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# ABSTRACT

Air Pollution is presenting a big threat in many parts of world. The prime reason for air pollution is
burning fossil fuels which will have a huge negative impact on human health. Increase in traffic volumes
and changes in travel-related characteristics increase vehicular emissions significantly. Calculation of
vehicular exhaust by collecting the traffic data for the following case studies i.e Four laning project of
Wardha to Butibori for a design length of 59.020Km and Up-gradation of NH-131A from Km 6.000 to
Km 55.000 near Purnea in the state of Bihar. By using traffic projections generated from traffic
forecasting models, vehicular gaseous emission coefficients developed by ARAI, Pune for CPCB and
average mileage of vehicles future pollution load on the environment is forecasted by using simple
mathematical model. The present ambient air quality status is mapped by using air quality indices.

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LITERATURE REVIEW
Relevant literature is discussed regarding analysis of air quality and forecasting pollution load using simple
mathematic modeling.

Analysis of the air quality is done by the data obtained from the monitoring stations maintained by CPCB.
Air quality index is calibrated using formula.
There are many models like:

Persistence

Climatology

Statistical

## Classification and Regression Tree (CART)

Regression

Neural networks

Numerical modeling

Phenomenological and
experience

Predictor variables

For forecasting the state of air. But all the above models are intriguing as they requires vast sets of data. These data
are under NOAA (National oceanic and atmospheric administration) which is inaccessible.
So in order to calculate the future pollution load we used vehicular emissions coefficients obtained from CPCB for
each individual pollutant corresponding to different type of vehicle, future traffic projections from traffic forecasting
models, average vehicular mileage into a simple mathematic model to obtain the future pollution load from
vehicular exhausts.

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CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CERTIICATE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ABSTRACT
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
CHAPTER 01

Page No

1.1 Introduction

## 1.2 Objectives of study

10

CHAPTER 02
2.1 Baseline Ambient Air Quality

11

11

11

12

12

13

CHAPTER 03

15

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## 3.2 Analysis and Case studies

15

3.1.1

Case study1

15

3.1.2

Case study2

24

CHAPTER 04
4.1 Emission control technologies

31

31

31

32

32

33

33

33

33

34

34

34

34

35

35

35

## 4.4.1 Vehicle restraints

35

4.4.2 Area Restrictions (for private vehicles and/or heavy goods vehicles)

36

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36

36

37

4.5.3 Plantation

37

37

38

38

38

LIST OF FIGURES
S.No

NAME

PAGE

Figure 1

## AAQ Monitoring stations

12

Figure 2

Traffic projections

21

Figure 3

21

Figure 4

22

Figure 5

22

Figure 6

## Carbon dioxide emissions

23

Figure 7

Hydrocarbon emissions

23

Figure 8

Traffic projections

28

Figure 9

28

Figure 10

29

Figure 11

29

Figure 12

## Carbon dioxide emissions

30

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Figure 13

Hydrocarbon emissions

30

LIST OF TABLES
S.No

NAME

PAGE

Table 1

12

Table 2

13

Table 3

15

Table 4

19

Table 5

19

Table 6

20

Table 7

20

Table 8

24

Table 9

26

Table 10

26

Table 11

27

Table 12

## Pollution load (tons) with project

27

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CHAPTER 01
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

1.0 Introduction
Air pollution is an important public health problem in most cities of the developing world. Owing to their rapidly
increasing numbers and very limited use of emission control technologies, motor vehicles are emerging as the
largest source of urban air pollution in the developing world. For years transportation officials have relied on adding
highway capacitybuilding new expressways and adding lanes to existing freeways to accommodate travel
demand in growing metropolitan areas. Such increases in capacity were thought not only to bring congestion relief
but also to improve air quality and fuel efficiency by contributing to free-flowing traffic conditions.
This conventional wisdom has been challenged by environmental planners and other analysts who take a long-term
perspective on the effects of additional highway capacity. They concede that adding highway capacity may initially
reduce some vehicle emissions and improve fuel efficiency by smoothing traffic flows and reducing stop-and-go
traffic, although the benefits may not be as significant as were once believed. However, these positive effects may be
eroded over time by growth in travel stimulated by the new capacity. Improved levels of highway service may
encourage shifts from less polluting modes of transportation and induce new or longer trips once discouraged by
congested conditions. As traffic volume grows, traffic operations may deteriorate, producing levels of congestion
comparable with previous conditions but at higher traffic volumes. In the long run, these analysts maintain, new
highway capacity will improve access and may encourage development in low-density areas not amenable to transit.
Low-density development requires more frequent and longer trips, increasing emission levels and energy use and
Emissions models, which measure the polluting effects of motor vehicle travel, inadequately represent the emission
performance of in-service vehicles. Current data on the relationship between vehicle speeds and emission levels
critical to analyzing highway capacity projects that will change the distribution of traffic speed levels and variability
of speedsare based on averages that mask wide variances across individual vehicle performance, roadway
conditions, and driving behavior. Moreover, the models do not adequately capture major suspected sources of
emissions from vehicle accelerations and high speeds, although some research is under way to understand these
phenomena. Planning agencies often apply current speed-emission relationships as if they were precisely known.
Despite the limitations of the existing knowledge base, engineers and scientists are being pressed to provide reliable
estimates of the likely effects of adding highway capacity on emissions and energy use to assist legislators, state
officials, metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), and judges in reaching decisions on these issues. Thus a

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review of the current state of knowledge has been undertaken to evaluate the scientific evidence concerning these
effects and to narrow areas of disagreement. The specific questions at issue are described and, where possible,
research or analyses that could be conducted to speed their resolution are recommended. More specifically, the study
committee.

