspinatus
Tensor fasciae antebrachii
Deep pectoral
Coracobrachialis
Biceps
Medical head of the triceps
Long head of the triceps
Lacertus fibrosis

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-40

Equine: Elbow Joint (Lateral View)

The Forelimb

6-41

Equine: Elbow Joint (Lateral View)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Humerus
Medial epicondyle
Lateral epicondyle
Olecranon fossa
Olecranon
Anconeal process of the olecranon
Radius
Radial tuberosity
Interosseous space
Ulna

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-41

Equine: Synovial Structures


of the Left Shoulder and Elbow
(Lateral View)

1
2
3

6
4

4
4

The Forelimb

6-42

Equine: Synovial Structures


of the Left Shoulder and Elbow
(Lateral View)





1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Shoulder joint capsule


Infraspinatus bursa
Intertubercular bursa (between the biceps tendon and humerus)
Elbow joint capsule
Subcutaneous olecranon bursa
Subtendinous olecranon bursa

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-42

Equine: Carpus
(Dorsopalmar View)

The Forelimb

6-43

Equine: Carpus
(Dorsopalmar View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Radius
Accessory carpal (faint)
Radial carpal
Intermediate carpal
Ulnar carpal
Position of first carpal (when present)
Second carpal
Third carpal
Fourth carpal
Second metacarpal
Third metacarpal
Fourth metacarpal

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-43

Equine: Carpus (Lateral View)

1
2

4
6

7, 8

9,11

10

12

The Forelimb

6-44

Equine: Carpus (Lateral View)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Radius
Accessory carpal (faint)
Radial carpal
Intermediate carpal
Position of the first carpal (when present)
Second carpals
Superimposed third and fourth carpal
Superimposed third and fourth carpal
Superimposed second metacarpal
Third metacarpal
Superimposed fourth metacarpal
Metacarpal tuberosity

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-44

Equine: Synovial Structures of the


Left Carpus (Lateral View)

4
1

2
6
3

The Forelimb

6-45

Equine: Synovial Structures of the


Left Carpus (Lateral View)






1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Antebrachiocarpal
Midcarpal joint capsule
Carpometacarpal joint capsule
Tendon sheath of the extensor carpi radialis
Tendon sheath of the common digital extensor
Tendon sheath of the lateral digital extensor
Tendon sheath of the superficial and deep digital flexors (carpal
sheath)
8. Tendon sheath of the ulnaris lateralis
9. Lateral collateral ligament

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-45

Equine: Distal Muscles of the


Forelimb (Lateral View)
2

7
5

10

11

The Forelimb

6-46

Equine: Distal Muscles of the


Forelimb (Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Anconeus
Brachialis
Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus
Extensor carpi radialis
Lateral digital extensor
Abductor digiti I longus
Ulnaris lateralis
Ulnar head of the deep digital flexor
Accessory carpal bone
Interosseus
Extensor branch of the interosseus

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-46

Equine: Left Forearm

Cranial
1
12
2
11

10

9

5
13
9

Medial

8
7

Q: Which nerves supply the digital flexors?

The Forelimb

6-47

Equine: Left Forearm

1.
2.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Extensor carpi radialis


Cephalic vein
Accessory cephalic veins
Radius
Accessory (check) ligament of the superficial digital flexor
Flexor carpi radialis, median artery, and medial and lateral
palmar nerves
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Ulnar nerve and collateral ulnar vessels
Ulnaris lateralis
Superficial digital flexor
Deep digital flexors
Lateral digital extensor
Common digital extensor
Abductor digiti I longus
Median artery, medial and lateral palmar nerves

Note: Transverse section of the right forearm is 6cm proximal to the


proximal border of the accessory carpal, demonstrating the
topography of the accessory (check) ligament (4) of the superficial digital flexor; looking distally. The tendons or tendinous
tissue (hatched areas) and muscle tissue (gray areas) are
visualized.
A: Median and ulnar nerves

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-47

Equine: Structures Supporting


the Fetlock Joint

7
7
6

The Forelimb

6-48

Equine: Structures Supporting


the Fetlock Joint
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
7.
8.
9.

Interosseus
Proximal sesamoid bones connected by thick palmar ligament
Collateral sesamoidean ligament
Straight sesamoidean ligament
Oblique sesamoidean ligament
Stump of superficial flexor
Axial palmar ligament of pastern joint
Abaxial palmar ligaments of pastern joint
Hoof cartilage
Stump of deep flexor

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-48

Equine: Fetlock Joint and Digit


(Lateral View)

1
2

5
7

5
5

The Forelimb

6-49

Equine: Fetlock Joint and Digit


(Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
5.
6.
7.

Third metacarpal bone


Proximal sesamoid bones
Proximal phalanx
Middle phalanx
Distal phalanx
Extensor process
Solar canal
Navicular bone
Wall of hoof

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-49

Equine: Axial Section of the Digit

11
17
1

13
18
7

7
5

14
2

12

14

17
4

15
6

13
10

16 4

The Forelimb

6-50

Equine: Axial Section of the Digit

1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.
6.
7.
7.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Third metacarpal bone


Proximal phalanx
Middle phalanx
Distal phalanx
Digital cushion
Proximal sesamoid bone
Distal sesamoid (navicular) bone
Dorsal pouch of fetlock joint
Capsular fold
Palmar pouch of fetlock joint
Dorsal pouch of pastern joint
Dorsal pouch of coffin joint
Navicular bursa
Interosseus
Straight sesamoidean ligament
Deep flexor tendon
Digital sheath
Collateral ligaments of the navicular bone
Distal navicular ligament
Common digital extensor tendon
Superficial flexor tendon

Note: Axial section of the digit with latex injected fetlock and pastern
and coffin joints.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-50

Equine: Ground Surface


of the Hoof

1
1

2
3

1

1

The Forelimb

6-51

Equine: Ground Surface


of the Hoof
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Wall
Unpigmented part of the wall
Heel
Bar
White line (union of the wall and sole)
Sole
Frog
Bulbs of the heels
Paracuneal groove

Note: Inset shows the direction of hoof nails that are placed at the
white line indicated by 2 in the figure.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-51

Equine: Sagittal Section


of the Hoof

The Forelimb

6-52

Equine: Sagittal Section


of the Hoof
1. White line
2. Wall

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-52

Equine: Transverse Section


of the Hoof

2
3

The Forelimb

6-53

Equine: Transverse Section


of the Hoof
1. Stratum externum
2. Stratum medium
3. Stratum internum
Note: Transverse section of the part of the hoof at the level indicated
by the dotted line in Flash Card 6-52.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-53

Equine: Dermal Lamellae

The Forelimb

6-54

Equine: Dermal Lamellae

1. Primary horny laminae


2. Primary dermal laminae

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-54

Equine: Dermis Exposed by


Removal of the Hoof

5
1
2

The Forelimb

6-55

Equine: Dermis Exposed by


Removal of the Hoof




1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Perioplic dermis
Coronary dermis
Laminar dermis
Terminal papillae on the ends of the dermal laminae
Cut edge of skin

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-55

Equine: Major Arteries of the


Right Forelimb (Medial View)

1
2

3
5
8

10

11
12

13
10

14
15

16
16

The Forelimb

6-56

Equine: Major Arteries of the


Right Forelimb (Medial View)
1. Axillary artery
2. Suprascapular artery
3. Subscapular artery
4. Thoracodorsal artery
5. Caudal circumflex humeral artery
6. Cranial circumflex humeral artery
7. Brachial artery
8. Deep brachial artery
9. Collateral radial artery
10. Collateral ulnar artery
11. Transverse cubital artery
12. Common interosseous artery
13. Median artery
14. Radial artery
15. Medial palmar artery
16. Medial digital artery
16. Lateral digital artery

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-56

Equine: Medial Palmar Nerve

1
2
4

3
5

The Forelimb

6-57

Equine: Medial Palmar Nerve

1.
2.
3.
3.
4.
5.

