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Project management MGMT727 Finals

UROOJ CHAUDHRY
My wording may be changed but all question written (from old papers) are same as are
in old papaers.
1. Tell 3 causes for following two effects (late finish and cost overrun) from old papers
2. We hear about projects getting late and cost overruns. What are causes behind it?
3. Project scope process management. From old papers
4. Phases of MCCS------from old papers
5. What is labor distribution? Responsibilities of proposal manager
6. For what type of projects, CPM and PERT is more suitable
7. Objectives of Master Production Schedule
8. You have to tell which technique is best to ensure quality in the project----from old paper
9. How you get the project back on track within same time and cost------from old papers

WAQAS AHMED
1. You are working as a PM on a new project of research and development and your organization
hired an assistant to assist you. He has to help you in scheduling. what will guide you for this
process?
2. Differentiate between business case and project charter?
3. You are working on a project and one of your vendor is not able to provide some equipment on
time and he can be late for 2 weeks. After checking some network diagram, you told him that he
can deliver this equipment in 2 weeks. what did you see in the network diagram for this grace
period?
4. What is project planning process, kindly elaborate all the stages in detail.
5. What is fixed price contract and what advantage can you get over competitors by using fixed
term contract.
6. What are the steps you can take to retain customers?
7. Do you agree with the phrase that " Leader is providing operational support but manager
is not"
8. What are the costs you should consider in budget planning?
9. What is difference between classic and modern quality definition?

Mgmt727 final term Ayesha Khan (23 aug-16)


1) Describe statement of work misinterpretation?
2) Overrun and schedule
3) Global pricing
4) Quality control and quantity assurance
5) Geographical technique for diagram
6) Emphases on one side leader grid on the other money will low the productivity? Do
you agree with statement or not
7) You are working as a PM on a new project of research and development and your
organization hired an assistant to assist you. He has to help you in scheduling. what will
guide you for this process
8) You are working on a project and one of your vendor is not able to provide some
equipment on time and he can be late for 2 weeks. After checking some network diagram,
you told him that he can deliver this equipment in 2 weeks. What did you see in the
network diagram for this grace period?
9) Steps of scheduling

Muhammad Ali
My today's paper of Project Management (MGMT727)
1. Explain 'Corporate Culture Approach' of project planning with its benefits.
2. Explain the Global pricing strategies.
3. Difference between Product scope and Project Scope.
4. Find the slack time, critical path and total project duration from given project network.
5. Objectives of procurement planning for the project.
6. Being a project manager, you have to compete in market with rival firm. To be competitive
and to win the market, which aspects of project should you focus the most? Discuss.
7. What do you understand by Prevention Cost of Quality? Explain few examples of Prevention
Cost Quality.

Humaira Shahzad
1.causes for following two effects cost overrun and schedule slips
2.make statement of work of given project.

3.characteristic of good planning and control system in detail.


4.what is productivity? determine productivity of project.
5.The starting date of a 3 months long project was delayed by 1 week due to lack of adequate
funding. How can this project be completed by the due date? Explain it in detail.
6.work breakdown of structure of road construction project
7.quality is required for housing scheme which technique you would use?
8.one project was given, cost estimation techniques was required.?
9,estimation activity duration of a project if the critical path is A-B-D-F duration is64 day
compute probability of completion of project in 60 days with PERT technique table of z.
sorry table was given I was not able to copy that table but there is optimistic most likely and
pessimistic values was given.

Muhammad Asif
Project management final term
Q1. Improtance of work break down structure
q2. Prevention cost of quality
q3. Difference b/w product scope and project scope
q3. Cost estimation technique
q4. Characteristics of program planning and control.
q5. You are team of eight members and if 07 members are added more to the team how many
communication lines will be there.

q6. Difficulties in defining Project objectives.


q7 Limitation of PERT.
q8 & Q9 yad nhi a raha................

Maham Khan

MGMT727 paper
1:Differentiate between business case and project charter?
2:What is project planning process, kindly elaborate all the stages in detail
3:Explain the Global pricing strategies
4:Is it easy to prepare WBS for educational project?
5:Channels of communication scenario based
6:Employees moral is down how to boost the employee morale. Give five
method
7:You have been assigned the task to improve quality in the context of Total
Quality. Which data and information would you need to fulfill the task?
8: Emphasize on one side leader grid on the other money will low the
productivity? Do you agree with statement or not
9: scenario based related to quality control

Idea solutions:
UROOJ CHAUDHRY
1: Tell 3 causes for following two effects (late finish and cost overrun) from old papers
Answer:
Effects: Late completion of activities
Causes:
Top management not recognizing this activity as a project
Too many projects going on at one time
Impossible schedule commitments
Poor control of design changes
Poor control of customer changes
No integrated planning and control
Unrealistic planning and scheduling
Poorly organized project office
Effects: Cost overruns
Causes:
Too many projects going on at one time
Company resources are overcommitted

No project cost accounting ability


Unrealistic planning and scheduling
Poor control of design changes
Poor control of customer changes
Effects: Substandard performance
Causes:
Top management not recognizing this activity as a project
Conflicting project priorities
Poor control of design changes
Poor control of customer changes
Effects: High turnover in project staff
Causes:
Wrong person assigned as project manager
No one person responsible for the total project
Poorly organized project office
No integrated planning and control
Effects: High turnover in functional staff
Causes:
No integrated planning and control
Effects: Two functional departments performing the same activities on one project
Causes:
No functional input into the planning phase
Poor understanding of the project managers job

2. We hear about projects getting late and cost overruns. What are causes behind it?
Effects: Late completion of activities
Causes:
Top management not recognizing this activity as a project
Too many projects going on at one time
Impossible schedule commitments
Poor control of design changes
Poor control of customer changes
No integrated planning and control
Unrealistic planning and scheduling
Poorly organized project office
Effects: Cost overruns
Causes:

Too many projects going on at one time


Company resources are overcommitted
No project cost accounting ability
Unrealistic planning and scheduling
Poor control of design changes
Poor control of customer changes
Effects: Substandard performance
Causes:
Top management not recognizing this activity as a project
Conflicting project priorities
Poor control of design changes
Poor control of customer changes
Effects: High turnover in project staff
Causes:
Wrong person assigned as project manager
No one person responsible for the total project
Poorly organized project office
No integrated planning and control

Effects: High turnover in functional staff


Causes:
No integrated planning and control
Effects: Two functional departments performing the same activities on one project
Causes:
No functional input into the planning phase
Poor understanding of the project managers job

3. Project scope process management. From old papers


Answer:
Project scope management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all
the work required to complete the project successfully. It is primarily concerned with
definingand controlling what is or is not included in project.
The scope management process comprises of the following:
Project initiation: Approve Business case, feasibility, budget
Scope planning: Gather requirements
Scope definition: Create scope components, scope divide work

Scope verification: Get approval from all stakeholders


Scope change control: Manage scope change requests

4. Phases of MCCS------from old papaers


Answer:

5.
What is labor distribution? Responsibilities of proposal manager
Answer:
labor distribution
A labor cost distribution report is an accounting statement that details hours worked,
wages earned, and benefits accrued by a company's employees. Some labor cost
distribution reports also include information about what organizational funds were used
to pay for that labor. Organizations may add company-specific information to their
reports. For example, if a company set a goal to be under a certain labor cost, that goal
and whether or not it was met might appear on the report.
Responsibilities of proposal manager
Time may be extremely important, during proposal activities. There are many
situations in which a Request for Proposal (RFP) requires that all responders
submit their bids no later than a specific date, say within thirty days. Under a
proposal environment, the activities of the program office, as well as those of
the functional units, are under a schedule set forth by the proposal manager.
The proposal manager's schedule has very little, if any, flexibility and is
normally under tight time constraints so that the proposal may be typed,
edited, and published prior to the date of submittal. In this case, the Request
for Proposal (RFP) will indirectly define how much time the pricing units have
to identify and justify labor costs.
The primary responsibility of the proposal manager is to integrate
the proposal activities into the operational system so that the
proposal will be submitted to the requestor on time.

OR
Core

Responsibilities

of

proposal

manager.

Responsibilities of proposal manager ]

Delivery of compliant, professionally produced proposals within


customer defined timeframes
Coordinate and review / edit proposal input from a variety of
stakeholders, typically involving contributions from sales,
marketing, product teams, finance, commercial, legal and
delivery
Communicate and influence at a senior level
Ability to coach sales teams and subject matter experts in
persuasive writing and proposal best practice
Proposal automation software (or similar) experience
Document template management in line with company branding
Strong time management / prioritisation skills
Strong written English language skills
Excellent attention to detail.

6. For what type of projects, CPM and PERT is more suitable


Answer :
Not sure about this ans. Kindly update me if u find this irrelevant.
Critical Path Analysis and PERT are powerful tools that help you to schedule and
manage complex projects.
Planning, Scheduling (or organising) and Control are considered to be basic Managerial functions,
and CPM/PERT has been rightfully accorded due importance in the literature on Operations
Research and Quantitative Analysis.

Far more than the technical benefits, it was found that PERT/CPM provided a focus around which
managers could brain-storm and put their ideas together. It proved to be a great communication
medium by which thinkers and planners at one level could communicate their ideas, their doubts and
fears to another level. Most important, it became a useful tool for evaluating the performance of
individuals and teams.
I think this is good ans >>>>>

PERT uses three time estimates (optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic). From these estimates,
an expected time can be derived. CPM uses one time estimate that represents the normal time
(that is, better estimate accuracy with CPM). PERT is probabilistic in nature, based on a beta
distribution for each activity time and a normal distribution for expected time duration. This
allows us to calculate the "risk" in completing a project. CPM is based on a single time estimate
and is deterministic in nature. Both PERT and CPM permit the use of dummy activities in order
to develop the logic. PERT is used for Research and Development projects where the risks in
calculating time durations have a high variability. CPM is used for construction projects that are
resource dependent and based on accurate time estimates. PERT is used on those projects,
such as Research and Development, where percent complete is almost impossible to determine
except at completed milestones. CPM is used for those projects, such as construction, where
percent complete can be determined with reasonable accuracy and customer billing can be
accomplished based on percent complete 5. Major cost heads of budget 6. Differentiate in
Modern and classical approaches of quality

7. Objectives of Master Production Schedule


Answer :

8. You have to tell which technique is best to ensure quality in the project----from old
paper.
you are quality consultant of building manufacture and how you make sure the quality and
which techniques you use.
Answer:
Inspection
Inspection involves reviewing the product to see if it meets the defined quality norms.
Conducting reviews is an example of inspection.
Statistical and mathematical techniques
Sampling tables
Process control charts
Additional quality assurance principles emerged, such as:
The cost of quality
Zero-defect programs
Reliability engineering
Total quality control
The quality control tools and techniques discussed are
Process control charts:
Cause and Effect Diagrams. Cause and Effect diagrams are also known as Ishikawa or Fishbone
diagrams. These diagrams are used to identify the root cause(s) of potential or existing problems
Control Charts. Control charts are used to illustrate the stability of a process. This quality
control tool gauges the behavior of a process over time. If, during the recorded time, process
shows unacceptable variance, the process is deemed unstable
Flow-Charting
Flow-charting requires you to follow the flow of a process to determine potential or existing
problems in the process. You can use this quality control tool to predict potential flaws in a
process.
Apart from being used as a quality control tool, these diagrams are also used in risk analysis.
Histogram. A histogram is a graphical representation of event frequencies. This quality control
chart is also known as a column graph.
Pareto Chart and Pareto Analysis. The Pareto Chart shows the Probability Density (depicted by
the blue line) and the Distribution Function (depicted by the red line). The probability density is

the probability of the occurrence of a variable


Run Charts. A run chart is a series of recorded data over time that is graphically represented.
This trend will help in understanding whether there is a problem or not.
Scatter Diagrams. A scatter diagram shows the correlation between two variables. Scatter plots
can show the relationship between two parameters. For example, you can use Scatter Plots to
understand whether there is a relationship between team attrition and working late hours.
Statistical Sampling involves measuring a portion (sample) of the entire population instead of
measuring the entire population. This can save quite a bit of time. For example, if you have to
inspect 10,000 units a day, then it would take forever to complete the activity. By sampling, it
takes much less time.

9. How you get the project back on track within same time and cost------from old
papers
Answer:
work overtime
reallocate resouces
double check all depencies
check time constrained activities
swap resources
crash the schedule
fast track it
prevent all scope change
improve processes
scale back the scope of work

WAQAS AHMED
1: You are working as a PM on a new project of research and development and your
organization hired an assistant to assist you. He has to help you in scheduling. What will
guide you for this process?
Answer:
Guidelines for Preparation of Schedules:
Regardless of the projected use or complexity, certain guidelines should be followed in the
preparation of schedules. These are as follows:
1. Firstly, all major events and dates must be clearly identified. If the customer supplies a
statement of work, those dates shown on the accompanying schedules must be included.
If for any reason the customer's milestone dates cannot be met, the customer should be
notified immediately.