## 1.1 Objectives of Study:

To analyze baseline ambient air quality status of the selected areas by collecting the air quality parameters

such as Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Respirable Particulate Matter (PM10), Fine Particulate
Matter (PM2.5), Carbon Monoxide (CO).

To collect corresponding data related to traffic projections for the selected areas.

## To collect the vehicular gaseous emission coefficient values suggested by CPCB

To calculate the pollution load emitted by motor vehicles for the projected years with

project scenario.

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and without

CHAPTER 02
METHODOLOGY

## 2.1 Baseline Ambient Air Quality:

In assessing the environmental impact, collection and interpretation of baseline data is of prime importance. The
primary data for the study period were collected 24 hourly twice in a week for three months as per national
guidelines. The criteria followed for selecting the AAQM stations is recommended by IS: 5182 and CPCB.
They are:

The sampling station had free exposure so that it did not collect air from stagnant pockets.

## It was not obstructed by large structures including hills.

The sampling point was not directly influenced by any local source of emission.

## 2.2 Monitoring and analytical procedure:

Ambient air quality was monitored for the presence of contaminants existing in the air. In order to evaluate and
quantify the air pollution problem, measurements were carried out for various air pollutants such as Sulphur dioxide
(SO2), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Respirable Particulate Matter (PM10), Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Carbon
Monoxide (CO). Fine Dust Samplers (FDS) were used for ambient air sampling of selected parameters. The method
for the selected parameters are based on the methods recommended by IS: 5182.

## 2.3 Data analysis:

The observed concentrations of various pollutants at all the sampling stations were processed. The recorded
concentrations are compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards as notified on 16.11.2009 by MoEF.
Thus baseline status of ambient air quality is established. Ambient Air Quality monitoring stations is shown in
Figure1

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## 2.4 Calculations Of Vehicular Emissions:

2.4.1 Estimation of projected traffic:
An accurate estimate of the traffic is very important as it forms the basic input for calculation of vehicular emissions.
The classified Traffic Volume Count (TVC) surveys were carried. The seasonal variation factors should be
established. The estimated Average Daily Traffic was converted into Annual Average Daily Traffic, after applying
the seasonal variation factors applicable to the area. The data collected from primary and secondary sources are
recorded in Excel sheets, compiled, checked and corrected before further proceeding for analysis. Traffic data
analysis has been carried out, to understand traffic characteristics and travel pattern in the study area and to provide
basic input for pavement design. The analysis has been carried out to derive:

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## 2.4.2 Vehicular Gaseous Emission Coefficients:

Vehicular Gaseous Emission Coefficients for Indian vehicles are developed by ARAI, Pune under Indian Clean Air
Programme (ICAP) sponsored by CPCB/MoEF. The vehicular exhaust values of gaseous pollutants such as PM 10,
PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO in terms of emission coefficients (gm/km) for different Indian vehicles have been developed.
Vehicular Gaseous Emission Coefficients for different Indian vehicles are mentioned in Table -1 and average
mileage assumed for the vehicles are mentioned in Table -2

## Table 1: Vehicular Gaseous Emissions Coefficients

Gaseous Emissions coeficient (gm/km)
Type of
vehicle
CO

NO X

PM

CO2

HC

CAR/JEEP

3.01

0.12

0.01

126.5

0.19

TATA MAGIC

0.72

0.84

0.19

156.75

0.14

RTC BUS

3.92

6.53

0.3

602.01

0.16

PRIVATE BUS

3.92

6.53

0.3

602.01

0.16

SCHOOL BUS

3.92

6.53

0.3

602.01

0.16

MINI BUS

3.66

2.12

0.48

401.25

1.35

2 AXLE

3.92

6.53

0.3

602.1

0.16

3 AXLE

3.92

6.53

0.3

602.1

0.16

MULTI AXLE

9.3

1.24

762.4

0.37

OVER SIZED

9.3

1.24

762.4

0.37

LGV/LCV

3.66

2.12

0.48

401.25

1.35

MINI LCV

3.01

0.12

0.01

126.5

0.19

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AVG MILEAGE
WITHOUT

WITH

PROJECT

PROJECT

CAR/JEEP

8.5

12

TATA MAGIC

15

20

RTC BUS

4.5

5.5

PRIAVATE BUS

4.5

5.5

SCHOOL BUS

4.5

5.5

MINI BUS

11

2 AXLE

5.1

3 AXLE

3.5

4.5

MULTI AXLE

OVER SIZED

LGV/LCV

10

14

MINI LCV

12

15

TYPE OF VEHICLE

Page 12 of 39

CHAPTER- 03
CASE STUDIES

## 3.0 Calculation of pollution load:

By assuming mileage of different Indian vehicles and traffic projections, the total distance traveled by the vehicles
can be calculated tentatively. On multiplying vehicular gaseous emission coefficients (gm/km) with the distance
covered by the vehicles, Pollution load is obtained.