Medial palmar nerve


Communicating branch
Medial palmar digital nerve
Dorsal branch
Medial palmar artery and vein
Medial digital artery and vein

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-57

Bovine: Humerus

2
2

5
6
7

The Forelimb

6-58

Bovine: Humerus

1.
2.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Articular cartilage
Spongy bone
Epiphysial cartilage
Compact bone
Periosteum, partly reflected
Nutrient foramen
Marrow cavity
Roughened area for the attachment of muscle or ligament
Distal extent of the medial epicondyle
Tendon of origin of the carpal and digital flexors

Note: This long bone (humerus) is sectioned longitudinally.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-58

Bovine: Carpal Skeleton

6
3

78

10

The Forelimb

11

12

6-59

Bovine: Carpal Skeleton

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Radius
Ulna
Radial carpal bone
Intermediate carpal bone
Ulnar carpal bone
Accessory carpal bone
Second carpal bone
Third carpal bone
Fourth carpal bone
Third metacarpal bone
Fourth metacarpal bone
Fifth metacarpal bone

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-59

Bovine: Muscles of the


Left Forelimb (Lateral View)

1
4
1
2

5
3
6
8

7
9

13

10

14
11

12
10

The Forelimb

11

6-60

Bovine: Muscles of the


Left Forelimb (Lateral View)
1. Trapezius
2. Supraspinatus
3. Deltoideus
4. Latissimus dorsi
5. Brachiocephalicus, cleidobrachialis
6. Biceps
7. Long head of the triceps
7. Lateral head of the triceps
8. Brachialis
9. Extensor carpi radialis
10. Common digital extensor
10. Tendon of lateral belly of common digital extensor
11. Lateral digital extensor
12. Abductor digiti I longus
13. Ulnar head of the deep digital flexor
14. Ulnaris lateralis

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-60

Bovine: Foot (Dorsopalmar View)

1

1
2
3
3

5
6
7

The Forelimb

6-61

Bovine: Foot (Dorsopalmar View)

1.
1.
1.
2.
3.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Metacarpal bone
Median septum
Distal metacarpal canal
Proximal sesamoid bones
Dewclaw
Rudimentary phalanx within dewclaw
Proximal phalanx
Middle phalanx
Navicular bone
Distal phalanx

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-61

Bovine: Foot (Lateromedial View)

The Forelimb

6-62

Bovine: Foot (Lateromedial View)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Metacarpal bones
Proximal sesamoid bones
Proximal phalanx
Middle phalanx
Navicular bone
Distal phalanx

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-62

Bovine: Forefoot (Palmar View)

1
2
3
4
5
6
4

7
4

The Forelimb

6-63

Bovine: Forefoot (Palmar View)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
7.

Interosseus
Deep digital flexor
Superficial digital flexor
Digital sheath
Annular ligament of fetlock joint
Digital annular ligaments
Distal interdigital ligament, deep part
Superficial part

Note: Superficial dissection.

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-63

Bovine: Right Forefoot


(Dorsal View)

1
2
3

2

4
5
L

M
6

The Forelimb

6-64

Bovine: Right Forefoot


(Dorsal View)
1.
2.
2.
3.
4.

Medial tendon of common digital extensor to the medial digit


Common digital extensor
Its sheaths
Lateral digital extensor
Abaxial extensor branch of the interosseus to the lateral digital
extensor
5. Axial extensor branch of the interosseus to the lateral digital
extensor
6. Common axial collateral ligament

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-64

Bovine: Forefoot, Ground


Surface of the Hoofs

4
3
2
1

The Forelimb

6-65

Bovine: Forefoot, Ground


Surface of the Hoofs
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.

Wall
White line
Sole
Horny digital pad of hoof (bulb)
Apex of digital pad
Abaxial groove on the wall, dividing the wall from the bulb

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-65

Bovine: Principal Arteries of the


Right Forelimb (Medial View)

2
3
4

7
10
9

The Forelimb

6-66

Bovine: Principal Arteries of the


Right Forelimb (Medial View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Axillary artery
Subscapular artery
Deep brachial artery
Brachial artery
Collateral ulnar artery
Common interosseous artery
Median artery
Radial artery
Palmar common digital artery III
Dorsal common digital artery III

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-66

Bovine: Principal Veins of the


Right Forelimb (Medial View)
1
2

8
4
6

6
4

7
5
9

The Forelimb

6-67

Bovine: Principal Veins of the


Right Forelimb (Medial View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.
6.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Brachial vein
Cephalic vein
Median cubital vein
Median vein
Palmar common digital vein III
Axial palmar digital veins
Accessory cephalic vein
Dorsal common digital vein III
Dorsal digital veins
Radial vein
Abaxial palmar digital veins

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-67

Bovine: Nerves of the


Forelimb (Medial View)

4
3 5

11
12

13

10
16

17

14
15

19

18

The Forelimb

6-68

Bovine: Nerves of the


Forelimb (Medial View)
, 2. Roots of the brachial plexus
1
3. Cranial pectoral nerve
4. Suprascapular nerve
5. Musculocutaneous nerve
6. Axillary artery
7. Subscapular nerve
8. Long thoracic nerve
9. Thoracodorsal nerve
10. Lateral thoracic nerve
11. Axillary nerve
12. Radial nerve
13. Ulnar nerve
14. Medial cutaneous antebrachial nerve
15. Superficial branch of radial nerve
16. Median nerve
17. Caudal cutaneous antebrachial nerve
18. Dorsal common digital nerves III and II
19. Palmar branch of ulnar nerve

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-68

Bovine: Principal Nerves of the


Right Forefoot (Palmar View)

5
1
7
8

The Forelimb

6-69

Bovine: Principal Nerves of the


Right Forefoot (Palmar View)







1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Median nerve
Palmar abaxial digital nerve
Palmar axial digital nerves
Communicating branch
Palmar branch of ulnar nerve
Interosseus
Deep flexor tendon
Superficial flexor tendon

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6-69

Porcine: Carpal Skeleton

6
3
7 8

11

The Forelimb

4
9

12

5
10

13

14

6-70

Porcine: Carpal Skeleton

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Radius
Ulna
Radial carpal bone
Intermediate carpal bone
Ulnar carpal bone
Accessory carpal bone
First carpal bone
Second carpal bone
Third carpal bone
Fourth carpal bone
Second metacarpal bone
Third metacarpal bone
Fourth metacarpal bone
Fifth metacarpal bone

Note: Left carpus.

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6-70

Porcine and Other Species Phylogenetic


Development: Horn Structures
Associated with the Distal Phalanx

Human fingertip
1

Pig
2

3
4

Tapir

Horse
2

2
4
5

5
2
2
4
4

The Forelimb

6-71

Porcine and Other Species Phylogenetic


Development: Horn Structures
Associated with the Distal Phalanx
1.
2.
2.
2.
3.
4.
4.
4.
5.

Nail
Wall of hoof
Heel (horse)
Bar (horse)
Sole
Footpad (bulb in the human finger and pig)
Frog (horse)
Bulbs of the heels (horse)
White line

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6-71

Porcine: Palmar Surface


of the Foot

2
3

The Forelimb

6-72

Porcine: Palmar Surface


of the Foot



1.
2.
3.
4.

Hoof digital pad


Sole of hoof
Wall of hoof
Hoof of accessory digit

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6-72

Avian: Skeleton of the Left Wing

3
4

2
A

C
B
6
8

11
9
10

The Forelimb

6-73

Avian: Skeleton of the Left Wing

1. Head of humerus
2. Dorsal tubercle
3. Ventral tubercle
4. Pneumatic foramen
5. Elbow joint
6. Ulnar carpal
7. Radial carpal
8. Carpometacarpals
9-11. II, III, and IV digits
Note: Partially extended laterally; dorsal surface. A, Humerus; B, ulna;
C, radius.

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6-73

Avian: Superficial Dissection of


the Laterally Extended Left Wing

2
4

7
5

The Forelimb

6-74

Avian: Superficial Dissection of


the Laterally Extended Left Wing








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Triceps
Biceps
Brachial vein
Skin fold (propatagium)
Extensor metacarpi radialis
Carpometacarpal joint
Subcutaneous part of radius
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Cutaneous ulnar (wing) vein

Note: Ventral surface

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6-74

The Hind Limb

Section 7: The Hind Limb


7-1

Canine: Hip Bone (Left Lateral View)

7-2

Canine: Hip Bone (Ventral View)

7-3

Canine: Sacrotuberous Ligament

7-4

Canine: Left Femur

7-5

Canine: Left Tibia and Fibula

7-6

Canine: Bones of the Tarsal Skeleton

7-7

Canine: Right Pes (Dorsal View)

7-8

Canine: Structure of the Adult Skin

7-9

Canine: Left Stifle Joint (Cranial View)

7-10

Canine: Left Stifle Joint Showing the Extent of the


Joint Capsule (Cranial View)

7-11

Canine: Left Stifle Joint with the Patella Removed


(Cranial View)

7-12

Canine: Muscles of the Hindquarter and Thigh

7-13

Canine: Male Perineal Region

7-14

Canine: Muscles of the Left Leg

7-15

Canine: Arteries of the Hind Limb

7-16

Canine: Pelvis with Extended and Flexed Hip Joints


(Ventrodorsal View)

7-17

Canine: Stifle (Lateral View)

7-18

Canine: Left Leg

7-19

Canine: Arteries of the Right Hind Limb (Medial View)

7-20

Canine: Hocks and Hind Paws (Dorsoplantar View)

7-21

Canine: Hock (Lateral View)

7-22

Canine: Cutaneous Innervation of the Hind Limb

The Hind Limb

Table of Contents

The Hind Limb

7-23

Canine: Bones of the Left Pelvic Limb

7-24

Canine: Muscle Attachments on the Pelvis and Left


Pelvic Limb (Lateral View)

7-25

Canine: Arteries of the Right Pelvic Limb

7-26

Canine: Veins of the Right Pelvic Limb

7-27

Canine: Distribution of Saphenous, Femoral, and


Obturator Nerves of the Right Pelvic Limb

7-28

Canine: Cranial and Caudal Gluteal Nerves and the


Sciatic Nerve of the Right Pelvic Limb

7-29

Canine: Schematic through the Left Hip Joint

7-30

Feline: Pelvis (Ventrodorsal and Lateral Views)