2. The exact sequence of work should be defined through a network in which


interrelationships between events can be identified.
3. Schedules should be directly relatable to the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). If the
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is developed according to a specific sequence of
work, then it becomes an easy task to identify work sequences in schedules using the
same numbering system as in the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). The minimum
requirement should be to show where and when all tasks start and finish.
All schedules must identify the time constraints and, if possible, should identify those resources
required for each event
2. Differentiate between business case and project charter?
Answer:

3. You are working on a project and one of your vendor is not able to provide some
equipment on time and he can be late for 2 weeks. After checking some network diagram,
you told him that he can deliver this equipment in 2 weeks. what did you see in the network
diagram for this grace period?
Answer:
Guidelines for Preparation of Schedules:
Regardless of the projected use or complexity, certain guidelines should be followed in the
preparation of schedules. These are as follows:
1. Firstly, all major events and dates must be clearly identified. If the customer supplies a
statement of work, those dates shown on the accompanying schedules must be included.
If for any reason the customer's milestone dates cannot be met, the customer should be
notified immediately.
2. The exact sequence of work should be defined through a network in which
interrelationships between events can be identified.
3. Schedules should be directly relatable to the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). If the
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is developed according to a specific sequence of
work, then it becomes an easy task to identify work sequences in schedules using the

same numbering system as in the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). The minimum
requirement should be to show where and when all tasks start and finish.
All schedules must identify the time constraints and, if possible, should identify those resources
required for each event
4. What is project planning process; kindly elaborate all the stages in detail.
Answer:

5. What is fixed price contract and what advantage can you get over competitors by using
fixed
term
contract.
Answer:

6.What are the steps you can take to retain customers?


Answer:

7.Do you agree with the phrase that " Leader is providing operational support but
manager is not"
Answer:
The difference between managers and leaders, he wrote, lies in the conceptions they hold, deep
in their psyches, of chaos and order. Managers embrace process, seek stability and control, and
instinctively try to resolve problems quicklysometimes before they fully understand a
problems significance. Leaders, in contrast, tolerate chaos and lack of structure and are willing
to delay closure in order to understand the issues more fully. In this way, Zaleznik argued,
business leaders have much more in common with artists, scientists, and other creative thinkers
than they do with managers. Organizations need both managers and leaders to succeed, but
developing both requires a reduced focus on logic and strategic exercises in favor of an
environment where creativity and imagination are permitted to flourish.
8.What are the costs you should consider in budget planning?
Answer: Not sure about this ans. Correct me if im wrong.
Once your business is operational, it's essential to plan and tightly manage its financial
performance. Creating a budgeting process is the most effective way to keep your business - and
its finances - on track.
This guide outlines the advantages of business planning and budgeting and explains how to go
about it. It suggests action points to help you manage your business' financial position more
effectively and ensure your plans are practical.

Planning for business success


The benefits
What to include in your annual plan

A typical business planning cycle


Budgets and business planning
Benefits of a business budget
Creating a budget
Key steps in drawing up a budget
What your budget should cover
What your budget will need to include
Use your budget to measure performance
Review your budget regularly

9. What is difference between classic and modern quality definition?


Answer:
Some of the differences between traditional and modern view of quality are presented
in the following table:
QUALITY
Traditional concept

Modern concept

Some minor defects and deviations are The goal is to have defects-free products
acceptable.
Low

quality is

and services.
due

to

poor

working Automation is the key to higher quality.

people.

Low

quality is

due

management. Sincere

to

poor

evaluation

labor
and

respect for people is the key to higher


quality.
Higher

quality

means

higher

costs, Higher quality creates higher profits. It is

reduced profits and makes production the major production target.


harder.
Control finished products quality and Improve the processes in advance to
remove the low quality ones.

eliminate the reasons for the low quality.

The quality control department is a Quality is everyone's business. Its total


separate

unit,

checking

the

finished control includes all production phases.

products.
Buy only from the cheapest suppliers. Buy from quality and reliable suppliers.
Compete suppliers to lower your overall Even if you split your profit with such a
costs.

supplier, you will win.

Quality depends only on production.

Quality depends on all phases of the

production process - from the design till


the delivery and after-sales service.
Business inventories are necessary to Maintaining
ensure

continuous

workers are direct net loss.

surplus

stocks

sharply

process. Idle deteriorates economic performance. Idle


workers are diverted to other useful
activities.

Ayesha Khan (23 aug-16)


1) Describe statement of work misinterpretation?
Answer:
These three examples show that misinterpretations of the Statement of Work (SOW) can result in
losses of hundreds of millions of dollars a year. Common causes of misinterpretation are:
Mixing tasks, specifications, approvals, and special instructions. Using imprecise language
("nearly," "optimum," "approximately," etc.)
No pattern, structure, or chronological order
Wide variation in size of tasks
Wide variation in how to describe details of the work
Failing to get third-party review
2) Overrun and schedule
Answer:
Effects: Late completion of activities
Causes:
Top management not recognizing this activity as a project
Too many projects going on at one time
Impossible schedule commitments
Poor control of design changes
Poor control of customer changes
No integrated planning and control
Unrealistic planning and scheduling
Poorly organized project office
Effects: Cost overruns
Causes:

Too many projects going on at one time


Company resources are overcommitted
No project cost accounting ability
Unrealistic planning and scheduling
Poor control of design changes
Poor control of customer changes
Effects: Substandard performance
Causes:
Top management not recognizing this activity as a project
Conflicting project priorities
Poor control of design changes
Poor control of customer changes
Effects: High turnover in project staff
Causes:
Wrong person assigned as project manager
No one person responsible for the total project
Poorly organized project office
No integrated planning and control
Effects: High turnover in functional staff
Causes:
No integrated planning and control

Effects: Two functional departments performing the same activities on one project
Causes:
No functional input into the planning phase
Poor understanding of the project managers job
3) Global pricing
Answer:

OR
With examples
Type 1 and Type 2 Acquisitions: There are different types of pricing strategies for different
situations especially when you are going into foreign projects. When a company wants to
win/get a project in a highly competitive international environment, two types of situations may
occur.
First, the project or program is unique and there is no or less potential for further growth in that
market. Getting project in this situation is termed as Type I Acquisition and will have a unique
pricing strategy. For example, the project of rehabilitating the earthquake affected area.
Type II Acquisition is a situation of getting a project in a market where there is much potential
for further projects. For example, project of installing electric-supply infrastructure in a city.
There is a potential of having such projects for other cities of that country.
4) Quality control and quantity assurance
Answer:
The terms quality assurance and quality control are often used interchangeably to refer to ways of ensuring the
quality of a service or product. The terms, however, have different meanings.

Assurance: The act of giving confidence, the state of being certain or the act of making certain.
Quality Assurance: The planned and systematic activities implemented in a quality system so that quality
requirements for a product or service will be fulfilled.

Control: An evaluation to indicate needed corrective responses; the act of guiding a process in which
variability is attributable to a constant system of chance causes.
Quality Control: The observation techniques and activities used to fulfill requirements for quality.

Or
Quality Assurance versus Quality Control comparison chart

Quality Assurance

Quality Control

Definition QA is a set of activities for ensuring


quality in the processes by which
products are developed.

QC is a set of activities for


ensuring quality in products. The
activities focus on identifying
defects in the actual products
produced.

Focus on QA aims to prevent defects with a


focus on the process used to make
the product. It is a proactive quality
process.

QC aims to identify (and correct)


defects in the finished product.
Quality control, therefore, is a
reactive process.

Goal The goal of QA is to improve


development and test processes so
that defects do not arise when the
product is being developed.