## 3.1 Analysis and Case study:

In order to analyze pollution load two locations were selected as mentioned below:
1.

Case Study -1: Upgradtion of NH-131A from Km 6.000 to Km 55.000 near Purnea in the state of Bihar.

2.

Case Study -2: Up-gradation of Wardha - Butibori Section of NH-361 ( MSH3 Extension project ).

## 3.1.1 Case Study -1:

Highway projects are generally undertaken to improve the economic and social welfare of the people. National
Highways Authority of India (NHAI) plays a key role in development of road network thus boosting up the
economy of the country. Under National Highway Development Programme (NHDP), after considering the Annual
Average Daily Traffic (AADT) profiles and other details, NHAI has decided the following:

Upgradtion of NH-131A from Km 6.000 to Km 55.000 near Purnea in the state of Bihar.

The baseline air quality status of the study area has been monitored at selected locations which represent the whole
study area and the analysis results are given in the table below.
Table 3: Ambient air quality during study period
Location/Cate
gory

Min

Max

Mean

75 Percentile

98 Percentile

CPCB
Standards

47.2

51.5

100

PM10 (g/m3)
Belouri
Chowk

39.8

52.4

45.2

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Kathiar

51.9

70.3

59.8

64

69.3

100

Nawabganj,
Manihar

38.9

53.4

47.9

50.6

53.3

100

Sahibganj,

47.6

65.2

56.1

60.5

64.9

100

Belouri
Chowk

20

27.4

23.2

24.7

26.9

60

Kathiar

27.5

41.5

33.2

36.2

40.7

60

Nawabganj,
Manihar

20.7

28.3

25.1

26.5

28.3

60

Sahibganj,

25

35.1

29.3

32.1

34.5

60

Belouri
Chowk

4.1

5.8

4.9

5.3

5.7

80

Kathiar

4.6

6.8

5.6

6.1

6.8

80

Nawabganj,
Manihar

4.2

5.8

4.9

5.2

5.7

80

Sahibganj,

4.3

6.6

5.3

5.6

6.5

80

Belouri
Chowk

12.2

17.1

14.5

15.7

16.8

80

Kathiar

15.6

26.8

22.3

23.7

26.1

80

PM2.5 (g/m3)

SO2 (g/m3)

NO2 (g/m3)

Page 14 of 39

Nawabganj,
Manihar

11.4

16.9

13.7

14.6

16.7

80

Sahibganj,

11.4

18.3

14.2

15.7

17.9

80

Belouri
Chowk

1.3

1.1

1.2

1.3

Kathiar

1.7

1.3

1.5

1.7

Nawabganj,
Manihar

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

Sahibganj,

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

Belouri
Chowk

< 0.01

< 0.01

< 0.01

< 0.01

< 0.01

Kathiar

< 0.01

< 0.01

< 0.01

< 0.01

< 0.01

Nawabganj,
Manihar

< 0.01

< 0.01

< 0.01

< 0.01

< 0.01

Sahibganj,

< 0.01

< 0.01

< 0.01

< 0.01

< 0.01

CO (mg/m3)

HC (g/m3)

The mean Respirable Particulate Matter (PM10) values observed in the range between 45.2 59.8

g/m3 as against the CPCB standard of 100 g/m3 for residential / industrial category. The maximum and
98 percentile values found to be well within the stipulated standards for all the locations.
th

The mean Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) values were found in the range between 24.7 36.2

g/m3 as against the CPCB standard of 60 g/m3 for residential / industrial category. The maximum and
98th percentile values found to be well within the stipulated standards for all the locations.
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The mean Oxides of Nitrogen (NO2) values were observed in the range between 13.7 22.3
3

g/m as against the CPCB standard of 80 g/m3 for residential / industrial category. The maximum and
98th percentile values found to be well within the stipulated standards for all the locations.

The mean Sulfur dioxide values were observed in the range between 4.9 5.6 g/m3 against the

CPCB standard of 80 g/m3 for Residential / industrial category. The maximum and 98th percentile values
found to be well within the stipulated standards for all the locations.

The mean carbon monoxide levels observed in the range between <1.0 1.3 mg/ m3 as against the

CPCB standard of 4 mg/ m3 for residential / industrial category. The maximum and 98th percentile values
found to be well within the stipulated standards for all the locations.