7-31

Feline: Stifle (Craniocaudal View)

7-32

Equine: Bones of the Tarsal Skeleton

7-33

Equine: Muscles of the Croup and Thigh (Lateral View)

7-34

Equine: Croup Muscles, Resected to Expose the


Ischial Tuber (Lateral View)

7-35

Equine: Left Stifle Joint (Cranial View)

7-36

Equine: Sagittal Section of the Hock Joint

7-37

Equine: Left Stifle and Leg (Lateral View)

7-38

Equine: Principal Arteries of the Right Hind Limb


(Medial View)

7-39

Equine: Lumbosacral Plexus and Nerve Supply to


Hind Limb

7-40

Equine: Nerves of the Right Hind Limb

7-41

Bovine: Bones of the Tarsal Skeleton

7-42

Bovine: Muscles of the Left Hind Limb (Lateral View)

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The Hind Limb

7-43

Bovine: Left Stifle Joint (Cranial View)

7-44

Bovine: Principal Arteries of the Right Hind Limb


(Medial View)

7-45

Bovine: Major Veins of the Right Hind Limb


(Medial View)

7-46

Bovine: Lymph Nodes of the Pelvis and Hind Limb

7-47

Bovine: Nerves of the Right Hind Limb (Medial View)

7-48

Porcine: Bones of the Tarsal Skeleton

7-49

Porcine: Lymph Flow of the Hind Limb (Lateral View)

The Hind Limb

Table of Contents

This page intentionally left blank

Canine: Hip Bone


(Left Lateral View)

2
4

7
9
8

The Hind Limb

7-1

Canine: Hip Bone


(Left Lateral View)








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Wing of ilium
Coxal tuberosity
Sacral tuberosity
Greater sciatic notch
Ischial spine
Pubis
Obturator foramen
Ischium
Ischial tuber

Note: The broken lines give the approximate extents of ilium, pubis,
and ischium.

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7-1

Canine: Hip Bone (Ventral View)

1
11

10
7

6
3

8
9

The Hind Limb

7-2

Canine: Hip Bone (Ventral View)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Wing of ilium
Pubis
Obturator foramen
Ischium
Ischial tuber
Lesser sciatic notch
Acetabulum
Pelvic symphysis
Ischial arch
Iliopubic eminence
Auricular articular surface

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7-2

Canine: Sacrotuberous Ligament

4
7

The Hind Limb

7-3

Canine: Sacrotuberous Ligament

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Ilium
Sacrum
Caudal vertebra(e)
Sacrotuberous ligament
Ischial spine
Acetabulum
Ischial tuber

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7-3

Canine: Left Femur

Cranial
view
1

Caudal
view

Lateral
view

5
3

7 10

7
11

6
8

8

12

13

Q: Which structure attaches to 1?

The Hind Limb

7-4

Canine: Left Femur

1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Head
Fovea
Neck
Greater trochanter
Lesser trochanter
Trochanteric fossa
Trochlea
Supracondylar tuberosities
Lateral condyle
Medial condyle
Intercondylar fossa
Patella
Sesamoid bones (in gastrocnemius)
Extensor fossa
Fossa for popliteus

A: Ligament of the femoral head.

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7-4

Canine: Left Tibia and Fibula

Lateral
view
1

Cranial
view
2

Caudal
view
3

2

6
7

The Hind Limb

7-5

Canine: Left Tibia and Fibula

1.
2.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
6.
7.

Tibial tuberosity
Lateral condyle
Medial condyle
Extensor groove
Intercondylar eminence
Fibula
Medial malleolus
Lateral malleolus
Cochlea

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7-5

Canine: Bones of the


Tarsal Skeleton

The Hind Limb

10

11

12

13

14

7-6

Canine: Bones of the


Tarsal Skeleton
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Tibia
Fibula
Talus
Calcaneus
Central tarsal bone
First tarsal bone
Second tarsal bone
Third tarsal bone
Fourth tarsal bone
First metatarsal bone
Second metatarsal bone
Third metatarsal bone
Fourth metatarsal bone
Fifth metatarsal bone

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7-6

Canine: Right Pes (Dorsal View)

1

5
I

IV

III

II

7
6

The Hind Limb

7-7

Canine: Right Pes (Dorsal View)

1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Calcaneus
Sustentaculum tali
Talus
Central tarsal
Fourth tarsal
First, second, and third tarsal bones in the distal row
Proximal sesamoid bones
Dorsal sesamoid bones

Note: The metacarpal bones (Roman numerals) are identified.

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7-7

Canine: Structure of the Adult Skin

Skin from the canine flank


6

4
3
2
1
Skin from a work feline footpad

6
5
4
3
2
1
1

The Hind Limb

7-8

Canine: Structure of the Adult Skin

1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Dermis
Dermal papilla
Stratum basale
Stratum spinosum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum lucidum
Stratum corneum

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7-8

Canine: Left Stifle Joint


(Cranial View)

2
3

5
6
7

Q: Which structure attaches to 3?

The Hind Limb

7-9

Canine: Left Stifle Joint


(Cranial View)






1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Femur
Sesamoids in the gastrocnemius
Patella
Extensor groove
Tibial tuberosity
Fibula
Tibia

A: Tendon of quadriceps femoris on its way to tibial tuberosity.

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7-9

Canine: Left Stifle Joint Showing


the Extent of the Joint Capsule
(Cranial View)

5
4

3
2

The Hind Limb

7-10

Canine: Left Stifle Joint Showing


the Extent of the Joint Capsule
(Cranial View)
1. Medial femoropatellar ligament
2. Patellar ligament
3. Tendon of the long digital extensor passing through the extensor
groove
4. Medial meniscus
5. Medial collateral ligament
6. Lateral femoropatellar ligament
7. Lateral collateral ligament

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7-10

Canine: Left Stifle Joint with the


Patella Removed (Cranial View)

9
7
11
8
10

4
2

3
1

The Hind Limb

7-11

Canine: Left Stifle Joint with the


Patella Removed (Cranial View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Fibula
Tibia
Patellar ligament
Medial meniscus
Medial collateral ligament
Lateral collateral ligament
Trochlea
Caudal cruciate ligament
Cranial cruciate ligament
Lateral meniscus
Stump of tendon of long digital extensor passing through
extensor groove

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7-11

Canine: Muscles of the


Hindquarter and Thigh

Lateral view

3
1

Medial view

2
6

10

8
1

1
6

Q: Which nerve supplies 9 and 10?

The Hind Limb

7-12

Canine: Muscles of the


Hindquarter and Thigh
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Sartorius
Tensor fasciae latae
Gluteus medius
Gluteus superficialis
Biceps
Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus
Quadriceps
Pectineus
Adductor

A: Obturator nerve.

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7-12

Canine: Male Perineal Region

1
3
2

4
5

The Hind Limb

7-13

Canine: Male Perineal Region

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Coccygeus
Levator ani
External anal sphincter
Bulbospongiosus
Ischiocavernosus
Retractor penis

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7-13

Canine: Muscles of the Left Leg

Lateral view

Medial view

1
2
3

5 6

3
7

8
6

The Hind Limb

7-14

Canine: Muscles of the Left Leg

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Biceps
Semitendinosus
Gastrocnemius
Tibialis cranialis
Fibularis longus
Lateral deep digital flexor
Superficial digital flexor
Long digital extensor

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7-14

Canine: Arteries of the Hind Limb

4
1

6
3
5

7
8
11

10
12

14
15

13

16

17

The Hind Limb

7-15

Canine: Arteries of the Hind Limb

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Abdominal aorta
Left external iliac artery
Left and right internal iliac arteries
Cranial gluteal artery
Deep femoral artery
Caudal gluteal artery
Lateral circumflex femoral artery
Femoral artery
Saphenous artery
Descending genicular artery
Distal caudal femoral artery
Popliteal artery
Cranial tibial artery
Caudal tibial artery
Cranial branch of the saphenous artery
Caudal branch of the saphenous artery
Dorsal pedal artery

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7-15

Canine: Pelvis with Extended


and Flexed Hip Joints
(Ventrodorsal View)

Extended

Flexed
1
1

2
2
3

7
4

7
6

4
3
6

The Hind Limb

7-16

Canine: Pelvis with Extended


and Flexed Hip Joints
(Ventrodorsal View)
1.
2.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Last lumbar vertebra (L7)


Shaft of ilium
Sacroiliac joint
Dorsal border of the acetabulum superimposed on the femoral
head
Greater trochanter
Trochanteric fossa
Ischial tuber
Obturator foramen
Os penis superimposed on the vertebrae

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7-16

Canine: Stifle (Lateral View)

1
3
3
4

5
4

The Hind Limb

7-17

Canine: Stifle (Lateral View)

1.
1.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.
5.

Femur
Extensor fossa
Patella
Sesamoid bones in the gastrocnemius
Popliteal sesamoid bone
Tibia
Tibial tuberosity
Fibula

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7-17

Canine: Left Leg

Medial

Cranial
3
12

9
7

11
10

4
5

Q: Why is this the left leg?