The goal of QC is to identify


defects after a product is
developed
and
before
it's
released.

How Establish
a
good
quality
management system and the
assessment
of
its
adequacy.
Periodic conformance audits of the
operations of the system.

Finding & eliminating sources of


quality problems through tools &
equipment so that customer's
requirements are continually met.

What Prevention of quality problems


through planned and systematic
activities including documentation.

The activities or techniques used


to achieve and maintain the
product quality, process and
service.

Responsibility Everyone on the team involved in


developing
the
product
is
responsible for quality assurance.

Quality control is usually the


responsibility of a specific team
that tests the product for defects.

Example Verification is an example of QA


Statistical Statistical Tools & Techniques can
Techniques be applied in both QA & QC. When
they are applied to processes
(process inputs & operational
parameters),
they
are
called
Statistical Process Control (SPC); &

Validation/Software Testing is an
example of QC
When
statistical
tools
&
techniques are applied to finished
products (process outputs), they
are called as Statistical Quality
Control (SQC) & comes under
QC.

Quality Assurance versus Quality Control comparison chart

Quality Assurance

Quality Control

it becomes the part of QA.


As a tool QA is a managerial tool

QC is a corrective tool

Orientation QA is process oriented

QC is product oriented

Other student ans:


Quality Control:
Quality control is a collective term for activities and techniques, within the process, that are
intended to create specific quality characteristics. Such activities include continually
monitoring processes, identifying and eliminating problem causes, use of statistical process
control to reduce the variability and to increase the efficiency of processes.
Quality control certifies that the organization's quality objectives are being met.
Quality control is also referred to as the technical aspect of quality management. They set up
the technical processes and procedures that ensure that each step of the project provides a
quality output from design and development through implementation and maintenance. Each
step's output must conform to the overall quality standards and quality plans, thus ensuring
that quality is achieved.
A good quality control system will:
Select what to control
Set standards that provide the basis for decisions regarding possible corrective action
Establish the measurement methods used
Compare the actual results to the quality standards
Act to bring nonconforming processes and material back to the standard based on the
information collected
Monitor and calibrate measuring devices
Include detailed documentation for all processes
Quality Assurance:
Quality assurance is the collective term for the formal activities and managerial processes
that are planned and undertaken in an attempt to ensure that products and services that are
delivered are at the required quality level. Quality assurance also includes efforts external to
these processes that provide information for improving the internal processes. It is the quality
assurance function that attempts to ensure that the project scope, cost, and time functions are
fully integrated.
The Project Management Institute Guide to the Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) refers to
quality assurance as the management section of quality management. This is the area where
the project manager can have the greatest impact on the quality of his project.
The project manager needs to establish the administrative processes and procedures
necessary to ensure and, often, prove that the scope statement conforms to the actual

requirements of the customer. The project manager must work with his team to determine
which processes they will use to ensure that all stakeholders have confidence that the quality
activities will be properly performed. All relevant legal and regulatory requirements must
also be met.
A good quality assurance system will:
Identify objectives and standards.
Be multifunctional and prevention oriented.
Plan for collection and use of data in a cycle of continuous improvement.
Plan for the establishment and maintenance of performance measures.
Include quality audits.

Question
You are the manager of R & D project. A member of your team has been assigned to develop
WBS of a project but he does not know how to develop a good WBS for such projects. Suggest
him with some guidelines.
Answer
Guidelines for WBS by Contractor:
To explain this, we take the example of a contractor who is required to develop a Work
Breakdown
Structure (WBS). He must consider certain guidelines. A partial list is as follows:
Complexity and technical requirements of the program (i.e., the statement of work)
Program cost
Time span of the program
Contractor's resource requirements
Contractor's and customer's internal structure for management control and reporting
Number of subcontracts

5) Geographical technique for diagram


Answer:

6) Emphases on one side leader grid on the other money will low the productivity? Do you
agree with statement or not?
Answer:

7) You are working as a PM on a new project of research and development and your
organization hired an assistant to assist you. He has to help you in scheduling. what will
guide you for this process
Answer:

Guidelines for Preparation of Schedules:


Regardless of the projected use or complexity, certain guidelines should be followed in the
preparation of schedules. These are as follows:
1. Firstly, all major events and dates must be clearly identified. If the customer supplies a
statement of work, those dates shown on the accompanying schedules must be included.
If for any reason the customer's milestone dates cannot be met, the customer should be
notified immediately.
2. The exact sequence of work should be defined through a network in which
interrelationships between events can be identified.
3. Schedules should be directly relatable to the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). If the
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is developed according to a specific sequence of
work, then it becomes an easy task to identify work sequences in schedules using the
same numbering system as in the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). The minimum
requirement should be to show where and when all tasks start and finish.
All schedules must identify the time constraints and, if possible, should identify those resources
required for each event
8) You are working on a project and one of your vendor is not able to provide some
equipment on time and he can be late for 2 weeks. After checking some network diagram,
you told him that he can deliver this equipment in 2 weeks. What did you see in the
network diagram for this grace period?
Answer:
Guidelines for Preparation of Schedules:
Regardless of the projected use or complexity, certain guidelines should be followed in the
preparation of schedules. These are as follows:
4. Firstly, all major events and dates must be clearly identified. If the customer supplies a
statement of work, those dates shown on the accompanying schedules must be included.
If for any reason the customer's milestone dates cannot be met, the customer should be
notified immediately.
5. The exact sequence of work should be defined through a network in which
interrelationships between events can be identified.
6. Schedules should be directly relatable to the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). If the
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is developed according to a specific sequence of
work, then it becomes an easy task to identify work sequences in schedules using the
same numbering system as in the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). The minimum
requirement should be to show where and when all tasks start and finish.
All schedules must identify the time constraints and, if possible, should identify those resources
required for each event
9) Steps of scheduling

Answer:

Step 1: Define the Schedule Activities


Take your Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) work packages and
decompose them further into schedule activities.
Take each WBS work package, and decide what activities are
required to create that package. For example, if your work
package is "configure new computer hardware," your schedule
activities might include "set up network configuration," "install
the video card," "install applications," and then "set up mail
client."

Step 2: Sequence the Activities


Remember back in grade school where you were given a bunch
of pictures and you had to figure out their order. You had to
decide which picture represented the 1st activity, the 2nd
activity and so on? Well, that is exactly what the second step is
all about. In the second step we sequence the schedule
activities by simply placing them in the order in which they
need to happen. For example, perhaps we need to install the
video card first, then set up the network configuration, install
applications and then finally set up the mail client. In some
cases two or more activities can be done simultaneously.
Perhaps we can set up the mail client while other applications
are being installed. This step is where we look at the different
types of schedule dependencies such as finish-to-start, start-tostart, finish-to-finish, and start-to-finish to figure out how each
of these activities relate to each other.