The mean Hydro-carbon values were observed in the range between <0.01- <0.01 g/m3.
AQI Values

0 to 50

Good

51 to 100

Moderate

101 to 150

151 to 200

Unhealthy

201 to 300

Very Unhealthy

301 to 500

Hazardous

=

(high) I(low)
[ ()] + ()
C(high) C(low)

## I (high) = The index breakpoint corresponding to C (high).

I (low) =The index breakpoint corresponding to C (low).
C (high) =The concentration breakpoint that is C.
C (low) =The concentration breakpoint that is C.
C

## =The pollutant concentration.

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150 101
(41.5 35.5) + 101 = 116
55.4 35.5

## Table 4: Baseline air quality in terms of AQI at AAQMS

Location

AQI Value

Category

Belouri Chowk

74

Moderate

Kathiar

95

Moderate

Nawabganj, Manihar

79

Moderate

Sahibganj,

87

Moderate

## Table 5: Traffic projections for different vehicles

Year

Year

Car/Jje

Tata

RTC

Priva

Scho

Mini

Multi

Over

LGV/L

Mini

from

to

ep

magic

bus

te bus ol bus

bus

axle

sized

CV

LCV

2012

2013

942

133

176

35

80

54

218

2017

2018

1202

172

225

200

102

68

279

2022

2023

1535

217

36

255

130

87

356

2027

2028

1958

277

72

46

325

166

11

111

458

2032

2033

2499

468

92

59

415

212

14

142

579

2037

2038

3189

597

117

75

530

270

18

181

740

2 axle

3 axle

22

156

44

28

287

56

367

354

452

Page 17 of 39

2042

2043

3877

519

726

143

91

644

328

22

220

Table 6: Pollution load (tons) Without Project
Traffic

CO

NOX

PM

CO2

HC

2012-2013

79862.76

14116.21

763.39

4148572.94

5040.48

2017-2018

130121.81

23080.15

1249.35

6765851.57

8209.65

2022-2023

211884.78

37525.64

2028.17

11011478.6

13367.81

2027-2028

345200.05

61178.73

3305.92

17942719.5

21777.91

2032-2033

562278.15

99647.68

5387.31

29226721.7

35477.7

2037-2038

915749.82

162242.48

8771.54

47596587.6

57778.07

2042-2043

1353386.01

239761.78

12960.06

70340721.7

85387.43

Table 7: Pollution load (tons) with project

Traffic

CO

NOX

PM

CO2

HC

2012-2013

57516.71

11015.58

590.66

3046959.79

3619.51

2017-2018

93720.05

18011.61

966.74

4969874.37

5895.7

2022-2023

152606.8

29284.58

1569.43

8088170.25

9599.77

2027-2028

248626.52

47746.67

2558.36

13179746.9

15639.29

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899

2032-2033

404969.49

77766.72

4168.85

21467956.2

25477.21

2037-2038

659558.53

126615.19

6787.62

34961283.3

41492.13

2042-2043

801815.19

153920.74

8520.64

42501318.3

50440.5

4500000
4176878

4000000
3500000

3437570

3000000
2693700

2500000
2109335

2000000
1653815

1500000
1000000

1013970

1295385

500000
0
2012-2013

2017-2018

2022-2023

2027-2028

YEAR

Page 19 of 39

2032-2033

2037-2038

2042-2043

1600000
1400000
1200000
1000000
800000
600000
400000
200000
0
2015-2016
CO W/O

2020-2021

2025-2026

2030-2031

YEAR

CO WITH

Page 20 of 39

2035-2036

2040-2041

2045-2046

300000
250000
200000
150000
100000
50000
0
2015-2016

2020-2021

2025-2026

NOX W/O

2030-2031

2035-2036

2040-2041

2045-2046

YEAR

NOX WITH

14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
2015-2016

2020-2021

2025-2026

2030-2031

PM W/O

YEAR

PM WITH

Page 21 of 39

2035-2036

2040-2041

2045-2046

80000000
70000000
60000000
50000000
40000000
30000000
20000000
10000000
0
2015-2016

2020-2021

2025-2026

CO2 W/O

2030-2031

2035-2036

2040-2041

2045-2046

YEAR

CO2 WITH

90000
80000
70000
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
2015-2016

2020-2021

2025-2026

2030-2031

HC W/O

YEAR

HC WITH

Page 22 of 39

2035-2036

2040-2041

2045-2046

## 3.1.2 Case Study -2:

The Government of India has envisaged to create a world-class infrastructure facility, to boost the economic
development in the country, for which National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) plays a key role. NHAI has
been entrusted to implement the development of some of the identified stretches of National Highways under
National Highway Development Programme (NHDP). After considering the Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT)
profiles and other details, the Authority NHAI has decided to rehabilitate and up grade Wardha to Butibori sections
of NH-361 from the existing two lane to four lane configuration with National standards. The proposed study has
been divided into two sections and four packages for operational convenience.
The baseline air quality status of the study area has been monitored at selected locations which represent the whole
study area and the analysis results are given in the table below.