The Hind Limb

7-18

Canine: Left Leg

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Popliteus
Saphenous artery
Medial head of the gastrocnemius
Lateral saphenous vein
Biceps
Superficial digital flexor
Deep digital flexor
Fibula
Cranial tibial vessels
Fibularis longus
Long digital extensor
Tibialis cranialis

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7-18

Canine: Arteries of the Right


Hind Limb (Medial View)

4
5
3
6

The Hind Limb

7-19

Canine: Arteries of the Right


Hind Limb (Medial View)





1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Femoral artery
Popliteal artery
Cranial tibial artery passing between the tibia and fibula
Saphenous artery
Caudal branch of the saphenous artery
Cranial branches of the saphenous artery

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7-19

Canine: Hocks and Hind Paws


(Dorsoplantar View)

3

4
6

2
3

6
5

Med.
7

The Hind Limb

7

7-20

Canine: Hocks and Hind Paws


(Dorsoplantar View)
1.
2.
3.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
7.

Tibia
Fibula
Calcaneus
Sustentaculum tali
Talus
Fourth tarsal bone
Central tarsal bone
Second metatarsal bone
Fifth metatarsal bone

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7-20

Canine: Hock (Lateral View)

3
2

4

The Hind Limb

7-21

Canine: Hock (Lateral View)

1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.
5.
6.

Tibia and fibula


Calcaneus
Sustentaculum tali
Talus
Trochlea of talus
Superimposed fourth and central tarsal bones
Palmar tubercle on the fourth tarsal bone
Distal row of the tarsal bones
Metatarsal bones

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7-21

Canine: Cutaneous Innervation


of the Hind Limb

a
2

b
1

3
c

4
5

7
Lateral

The Hind Limb

Medial

7-22

Canine: Cutaneous Innervation


of the Hind Limb






1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Caudal cutaneous femoral nerve


Lateral cutaneous femoral nerve
Genitofemoral nerve
Saphenous nerve
Sciatic nerve
Peroneal nerve
Tibial nerve

Note: A, Position of the greater trochanter; B, ischial tuber; C, lateral


tibial condyle; D, medial femoral condyle.

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7-22

Canine: Bones of the Left


Pelvic Limb

10
2
3

11

4
5

12

The Hind Limb

13

7-23

Canine: Bones of the Left


Pelvic Limb
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Ilium, ischium, pubis


Femur
Thigh
Tibia, fibula
Leg (crus)
Tarsus
Metatarsus
Digits
Sacroiliac joint
Hip joint
Flexor surface of the stifle joint
Tarsal joints
Flexor surface of the digital joints

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7-23

Canine: Muscle Attachments on


the Pelvis and Left Pelvic Limb
(Lateral View)
11
12
13

1
2
3
4
5

14
15

16

17
18
19
20
21

6
7
8

22
23

24
25

10

26
27
28

10

The Hind Limb

26
27
28

7-24

Canine: Muscle Attachments on


the Pelvis and Left Pelvic Limb
(Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

Rectus femoris
Pectineus
Rectus abdominis
Superficial gluteal
Vastus lateralis
Long digital extensor
Quadriceps
Biceps femoris
Cranial tibial
Long digital extensor
Middle gluteal
Deep gluteal
Biceps femoris
Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus
Adductor
Gracilis
Adductor
Gastrocnemius
Popliteus
Fibularis longus
Lateral digital flexor
Lateral digital extensor
Gastrocnemius
Superficial digital flexor
Lateral digital extensor
Superficial digital flexor
Deep digital flexor

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7-24

Canine: Arteries of the Right


Pelvic Limb
2

3
27

4
5
6

26

7
8
9

25
24
23
22

10
11
12

21
20
19

13
14

18
17

16
15

The Hind Limb

7-25

Canine: Arteries of the Right


Pelvic Limb
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

Internal pudendal artery


Median sacral artery
Caudal gluteal artery
Iliolumbar artery
Cranial gluteal artery
Lateral caudal artery
Caudal gluteal artery
Prostatic or vaginal artery
Medial circumflex femoral artery
Proximal caudal femoral artery
Middle caudal femoral artery
Distal caudal femoral artery
Cranial branch of the saphenous artery
Caudal branch of the saphenous artery
Perforating ramus artery
Dorsal pedal artery
Cranial tibial artery
Popliteal artery
Descending genicular artery
Saphenous artery
Femoral artery
Lateral circumflex femoral artery
Pudendoepigastric trunk artery
Deep femoral artery
Left and right external iliac arteries
Aorta artery
Left and right internal iliac arteries

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7-25

Canine: Veins of the Right


Pelvic Limb
1

26

25

24

4
5
6

23
22
21
20
19
18
17

7
8
9
10
11
12

16
15

14

The Hind Limb

13

7-26

Canine: Veins of the Right


Pelvic Limb
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

Iliolumbar vein
Prostatic or vaginal vein
Cranial gluteal vein
Lateral caudal vein
Caudal gluteal vein
Internal pudendal vein
Proximal caudal femoral veins
Medial saphenous vein
Middle caudal femoral vein
Distal caudal femoral vein
Lateral saphenous vein
Caudal tibial vein
Caudal rami of the medial and lateral saphenous veins
Cranial rami of the medial and lateral saphenous veins
Cranial tibial vein
Popliteal vein
Descending genicular vein
Femoral vein
Lateral circumflex femoral vein
Pudendoepigastric trunk vein
Deep femoral vein
External iliac vein
Caudal vena cava vein
Left and right common iliac vein
Median sacral vein
Internal iliac vein

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7-26

Canine: Distribution of Saphenous,


Femoral, and Obturator Nerves
of the Right Pelvic Limb

8
1
2
4

9
11
3

5
6
7

The Hind Limb

10
12 13

7-27

Canine: Distribution of Saphenous,


Femoral, and Obturator Nerves
of the Right Pelvic Limb
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Femoral nerve
To iliopsoas muscle
To quadriceps femoris
Saphenous nerve
To sartorius (cranial part)
To sartorius (caudal part)
Cutaneous nerve
Obturator nerve
To external obturator
To adductor longus
To pectineus
To adductor magnus and brevis
To gracilis

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7-27

Canine: Cranial and Caudal Gluteal


Nerves and the Sciatic Nerve
of the Right Pelvic Limb
1
7

5
2

3
4

9
28

10

22

11
12
14
15 16
17

13

23
25
26

19
24

20
21

27
18

The Hind Limb

7-28

Canine: Cranial and Caudal Gluteal


Nerves and the Sciatic Nerve
of the Right Pelvic Limb
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

Cranial gluteal nerve


Middle gluteal
Deep gluteal
Tensor fasciae latae
Caudal gluteal nerve
Superficial gluteal
Sciatic nerve
Gemelli (internal obturator and quadratus femoris)
Biceps femoris
Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus
Caudal cutaneous sural
Tibial nerve
Gastrocnemius
Superficial digital flexor
Popliteus
Deep digital flexors
Plantar muscles
Superficial fibular nerve
Lateral digital extensor
Fibularis brevis
Common fibular nerve
Fibularis longus
Deep fibular nerve
Cranial tibial and long digital extensor
External digiti longus
External digitorum brevis
Lateral cutaneous sural

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7-28

Canine: Schematic through


the Left Hip Joint

1
2

2
5
6

R
7
8

2
3
4

The Hind Limb

7-29

Canine: Schematic through


the Left Hip Joint
1. Gluteus medius
2. Acetabulum, connected to the femoral head by the ligament of
the head of the femur
2. Fibrous rim (labrum) of acetabulum
2. Transverse acetabular ligament
3. Femur
4. Biceps
5. Rectum
6. Vagina
7. Urethra
8. Obturator foramen
9. Pelvic floor
Note: Transverse section.

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7-29

Feline: Pelvis (Ventrodorsal [Top]


and Lateral [Bottom] Views)

1
2

2
3

3

3
4 5

4
3
5

The Hind Limb

7-30

Feline: Pelvis (Ventrodorsal [Top]


and Lateral [Bottom] Views)
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
3.
4.
5.

Last lumbar vertebra (L7)


Shaft of ilium
Sacroiliac joint
Greater trochanter
Trochanteric fossa
Lesser trochanter
Ischial tuber
Obturator foramen

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7-30

Feline: Stifle (Craniocaudal View)

2
3

1

4
4

The Hind Limb

7-31

Feline: Stifle (Craniocaudal View)

1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.

Femur
Lateral condyle
Patella
Sesamoid bones in gastrocnemius
Tibia
Tibial crest
Fibula

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7-31

Equine: Bones of the Tarsal


Skeleton

5
67

10

The Hind Limb

9
8

11

12

7-32

Equine: Bones of the Tarsal


Skeleton
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Tibia
Fibula
Talus
Calcaneus
Central tarsal bone
First tarsal bone
Second tarsal bone
Third tarsal bone
Fourth tarsal bone
Second metatarsal bone
Third metatarsal bone
Fourth metatarsal bone

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7-32

Equine: Muscles of the Croup


and Thigh (Lateral View)

2
5

7
3

3

5

Q: Does the biceps femoris muscle contribute to the common calcanean tendon?