Step 3: Estimate the Resources Needed


for the Activity
The third step involves estimating what resources will be
required to accomplish each activity. This includes estimating
needed team resources, financial resources, and equipment.
These resource needs should be selected for each activity prior
to estimating the duration of each activity which is the next
step.

Step 4: Estimating the Duration of Each


of the Activities
This step requires you and your team to analyse how long it will
take to accomplish each of the activities. These estimates can
be quantified through the following tools:
Expert Judgement: by conferring with someone who is
familiar or experienced in what it takes to accomplish a
particular activity.
Analogous Estimating: a top-down estimation approach
is taken by looking at similar projects within your
organisation for estimates on how long a particular activity
should take.
Parametric Estimating: basically this is scaling an
estimate. For example, perhaps you know it takes on
average 10 minutes to install a software application. If the
"install applications" activity includes the installation of 6
applications, you can use parametric estimation to

estimate that it will take approximately 6 times 10


minutes, or 60 minutes to install all the applications.
Three point estimation: sometimes referred to as PERT
analysis, is a great tool for estimating activity durations.
You basically take a weighted average of a pessimistic,
expected, and optimistic estimate for the activity duration.
This estimate is in the form of (Pessimistic + 4x (Expected)
+ Optimistic) / 6

Step 5: Schedule Development


This step is the process where the sequence of activities,
resources needed for the activities, and the duration of each
activity is used to optimise the overall project schedule. Tools
used in this process include critical path method, schedule
compression, what-if scenario analysis, resource levelling, and
critical chain methods. Each of these topics could have one or
more articles dedicated to it, so we will not go into the detail of
each.
Once the schedule is developed, it should be baselined to
provide a snapshot of the original schedule plan of the plan.

Step 6: Monitoring and Controlling the


Schedule
The final step is monitoring and controlling the schedule. This
step is performed throughout the life of the project and ensures
that the work results lines up with the schedule plan. Schedule
control requires the use of progress reporting, schedule change
control systems, such as the use of project change requests,

performance management, and variance analysis to determine


if additional action is required to get the schedule back in line
with the plan.
So, those are the 6 steps you need to know to create a
successful project schedule.

Or
Here are five simple but important steps that will help get your schedule correct:
Start with the WBS - First things first. Start with decomposing your scope into a
work
break
break down structure. While there are multiple rules around this, the general thumb
rule
is
break
down your scope to work packages where each package can contain around 5-10
individual
tasks. Again this is a just a rule of thumb, the level of the WBS would largely depend
on
your
individual program or project. The idea here is to be able to tie back the individuals
tasks
that
will make up your schedule to the capabilities listed in the project scope.
Hint - Do not over do this to a level where you end up adding more complexity and
management
overhead.
Get your estimates on track - The next logical step is to estimate the individual
tasks
that
make up your work packages. How many resources you will need and how much
time
it
will
take take for these resources to get the task completed. Avoid doing any fast
tracking
or
crashing at this stage. This is based on the assumption that you will be doing a
bottom
up
estimation, that is starting from the individual tasks and rolling up at the workpackage
level.
Hint - Make sure your estimation process & model is communicated and transparent
to
the
project
stakeholders.
Analyze your dependencies - Most certainly your individual task will not be
executed
in
silos.
They will have dependencies. These dependencies and constraints can be in

different
forms.
Example a task may have a dependency on a particular task getting started or
completed
as
well as there may be tasks that are constrained to start or end on a particular date.
Hint - Don't attempt to do this alone, get your SMEs involved in this exercise.
Calculate your critical path - Once your have your tasks, estimates and the
dependencies
in
place. You are now ready to to get the critical path. You either do this manually or
through
an
EPM software that you are using. It does not really matter. It is also likely that you
may
end
up
with more than one critical path. You will need to pay attention to all the critical
paths
identified.
It is also important to note that during the course of the project your critical path
might
change
so your schedule is more of a living document and not static.
Hint - Often there may be tasks outside your critical path that will influence your
project
outcome.
Communicate - Now that you have done all the good work and have the project
schedule
in place, publish it. Your project stakeholders including your team need to be aware
of
the
project schedule. The schedule would help little just sitting out there on your hard
drive.
again
a reminder that your schedule is a live document and gets revisited during the
course
of
your
execution for instance every time you do risk assessment or change management
Hint - Include a link to your schedule in your project status communications.
So thats it, you now have a schedule baseline against which you can monitor and
control
your
project.

Muhammad Ali
My today's paper of Project Management (MGMT727)

1.Explain 'Corporate Culture Approach' of project planning with its benefits.


Solution:

2. Explain the Global pricing strategies.


Solution:
Specific pricing strategies must be developed for each individual situation. Frequently, however,
one of two situations prevails when one is pursuing project acquisitions competitively.
First, the new business opportunity may be a one-of-a-kind program with little or no follow-on
potential; a situation classified as type I acquisition.
Second, the new business opportunity may be an entry point to a larger follow-on or repeat
business, or may represent a planned penetration into a new market. This acquisition is classified
as type II.
Clearly, in each case, we have specific but different business objectives. The objective for type I
acquisition is to win the program and execute it profitably and satisfactorily according to
contractual agreements. The type II objective is often to win the program and perform well,
thereby gaining a foothold in a new market segment or a new customer community in place of
making a profit.

3. Difference between Product scope and Project Scope.


Solution:
Product Scope:
This includes work to deliver a projects product/service with specific features and functions.
The result can be a single product or you can have several components. The features, functions,
and characteristics to be included in a product are measured against set product requirements and
are managed throughout the lifecycle.
Project Scope:
Project scope refers to the work that must be done in order to deliver a product, service, result
with specified features and functions. Project scope has a start and end date, possesses unique
characteristics or attributes, and produces specific results during the lifecycle.

4. Find the slack time, critical path and total project duration from given project network.
Solution:

5.Objectives of procurement planning for the project.


Solution:
Procurement planning usually involves the selection of one of the following as the primary
objective:
Procure all goods/services from a single source.
Procure all goods/services from multiple sources.
Procure only a small portion of the goods/services.
Procure none.

6. Being a project manager, you have to compete in market with rival firm. To be
competitive and to win the market, which aspects of project should you focus the most?
Discuss.
Solution:
One of the critical factors that can affect quality is market expectations. The variables that affect
market expectations include:
Salability: the balance between quality and cost
Produce ability: the ability to produce the product with available technology and workers, and
at an acceptable cost
Social acceptability: the degree of conflict between the product or process and the values of
society (i.e., safety, environment)
Operability: the degree to which a product can be operated safely
Availability: the probability that the product, when used under given conditions, will perform
satisfactorily when called upon
Reliability: the probability of the product performing without failure under given conditions
and for a set period of time
Maintainability: the ability of the product to be retained in or restored to a performance level
when prescribed maintenance is performed

7. What do you understand by Prevention Cost of Quality? Explain few examples of


Prevention Cost Quality.
Solution:
Prevention costs are the up-front costs oriented toward the satisfaction of customer's
requirements with the first and all succeeding units of product produced without defects.
Included in this are typically such costs as design review, training, quality planning, surveys
of vendors, suppliers, and subcontractors, process studies, and related preventive activities.