## Table 8: Ambient air quality during study period

Location/Cate
gory

Min

Max

Mean

75 Percentile

98 Percentile

CPCB
Standard

Wardha Junction

30.9

46.5

37.4

36.5

45.5

60

Seloo

27

38.3

33

33.6

37.7

60

Buti Bori

26.5

35.9

32.3

32

35.8

60

Wardha Junction

6.4

7.6

7.6

80

Seloo

5.3

6.5

6.4

80

Buti Bori

5.6

6.8

6.1

6.1

6.7

80

Wardha Junction

29.5

35.9

32.4

32.7

35.5

80

Seloo

18.6

22.5

20.5

20.5

22.4

80

PM2.5(g/m3)

SO2 (g/m3)

NO2 (g/m3)

Page 23 of 39

Buti Bori

26.9

31.7

29.6

29.8

31.7

80

Wardha Junction

1.2

1.9

1.5

1.5

1.9

Seloo

<1

1.2

1.1

1.1

1.2

Buti Bori

1.1

1.8

1.5

1.5

1.8

Wardha Junction

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

Seloo

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

Buti Bori

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

CO (mg/m3)

HC (g/m3)

The mean Respirable Particulate Matter (PM10) values observed in the range between 64.0 74.1 g/m3 as
against the CPCB standard of 100 g/m3 for residential / industrial category. The maximum and 98 th percentile values
found to be well within the stipulated standards for all the locations.
The mean Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) values were found in the range between 32.3 37.4 g/m3 as against
the CPCB standard of 60 g/m3 for residential/industrial category. The maximum and 98 th percentile values found to
be well within the stipulated standards for all the locations.
The mean Sulfur dioxide values were observed in the range between 6.007.00 g/m3 against the CPCB standard
of 80 g/m3 for residential / industrial category. The maximum and 98 th percentile values found to be well within the
stipulated standards for all the locations.
The mean Dioxides of Nitrogen (NO2) values were observed in the range between 20.5 32.4g/m3 against the
CPCB standard of 80 g/m3 for residential / industrial category. The maximum and 98 th percentile values found to be
well within the stipulated standards for all the locations.
The mean carbon monoxide (CO) levels observed in the range between 1.1 1.5 mg/m3 as against the CPCB
standard of 4mg/m3 for residential / industrial category. The maximum and 98 th percentile values found to be well
within the stipulated standards for all the locations.
The Hydro carbon levels observed in the range between <0.01 g/m3 - <0.01 g/m3 .

Page 24 of 39

In general, the ambient air quality in the study area is satisfactory. It is envisaged that due to proposed four laning
project traffic may further come down and ease the vehicles movement and traffic congestion, which may leads to
reduce the pollution levels.
Table 9 : AQI Values at AAQMS Stations
Location

AQI

Category

Wardha Junction

106

## Unhealthy for sensitive groups

Seloo

95

Moderate

Buti Bori

93

Moderate

Because of rapid increase in vehicular numbers, to ease the flow of traffic 2 lane road is upgraded into 4 lane configuration
between Wardha to Butibori of NH-361. Upgradation may reduce emission levels due to easy flow of traffic. The pollution load
due to vehicular emissions with and without upgradation of road is assessed with the help of vehicular gaseous emission
coefficients developed by CPCB. Inorder to calculate the pollution load traffic projections of corresponding locations are
obtained from secondary sources and average mileage of the vehicles have been assumed.The concentrations of different
pollutants calculated as per traffic projections.