The Hind Limb

7-33

Equine: Muscles of the Croup


and Thigh (Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
7.

Coxal tuber
Deep gluteal fascia
Tensor fasciae latae
Fascia lata
Gluteus superficialis
Vertebral head of the biceps
Three distal divisions of the biceps
Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus

A: Yes.

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7-33

Equine: Croup Muscles, Resected


to Expose the Ischial Tuber
(Lateral View)

1
2
7
8
9
11

6
3
10

The Hind Limb

7-34

Equine: Croup Muscles, Resected


to Expose the Ischial Tuber
(Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Coxal tuber
Gluteus medius
Gluteus superficialis
Vertebral head of biceps
Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus
Sacrosciatic ligament
Ischial tuber
Caudal part of the greater trochanter
Third trochanter
Stump of the rectus femoris

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


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7-34

Equine: Left Stifle Joint


(Cranial View)

2
4

9
10

6
11

9

11

10

12

13

The Hind Limb

7-35

Equine: Left Stifle Joint


(Cranial View)
1. Adductor
2. Rectus femoris
3. Vastus lateralis
4. Outline of patella
5. Outline of the patellar fibrocartilage
6. Medial patellar ligament
7. Lateral patellar ligament
8. Joint capsule over the medial ridge of the femoral trochlea
9. Medial collateral ligament
9. Lateral collateral ligament
10. Medial femorotibial joint capsule
10. Lateral femorotibial joint capsule
11. Medial meniscus
11. Lateral meniscus
12. Tibial tuberosity
13. Tibialis cranialis

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7-35

Equine: Sagittal Section of the


Hock Joint

1

3

8
4

9
7
12

The Hind Limb

5
6

10
11

7-36

Equine: Sagittal Section of the


Hock Joint
1.
1.
2.
3.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Superficial digital flexor


Subtendinous calcanean bursa
Gastrocnemius
Calcaneus
Sustentaculum tali
Talus
Central tarsal
Third tarsal
Fourth tarsal (mainly on lateral side)
Tarsocrural joint
Proximal intertarsal joint (communicates with the tarsocrural
joint)
10. Distal intertarsal joint
11. Tarsometatarsal joint
12. Tarsal sheath

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7-36

Equine: Left Stifle and Leg


(Lateral View)

2
3

1
4

6
7
8

9
10

Q: Which nerve supplies 5 and 6?

The Hind Limb

7-37

Equine: Left Stifle and Leg


(Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Distal divisions of biceps


Semitendinosus
Gastrocnemius
Soleus
Long digital extensor
Lateral digital extensor
Deep digital flexors
Superficial digital flexor
Proximal, middle, and distal extensor retinacula
Extensor digitalis brevis

A: Common peroneal (fibular) nerve.

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7-37

Equine: Principal Arteries of the


Right Hind Limb (Medial View)

5
3

6
9

10

12
11

13
14

15
16

17

The Hind Limb

7-38

Equine: Principal Arteries of the


Right Hind Limb (Medial View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

External iliac artery


Obturator artery
Femoral artery
Deep femoral artery
Pudendoepigastric trunk
Medial circumflex femoral artery
Lateral circumflex femoral artery
Saphenous artery
Caudal femoral artery
Popliteal artery
Cranial tibial artery
Caudal tibial artery
Perforating tarsal artery
Dorsal metatarsal artery
Medial and lateral plantar arteries
Medial and lateral plantar metatarsal arteries
Medial and lateral digital arteries

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7-38

Equine: Lumbosacral Plexus and


Nerve Supply to Hind Limb

L4

L5 L6

1

S1 S2 S3 S4

7
8
3 4

11
10
9

L5 L6 S1S2
L4
1

2
5

1

5 6
5
6

5
5
6
6

The Hind Limb

7-39

Equine: Lumbosacral Plexus and


Nerve Supply to Hind Limb
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
5.
5.
6.
6.
6.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Femoral nerve
Saphenous nerve
Obturator nerve
Cranial gluteal nerve
Sciatic nerve
Common peroneal nerve
Lateral cutaneous sural nerve
Superficial peroneal nerves
Deep peroneal nerves
Tibial nerve
Caudal cutaneous sural nerve
Medial plantar nerve (gives rise to medial plantar digital nerve)
Lateral plantar nerve (gives rise to plantar metatarsal nerves)
Caudal gluteal nerve
Caudal cutaneous femoral nerve
Pudendal nerve
Pelvic nerve
Caudal rectal nerve

Note: A, The lumbosacral plexus, schematic (diagram). B, The principal nerves (medial view).

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7-39

Equine: Nerves of the Right


Hind Limb

1
2

3

1

4
4
6

5

7
Medial

The Hind Limb

Plantar

Lateral

7-40

Equine: Nerves of the Right


Hind Limb
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.
5.
5.
6.
7.

Medial plantar nerves (from tibial)


Communicating branch
Lateral plantar nerves (from the tibial)
Deep branch (for the plantar metatarsal nerves), cut
Medial dorsal metatarsal nerve (from the deep peroneal nerve)
Lateral dorsal metatarsal nerves (from the deep peroneal)
Medial plantar metatarsal nerves (from the lateral plantar, deep
branch)
Lateral plantar metatarsal nerves (from the lateral plantar, deep
branch)
Medial plantar digital nerve
Lateral plantar digital nerve
Dorsal branch of the digital nerve
Branch to the digital cushion

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7-40

Bovine: Bones of the Tarsal


Skeleton

1
2

5
6

78

10

The Hind Limb

11

7-41

Bovine: Bones of the Tarsal


Skeleton
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Tibia
Fibula
Talus
Calcaneus
Central tarsal bone
First tarsal bone
Second tarsal bone
Third tarsal bone
Fourth tarsal bone
Third metatarsal bone
Fourth metatarsal bone

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


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7-41

Bovine: Muscles of the Left


Hind Limb (Lateral View)

2
1
4
5
4

4
6
9
8

10
11
9
10
12
13
14

The Hind Limb

7-42

Bovine: Muscles of the Left


Hind Limb (Lateral View)

1. Tensor fasciae latae

2. Gluteus medius

3. Ischial tuber
4, 4, 4. Biceps transected at 4

5. Semitendinosus

6. Lateral head of the gastrocnemius

7. Tibialis cranialis

8. Long digital extensor
9, 9. Fibularis longus

10. Lateral digital extensor

11. Lateral digital flexor

12. Tendon of the superficial digital flexor

13. Combined tendon of the deep digital flexors

14. Interosseus

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7-42

Bovine: Left Stifle Joint


(Cranial View)

2
2

4

5
6

10
9
7

The Hind Limb

7-43

Bovine: Left Stifle Joint


(Cranial View)
1.
2.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Femur
Patella
Fibrocartilage of the patella
Lateral patellar ligament
Intermediate patellar ligament
Medial patellar ligament
Lateral collateral ligament
Lateral meniscus
Tibial tuberosity
Medial ridge of the femoral trochlea
Medial collateral ligament
Medial meniscus

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7-43

Bovine: Principal Arteries of the


Right Hind Limb (Medial View)

1
2
6

8
9
7

11
10

12
13

The Hind Limb

7-44

Bovine: Principal Arteries of the


Right Hind Limb (Medial View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

External iliac artery


Deep circumflex iliac artery
Internal iliac artery
Caudal gluteal artery
Deep femoral artery
Femoral artery
Saphenous artery
Caudal femoral artery
Popliteal artery
Cranial tibial artery
Caudal tibial artery
Dorsal metatarsal artery
Medial and lateral plantar arteries; metatarsal (closer to the
bone) artery

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7-44

Bovine: Major Veins of the Right


Hind Limb (Medial View)

5
7
9

2
8

10
11

The Hind Limb

7-45

Bovine: Major Veins of the Right


Hind Limb (Medial View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

External pudendal vein


Cranial mammary vein
Ventral labial vein
Femoral vein
Medial saphenous vein
Caudal femoral vein
Caudal tibial vein
Cranial tibial vein
Lateral saphenous vein
Cranial tributary of lateral saphenous vein
Medial and lateral plantar veins

Note: Right limb; medial view

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7-45

Bovine: Lymph Nodes of the


Pelvis and Hind Limb

5
6
1

8
10
9
11

The Hind Limb

7-46

Bovine: Lymph Nodes of the


Pelvis and Hind Limb
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Lateral iliac lymph node


Coxal lymph node
Medial iliac and sacral lymph nodes
Deep inguinal lymph node
Gluteal lymph node
Ischial lymph node
Tuberal lymph node
Superficial inguinal (mammary) lymph node
Popliteal lymph node
Subiliac lymph node
Linea alba

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7-46

Bovine: Nerves of the Right


Hind Limb (Medial View)

5
4

7
8

10
9

The Hind Limb

7-47

Bovine: Nerves of the Right


Hind Limb (Medial View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Obturator nerve
Femoral nerve
Sciatic nerve
Saphenous nerve
Common peroneal nerve
Tibial nerve
Superficial peroneal nerve
Deep peroneal nerve
Dorsal common digital nerve III
Medial and lateral plantar nerves