Humaira Shahzad
1.causes for following two effects cost overrun and schedule slips make statement of work
of given project.
Solution:
We read in the newspaper about cost overruns and schedule slips on a wide variety of large-scale
development projects. Several issues within the control of the buyer, seller, or major stakeholders
can lead to cost growth and schedule slippage on development projects. These causes include,
but are not limited to:
Starting a project with a budget and/or schedule that is inadequate for the desired level of
performance or scope (e.g., integration complexity).
Having an overall development process (or key parts of that process) that favors performance
(or scope) over cost and schedule.
Establishing a design that is near the feasible limit of achievable performance or integration
complexity at a given point in time.
Making major project design decisions before the relationships between cost, performance,
schedule, and risk are understood.

2.characteristic of good planning and control system in detail.


Solution:
The designing of a company's planning system must take into account the cost control system as
well. For this reason, it is common for the planning cycle to be referred to as planning and
control, whereas the operating cycle is referred to as cost and control.
Note that the planning and control system selected must be able to satisfy management's needs
and requirements in order that they can accurately project the status toward objective completion.
The purpose of any management cost and control system is to establish policies, procedures, and

techniques that can be used in the day-to-day management and control of projects and programs.
The planning and control system must, therefore, provide information that:
Gives a picture of true work progress
Will relate cost and schedule performance
Identifies potential problems with respect to their sources.
Provides information to project managers with a practical level of summarization
Demonstrates that the milestones are valid, timely, and auditable
The planning and control system, in addition to being a tool by which objectives can be defined
that is hierarchy of objectives and organization accountability, exists as a tool to develop
planning, measure progress, and control change. As a tool for planning, the system must be able
to:
Plan and schedule work
Identify those indicators that will be used for measurement
Establish direct labor budgets
Establish overhead budgets
Identify management reserve

3.what is productivity? determine productivity of project.


Solution:
Productivity: Efficient utilization of resources (input) in producing goods/services
(output).
Productivity (the measure of efficiency defined as the amount of output achieved per unit of
input), the cost of operations, and the quality of the goods and services that create customer
satisfaction all contribute to profitability. Task of project manager is to evaluate those factors that
have bearing on productivity and take appropriate measures to use effectively. In order to raise
productivity and to reduce cost, we must eliminate bad features in design and specifications that
cause excessive work contents.

5.The starting date of a 3 months long project was delayed by 1 week due to lack of
adequate funding. How can this project be completed by the due date? Explain it in detail.
Solution:
The answer is to fast-track the project. Fast-tracking a project means that activities that
are normally done in series are done in parallel. An example of this is when construction
begins before detail design is completed. Now the question arises as to how would this

help. Fast-tracking a job can accelerate the schedule but requires that additional risks be
taken. If the risks materialize, then either the end date will slip or expensive rework will
be needed. Almost all project driven companies fast track projects. The danger, however,
is when fast-tracking becomes a way of life on all projects.
Work breakdown of structure of road construction project quality is required for
housing scheme which technique you would use?
6.

Solution:
The Road manufacturing requires many tasks which can be done by following WBS:
Project Costing
i.
iii.
v.

Overhead
Equipment
Capital Cost escalation
Project Development

Proposal
ii.
Development overhead
iv.
Development Risk
Operation and Maintenance (O & M)

i.
iii.
v.
i.
iii.
v.

Operations
Transfer
O & M Risk

ii.
iv.
vi.

ii.
iv.

Construction
Engineering
Capital Cost Risk

&

Financing
Development

Maintenance
O
&

Design

escalation

escalation

7.one project was given, cost estimation techniques was required.?


Solution:
Cost Estimate:
This involves estimating project cost to an acceptable level of accuracy. Levels of around -5% to
+15% are common at this level of a project plan. Both the initial and operating costs are included

in the cost estimation. Estimates of capital investment and of recurring and nonrecurring costs
should also be contained in the cost estimate document. Sensitivity analysis can be carried out on
the estimated cost values to see how sensitive the project plan is to the estimated cost values.
9,estimation activity duration of a project if the critical path is A-B-D-F duration is64 day
compute probability of completion of project in 60 days with PERT technique table of z.
sorry table was given I was not able to copy that table but there is optimistic most likely
and pessimistic values was given.
Solution:

Muhammad Asif
Project management final term
Q1. Importance of work break down structure
Solution:
The WBS makes the deliverables more precise and concrete so that the project team knows exactly what
has to be accomplished within each deliverable. This also allows for better estimating of cost, risk, and
time because you can work from the smaller tasks back up to the level of the entire project.

A work breakdown structure lets project managers plan their work more efficiently. A project is
characterized by time-limited activities and is assigned fixed time frames and costs. When it is finished, a
project must fulfill the stakeholder needs it was designed to address. The project management has to plan
for the schedule, the fixed costs and the functional completeness of the project and assign
responsibilities. The WBS helps make this planning consistent and provides for effective project
execution.

Tasks
The main purpose of a WBS is to reduce complicated activities to a collection of tasks.. Tasks
must be measurable and independent, with clearly defined limits

Costs
Because the WBS tasks are measurable, the project management can assign specific costs
to each task. The WBS lets project managers distribute the project budget into defined

packages linked to the tasks and check to make sure that the task costs in total don't
exceed the total project cost.

Schedule
The WBS is important for tracking progress in the project schedule. the project management
can determine how advanced the project is by checking which of the tasks are finished.

Scope.
The WBS helps define scope by listing individual tasks that make up the project. The project
team completes all the listed tasks but no additional work.

Function
The tasks of the WBS each implement a part of the overall function. A task is only complete
when it fulfills its partial function. When all tasks are finished, all the partial functions add up
to a fully functional project.

Responsibility
An important part of project management is to assign responsibility for the work. With a
WBS, the project management assigns responsibility for each of the tasks. The task manager
is responsible for completing the full scope of the project on time, within the budget and
with all of its planned functionality intact.

Q2. What do you understand by Prevention Cost of Quality? Explain few examples of
Prevention Cost Quality.
Prevention costs are the up-front costs oriented toward the satisfaction of customer's
requirements with the first and all succeeding units of product produced without defects.
Included in this are typically such costs as design review, training, quality planning, surveys
of vendors, suppliers, and subcontractors, process studies, and related preventive activities.
q3. Difference b/w product scope and project scope
Solution:
Product Scope:
This includes work to deliver a projects product/service with specific features and functions.
The result can be a single product or you can have several components. The features, functions,
and characteristics to be included in a product are measured against set product requirements and
are managed throughout the lifecycle.
Project Scope:

Project scope refers to the work that must be done in order to deliver a product, service, result
with specified features and functions. Project scope has a start and end date, possesses unique
characteristics or attributes, and produces specific results during the lifecycle.
q3. One project was given, cost estimation techniques was required?
Solution:
Cost Estimate:
This involves estimating project cost to an acceptable level of accuracy. Levels of around -5% to
+15% are common at this level of a project plan. Both the initial and operating costs are included
in the cost estimation. Estimates of capital investment and of recurring and nonrecurring costs
should also be contained in the cost estimate document. Sensitivity analysis can be carried out on
the estimated cost values to see how sensitive the project plan is to the estimated cost values.

q4. Characteristics of program planning and control.