Year
from

Year
to

Car/Je Tata
ep
magic

RTC
bus

Priva Scho
te bus ol bus

Mini
bus

2 axle

3 axle

Multi
axle

Over
sized

LGV/L
CV

Mini
LCV

2015

2016

2629

33

307

215

38

570

1201

1337

309

431

2020

2021

3619

46

405

284

12

53

707

1661

1849

427

596

2025

2026

4866

61

519

364

15

71

827

2233

2486

575

801

2030

2031

6389

81

650

455

19

93

923

2933

3265

755

1052

2035

2036

8194

103

795

557

23

119

979

3761

4186

968

1350

2040

2041

10457

132

967

677

28

152

1029

4800

5343

1235

1722

2045

2046

12711

160

1132

793

33

185

1071

5834

6495

1501

2094

Page 25 of 39

Traffic

CO

NOX

PM

CO2

HC

2015-2016

860031.63

649301.83

61993.88

74283389.01

52696.03

2020-2021

1624670.46

1221058.26

117609.11

139852691.3

99777.82

2025-2026

2915054.47

2170625.06

210925.05

249438318.58

179503.97

2030-2031

4990386.41

3683976.53

360602.57

42707866.66

307972.77

2035-2036

8166867.01

5989709.63

590464.82

692076983.42

504941.88

2040-2041

13247732.26

9666840.97

957763.53

1118977232.98

820199.2

2045-2046

19526606.66

14203473.1

1411552.15

1645990770.59

1209948.46

## Pollution load With project scenario:

Table 12: pollution load(tons) with project
traffic

CO

NOX

PM

CO2

HC

2015-2016

631815.09

494651.28

46817.08

55711781.36

38490.74

2020-2021

1193080.27

929670.08

88785.31

104826744.07

72862

2025-2026

2139451.99

1651598.68

159172.39

186830718.44

131027.22

2030-2031

3660747.37

2801558.12

272039.71

317904202.43

224719.26

2035-2036

5988380.29

4552684.34

445320.36

517746174.09

368335.47

2040-2041

9710782.83

7344736.81

722175.41

836749395.98

598166.91

2045-2046

14310409.49

10788922.47

1064197.6

1230504260.99

882284.96

Page 26 of 39

30000000
26766545

25000000

22248940
20000000
17692645
15000000

14022388
10864955

10000000

8217245
6037283

5000000
0

2015-2016

2020-2021

2025-2026

2030-2031

2035-2036

2040-2041

2045-2046

YEAR

## Figure 9 : CARBON-MONOXIDE EMISSIONS

25000000
20000000
15000000
10000000
5000000
0
2015-2016 2020-2021 2025-2026 2030-2031 2035-2036 2040-2041 2045-2046
CO W/O

YEAR

CO WITH

Page 27 of 39

Page 28 of 39

16000000
14000000
12000000
10000000
8000000
6000000
4000000
2000000
0
2015-2016

2020-2021

2025-2026

2030-2031

2035-2036

2040-2041

2045-2046

YEAR

NOX W/O
NOX With

1600000
1400000
1200000
1000000
800000
600000
400000
200000
0
2015-2016

2020-2021

2025-2026

PM W/O

2030-2031

YEAR

PM With

Page 29 of 39

2035-2036

2040-2041

2045-2046

1.8E+09
1.6E+09
1.4E+09
1.2E+09
1E+09
800000000
600000000
400000000
200000000
0
2015-2016

2020-2021

2025-2026

2030-2031

2035-2036

2040-2041

2045-2046

YEAR

CO2 W/O
CO2 WITH

1400000
1200000
1000000
800000
600000
400000
200000
0
2015-2016
HC W/O

2020-2021

2025-2026

2030-2031

YEAR

HC WITH

Page 30 of 39

2035-2036

2040-2041

2045-2046

CHAPTER- 04

## Pollution Control Methods

Measures to tackle air pollutant emissions from road transportation can be broadly divided into four
categories:
Emission Control Technologies
Traffic Control Measures
Modes of Transport
Transport Policies

## 4.1 Emission Control Technologies:

4.1.1 Electric Vehicles
Electric Vehicles, sometimes referred to as Zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs ), are gaining
attention as an option for improving air quality. Zero tailpipe emissions are particularly attractive in urban
areas with serious air pollution problems. Electric vehicles are powered by a battery or set of batteries.
Whilst tailpipe emissions are eliminated by this technology, pollutants are released into atmosphere where
electricity is generated. Other environmental issues include disposal of end of life batteries.
Notwithstanding these issues, electric vehicles and other ZEVs are seen as a way forward to tackle air
quality problems in densely populated areas with heavy traffic. The most common batteries in use today
(lead-acid) offer a range of only 60-70 miles per charge.

## 4.1.2 Fuel Cell Vehicles

Fuel cell vehicles are potentially ZEVs but also have overcome the same limitations of
electric vehicles by providing a driving range comparable with that of conventionally fueled cars
with internal combustion engines.
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## A fuel is an electrochemical device that produces electricity from the reaction of

hydrogen and oxygen. The only by-product is water. In an electric vehicle, the battery must be
recharged on a regular basis whereas a fuel cell is recharged constantly in the sense that
recharging the vehicle only requires refilling the fuel tank. The hydrogen fuel required to power
the device can be stored directly on the vehicle in tanks or extracted from a secondary fuel such
as gasoline or methanol. An on board reformer would crack one of these fuels into hydrogen and
carbon dioxide, venting the CO2 and conveying the hydrogen to the fuel cell. In the case where a
secondary fuel is used, the total pollution load would still be less than that of an internal
combustion engine.
Fuel cells vehicles are not considered viable as a means to tackle air pollution.
4.1.3 Hybrid Vehicles
Hybrid vehicles are sometimes referred to as dual fuel vehicles. Such a vehicle it is
powered by an internal combustion engine and a battery. The internal combustion engine also
generates electricity to charge the battery. Depending on the driving conditions, the vehicle is
either powered by the internal combustion engine or the battery. Other forms of hybrid are also
available where the internal combustion engine is used as on-board generator to generate
electricity to power the motors (also known as Hybrid Electric Vehicles). Hybrid vehicles offer
the advantages of both conventional engines and electric vehicles and compensate for the
disadvantages of ZEVs in terms of driving range, although pollutant emissions are greater.
Although hybrid vehicles are not ZEVs, the technology is ready for commercial application.
4.1.4 Tailpipe Emissions Diesel Catalytic Converters
Diesel catalytic converters reduce emissions by utilizing chemical reactions on the
surface of a the catalyst fitted in a housing through which exhaust gas is passed. Chemical
reactions occur within the converters and transform pollutants into harmless gases by means of
oxidation and hence this technology is also referred to as Oxidation Converters. In the case of
diesel exhaust, the catalyst oxidizes carbon monoxide(CO), gaseous hydrocarbons(HC) and
liquid hydrocarbons(HC), The liquid hydrocarbons are adsorbed onto the carbon particles.
Studies have shown that oxidation catalysts can reduce total particulate emissions by 40 to 50%.
Page 32 of 39