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7-47

Porcine: Bones of the


Tarsal Skeleton

5
6 7

10

The Hind Limb

11

12

13

7-48

Porcine: Bones of the


Tarsal Skeleton
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Tibia
Fibula
Talus
Calcaneus
Central tarsal bone
First tarsal bone
Second tarsal bone
Third tarsal bone
Fourth tarsal bone
Second metatarsal bone
Third metatarsal bone
Fourth metatarsal bone
Fifth metatarsal bone

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7-48

Porcine: Lymph Flow of the


Hind Limb (Lateral View)

4

5
6
7

The Hind Limb

7-49

Porcine: Lymph Flow of the


Hind Limb (Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Lumbar aortic nodes


Medial iliac nodes
Lateral iliac node
Ischial node
Gluteal nodes
Subiliac nodes
Superficial inguinal nodes
Popliteal nodes

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7-49

Exotics

Section 8: Exotics
8-1

Murine: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen of Adult


Female Rat (Lateral View)

8-2

Murine: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen of Adult


Female Rat (Ventral View)

8-3

Murine: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen of Adult


Female Rat (Ventral View)

8-4

Murine: Skull of a 5-Month-Old Rat (Lateral View)

8-5

Murine: Skull of a 5-Month-Old Rat (Ventral View)

8-6

Murine: Gastrointestinal Positive Contrast Study in an


Adult Male Rat (Lateral View)

8-7

Murine: Gastrointestinal Positive Contrast Study in an


Adult Male Rat (Ventral View)

8-8

Leporine: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen of


Adult Male Rabbit (Lateral View)

8-9

Leporine: Dissected Large Intestine of a Rabbit

8-10

Leporine: Dissected Postparturient Rabbit Uterus


(Dorsal Surface)

8-11

Leporine: Skull of Rabbit (Lateral View)

8-12

Leporine: Rabbit Skull Showing Dentition of Mandible,


Maxilla, and Individual Tooth (Lateral View)

8-13

Leporine: Stifle Joint of an Adult Male Rabbit (Lateral


View)

8-14

Leporine: Elbow Joint of an Adult Male Rabbit (Lateral


View)

8-15

Exotics

Musteline: Skeletal Anatomy of a Ferret

Table of Contents

Exotics

8-16

Musteline: Anatomy of the Viscera and Most Important


Blood Vessels in a Ferret (After Removal of the Lungs,
Liver, and Gastrointestinal Tract)

8-17

Musteline: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen of


Adult Female Ferret (Lateral View)

8-18

Musteline: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen of


Adult Female Ferret (Ventral View)

8-19

Musteline: Skull of a Ferret with Mouth Open (Lateral


View)

8-20

Cavine: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen of Adult


Female Guinea Pig (Lateral View)

8-21

Cavine: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen of Adult


Male Guinea Pig (Lateral View)

8-22

Cavine: Skull of a Guinea Pig (Ventral View)

8-23

Cavine: Distal Thoracic Limb of an Adult Male Guinea


Pig (Palmer View)

8-24

Cricetine: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen of


Adult Female Hamster (Lateral View)

8-25

Cricetine: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen of


Adult Male Hamster (Lateral View)

8-26

Cricetine: Skull of a Hamster (Lateral View)

8-27

Chinchilline: Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen of


Adult Male Chinchilla (Ventral View)

8-28

Chinchilline: Gastrointestinal Positive Contrast Study


in an Adult Male Chinchilla (Lateral Views)

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8
8-29

Exotics

Cricetine: Internal Anatomy of a Male Gerbil (Ventral


View)

8-30

Erinaceinae: Internal Anatomy of a Female Hedgehog


(Ventral View)

8-31

Erinaceinae: Hedgehog Muscles Used for Curling


Body and Spinal Control

8-32

Lacertilian: Internal Anatomy of a Savannah Monitor


Lizard (Ventral View)

8-33

Lacertilian: Lizard Heart (Dorsal [Top] and Ventral


[Bottom] Views)

8-34

Serpentine: Internal Anatomy of a Male Snake (Ventral


View)

8-35

Serpentine: Snake Heart (Dorsal [Left] and Ventral


[Right] Views)

8-36

Chelonian: Internal Anatomy of a Tortoise (Lateral


View)

8-37

Chelonian: Plastron and Carapace Scutes of a


Tortoise

8-38

Reptilian: General Circulation in a Non-Crocodilian


Reptile

8-39

Bufotenine: Internal Anatomy of a Frog (Ventral View)

8-40

Piscine: Internal Anatomy of a Goldfish (Lateral View)

Exotics

Table of Contents

This page intentionally left blank

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Kathy West

Murine: Viscera of the Thorax and


Abdomen of Adult Female Rat
(Lateral View)

Exotics

8-1

Murine: Viscera of the Thorax and


Abdomen of Adult Female Rat
(Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Trachea
Esophagus
Heart
Lung
Diaphragm
Liver
Stomach
Spleen
Left adrenal gland
Left kidney
Left ovary
Small intestine
Cecum
Descending colon
Left horn of uterus
Urinary bladder

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8-1

Murine: Viscera of the Thorax and


Abdomen of Adult Female Rat
(Ventral View)

1
2

11

4
12
5
6
7

13
14
15

8
9
16
17
10

Kathy West

Exotics

8-2

Murine: Viscera of the Thorax and


Abdomen of Adult Female Rat
(Ventral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Trachea
Esophagus
Heart
Diaphragm
Spleen
Left adrenal gland
Stomach
Left ovary
Cecum
Urinary bladder
Lung
Liver
Right adrenal gland
Right kidney
Small intestine
Right horn of uterus
Descending colon

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


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8-2

Murine: Viscera of the Thorax and


Abdomen of Adult Female Rat
(Ventral View)

3
4
5
6
7
8

10

Exotics

8-3

Murine: Viscera of the Thorax and


Abdomen of Adult Female Rat
(Ventral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Trachea
Cranial mediastinum
Heart
Lung
Liver
Stomach
Left kidney
Cecum
Urinary bladder
Scrotum

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-3

19 20 21
16 18
14 15 16 14 16 17

13

4 5

7 8 9

10 11 12

Murine: Skull of a 5-Month-Old


Rat (Lateral View)

Exotics

8-4

Murine: Skull of a 5-Month-Old


Rat (Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

Nasal bone
Incisive bone
Nasal cavity
Ethmoturbinates
Maxillary molar teeth
Frontal bone
Temporal bone
Parietal bone
Petrous part of the temporal bone
External occipital protuberance
Occipital bone
Occipital condyle
Maxillary incisor tooth
Mandibular incisor tooth
Maxilla
Mandible
Mandibular molar teeth
Zygomatic process of temporal bone
Angular process of mandible
Tympanic cavity
Tympanic bullae

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-4

Murine: Skull of a 5-Month-Old


Rat (Ventral View)

1
2
11
12

3
4

13
14
15
16

5
6

17
18

7
8
9

19
20

10

21
22
23
R

Exotics

8-5

Murine: Skull of a 5-Month-Old


Rat (Ventral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

Nasal bone
Maxillary incisor tooth
Incisive bone
Infraorbital hiatus
Palatine bone
Coronoid process of mandible
Tympanic bulla
Angular process of mandible
Parietal bone
Occipital bone
Mandibular incisor tooth
Maxilla
Zygomatic process of maxilla
Nasal cavity
Mandible
Zygomatic bone
Pterygoid bone
Basisphenoid bone
Tympanic cavity
Ear canal
Paracondylar process of occipital bone
Occipital condyle
Foramen magnum

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-5

Murine: Gastrointestinal Positive


Contrast Study in an Adult Male
Rat (Lateral View)

Exotics

8-6

Murine: Gastrointestinal Positive


Contrast Study in an Adult Male
Rat (Lateral View)



1.
2.
3.
4.