Solution:
PLANNING
1. Planning is goal-oriented.
a. Planning is made to achieve desired objective of business.
b. The goals established should general acceptance otherwise individual efforts & energies
will go misguided and misdirected.
c.

Planning identifies the action that would lead to desired goals quickly & economically.

d. It provides sense of direction to various activities. E.g. Maruti Udhyog is trying to capture
once again Indian Car Market by launching diesel models.

2. Planning is looking ahead.


a. Planning is done for future.
b. It requires peeping in future, analyzing it and predicting it.
c.

Thus planning is based on forecasting.

d. A plan is a synthesis of forecast.


e. It is a mental predisposition for things to happen in future.

3. Planning is an intellectual process.

a. Planning is a mental exercise involving creative thinking, sound judgement and


imagination.
b. It is not a mere guesswork but a rotational thinking.
c.

A manager can prepare sound plans only if he has sound judgement, foresight and
imagination.

d. Planning is always based on goals, facts and considered estimates.

4. Planning involves choice & decision making.


a. Planning essentially involves choice among various alternatives.
b. Therefore, if there is only one possible course of action, there is no need planning
because there is no choice.
c.

Thus, decision making is an integral part of planning.

d. A manager is surrounded by no. of alternatives. He has to pick the best depending upon
requirements & resources of the enterprises.

5. Planning is the primary function of management / Primacy of Planning.


a. Planning lays foundation for other functions of management.
b. It serves as a guide for organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.
c.

All the functions of management are performed within the framework of plans laid out.

d. Therefore planning is the basic or fundamental function of management.

6. Planning is a Continuous Process.


a. Planning is a never ending function due to the dynamic business environment.
b. Plans are also prepared for specific period f time and at the end of that period, plans are
subjected to revaluation and review in the light of new requirements and changing
conditions.
c.

Planning never comes into end till the enterprise exists issues, problems may keep
cropping up and they have to be tackled by planning effectively.

7. Planning is all Pervasive.


a. It is required at all levels of management and in all departments of enterprise.
b. Of course, the scope of planning may differ from one level to another.

c.

The top level may be more concerned about planning the organization as a whole
whereas the middle level may be more specific in departmental plans and the lower level
plans implementation of the same.

8. Planning is designed for efficiency.


a. Planning leads to accompishment of objectives at the minimum possible cost.
b. It avoids wastage of resources and ensures adequate and optimum utilization of
resources.
c.

A plan is worthless or useless if it does not value the cost incurred on it.

d. Therefore planning must lead to saving of time, effort and money.


e. Planning leads to proper utilization of men, money, materials, methods and machines.

9. Planning is Flexible.
a. Planning is done for the future.
b. Since future is unpredictable, planning must provide enough room to cope with the
changes in customers demand, competition, govt. policies etc.
c.

Under changed circumstances, the original plan of action must be revised and updated to
male it more practical.

Control

(1) Controlling is a Fundamental Management Function:


There are many functions of management like planning, organizing, staffing,
directing and controlling. Out of all these functions, controlling is the most
important. If controlling is excluded, all other functions of management are
rendered meaningless.
(2) Essential Function of Every Manager:
The controlling is a pervasive function of management as it is performed in all
organisations (business and non-business) and at all the managerial levels. It

is that function of management under which every manager at every level


assures that the actual progress is in conformity with the plans.
(3) Controlling is a Continuous Activity:
Control does not mean any activity which is performed only for once or is
repeated after a long interval but it is needed at all times. Under controlling,
the progress has to be assessed continuously.
(4) Controlling is Both the Beginning and the End of the Process of
Management:
The need of control is felt both at the beginning and end of the process of
management.
(5) Controlling is related to Results:
Control is related to results because we assess progress on the basis of
results and take corrective action after finding out the deviations.

q5. You are team of eight members and if 07 members are added more to the team how
many communication lines will be there.
Solution:
q6. Difficulties in defining Project objectives.
Solution:
1.

Undefined Goals When goals are not clearly identified, the whole project and team
can suffer. When upper management cannot agree to or support undefined goals, the project in
question typically has little chance of succeeding. The project manager must ask the right
questions to establish and communicate clear goals from the outset.

2.

Scope Changes Also known as scope creep, this occurs when project management
allows the project's scope to extend beyond its original objectives. Clients and supervisors may
ask for changes to a project, and it takes a strong project manager to evaluate each request and
decide how and if to implement it, while communicating the effects on budget and deadlines to
all stakeholders.
3. Inadequate Skills for the Project A project sometimes requires skills that the project's
contributors do not possess. Project management training can help a project leader
determine the needed competencies, assess the available workers and recommend
training, outsourcing or hiring additional staff.
4. Lack of Accountability A project manager's leadership qualities can shine when each
member of the team takes responsibility for his or her role in achieving project success.
Conversely, a lack of accountability can bring a project to a complete halt. Fingerpointing and avoiding blame are unproductive, but all-too-common features of flawed
project management. Learning to direct teams toward a common goal is an important
aspect of project management training.
5. Improper Risk Management Learning to deal with and plan for risk is another
important piece of project management training. Risk tolerance is typically a desirable
project manager trait because projects rarely go exactly to plan. Gathering input,
developing trust and knowing which parts of a project are most likely to veer off course
are aspects of the project manager's job.
6. Ambiguous Contingency Plans It's important for project managers to know what
direction to take in pre-defined "what-if" scenarios. If contingencies are not identified, the
entire project can become mired in an unexpected set of problems. Asking others to
identify potential problem areas can lead to a smoothe and successful project.
7. Poor Communication Project managers provide direction at every step of the project,
so each team leader knows what's expected. Effective communication to everyone
involved in the project is crucial to its successful completion.
1. Project management training includes an emphasis on written and oral
communication skills
2. Proper communication can help increase morale by establishing clear
expectations
3. Good project managers keep communication and feedback flowing between
upper management and team leaders
8. mpossible Deadlines A successful project manager knows that repeatedly asking a
team for the impossible can quickly result in declining morale and productivity. The odds
of successfully completing a project under unreasonable deadlines are generally not
feasible expectations.

9. Resource Deprivation In order for a project to be run efficiently and effectively,


management must provide sufficient resources. Project management training shows
how to define needs and obtain approval up front, and helps project managers assign
and prioritize resources throughout the duration of a project.
10. Lack of Stakeholder Engagement A disinterested team member, client, CEO or
vendor can destroy a project. A skilled project manager communicates openly and
encourages feedback at every step to create greater engagement among participants.

q7 Limitation of PERT.
Solution:
q8 & Q9 yad nhi a raha................