Oxidation catalysts are also effective in controlling smoke and NO2 emissions. The sulphur
content of diesel fuel is critical to the effectiveness of the oxidation catalyst technology as high
sulphur content diesel can poison the catalyst.
Diesel Catalytic Converters are considered to be an effective and viable measure to
achieve emissions reductions and improve air quality, especially at the roadside.
4.1.5 Tailpipe Emissions- Particulate Traps
Particulate traps are an effective means of achieving particulates removal from diesel
exhaust. Diesel particulates consists of soot(soot carbonaceous materials giving rise to black
smoke), a soluble organic fraction (SOF)(unburned hydrocarbons from the lube oil and fuel) and
oxides(mainly sulphate derived from sulphur in the fuel). Diesel Catalytic Converters are
effective in reducing SOF emissions and particulate traps are effective in reducing soot
emissions.
4.1.6 Alternative Fuels-Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
(a) Low sulphur fuel which has less pollution potential can be used as an alternative to high
Sulphur fuels.
(b) Comparatively more refined liquid petroleum gas (LPG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be used
instead of traditional high contaminant fuels such as coal. LPG is an oil refinery by-product. It is a

light, gaseous fraction that is liquefied by cooling. The advantage of LPG over petrol and diesel
is the reduction of pollutant emissions particularly the emission of particulates. LPG as an
alternative fuel is an effective means of reducing emissions from selected elements of vehicle
fleet.

## 4.2 Traffic Control Measures

4.2.1 Traffic Control
The implementation of traffic control schemes, example more effective traffic signals
timing by an Intelligent Transport System, to reduce vehicle idle time and increase average
speeds, can result in reductions in fuel consumption and vehicle emissions provided that
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additional traffic growth does not take advantage of the reduced degree of congestion. Studies
have shown savings in fuel consumption and hence emissions of up to 15 to 18% can be
achieved depending on the prevailing traffic conditions.
4.2.2 Park and Ride
Park and ride schemes provide parking facilities serviced by buses or rail on the fringes
of city centers, with the aim of encouraging the transfer from private to public transport.
However, there is evidence that such schemes may stimulate both additional and longer trips. For
example, many trips formerly made entirely by public transport may in part be transferred to
cars. Park and ride schemes have the potential to reduce car use within the central area. Some
form of central area parking control or other form of traffic restraint will be required to
encourage the use of park and ride facilities. However provision of park and ride alone is not
considered to be an effective measure for reducing air pollution emissions.

## 4.3 Modes of Transport

4.3.1 Maintain Attractiveness of Public Transport
People should be encouraged to take public transport instead of using private vehicles. Awareness
should be created regarding vehicular emissions and their effect not only on the environment but also on
public health. The service quality should be good if public transport should be kept at an acceptable level
in order to encourage its use.
4.3.2 Trolley Buses
Trolley Buses are buses which are driven by electric motors, with the electricity drawn from
overhead power lines. It does not have the limitations as a fixed track and when fitted with an auxiliary
engine, it can manoeuver away from the overhead power lines. Trolley buses have zero tailpipe emission
under normal conditions and are an attractive and quite widely employed means of reducing emissions in
the urban area.
In terms of environmental benefits, trolley buses are a viable option for tackling air pollution
especially in pollution hot-spots. However, the introduction of trolley buses has implications such as
cost, provision of infrastructure, traffic management etc.
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## 4.3.3 Freight Transport by Rail

Goods vehicles and private cars are the main contributors of pollutant emissions There
are limitations on the effectiveness of current emission control technologies to reduce emissions,
especially for heavy goods vehicles. A better alternative may be replace the trips generated by
heavy goods vehicles with a more environmentally friendly mode of transport, example, rail.
However it should be noted that there are limitations of freight rail transport, not least of which is
that it cannot replace internal service deliveries of goods.
4.3.4 Expand River Trade Terminal Operation
The river trade terminal operations could be expanded which in turn will reduce the no of
trips made by cross boundary heavy goods vehicles. As heavy goods vehicles are the main
contributors of air pollutants, switch to marine transport can at least, assist in reducing local air
pollution in the areas. However, this will have implications on the operations of the River Trade
Terminal and other economic implications.

## 4.4 Transport Policies

4.4.1 Vehicle Restraints
The environmental analysis conducted for various transport scenarios suggests that even
with the latest vehicle emissions reduction technology, it is difficult to compensate for the
anticipated continuous growth in the number of vehicle movement and the emissions. There are a
number of ways to cap vehicle growth, for example, by setting vehicle quotas. Less effective
ways will be to increase fuel tax, vehicle registration fees and annual license fees. Capping goods
vehicle numbers will also have implications to the Hong Kong economy.
Vehicle restraints are considered to be a viable and potentially valuable means of
managing air quality.

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4.4.2 Area Restrictions (for private vehicles and/or heavy goods vehicles)
An area restriction is unlikely to reduce the territory-wide pollutant emissions as vehicles
will tend to bypass the restricted areas. However, when area restrictions are implemented with
other measures, such as electronic road pricing and pedestrainisation, it can be an effective
means of addressing pollution hot-spots. It is also a mean to encourage public transport as private
vehicle will find it less convenient to access these areas. Alternatively, area restrictions could be
implemented when the Air Pollution Index is predicted to be high. This is more effective when
implemented with an economic instrument, such as electric road pricing.
Areas restrictions, when implemented with other measures, is considered to be a viable
means of managing air quality.

## 4.5 Other Policies

4.5.1 Limiting Vehicle Fleet Age
Studies have shown that small numbers of old and badly maintained vehicles generate a
large proportion of pollutant emissions. The principal reason may be that the new vehicles are
cleaner and have better fuel efficiency. To benefit from the technological improvement, it is
necessary to shorten the replacement time of the vehicle stock. One way to achieve this is to
restrict the vehicle age.
The attractiveness of this policy could be enhanced with other incentives/disincentives,
such as a tax reductions when trading in old cars for new ones, variable annual license fees
which increase with the age of the vehicle, and cheaper first registration fees for
environmentally- friendly vehicles. To facilitate vehicle buyers in choosing more efficient and
cleaner vehicles, a data bank of vehicle fuel and exhaust efficiency should be established and/or
an eco-labelling scheme established, similar to the energy efficiency labelling scheme for
electrical appliances.
Limiting vehicle fleet age is considered to be a viable means of managing air quality.
However, the scope of implementation requires further investigation.

Page 36 of 39

## 4.5.2 Strengthening Inspection and Maintenance Program

In areas where air quality standards are exceeded, vehicles are required to carry out
enhanced inspection and maintenance (I&M) programs. Emission testing on in-service vehicles
is carried out on an annual or biennial basis along with supplementary on-road tests. If the
vehicles do not meet the required standards then maintenance is required. Although the effect of
I&M program is difficult to quantify, it is considered is an effective means of managing air
quality.
4.5.3 Plantation
Plants contribute towards controlling air-pollution by utilizing carbon dioxide and releasing
oxygen in the process of photosynthesis. This purifies the air (removal of gaseous pollutantCO2) for
the respiration of men and animals. Gaseous pollutants like carbonmonoxide are fixed by some plants,
namely, Coleus Blumeri, Ficus variegata and Phascolus Vulgaris. Species of Pinus, Quercus, Pyrus,
Juniperus and Vitis depollute the air by metabolising nitrogen oxides. Plenty of trees should be planted
especially around those areas which are declared as high-risk areas of pollution.

## 4.5.4 Cycling and Walking

The traffic in big cities of India has proved to be at such a level and intensity that many
people consider it too dangerous to use bicycle as an efficient way of commuting across places to
arrive at their place of work. Other factors which will adversely affect the promotion of walking
or cycling relatively long distances may include the hot and humid summer weather and the
terrain. Nevertheless the provision of pedestrian/cycle lanes is recommended when planning new
town and rural area developments, where appropriate and possible, so that commuting locally
within the district becomes more attractive.
Pedestrainisation in urban areas is an effective way to reduce air pollution in hot spot
areas; however, other considerations such as the diverted traffic may hinder the implementation
of pedestrianisation. Pedestrianisation should be implemented with caution as the diverted traffic
could potentially create hot spots in other areas. An alternative way to isolate the sensitive
receivers (pedestraians) is by the use of enclosed walkways with air-conditioning keeping in
mind the hot and humid summer weather.
Page 37 of 39

## 4.5.5 Switching off Engines when Stationary

Turning off the engine when a vehicle is stationary for extended periods will reduce
overall pollutant emissions. A public awareness program should be implemented to encourage
this practice, example TV commercials, posters/fliers to commercial vehicle drives etc.
Public awareness/education, on this matters or other environmental matters relating to
transportation example, regular inspection and maintenance; driving habits, could be extended to
new drivers through the driving tests(written).
4.5.6 More Frequent Street Cleaning
A large proportion of pollutants is estimated to arise from the resuspension of dust on road
surfaces due to road/tyre interaction and vehicle movement. More frequent street cleaning especially at
hot spots areas can reduce the amount of pollutants being resuspended.

## 4.5.7 Integrated Land Use and Transport Planning

To design employment centres in New Towns so that journeys made to workplace is
minimized. This is a viable means to minimize journeys and hence pollutant emissions by
transportation. Integrated Land Use and Transport Planning forms one of the initiatives of the
pollutants control.

Page 38 of 39

Page 39 of 39