Liver
Stomach
Small intestine
Colon

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-6

Murine: Gastrointestinal Positive


Contrast Study in an Adult Male
Rat (Ventral View)

1
2

Exotics

8-7

Murine: Gastrointestinal Positive


Contrast Study in an Adult Male
Rat (Ventral View)
1. Liver
2. Stomach
3. Small intestine

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-7

3 4 5

9 10

10 11

Leporine: Viscera of the Thorax


and Abdomen of Adult Male
Rabbit (Lateral View)

Exotics

8-8

Leporine: Viscera of the Thorax


and Abdomen of Adult Male
Rabbit (Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Trachea
Heart
Pulmonary vasculature
Caudal vena cava
Lung
Liver
Stomach
Kidney
Cecum
Colon
Urinary bladder

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-8

Leporine: Dissected Large


Intestine of a Rabbit

8
1
6

4
3

2
5

Exotics

8-9

Leporine: Dissected Large


Intestine of a Rabbit







1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Ileum
Sacculus rotundus
Body of cecum (note the long spiral fold along its length)
Vermiform appendix
Ampulla coli
Proximal colon
Fusus coli
Distal colon

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-9

Leporine: Dissected Postparturient


Rabbit Uterus (Dorsal Surface)

23

22
21

20
19

3
4

18
5
17

16

15
14

9
8

10
11

Exotics

13
12

8-10

Leporine: Dissected Postparturient


Rabbit Uterus (Dorsal Surface)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

Left uterine horn


Vaginal fornix
Left ureter
Urinary bladder
Urethra
Vaginal vestibule
Greater vestibular gland
Clitoris
Corpus
Preputium
Glans
Greater lip of pudenda
Lesser lip of pudenda
Constrictor muscle of vestibule
Preputial gland
Vestibular bulb
External urethral opening
Vagina (ventral floor)
Right ureter
Uterine broad ligament
External uterine ostium
Right vaginal cervix
Right uterine horn

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-10

20
19
15
14

1 2

45 6

15

16

9 10

17 18

11 12 13

21 22

Leporine: Skull of Rabbit


(Lateral View)

Exotics

8-11

Leporine: Skull of Rabbit


(Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

Maxillary incisor tooth


Incisive bone
Second maxillary incisor tooth
Nasoturbinates
Nasal bone
Nasal cavity
Maxilla
Ethmoturbinates
Maxillary premolar and molar teeth
Frontal bone
Condylar process of mandible
Parietal bone
Temporal bone
Mandibular incisor tooth
Mandible
Mandibular premolar and molar teeth
Rostral margin of mandibular ramus
Zygomatic bone
Tympanic bulla
Tympanic cavity
Occipital bone
External occipital protuberance

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-11

Leporine: Rabbit Skull Showing


Dentition of Mandible, Maxilla, and
Individual Tooth (Lateral View)

1
6
7
8

2
4

Exotics

8-12

Leporine: Rabbit Skull Showing


Dentition of Mandible, Maxilla, and
Individual Tooth (Lateral View)







1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Upper cheek teeth


Upper incisor
Peg tooth
Lower incisor
Lower cheek teeth
Clinical crown
Reserve crown
Apex

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-12

Leporine: Stifle Joint of an Adult


Male Rabbit (Lateral View)

1
6
7

3
4

9
5

Exotics

8-13

Leporine: Stifle Joint of an Adult


Male Rabbit (Lateral View)








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Femur
Fabellae
Medial femoral condyle
Fibula
Tibia
Patella
Femoral epicondyle
Lateral femoral condyle
Tibial crest

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-13

Leporine: Elbow Joint of an Adult


Male Rabbit (Lateral View)

1
2
7
8

3
4

Exotics

8-14

Leporine: Elbow Joint of an Adult


Male Rabbit (Lateral View)








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Medial humeral epicondyle


Olecranon of ulna
Anconeal process of ulna
Trochlear notch of ulna
Ulna
Humerus
Humeral condyle
Humeroradial joint space
Radius

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-14

Exotics

31

22

10

32

21

29 28

30

20
23
25

26
27

24

14

13

6
4

12

18

19

11
15

16
17

Musteline: Skeletal Anatomy


of a Ferret

8-15

Musteline: Skeletal Anatomy


of a Ferret
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Calvaria
Hyoid apparatus
Larynx
Seven cervical vertebrae
Clavicle
Scapula
Fifteen thoracic vertebrae
Five lumbar vertebrae
Three sacral vertebrae
Eighteen caudal vertebrae
First rib
Manubrium
Sternum
Xiphoid process
Humerus
Radius

17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

Ulna
Carpal bones
Metacarpal bones
Ilium
Ischium
Pubis
Femur
Patella
Fabella
Tibia
Fibula
Tarsal bones
Calcaneus
Metatarsal bones
Talus
Os penis

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-15

Musteline: Anatomy of the Viscera and


Most Important Blood Vessels in a Ferret
(After Removal of the Lungs, Liver, and
Gastrointestinal Tract)

5
6
7
8
9
11
12

10

13
14

15
16
17

18
1

19
20
19
22
23

21
25

24
26
27
29
30

3
28
2
32
34

31
33
35
36
4

Exotics

8-16

Musteline: Anatomy of the Viscera and


Most Important Blood Vessels in a Ferret
(After Removal of the Lungs, Liver, and
Gastrointestinal Tract)




1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

Diaphragm
Uterus
Ureter
Urinary bladder
Right common carotid
artery
Left common carotid artery
Vertebral artery
Costocervical artery
Superficial cervical artery
Axillary artery
Right subclavian artery
Right internal thoracic artery
Left internal thoracic artery
Branch to thymus
Left subclavian artery
Brachiocephalic
(innominate) artery
Cranial vena cava
Aortic arch
Right atrium
Pulmonary trunk
Left atrium
Right ventricle

23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.

Left ventricle
Caudal vena cava
Aorta
Esophagus
Hepatic veins
Celiac artery
Cranial mesenteric artery
Left adrenolumbar vein
Left adrenal gland
Right adrenal gland
Left renal artery and vein
Left kidney
Suspensory ligament of
ovary
Left ovarian artery and vein
Left ovary
Left deep circumflex iliac
artery and vein
Caudal mesenteric artery
Broad ligament of uterus
Left external iliac artery
Right common iliac vein
Left internal iliac artery
Rectum

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-16

8
10 11 10 12
2
2

5 2
3
2

13

14

Musteline: Viscera of the Thorax


and Abdomen of Adult Female
Ferret (Lateral View)

Exotics

8-17

Musteline: Viscera of the Thorax


and Abdomen of Adult Female
Ferret (Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Trachea (endotracheal tube within lumen)


Lung
Pulmonary vasculature
Bronchus
Pulmonary vein
Stomach
Kidney
Spleen
Colon
Intrathoracic adipose tissue
Heart
Liver
Small intestine
Urinary bladder

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-17

Musteline: Viscera of the Thorax


and Abdomen of Adult Female
Ferret (Ventral View)

1
2
3
11

4
5

2
6
7

12

13
9
8
10

Exotics

8-18

Musteline: Viscera of the Thorax


and Abdomen of Adult Female
Ferret (Ventral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Trachea (endotracheal tube within lumen)


Lung
Cranial mediastinum
Left primary bronchus
Heart
Liver
Stomach
Spleen
Left kidney
Urinary bladder
Right primary bronchus
Small intestine
Right kidney

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-18

Musteline: Skull of a Ferret with


Mouth Open (Lateral View)

3 4 5

7 8

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Exotics

10

11 12 13 14

26 27

28

15

29

8-19

Musteline: Skull of a Ferret with


Mouth Open (Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.

Maxillary incisor tooth


Incisive bone
Nasal bone
Nasal cavity
Maxillary premolar and molar teeth
Nasoturbinates
Palatine bone
Ethmoturbinates
Frontal bone
Parietal bone
Temporal bone
Petrous part of temporal bone
Basal part of occipital bone
External occipital protuberance
Occipital bone
Maxillary canine tooth
Mandibular incisor tooth
Mandibular canine tooth
Mandibular premolar tooth
Mental foramen
Mandible
Mandibular molar tooth
Coronoid process of mandible
Condylar process of mandible
Angular process of mandible
Hyoid bones
Tympanic cavity
Tympanic bullae
Occipital condyle

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-19

67

8 9

10 1112 13

14

15

Kathy West

Cavine: Viscera of the Thorax and


Abdomen of Adult Female Guinea
Pig (Lateral View)

Exotics

8-20

Cavine: Viscera of the Thorax and


Abdomen of Adult Female Guinea
Pig (Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Trachea
Esophagus
Lung
Heart
Liver
Stomach
Spleen
Left adrenal gland
Small intestine
Left kidney
Cecum
Left ovary
Descending colon
Left horn of uterus
Urinary bladder

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-20

2 3

10

Cavine: Viscera of the Thorax and


Abdomen of Adult Male Guinea
Pig (Lateral View)

Exotics

8-21

Cavine: Viscera of the Thorax and


Abdomen of Adult Male Guinea
Pig (Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Trachea
Heart
Lung
Stomach
Kidney
Colon
Scrotum
Liver
Cecum
Urinary bladder

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-21

Cavine: Skull of a Guinea Pig


(Ventral View)

1
2
14
3
4

15
16
17

5
18

6
7
8

19

20
21

10

22
23

11

24

12
13

25
R

Exotics

8-22

Cavine: Skull of a Guinea Pig


(Ventral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

Nasal bone
Maxillary incisor tooth
Mandibular incisor tooth
Maxilla
Zygomatic process of maxilla
Palatine bone
Mandible
Zygomatic bone
Pterygoid bone
Tympanic cavity
Foramen magnum
Angular process of mandible
Paracondylar process of occipital bone
Incisive bone
Vomer
Nasal cavity
Infraorbital hiatus
Premolar and molar teeth
Rostral margin of pinna
Basisphenoid bone
Tympanic bulla
Ear canal
Occipital bone
Caudal margin of pinna
External occipital protuberance

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-22

Cavine: Distal Thoracic Limb


of an Adult Male Guinea Pig
(Palmer View)

1
2

10
11
12
13

14

4
5
6

15

16
17
18
19
20
8

V
II
IV

Exotics

III

8-23

Cavine: Distal Thoracic Limb


of an Adult Male Guinea Pig
(Palmer View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Radius
Distal radial epiphysis
Intermedioradial carpal bone
Carpal bone III
Carpal bone I
Metacarpal bone I
Metacarpal bones
Phalanges
Ulna
Styloid process of ulna
Ulnar carpal bone
Accessory carpal bone
Carpal bone IV
Carpal bone II
Metacarpal bone V
Falciform carpal bone
Proximal phalanx of digit V
Proximal sesamoid bones
Middle phalanx of digit V
Distal phalanx of digit V

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-23

7 9
11
13
15
6 8 10
12
14
16

Kathy West

Cricetine: Viscera of the Thorax


and Abdomen of Adult Female
Hamster (Lateral View)

Exotics

8-24

Cricetine: Viscera of the Thorax


and Abdomen of Adult Female
Hamster (Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Trachea
Esophagus
Heart
Lung
Liver
Stomach
Pancreas
Spleen
Left adrenal gland
Left kidney
Small intestine
Left ovary
Cecum
Descending colon
Left horn of uterus
Urinary bladder

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-24

10

Cricetine: Viscera of the Thorax


and Abdomen of Adult Male
Hamster (Lateral View)

Exotics

8-25

Cricetine: Viscera of the Thorax


and Abdomen of Adult Male
Hamster (Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Trachea
Lung
Stomach
Kidney
Urinary bladder
Scrotum
Heart
Caudal vena cava
Liver
Cecum

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-25

14 15 16 17 16 18 19
11 12 10
10

2 3

13 11

Cricetine: Skull of a Hamster


(Lateral View)

Exotics

8-26

Cricetine: Skull of a Hamster


(Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Maxillary incisor tooth


Nasal bone
Incisive bone
Zygomatic process of maxilla
Maxillary molar teeth
Frontal bone
Temporal bone
Parietal bone
Occipital bone
Mandibular incisor tooth
Mandible
Mandibular molar teeth
Coronoid process of mandible
Condylar process of mandible
Angular process of mandible
Tympanic bulla
Tympanic cavity
Petrous part of temporal bone
Occipital condyle

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-26

Chinchilline: Viscera of the Thorax


and Abdomen of Adult Male
Chinchilla (Ventral View)

1
2
3
1
4
5
6
6
8

Exotics

8-27

Chinchilline: Viscera of the Thorax


and Abdomen of Adult Male
Chinchilla (Ventral View)







1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Lung
Cranial mediastinum
Heart
Liver
Stomach
Cecum
Scrotum
Urinary bladder

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-27

Chinchilline: Gastrointestinal
Positive Contrast Study in an Adult
Male Chinchilla (Lateral Views)

Exotics

12

34

6 78

10

8-28

Chinchilline: Gastrointestinal
Positive Contrast Study in an Adult
Male Chinchilla (Lateral Views)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Esophagus
Liver
Duodenum
Stomach
Small intestine
Colon
Cecum
Ileum
Urinary bladder
Rectum

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-28

Cricetine: Internal Anatomy of a


Male Gerbil (Ventral View)

1
3
2
7
8

4
5
6

9
12

10
11

13
14

15
16
17
18
19
20

Exotics

8-29

Cricetine: Internal Anatomy of a


Male Gerbil (Ventral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Masseter muscle
Thymus
Clavicle
Left atrium/auricle
Left ventricle
Left lung
Right lung
Diaphragm
Liver
Stomach
Greater omentum
Jejunum
Cecum
Vesicular gland
Bladder
Fat pad and head of epididymis
Penis
Testes
Tail of epididymis
Anus

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-29

Erinaceinae: Internal Anatomy of a


Female Hedgehog (Ventral View)

1
2
3
4
5
6
12
13
14

7
8
9
10
11

15

Exotics

8-30

Erinaceinae: Internal Anatomy of a


Female Hedgehog (Ventral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Trachea
Lung
Heart
Esophagus
Diaphragm
Liver
Stomach
Spleen
Left kidney
Urinary bladder
Rectum
Right kidney
Small intestine
Large intestine
Ovary

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-30

Erinaceinae: Hedgehog
Muscles Used for Curling
Body and Spinal Control

Exotics

8-31

Erinaceinae: Hedgehog
Muscles Used for Curling
Body and Spinal Control



1.
2.
3.
4.

Frontodorsalis muscle
Panniculus carnosus muscle
Orbicularis muscle
Caudodorsalis muscle

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-31

Lacertilian: Internal Anatomy


of a Savannah Monitor Lizard
(Ventral View)

1
2
3

4
6

20

19
18

8
9
11
12

17
10
16
15
14

13

Exotics

8-32

Lacertilian: Internal Anatomy


of a Savannah Monitor Lizard
(Ventral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Parathyroids
Trachea
Thyroid
Ventricle
Right atrium
Lung
Liver
Gallbladder
Adrenal glands
Testes
Vas deferens
Fat pad
Hemipenis sac
Bladder
Kidney
Colon
Spleen
Small intestine
Pancreas
Stomach

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-32

Lacertilian: Lizard Heart (Dorsal


[Top] and Ventral [Bottom] Views)
1
6
14

7
8

2
3

13

12

10
11

13
9
2

15

10
5

11

Exotics

12

17

16

8-33

Lacertilian: Lizard Heart (Dorsal


[Top] and Ventral [Bottom] Views)
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Carotid artery
Internal carotid arteries
Left atrium
Right atrium
Ventricle
Pulmonary trunk
Precava
Right aorta
Sinus venosus
Right pulmonary artery
Right pulmonary vein
Postcava
Left pulmonary vein
Left pulmonary artery
Left aorta
Left systemic aorta
Dorsal aorta
Right systemic aorta

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-33

Serpentine: Internal Anatomy of a


Male Snake (Ventral View)

5
4
3
6
7

8
9

20
21

10

11

18

12

13

22

15

23

14

16

24
19

17

25

Exotics

8-34

Serpentine: Internal Anatomy of a


Male Snake (Ventral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

Trachea
Esophagus
Thyroid gland
Heart
Left lung
Right lung
Liver
Stomach
Gallbladder
Spleen
Pancreas
Small intestine
Right testis
Right air sac
Right adrenal gland
Left testis
Left adrenal gland
Right kidney
Left kidney
Large intestine
Vas deferens
Ureters
Rectum
Cloaca
Anal scale (divided)

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-34

Serpentine: Snake Heart (Dorsal


[Left] and Ventral [Right] Views)

14

14
2

13
3

4
15

6
12

11

10
5

13

7
8

10

11

8
7

9
9

Exotics

8-35

Serpentine: Snake Heart (Dorsal


[Left] and Ventral [Right] Views)
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Carotid artery
Common carotid arteries
Left precava
Right atrium
Left atrium
Ventricle
Right aorta
Right pulmonary vein
Right pulmonary artery
Dorsal aorta
Postcava
Left aorta
Sinus venosus
Left pulmonary vein
Right precava
Left pulmonary artery

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-35

Chelonian: Internal Anatomy of a


Tortoise (Lateral View)

6
7

3
2

10
14

Exotics

13 12

11

8-36

Chelonian: Internal Anatomy of a


Tortoise (Lateral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Oesophagus
Trachea
Pancreas
Stomach
Spleen
Lung
Gonad
Kidney
Intestines
Cloaca
Bladder
Gallbladder
Liver
Heart

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-36

Chelonian: Plastron and Carapace


Scutes of a Tortoise
1

2
4
5
3
6

11

7
8
9
10
plastron

12
4

14

13
14
11

13
14
13

4
4
4
4

14
14

4
4

13 4
4

carapace

Exotics

8-37

Chelonian: Plastron and Carapace


Scutes of a Tortoise
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Intergular
Gular
Humeral
Marginales (12)
Axillary
Pectoral
Abdominal
Inguinal
Femoral
Anal
Bridge
Nuchal
Pleurales (4)
Vertebrales (5)

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-37

Reptilian: General Circulation in a


Non-Crocodilian Reptile

3
4

10

11

12

13

Exotics

8-38

Reptilian: General Circulation in a


Non-Crocodilian Reptile
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Pulmonary circulation
General circulation
Major vessels returning to the heart
Left precava
Right precava
Left hepatic vein
Postcava
Sinus venosus
Right atrium
Left atrium
Cavum venosum
Cavum arteriosum
Cavum pulmonale

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-38

Bufotenine: Internal Anatomy of a


Frog (Ventral View)

1
3

2
4

2
5

8
7
9

10

Exotics

8-39

Bufotenine: Internal Anatomy of a


Frog (Ventral View)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Heart
Liver
Gallbladder
Lung
Stomach
Lung
Body fat
Intestine
Colon
Cloaca

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8-39

Piscine: Internal Anatomy of a


Goldfish (Lateral View)

1
2
3

Exotics

8-40

Piscine: Internal Anatomy of a


Goldfish (Lateral View)








1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Gills
Heart
Hepatopancreas
Intestines
Gonad
Anterior pole of kidney
Anterior chamber of swim bladder
Posterior pole of kidney
Posterior chamber of swim bladder

Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards


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8-40

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