Maham Khan
MGMT727 paper
1:

Differentiate between business case and project charter?

Solution:
A business case is usually prepared before project approval. If you are a contractor, your
proposal would be similar a business case.
A project charter providing the project manager with formal authorization to proceed with the
project is issued to a team by the project sponsor before the project starts.
Project scope document defines the project scope. It should be attached to the business case and
to the project charter. The project scope will be refined as you proceed through the project.
2:What is project planning process, kindly elaborate all the stages in detail
Solution:

In order to do successful project management, (whether it is in response to an inhouse project


or a customer request), it must utilize effective planning techniques. The
quantitative and
qualitative tools for project planning must be identified. Management must make
effective
utilization of resources, from a systems point of view.
A systematic plan is required in which the entire company is considered as one
large network
that is further subdivided into smaller ones. This would ensure effective utilization
over several
different types of projects.
In this regard, the first step in total program scheduling is to understand the project
objectives.
These goals may be to:
Develop expertise in a given area
To become competitive
To modify an existing facility for later use
To keep key personnel employed.

In simple terms, planning is determining what needs to be done, by whom, and by when; in
order to fulfill one's assigned responsibility. There are nine major components of the planning
phase:
Objective: A goal, target, or quota to be achieved by a certain time
Program: The strategy to be followed and major actions to be taken in order to achieve or
exceed objectives
Schedule: A plan showing when individual or group activities or accomplishments will be
started and/or completed
Budget: Planned expenditures required to achieve or exceed objectives
Forecast: A projection of what will happen by a certain time
Organization: Design of the number and kinds of positions, along with corresponding
duties and responsibilities, required to achieve or exceed objectives
Policy: A general guide for decision making and individual actions
Procedure: A detailed method for carrying out a policy
Standard: A level of individual or group performance defined as adequate or acceptable

3:Explain the Global pricing strategies


Solution:
Specific pricing strategies must be developed for each individual situation. Frequently, however,
one of two situations prevails when one is pursuing project acquisitions competitively.

First, the new business opportunity may be a one-of-a-kind program with little or no follow-on
potential; a situation classified as type I acquisition.
Second, the new business opportunity may be an entry point to a larger follow-on or repeat
business, or may represent a planned penetration into a new market. This acquisition is classified
as type II.
Clearly, in each case, we have specific but different business objectives. The objective for type I
acquisition is to win the program and execute it profitably and satisfactorily according to
contractual agreements. The type II objective is often to win the program and perform well,
thereby gaining a foothold in a new market segment or a new customer community in place of
making a profit.
4:Is it easy to prepare WBS for educational project?
Solution:

5:Channels of communication scenario based


Solution:

6: Employees moral is down how to boost the employee morale. Give five method
Solution:

Keep employees feeling their work is more than just a job.


Everyone wants to feel that his or her work has a higher purpose. Sometimes,
though, that purpose gets lost in the day-to-day grind. One of the key ways that
Snagajob.com, an online job-search company, based in Glen Allen, Virginia,
inspires its 126 employees is by sharing "I Got a Job!" stories that show them the
value of their work. Circulated by email, the real-life stories come from grateful
job seekers who recently landed a new job through the company's website.
2. Take time to creatively celebrate accomplishments.
It's natural to focus on what's ahead rather than reflect on how much has been
achieved. Taking time to reflect, though, helps employees appreciate how much
they have done. All departments at Acuity, a financial-services company based in

Sheboygan, Wis., are asked each year to recognize their own work by providing
a list of significant accomplishments of their team. The lists are reviewed by
Acuity officers, who select the 100 most outstanding achievements for inclusion
in a "Top 100 Accomplishments" list. The latest list was designed as a book,
Acuity World Records, with the help of Guinness World Records, and given to all
831 employees.
3. Grant time off to employees to pursue projects they are passionate
about.
Personal projects can provide an energizing break from regular responsibilities
and can serve as a source of innovation for a company. Atlassian, a developer of
collaboration software based in Sydney, encourages creativity during its "FedEx
Day." During this event, all 62 employees can work on anything that excites them
-- as long as it is somewhat related to Atlassian products or processes, can be
completed in the allotted time, and is fun. Employees have from 2 p.m. on a
Thursday until 4 p.m. Friday, giving them roughly 24 hours to deliver a project
(thus the name, FedEx Day). Then at a presentation, participants show off the
results of their projects. From these ideas, Atlassian has adopted more than a
dozen projects, ranging from product upgrades to process improvements.
4. Mix up the company's usual way of doing things.
Departing from the customary routine of meetings and cubicle life can go a long
way toward building morale. The accounting firm Ehrhardt Keefe Steiner &
Hottman, based in Denver, uses the concept of neighborhoods to shake things
up. All 387 employees are organized into neighborhoods, based on the floors or
sections of floors in each office. These groups have regular get-togethers and
shape the contours of meetings. For example, during an all-employee meeting

day, as the firm staged a neighborhood basketball tournament, each group came
up with team names, homemade jerseys, mascots, and cheerleaders.
5. Don't forget to have fun.
For the online discounter FatWallet, based in Rockton, Ill., fun is a regular part of
the schedule. Its 55 employees are invited to play in a monthly Game Day, an inhouse competition with activities ranging from Trivial Pursuit to Wii bowling
matches. The company also offers quarterly "fun" rewards when staffers achieve
certain goals, such as hockey games, casino nights, or playdays at at
amusement parks. Team-building events have included a city scavenger hunt in
Chicago and a rooftop Cubs game.
6. Train employees to develop positive attitudes.
During the height of the recession in 2009, employee morale became a big issue
for 4Imprint, a maker of customized promotional products, based in Oshkosh,
Wis. The company's training team decided to try to boost morale by setting up
classes for the 419 employees to watch and discuss videos with inspiring themes
like Lance Armstrong's comeback from cancer and the friendly culture at
Southwest Airlines.
7. Offer time away from the office to do some good.
Another way to build employee morale and camaraderie is through community
service. Studer Group, a Gulf Breeze, Fla.-based management consulting firm,
gives its 114 employees four paid hours a month to volunteer for a charitable
initiative or organization of their choice. Departments also take on volunteer
projects as a group.
Or:

Show employees the results of their hard work

Give them responsibility


Treat them as people
Make sure that top management is available, listening, and
engaging
Offer training
Ask employees what motivates them

7: You have been assigned the task to improve quality in the context of Total Quality.
Which data and information would you need to fulfill the task?
Solution:
For this, we first explain what total quality is. Total Quality means:
Quality of work
Quality of Service
Quality of information
Quality Process
Quality of Organization
Quality of People
Quality of Company
Quality of Objectives

8: Emphasize on one side leader grid on the other money will low the productivity? Do you
agree with statement or not
Solution:

9: scenario based related to quality control


Solution: