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RAM Concept

V8 i (SELECTseries 9)

User Manual
DAA037480-1/000X
Last Updated: August 26, 2014

Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction .......................................................................................................... 49
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

1.6

Comparing with traditional methods ............................................................................................................................... 49


RAM Concept options .................................................................................................................................................................. 49
Strip Wizard ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 50
Structural systems ........................................................................................................................................................................ 50
Learning RAM Concept ............................................................................................................................................................... 51
Tutorials .......................................................................................................................................................................... 51
1.5.1
Critical Chapters ........................................................................................................................................................... 51
1.5.2
Know your building code ......................................................................................................................................... 52
1.5.3
Upgrading Old Files .................................................................................................................................................... 53
1.5.4
Technical support ......................................................................................................................................................................... 53

Chapter 2: Looking at the Workspace ..................................................................................... 54


2.1
2.2
2.3

2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8

About the workspace ................................................................................................................................................................... 54


Creating and opening files ......................................................................................................................................................... 55
Starting a new file ........................................................................................................................................................ 55
2.2.1
Opening an existing file ............................................................................................................................................. 56
2.2.2
Saving a file ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 56
To save and name a file for the first time .......................................................................................................... 56
2.3.1
To save any open file .................................................................................................................................................. 57
2.3.2
To save a file as a template ...................................................................................................................................... 57
2.3.3
Saving a copy of a file with a new name or location ..................................................................................... 57
2.3.4
Reverting to a backup copy ..................................................................................................................................... 57
2.3.5
Restoring an auto-save file ...................................................................................................................................... 57
2.3.6
About templates ............................................................................................................................................................................. 58
Expanding tool buttons .............................................................................................................................................................. 58
Rearranging toolbars ................................................................................................................................................................... 59
Using the right mouse button .................................................................................................................................................. 59
Undoing changes ........................................................................................................................................................................... 59

Chapter 3: Understanding Layers ........................................................................................... 60


3.1
3.2

Modeling with objects ................................................................................................................................................................. 60


Managing layers ............................................................................................................................................................................. 60
Determining which plans contain objects ......................................................................................................... 62
3.2.1

Chapter 4: Using Plans and Perspectives ................................................................................ 64


4.1
4.2
4.3

4.4
4.5

Using plans ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 64


Creating new plans ....................................................................................................................................................................... 64
Viewing perspectives ................................................................................................................................................................... 64
Setting the projection ................................................................................................................................................. 65
4.3.1
Selecting the modeling .............................................................................................................................................. 65
4.3.2
Rotating the model ...................................................................................................................................................... 65
4.3.3
Creating new perspectives ........................................................................................................................................................ 65
Controlling views .......................................................................................................................................................................... 65
Zooming to magnify or diminish ........................................................................................................................... 66
4.5.1

RAM Concept

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4.6

Panning to reposition ................................................................................................................................................. 66


4.5.2
View History .................................................................................................................................................................. 67
4.5.3
Regenerating .................................................................................................................................................................. 67
4.5.4
Setting the visible objects ........................................................................................................................................ 67
4.5.5
Changing colors, font, and line type ..................................................................................................................... 69
4.5.6
Changing font size ....................................................................................................................................................... 70
4.5.7
Changing font scale ..................................................................................................................................................... 71
4.5.8
Setting up the grid ......................................................................................................................................................................... 71
To make the grid visible for a plan ....................................................................................................................... 72
4.6.1
To change the grid settings for a plan ................................................................................................................. 72
4.6.2

Chapter 5: Drawing and Editing Objects ................................................................................. 73


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8

5.9
5.10
5.11

5.12
5.13

5.14
5.15
5.16

Precision drawing with snaps .................................................................................................................................................. 73


Drawing objects ............................................................................................................................................................................. 74
Entering coordinate points ....................................................................................................................................................... 74
Using relative coordinates ......................................................................................................................................................... 74
Selecting objects ............................................................................................................................................................................ 75
To select an object or group of objects ............................................................................................................... 75
5.5.1
To select only a single object .................................................................................................................................. 75
5.5.2
Deselecting objects ....................................................................................................................................................................... 75
To deselect an object or group of objects from a selection ....................................................................... 75
5.6.1
To deselect only a single object from a selection ........................................................................................... 76
5.6.2
Filtering selected objects ........................................................................................................................................................... 76
Cutting, copying, and pasting objects ................................................................................................................................... 76
To cut objects ................................................................................................................................................................ 76
5.8.1
To copy objects ............................................................................................................................................................. 76
5.8.2
To paste objects from the clipboard .................................................................................................................... 76
5.8.3
Copying and pasting objects by layer ................................................................................................................................... 77
To append objects to the layer clipboard .......................................................................................................... 77
5.9.1
To paste objects from the layer clipboard ........................................................................................................ 77
5.9.2
Editing polygon objects .............................................................................................................................................................. 77
5.10.1 To add a node to a polygonal object .................................................................................................................... 78
5.10.2 To delete a node from a polygonal object ......................................................................................................... 78
Moving, rotating, stretching, and mirroring objects ...................................................................................................... 78
5.11.1 To move a selection .................................................................................................................................................... 78
5.11.2 To stretch the selection ............................................................................................................................................. 79
5.11.3 To rotate a selection ................................................................................................................................................... 79
5.11.4 To mirror the selection ............................................................................................................................................. 79
Using the Utility tool to move and stretch .......................................................................................................................... 79
5.12.1 To move an object by one of its grips ................................................................................................................. 79
5.12.2 To stretch an object by one of its grips .............................................................................................................. 80
Manipulating the model as a whole ....................................................................................................................................... 80
5.13.1 To move the entire model ........................................................................................................................................ 80
5.13.2 To rotate the entire model ....................................................................................................................................... 80
5.13.3 To mirror the entire model ..................................................................................................................................... 80
5.13.4 To scale the entire model ......................................................................................................................................... 81
Editing object properties ........................................................................................................................................................... 81
Setting default properties .......................................................................................................................................................... 81
Adding reference lines, dimensions, and text notes ....................................................................................................... 81
5.16.1 To draw a line ................................................................................................................................................................ 82
5.16.2 To draw a dimension line ......................................................................................................................................... 82

RAM Concept

User Manual

5.16.3

To draw text ................................................................................................................................................................... 82

Chapter 6: Viewing Objects in Text Tables ............................................................................... 83


6.1

Customizing tables ........................................................................................................................................................................ 84


Choosing which rows and columns to show .................................................................................................... 84
6.1.1
Sizing table columns ................................................................................................................................................... 85
6.1.2
Sorting table rows ....................................................................................................................................................... 85
6.1.3

Chapter 7: Choosing Units ...................................................................................................... 86


7.1
7.2
7.3

About units ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 86


Selecting units ................................................................................................................................................................................. 86
Selecting the default units ........................................................................................................................................ 86
7.2.1
Changing the units ....................................................................................................................................................... 86
7.2.2
Specifying report as zero ........................................................................................................................................................... 89

Chapter 8: Choosing Sign Convention ..................................................................................... 90


8.1
8.2

Selecting sign convention ..........................................................................................................................................................


Default sign convention ............................................................................................................................................
8.1.1
Changing the sign convention ................................................................................................................................
8.1.2
About plot sign convention .......................................................................................................................................................

90
90
92
92

Chapter 9: Specifying Material Properties .............................................................................. 94


9.1
9.2

9.3
9.4

Viewing the available materials .............................................................................................................................................. 94


Material properties ....................................................................................................................................................................... 96
Concrete Mix .................................................................................................................................................................. 96
9.2.1
PT Systems ...................................................................................................................................................................... 96
9.2.2
Reinforcing Bars ........................................................................................................................................................... 97
9.2.3
SSR Systems ................................................................................................................................................................... 97
9.2.4
Adding and deleting materials ................................................................................................................................................ 98
To add materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 98
9.3.1
To delete materials ..................................................................................................................................................... 98
9.3.2
About post-tensioning systems ............................................................................................................................................... 98

Chapter 10: Specifying loadings ............................................................................................ 100


10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9

About default loadings ............................................................................................................................................................. 100


Viewing the loadings ................................................................................................................................................................. 101
Loading properties ..................................................................................................................................................................... 101
About loading types ................................................................................................................................................................... 102
Available loading types ............................................................................................................................................................ 102
10.5.1 About assembly loads ............................................................................................................................................. 103
10.5.2 About Transfer Loading Types ............................................................................................................................ 103
Changing Loading Types ......................................................................................................................................................... 104
Changing Analysis ...................................................................................................................................................................... 104
Adding and deleting loadings ................................................................................................................................................ 104
10.8.1 To add a loading ........................................................................................................................................................ 105
10.8.2 To delete a loading ................................................................................................................................................... 105
About load pattern ..................................................................................................................................................................... 105
10.9.1 How load patterns work ........................................................................................................................................ 105
10.9.2 When to use load pattern ...................................................................................................................................... 107
10.9.3 How load pattern can approximate moving loads ...................................................................................... 108

Chapter 11: Specifying Load Combinations ........................................................................... 109

RAM Concept

User Manual

11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8

About default load combinations ......................................................................................................................................... 109


Viewing the load combinations ............................................................................................................................................ 109
Rebuilding load combinations .............................................................................................................................................. 111
Adding and deleting load combinations ........................................................................................................................... 111
11.4.1 To add a load combination .................................................................................................................................... 111
11.4.2 To delete a loading ................................................................................................................................................... 111
Load combination properties ................................................................................................................................................ 112
About group load combinations ........................................................................................................................................... 112
About alternate envelope factors ........................................................................................................................................ 113
11.7.1 Example of Alternate Load Factors ................................................................................................................... 114
Summary of load combination types ................................................................................................................................. 114

Chapter 12: Selecting Design Rules ....................................................................................... 118


12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4

Using rule set designs ............................................................................................................................................................... 118


Rule set design properties ...................................................................................................................................................... 119
Types of active rules .................................................................................................................................................................. 119
Adding and deleting rule set designs ................................................................................................................................. 120
12.4.1 To add a rule set design .......................................................................................................................................... 120
12.4.2 To delete a rule set ................................................................................................................................................... 121

Chapter 13: Using a CAD Drawing ......................................................................................... 122


13.1

Importing, verifying and viewing a drawing .................................................................................................................. 122


13.1.1 Importing a CAD file ................................................................................................................................................. 122
13.1.2 Checking the imported information ................................................................................................................. 122
13.1.3 Making the drawing visible on other plans ................................................................................................... 123

Chapter 14: Importing a Database from the RAM Structural System .................................... 124
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6

14.7

What can be imported from the RAM Structural System .......................................................................................... 124
Controlling which concrete members are imported ................................................................................................... 124
14.2.1 Definition of the import perimeter ................................................................................................................ 125
About load importation ........................................................................................................................................................... 126
Importing a database ................................................................................................................................................................ 127
Reimporting a database ........................................................................................................................................................... 130
14.5.1 Resolving loading conflicts ................................................................................................................................... 131
14.5.2 To reimport from the RAM Structural System ............................................................................................. 132
Limitations, Defaults and Assumptions ............................................................................................................................ 133
14.6.1 Limitations ................................................................................................................................................................... 133
14.6.2 Defaults .......................................................................................................................................................................... 133
14.6.3 Assumptions ................................................................................................................................................................ 134
Tight integration with the RAM Structural System ..................................................................................................... 135

Chapter 15: Data Transfer from STAAD ................................................................................ 136


15.1
15.2

STAAD Interface .......................................................................................................................................................................... 136


RAM Concept Interface ............................................................................................................................................................ 136
15.2.1 Data Transfer Paths ................................................................................................................................................. 136
15.2.2 New file options in RAM Concept ....................................................................................................................... 136
15.2.3 Update file options in RAM Concept ................................................................................................................. 138

Chapter 16: Data Transfer from ISM ..................................................................................... 139


16.1

What is ISM? ................................................................................................................................................................................. 139


16.1.1 Purpose ......................................................................................................................................................................... 139

RAM Concept

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16.2

16.3

16.1.2 ISM and Application Data ...................................................................................................................................... 139


ISM Sync Tools Overview ........................................................................................................................................................ 140
16.2.1 Create ISM Repository ............................................................................................................................................ 140
16.2.2 Create RAM Concept File ....................................................................................................................................... 141
16.2.3 Update ISM Repository ........................................................................................................................................... 143
16.2.4 Update RAM Concept Model ................................................................................................................................. 143
Import and Export Details ...................................................................................................................................................... 143
16.3.1 Filtering ......................................................................................................................................................................... 143
16.3.2 The ISM Model ............................................................................................................................................................ 145
16.3.3 Slabs and Openings .................................................................................................................................................. 145
16.3.4 Support Members ..................................................................................................................................................... 147
16.3.5 ISM Section Shapes ................................................................................................................................................... 148
16.3.6 ISM Load Cases and Loads .................................................................................................................................... 149
16.3.7 Member Loading ....................................................................................................................................................... 152
16.3.8 Rebar .............................................................................................................................................................................. 153
16.3.9 ISM Options dialog .................................................................................................................................................... 155

Chapter 17: Defining the Structure ....................................................................................... 156


17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4
17.5
17.6
17.7
17.8
17.9
17.10
17.11
17.12
17.13
17.14
17.15
17.16
17.17
17.18
17.19

17.20
17.21
17.22
17.23

Using the Mesh Input Layer ................................................................................................................................................... 156


About columns and walls ........................................................................................................................................................ 156
Column properties ..................................................................................................................................................................... 156
17.3.1 General column properties ................................................................................................................................... 156
17.3.2 Live load reduction column properties ........................................................................................................... 158
Drawing columns ........................................................................................................................................................................ 158
17.4.1 To draw a column ..................................................................................................................................................... 158
17.4.2 To copy columns from below to above ............................................................................................................ 158
Wall properties ............................................................................................................................................................................ 158
Drawing walls .............................................................................................................................................................................. 159
17.6.1 To draw a wall ............................................................................................................................................................ 159
17.6.2 To copy walls from below to above .................................................................................................................. 159
About point and line supports .............................................................................................................................................. 160
Point support properties ......................................................................................................................................................... 160
Drawing point supports ........................................................................................................................................................... 160
Line support properties ........................................................................................................................................................... 161
Drawing line supports .............................................................................................................................................................. 161
About springs ............................................................................................................................................................................... 162
Point spring properties ............................................................................................................................................................ 162
Drawing point springs .............................................................................................................................................................. 162
Line spring properties .............................................................................................................................................................. 163
Drawing line springs ................................................................................................................................................................. 163
Area spring properties ............................................................................................................................................................. 163
Drawing area springs ................................................................................................................................................................ 165
About floor areas and members ........................................................................................................................................... 165
17.19. The priority method ................................................................................................................................................ 165
1
17.19. Meshing beams as slabs ......................................................................................................................................... 165
2
Slab area properties .................................................................................................................................................................. 167
Drawing slab areas ..................................................................................................................................................................... 169
About beams ................................................................................................................................................................................. 170
Beam properties .......................................................................................................................................................................... 170

RAM Concept

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17.24

17.25
17.26
17.27

Drawing beams ............................................................................................................................................................................ 171


17.24. To draw a beam ......................................................................................................................................................... 171
1
17.24. To define mitered corners on a beam .............................................................................................................. 172
2
Slab opening properties ........................................................................................................................................................... 172
Drawing slab openings ............................................................................................................................................................. 172
Checking the structure definition ........................................................................................................................................ 172

Chapter 18: Generating the Mesh ........................................................................................ 173


18.1

18.2

Generating the mesh automatically .................................................................................................................................... 173


18.1.1 Deciding what mesh element size to use ........................................................................................................ 173
18.1.2 Limitations of the automatic meshing ............................................................................................................. 174
18.1.3 Viewing the finite element mesh ........................................................................................................................ 175
18.1.4 Improving the mesh ................................................................................................................................................. 175
Selectively refining the mesh ................................................................................................................................................ 177
18.2.1 Using point and line supports to refine the mesh ....................................................................................... 178

Chapter 19: Manually Drawing the Finite Elements .............................................................. 180


19.1
19.2
19.3
19.4
19.5
19.6

19.7
19.8
19.9
19.10
19.11
19.12
19.13
19.14
19.15
19.16
19.17
19.18
19.19
19.20
19.21

Using the Element layer ........................................................................................................................................................... 180


About column elements and wall elements .................................................................................................................... 180
Column element properties ................................................................................................................................................... 180
Drawing column elements ...................................................................................................................................................... 181
19.4.1 To draw a column element ................................................................................................................................... 181
19.4.2 To copy columns from below to above ............................................................................................................ 181
Wall element properties .......................................................................................................................................................... 182
Drawing wall elements ............................................................................................................................................................ 182
19.6.1 To draw wall elements on slab elements ....................................................................................................... 182
19.6.2 To draw wall elements where there are no slab elements ..................................................................... 183
19.6.3 To copy walls from below to above .................................................................................................................. 183
About point and line supports .............................................................................................................................................. 183
Point support properties ......................................................................................................................................................... 183
Drawing point supports ........................................................................................................................................................... 184
Line support properties ........................................................................................................................................................... 184
Drawing line supports .............................................................................................................................................................. 184
About springs ............................................................................................................................................................................... 184
Point spring properties ............................................................................................................................................................ 185
Drawing point springs .............................................................................................................................................................. 185
Line spring properties .............................................................................................................................................................. 185
Drawing line springs ................................................................................................................................................................. 186
Area spring properties ............................................................................................................................................................. 186
Drawing area springs ................................................................................................................................................................ 186
About floor areas ........................................................................................................................................................................ 186
Slab element properties ........................................................................................................................................................... 187
Drawing the slab elements ..................................................................................................................................................... 188
19.21. To draw a rectangular slab mesh area ............................................................................................................. 188
1
19.21. To draw a polygon slab mesh area .................................................................................................................... 188
2
19.21. To draw a single mesh element .......................................................................................................................... 188
3

RAM Concept

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19.22

A few final words ........................................................................................................................................................................ 189

Chapter 20: Drawing Loads .................................................................................................. 190


20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4
20.5
20.6
20.7
20.8
20.9

About self-weight ....................................................................................................................................................................... 190


About superposition of loads ................................................................................................................................................ 190
Point load properties ................................................................................................................................................................ 191
Drawing point loads .................................................................................................................................................................. 191
Line load properties .................................................................................................................................................................. 191
Drawing line loads ..................................................................................................................................................................... 192
20.6.1 Standard line load ..................................................................................................................................................... 192
20.6.2 Perimeter line load ................................................................................................................................................... 193
Area load properties ................................................................................................................................................................. 193
Drawing area loads .................................................................................................................................................................... 194
Copying loads ............................................................................................................................................................................... 194

Chapter 21: Creating Pattern Loading ................................................................................... 196


21.1
21.2
21.3

Deciding how many load patterns to use ......................................................................................................................... 196


Drawing load patterns .............................................................................................................................................................. 197
Load pattern filtering ................................................................................................................................................................ 198
21.3.1 Effect of mesh on load pattern ............................................................................................................................ 198

Chapter 22: Defining Design Strips ....................................................................................... 204


22.1
22.2
22.3
22.4
22.5
22.6
22.7
22.8
22.9

22.10
22.11
22.12

Definition of a design strip ..................................................................................................................................................... 204


Design strip terminology ......................................................................................................................................................... 204
Understanding how a design strip works ........................................................................................................................ 205
The design strip process .......................................................................................................................................................... 206
Span segment properties ........................................................................................................................................................ 207
Creating span segments ........................................................................................................................................................... 215
22.6.1 Generating span segments automatically ...................................................................................................... 215
22.6.2 Drawing span segments manually ..................................................................................................................... 216
Creating span segment strips (design strips) ................................................................................................................ 217
22.7.1 To generate span segment strips ....................................................................................................................... 217
22.7.2 To generate some span segment strips ........................................................................................................... 217
Defining span segment widths and strip widths manually ...................................................................................... 218
22.8.1 Defining span segment boundaries manually .............................................................................................. 218
22.8.2 Defining strip boundaries manually ................................................................................................................. 219
Cross Section Trimming .......................................................................................................................................................... 224
22.9.1 About cross section trimming ............................................................................................................................. 224
22.9.2 About shear core ....................................................................................................................................................... 225
22.9.3 Shear core in slabs .................................................................................................................................................... 227
22.9.4 Viewing a perspective of design strip cross sections ................................................................................ 227
22.9.5 Single Cross Section Trimming ........................................................................................................................... 228
22.9.6 Selecting cross section trimming ....................................................................................................................... 231
22.9.7 Inter Cross Section Slope Limit Trimming ..................................................................................................... 231
Improving the mesh .................................................................................................................................................................. 233
Additional design strip information ................................................................................................................................... 233
Irregular column layouts ......................................................................................................................................................... 234
22.12. Design Strip Skew Angles ...................................................................................................................................... 234
1
22.12. Effect of tendon components on design strip cross sections ................................................................. 238
2

RAM Concept

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22.13
22.14

22.12. Examples of irregular grids .................................................................................................................................. 240


3
22.12. Drawing design strips near walls ....................................................................................................................... 254
4
22.12. Changing from PT to RC design .......................................................................................................................... 255
5
Miscellaneous tips ...................................................................................................................................................................... 255
A final word on design strips ................................................................................................................................................. 256

Chapter 23: Defining Design Sections ................................................................................... 257


23.1
23.2
23.3
23.4

23.5

Using design sections ................................................................................................................................................................ 257


Design section properties ....................................................................................................................................................... 257
Drawing design sections .......................................................................................................................................................... 259
About ignore depths .................................................................................................................................................................. 260
23.4.1 When to use ignore depths ................................................................................................................................... 260
23.4.2 Examples of concrete form that should use ignore depth ....................................................................... 260
23.4.3 Effect of ignore depth on reinforcement location ....................................................................................... 263
A final word on design sections ............................................................................................................................................ 263

Chapter 24: Defining Punching Shear Checks ........................................................................ 264


24.1
24.2

24.3
24.4

About punching shear checks ............................................................................................................................................... 264


Punching shear check properties and options ............................................................................................................... 264
24.2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................... 264
24.2.2 Ancon Shearfix Parameters .................................................................................................................................. 266
24.2.3 AS3600 specific options ......................................................................................................................................... 266
24.2.4 BS 8110/EC2 specific options ............................................................................................................................. 266
Drawing punching shear checks .......................................................................................................................................... 267
A final word on punching shear checks ............................................................................................................................ 267

Chapter 25: Drawing Reinforcement Bars ............................................................................. 268


25.1
25.2
25.3
25.4
25.5
25.6
25.7
25.8
25.9
25.10

Reinforcement bar definitions .............................................................................................................................................. 268


25.1.1 About User and Program Reinforcement ....................................................................................................... 268
25.1.2 Reinforcement object types .................................................................................................................................. 268
Reinforcement properties ...................................................................................................................................................... 269
Transverse Reinforcement properties .............................................................................................................................. 271
About drawing reinforcement .............................................................................................................................................. 273
25.4.1 Expected workflows ................................................................................................................................................ 273
Drawing concentrated reinforcement ............................................................................................................................... 273
25.5.1 Drawing concentrated reinforcement ............................................................................................................. 273
25.5.2 Drawing concentrated reinforcement in two directions ......................................................................... 274
Drawing distributed reinforcement ................................................................................................................................... 274
25.6.1 Drawing distributed reinforcement .................................................................................................................. 274
Drawing transverse reinforcement .................................................................................................................................... 275
25.7.1 Drawing transverse reinforcement ................................................................................................................... 275
Concentrated and distributed reinforcement drawing examples ......................................................................... 275
Transverse reinforcement drawing examples ............................................................................................................... 280
Other reinforcement plan tools ............................................................................................................................................ 282
25.10. The Orient Reinforcement tool ........................................................................................................................... 282
1
25.10. The Skew Reinforcement Extent tool ............................................................................................................... 283
2

RAM Concept

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25.11
25.12

25.13

25.10. Auto Hook tool ........................................................................................................................................................... 283


3
Layout and Detailing Parameters ........................................................................................................................................ 287
Reinforcement Text Formatting ........................................................................................................................................... 288
25.12. Concentrated and distributed reinforcement callouts ............................................................................. 288
1
25.12. Transverse reinforcement callouts ................................................................................................................... 289
2
25.12. SSR Callout ................................................................................................................................................................... 290
3
25.12. Examples of reinforcement text formatting .................................................................................................. 291
4
About SSR callouts and SSR rails: ........................................................................................................................................ 291

Chapter 26: Defining Tendons .............................................................................................. 292


26.1
26.2

26.3
26.4

26.5
26.6
26.7

26.8

26.9
26.10

26.11
26.12

Tendon definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................... 292


26.1.1 Post-Tensioning terminology and definitions .............................................................................................. 292
26.1.2 Using the latitude and longitude prestressing folders .............................................................................. 293
Tendon Parameters Layer ...................................................................................................................................................... 293
26.2.1 Tendon Parameters object types ....................................................................................................................... 293
26.2.2 Banded Tendon Polyline and Distributed Tendon Quadrilateral Properties ................................. 294
26.2.3 Distributed Tendon Overlap and Tendon Void Properties ..................................................................... 296
26.2.4 Profile Polyline Properties .................................................................................................................................... 296
Tendon properties ..................................................................................................................................................................... 297
About creating tendons ............................................................................................................................................................ 299
26.4.1 All tendon definition done on the tendon parameters layers ............................................................... 299
26.4.2 Most tendon definition done on the tendon parameters layers ........................................................... 299
26.4.3 All work done on manual tendon layers ......................................................................................................... 299
Drawing banded tendon polylines ...................................................................................................................................... 300
Drawing distributed tendon quadrilaterals .................................................................................................................... 300
Defining profiles for banded tendon polylines and distributed tendon quadrilaterals .............................. 301
26.7.1 Drawing Profile Polylines ...................................................................................................................................... 301
26.7.2 Defining profile polylines using the Generate Profile Polylines tool .................................................. 302
26.7.3 Defining span polylines using the Generate Span Polylines tool ......................................................... 302
Other tendon parameter plan objects and tools ........................................................................................................... 303
26.8.1 Drawing tendon voids ............................................................................................................................................. 303
26.8.2 Segment banded tendon polyline tool ............................................................................................................. 304
26.8.3 Generate program tendons tool ......................................................................................................................... 304
Tendon parameter drawing examples .............................................................................................................................. 304
Tendon parameter drawing and text formatting ......................................................................................................... 305
26.10. Banded tendon polyline formatting options ................................................................................................. 305
1
26.10. Distributed tendon quadrilateral formatting options ............................................................................... 306
2
About drawing individual tendons ..................................................................................................................................... 307
Drawing single tendons ........................................................................................................................................................... 307
26.12. Drawing a half-span tendon ................................................................................................................................. 308
1
26.12. Drawing a full-span tendon .................................................................................................................................. 308
2

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26.13
26.14

26.15
26.16
26.17

26.12. Drawing a multi-span tendon with the tendon polyline .......................................................................... 308
3
Drawing multiple tendons ...................................................................................................................................................... 308
26.13. Tendon panel layout options ............................................................................................................................... 309
1
Editing tendons ........................................................................................................................................................................... 313
26.14. Calc profile tool .......................................................................................................................................................... 313
1
26.14. Change profiles tool ................................................................................................................................................. 313
2
About jacks .................................................................................................................................................................................... 314
Jack properties ............................................................................................................................................................................. 314
Drawing the jacks ....................................................................................................................................................................... 315

Chapter 27: Using Live Load Reduction ................................................................................. 316


27.1
27.2
27.3
27.4
27.5
27.6
27.7

About Live Load Reduction .................................................................................................................................................... 316


Live Load Reduction Options ................................................................................................................................................ 316
Setting the Live Load Reduction Code ............................................................................................................................... 317
Live Loading Types .................................................................................................................................................................... 317
Live Load Reduction Parameters ......................................................................................................................................... 318
Specifying Live Load Reduction Parameters .................................................................................................................. 318
Implementation of Live Load Reduction .......................................................................................................................... 319

Chapter 28: Calculating Results ............................................................................................ 320


28.1

28.2
28.3
28.4
28.5
28.6

28.7

Calculating the results .............................................................................................................................................................. 320


28.1.1 Calculating all of the results ................................................................................................................................. 320
28.1.2 Partially calculating the results .......................................................................................................................... 320
28.1.3 Calculation options ................................................................................................................................................... 321
28.1.4 General options .......................................................................................................................................................... 322
28.1.5 Code options ................................................................................................................................................................ 323
28.1.6 Zero tension iteration options ............................................................................................................................. 323
28.1.7 Reinforcement layout and detailing parameters ........................................................................................ 324
28.1.8 Load History / Effective curvature ratio options ........................................................................................ 324
28.1.9 Load History ................................................................................................................................................................ 326
28.1.1 Vibration options ...................................................................................................................................................... 326
0
About analysis errors ................................................................................................................................................................ 328
Recalculating ................................................................................................................................................................................ 328
Calculating load history deflections ................................................................................................................................... 329
Calculating vibration analysis ............................................................................................................................................... 329
Reviewing the calc log .............................................................................................................................................................. 329
28.6.1 To open the Calc Log ................................................................................................................................................ 329
28.6.2 To open the Load History Calc Log .................................................................................................................... 330
28.6.3 To open the Vibration Calc Log ........................................................................................................................... 330
Decreasing calculation time ................................................................................................................................................... 330
28.7.1 To turn off Detailed Section Analysis ............................................................................................................... 330
........................................................................................................................................................................................... 331
28.7.2

Chapter 29: Viewing the Results ........................................................................................... 332


29.1
29.2

Type of results ............................................................................................................................................................................. 332


Viewing frequently used results .......................................................................................................................................... 332

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29.3

29.4

29.5

29.2.1 Viewing reinforcement results ............................................................................................................................ 333


29.2.2 Viewing status ............................................................................................................................................................ 333
29.2.3 Viewing deflections .................................................................................................................................................. 334
29.2.4 Viewing support reactions .................................................................................................................................... 334
29.2.5 Viewing post-tensioning precompression (P/A) ........................................................................................ 335
29.2.6 Viewing balanced load percentages .................................................................................................................. 335
29.2.7 Viewing bending moment contours .................................................................................................................. 335
29.2.8 Viewing section stresses ........................................................................................................................................ 336
29.2.9 Viewing punching shear results ......................................................................................................................... 336
29.2.1 Viewing live load reduction results .................................................................................................................. 337
0
29.2.1 Viewing soil bearing pressures ........................................................................................................................... 337
1
Viewing other results ................................................................................................................................................................ 338
29.3.1 Changing which result objects are visible ...................................................................................................... 338
29.3.2 Changing which results plot ................................................................................................................................. 338
29.3.3 Creating new result plans ...................................................................................................................................... 339
Section distribution plots ........................................................................................................................................................ 340
29.4.1 Distribution plot values .......................................................................................................................................... 340
29.4.2 Moment distribution plots .................................................................................................................................... 340
29.4.3 Shear distribution plots ......................................................................................................................................... 342
29.4.4 Axial force distribution plots ............................................................................................................................... 343
29.4.5 Selected distribution plots .................................................................................................................................... 343
29.4.6 Effects of averaging .................................................................................................................................................. 343
29.4.7 Summary ....................................................................................................................................................................... 343
Miscellaneous results information ...................................................................................................................................... 344
29.5.1 Top and bottom longitudinal reinforcement ................................................................................................ 344
29.5.2 Reinforcement bar lengths ................................................................................................................................... 345
29.5.3 Orientation of reinforcement ............................................................................................................................... 345
29.5.4 Shear reinforcement ................................................................................................................................................ 346
29.5.5 Punching Shear Results .......................................................................................................................................... 346

Chapter 30: Plotting Results ................................................................................................. 348


30.1
30.2
30.3
30.4
30.5
30.6
30.7
30.8
30.9
30.10

Setting the plotted results ....................................................................................................................................................... 348


Slab .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 348
30.2.1 About slab plotting contexts ................................................................................................................................ 349
30.2.2 Max and Min context slab plot limitations ..................................................................................................... 350
Reaction .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 351
Strip .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 354
Section Analysis .......................................................................................................................................................................... 356
Section Design .............................................................................................................................................................................. 357
30.6.1 About section design context plots ................................................................................................................ 358
30.6.2 About skyline plots ................................................................................................................................................... 359
Punching Analysis ...................................................................................................................................................................... 360
30.7.1 Punching Shear Results .......................................................................................................................................... 361
Vibration Analysis ...................................................................................................................................................................... 362
30.8.1 Vibration Results ....................................................................................................................................................... 362
Plot Animation Controls .......................................................................................................................................................... 363
........................................................................................................................................................................................... 364
30.9.1
Difference Plot Controls ........................................................................................................................................................... 364

Chapter 31: Using the Auditor .............................................................................................. 366

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31.1
31.2
31.3
31.4
31.5
31.6
31.7

How the Auditor can assist the design process ............................................................................................................. 366
About the three design steps ................................................................................................................................................. 366
About the information displayed by the Auditor .......................................................................................................... 367
Using the Auditor ........................................................................................................................................................................ 369
31.4.1 To use the Auditor for the design summary .................................................................................................. 369
Using the Auditor for guidance on post-tensioning ..................................................................................................... 369
About the information displayed by the Punching Check Auditor ....................................................................... 370
Using the Punching Check Auditor ..................................................................................................................................... 371
31.7.1 To use the Auditor for the design summary .................................................................................................. 371

Chapter 32: Using the Report Viewer ................................................................................... 372


32.1
32.2
32.3
32.4
32.5
32.6

Using the Report Viewer ......................................................................................................................................................... 372


Collapsing Sections .................................................................................................................................................................... 372
Searching for Text ...................................................................................................................................................................... 372
Saving Reports ............................................................................................................................................................................. 373
32.4.1 Saving One Report .................................................................................................................................................... 373
32.4.2 Saving All Reports ..................................................................................................................................................... 373
Opening Previously Saved Reports ..................................................................................................................................... 373
Printing Reports .......................................................................................................................................................................... 374

Chapter 33: Using the estimate ............................................................................................ 375


33.1
33.2
33.3
33.4

Viewing the estimate ................................................................................................................................................................. 375


What the estimate calculates ................................................................................................................................................. 375
Editing the unit costs ................................................................................................................................................................ 375
About unit costs ........................................................................................................................................................................... 376

Chapter 34: Printing ............................................................................................................. 377


34.1
34.2

34.3

34.4

34.5
34.6

Basic printing instructions ..................................................................................................................................................... 377


34.1.1 To print the report .................................................................................................................................................... 377
General printing options ......................................................................................................................................................... 378
34.2.1 Printer selection ........................................................................................................................................................ 378
34.2.2 Page range .................................................................................................................................................................... 378
34.2.3 Number of copies ...................................................................................................................................................... 378
34.2.4 Printing to PDF ........................................................................................................................................................... 378
Select and Configure Printer options ................................................................................................................................. 378
34.3.1 To change the print setup options ..................................................................................................................... 379
34.3.2 Printer selection ........................................................................................................................................................ 379
34.3.3 Paper size and source ............................................................................................................................................. 379
34.3.4 Default orientation ................................................................................................................................................... 379
34.3.5 Margin size ................................................................................................................................................................... 379
Determining the fit of plans ................................................................................................................................................... 380
34.4.1 To specify the print scale ....................................................................................................................................... 380
34.4.2 To specify the printed area on the plan ........................................................................................................... 380
34.4.3 To specify the printed area with coordinates ............................................................................................... 380
Printing the desired perspective viewpoint ................................................................................................................... 380
34.5.1 To show the set print viewpoint on screen ................................................................................................... 381
Previewing the print job .......................................................................................................................................................... 381
34.6.1 To preview the active window print job ......................................................................................................... 381
34.6.2 To preview the report print job .......................................................................................................................... 381
34.6.3 Zooming ........................................................................................................................................................................ 382
34.6.4 Viewing multiple pages at once .......................................................................................................................... 382

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34.7
34.8

34.6.5 Paging through the print job ................................................................................................................................ 382


Printing optimizations .............................................................................................................................................................. 382
34.7.1 Customizing page orientation ............................................................................................................................. 382
34.7.2 Customizing the printed appearance of plans and perspectives ......................................................... 383
Changing the report contents ................................................................................................................................................ 383
34.8.1 Including items in the report ............................................................................................................................... 384
34.8.2 Reordering report items ........................................................................................................................................ 386

Chapter 35: Exporting Plans and Tables ................................................................................ 387


35.1
35.2

Exporting a plan .......................................................................................................................................................................... 387


35.1.1 Selecting the text size .............................................................................................................................................. 387
Exporting a table ......................................................................................................................................................................... 387

Chapter 36: Exporting a Database to the RAM Structural System ......................................... 389
36.1

36.2

About the export of reactions ................................................................................................................................................ 389


36.1.1 Special handling of the Self-Dead Loading and the Balance Loading during export ................... 389
36.1.2 Special handling of the Partition Loading during export ......................................................................... 390
36.1.3 The export of reactions process ......................................................................................................................... 390
36.1.4 About export reactions access and consistency checking ....................................................................... 391
36.1.5 Checks performed before choosing export stories .................................................................................... 391
36.1.6 Checks performed after choosing export stories ........................................................................................ 392
36.1.7 Using RAM Concept reactions in RAM Concrete ......................................................................................... 392
36.1.8 How the RAM Structural System - RAM Concept link works ................................................................. 392
About the export of geometry ............................................................................................................................................... 393
36.2.1 About errors and ambiguities .............................................................................................................................. 395

Chapter 37: Using Strip Wizard ............................................................................................. 396


37.1
37.2
37.3

37.4
37.5
37.6
37.7

37.8

37.9
37.10
37.11

Starting Strip Wizard ................................................................................................................................................................ 396


Specifying general parameters ............................................................................................................................................. 396
Entering span data ..................................................................................................................................................................... 397
37.3.1 One-way and two-way systems .......................................................................................................................... 397
37.3.2 Beam systems ............................................................................................................................................................. 398
37.3.3 Joist systems ................................................................................................................................................................ 398
Entering support data ............................................................................................................................................................... 398
37.4.1 Support (above and below) properties ........................................................................................................... 399
Adding drop caps and drop panels ..................................................................................................................................... 399
37.5.1 Drop cap and drop panel properties ................................................................................................................ 399
Entering the loads ...................................................................................................................................................................... 399
37.6.1 Load properties ......................................................................................................................................................... 400
Specifying the post-tensioning ............................................................................................................................................. 400
37.7.1 General PT information .......................................................................................................................................... 400
37.7.2 Balance load ................................................................................................................................................................ 400
37.7.3 Profiling ......................................................................................................................................................................... 401
Specifying reinforcement ........................................................................................................................................................ 401
37.8.1 Reinforcing bar .......................................................................................................................................................... 401
37.8.2 Reinforcement clear cover .................................................................................................................................... 401
37.8.3 Punching shear checks ............................................................................................................................................ 402
Completing Strip Wizard ......................................................................................................................................................... 402
Generating the mesh and calculating results ................................................................................................................. 402
Loading and saving Strip Wizard settings ....................................................................................................................... 402

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37.11.
1
37.11.
2

To load strip wizard settings ............................................................................................................................... 403


To save Strip Wizard settings .............................................................................................................................. 403

Chapter 38: General Tips ...................................................................................................... 404


38.1
38.2

38.3
38.4

Beams .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 404


Walls ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 405
38.2.1 Drawing connecting walls ..................................................................................................................................... 405
38.2.2 Walls above .................................................................................................................................................................. 405
38.2.3 The difference between walls above and upstand beams of similar proportions ........................ 406
Restraint ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 406
Miscellaneous ............................................................................................................................................................................... 407
38.4.1 Templates ..................................................................................................................................................................... 407
38.4.2 Adding plans ................................................................................................................................................................ 407
38.4.3 Copying and moving objects ................................................................................................................................ 407
38.4.4 Expanding tool buttons .......................................................................................................................................... 407
38.4.5 The Utility tool ............................................................................................................................................................ 408
38.4.6 Left Wall and Right Wall tools ............................................................................................................................. 408
38.4.7 Changing multiple tendon profile points ........................................................................................................ 408
38.4.8 Plotting Results .......................................................................................................................................................... 408
38.4.9 Reducing the information shown on plans .................................................................................................... 408
38.4.1 Load balancing ........................................................................................................................................................... 408
0
38.4.1 The Auditor .................................................................................................................................................................. 409
1

Chapter 39: Frequently Asked Questions .............................................................................. 410


39.1
39.2
39.3

39.4
39.5
39.6
39.7

39.8
39.9
39.10
39.11
39.12

Capabilities and Modeling ...................................................................................................................................................... 410


Files ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 411
Plans and perspectives ............................................................................................................................................................. 412
39.3.1 How do I delete unwanted plans? ...................................................................................................................... 412
39.3.2 Can I view all information on one plan? .......................................................................................................... 413
........................................................................................................................................................................................... 413
39.3.3
Units ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 413
Codes ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 414
Sign Conventions ........................................................................................................................................................................ 414
Structure ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 414
39.7.1 Mesh Input layer ........................................................................................................................................................ 414
39.7.2 Element layer .............................................................................................................................................................. 415
39.7.3 Columns ......................................................................................................................................................................... 416
39.7.4 Walls ............................................................................................................................................................................... 416
39.7.5 Mats (rafts) .................................................................................................................................................................. 416
Tendons .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 417
Loadings ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 420
Analysis ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 424
Design Issues ................................................................................................................................................................................ 424
Results ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 424
39.12. Reactions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 424
1

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39.13

39.12. Plots ................................................................................................................................................................................ 425


2
39.12. Torsion .......................................................................................................................................................................... 426
3
39.12. Envelopes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 426
4
39.12. Reinforcement ............................................................................................................................................................ 427
5
39.12. AS3600 specific reinforcement questions ..................................................................................................... 428
6
39.12. BS8110 / TR43 specific reinforcement questions ...................................................................................... 428
7
39.12. Punching Shear .......................................................................................................................................................... 429
8
39.12. Shear reinforcement (one-way) ......................................................................................................................... 431
9
39.12. Deflection ..................................................................................................................................................................... 432
10
39.12. Soil bearing .................................................................................................................................................................. 432
11
Performance ................................................................................................................................................................................. 432

Chapter 40: Errors and Warnings .......................................................................................... 434


40.1
40.2

40.3

40.4

To show an object number ..................................................................................................................................................... 434


Meshing ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 434
40.2.1 Two or more slab areas or beams with the same priority overlap at (x,y) ..................................... 434
40.2.2 Line is too short at (x,y) ......................................................................................................................................... 435
40.2.3 Feature eliminated at (x,y) .................................................................................................................................... 435
40.2.4 Recursion too deep ................................................................................................................................................... 435
40.2.5 An error has been found. Two column elements below the slab are at the same location. Delete
column element #a or #b. ..................................................................................................................................... 436
40.2.6 An error has been found. A column element below the slab is not attached to the slab. Revise
column element #a (below the slab) ................................................................................................................ 436
40.2.7 It is good modeling practice to connect wall centerlines. Click on the Fix button to move wall
endpoints to a nearby centerline ....................................................................................................................... 436
Loads ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 436
40.3.1 An error has occurred while assembling the load vector. A point load is not on the slab. Revise
point load #a. .............................................................................................................................................................. 436
40.3.2 An error has occurred while assembling the load vector. A line load is not totally on the slab.
Revise line load #a. ................................................................................................................................................... 437
Tendons .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 437
40.4.1 Tendon # has a radius (a) that is less than the minimum allowable (b). ......................................... 437
40.4.2 Cannot auto-position profile point at (x,y) due to profile point value ............................................... 437
40.4.3 An error has occurred while trying to calculate a profile. A profile point is not on the slab. Click
on the Fix button to correct the profile point at (x,y). .............................................................................. 438
40.4.4 An error has occurred while trying to calculate a profile. A profile point is not within the slab
(vertically). Adjust the profile at (x,y). ............................................................................................................. 438
40.4.5 An error has occurred while trying to calculate the tendon profiles. A tendon is out of the slab at
(x,y). ................................................................................................................................................................................ 438
40.4.6 Tendon #a is harped, and hence violates the minimum allowable radius (b) ............................... 438

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An error has occurred while trying to calculate the tendon effective stresses. A tendon has a
different number of strands than an adjacent tendon. Investigate tendon #a. ............................. 439
40.4.8 An error has occurred while trying to calculate the tendon effective stresses. A tendon is not
connected to any jacks. Investigate tendon #a. [If any tendons are stressed then all tendons
must be stressed.] ..................................................................................................................................................... 439
Load History Deflections ......................................................................................................................................................... 439
40.5.1 An error has been found while calculating load history deflections. The floor may have
incomplete design strip/cross section coverage to accurately calculate load history deflections.
The slab coverages are a and b in orthogonal directions ........................................................................ 439
Miscellaneous ............................................................................................................................................................................... 440
40.6.1 An Error occurred while trying to calculate everything. An error has occurred while
triangularizing the stiffness matrix. The structure is unstable at node: a, DOF: Y-Axis
Translation. Revise the structure. ...................................................................................................................... 440
40.6.2 An error occurred: Loading has horizontal loads, but the structure is automatically stabilized in
the X and Y directions. ............................................................................................................................................ 440
40.6.3 The code rules selected in Rule Set Service Design do not appear compatible with the load
factors in the load combinations using the rule set. This is likely an error. .................................... 440
40.6.4 Load Combination Service (Sustained Service / Max Service) has unusual balance and / or
hyperstatic load factors. This is likely an error. .......................................................................................... 441
40.6.5 Rule Set Strength Design is being used by load combinations that appear to have load factors
set for different purposes. This is likely an error. ....................................................................................... 441
40.6.6 The mat / raft is likely unstable. There is less that 25% contact area. .............................................. 441
40.6.7 Punching Check #a is not located at a column ............................................................................................. 441
40.6.8 Too many slab shapes intersecting the column shape at (x,y) .............................................................. 442
40.6.9 An error has been found. The cross section trimming for strip ab-c has caused there to be no
concrete remaining at one or more locations. .............................................................................................. 442
40.6.1 An error has been found. [Design strip] ab-c has reinforcing bars with too much cover (the
bottom bar is closer to the top than the top bar). ....................................................................................... 442
0
40.6.1 A cross section in design strip ab-c has no shear core .............................................................................. 442
1
40.6.1 A cross section in design strip ab-c has a very small shear core .......................................................... 442
2
40.6.1 ab-c contains user transverse reinforcement but has multiple shear cores. Shear/torsion
calculations may be approximate ...................................................................................................................... 443
3
40.6.1 ab-c contains user reinforcement that is not within the primary (largest) shear core. This
transverse reinforcement will be ignored ..................................................................................................... 443
4
40.6.1 An error has been found. ab-c contains multiple user transverse rebar regions ......................... 443
5

40.4.7

40.5

40.6

Chapter 41: Simple RC Slab Tutorial ..................................................................................... 444


41.1

41.2
41.3

Defining the structure .............................................................................................................................................................. 444


41.1.1 Define the column locations and properties ................................................................................................. 444
41.1.2 Draw the slab area .................................................................................................................................................... 445
41.1.3 Hatch the slab area ................................................................................................................................................... 446
41.1.4 Generate the mesh .................................................................................................................................................... 446
41.1.5 View the mesh ............................................................................................................................................................ 446
41.1.6 View the structure .................................................................................................................................................... 447
Drawing the loads ...................................................................................................................................................................... 448
Defining the design strips ....................................................................................................................................................... 449
41.3.1 Draw latitude design strips .................................................................................................................................. 449
41.3.2 Draw longitude design strips ............................................................................................................................... 451

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41.4
41.5

41.6

41.3.3 Regenerate the mesh ............................................................................................................................................... 452


Drawing punching shear checks .......................................................................................................................................... 452
Calculate and view the results .............................................................................................................................................. 453
41.5.1 Design status ............................................................................................................................................................... 453
41.5.2 Design reinforcement .............................................................................................................................................. 456
41.5.3 Design reinforcement plots .................................................................................................................................. 460
41.5.4 Punching shear ........................................................................................................................................................... 462
41.5.5 Deflection ..................................................................................................................................................................... 464
41.5.6 Bending Moments ..................................................................................................................................................... 468
Drawing reinforcement ........................................................................................................................................................... 469
41.6.1 Drawing a bottom reinforcement mat ............................................................................................................. 470

Chapter 42: PT Flat Plate Tutorial: ACI 318-08 ...................................................................... 473


42.1
42.2

42.3

42.4

Import the CAD drawing ......................................................................................................................................................... 473


Define the structure ................................................................................................................................................................... 473
42.2.1 Show the drawing on the mesh input layer ................................................................................................... 473
42.2.2 Draw the slab area .................................................................................................................................................... 474
42.2.3 Draw the balcony slab area .................................................................................................................................. 475
42.2.4 Draw the drop caps .................................................................................................................................................. 476
42.2.5 Draw the opening ...................................................................................................................................................... 477
42.2.6 Hatch the slab areas ................................................................................................................................................. 478
42.2.7 Define the column locations and properties ................................................................................................. 479
42.2.8 Define the wall location and properties .......................................................................................................... 479
42.2.9 Generate the mesh .................................................................................................................................................... 480
42.2.1 View the mesh ............................................................................................................................................................ 481
0
42.2.1 View the structure .................................................................................................................................................... 481
1
Define the loads ........................................................................................................................................................................... 482
42.3.1 Define the typical live load .................................................................................................................................... 482
42.3.2 Define the balcony live load ................................................................................................................................. 482
42.3.3 Define the other dead loading ............................................................................................................................. 483
Define the post-tensioning ..................................................................................................................................................... 484
42.4.1 Define the manual latitude tendons Pt. 1 ....................................................................................................... 484
42.4.2 Define the manual latitude tendons Pt. 2 ....................................................................................................... 485
42.4.3 Define the manual latitude tendons Pt. 3 ....................................................................................................... 486
42.4.4 Define the manual latitude tendons Pt. 4 ....................................................................................................... 486
42.4.5 Define a latitude tendon polyline ....................................................................................................................... 487
42.4.6 Define the latitude profile polylines ................................................................................................................. 488
42.4.7 Define the manual longitude tendons Pt. 1 .................................................................................................... 489
42.4.8 Define the manual longitude tendons Pt. 2 .................................................................................................... 490
42.4.9 Define the manual longitude tendons Pt. 3 .................................................................................................... 491
42.4.1 Define the manual longitude tendons Pt. 4 .................................................................................................... 492
0
42.4.1 Define the manual longitude tendons Pt. 5 .................................................................................................... 493
1
42.4.1 Replace some manual longitude tendons with a distributed tendon quadrilateral .................... 494
2
42.4.1 Define the longitude profile polylines Pt. 1 ................................................................................................... 494
3

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42.5

42.6
42.7

42.4.1 Define the longitude profile polylines Pt. 2 ................................................................................................... 495


4
42.4.1 Define the longitude profile polylines Pt. 3 ................................................................................................... 495
5
Create the design strips ........................................................................................................................................................... 496
42.5.1 Generate the latitude spans .................................................................................................................................. 497
42.5.2 Generate the latitude strips .................................................................................................................................. 498
42.5.3 Hatch the strips .......................................................................................................................................................... 498
42.5.4 Straighten a span segment .................................................................................................................................... 498
42.5.5 Edit the span cross section orientation ........................................................................................................... 499
42.5.6 Draw a Span Boundary Polyline ......................................................................................................................... 499
42.5.7 Regenerate the latitude span strips .................................................................................................................. 499
42.5.8 Generate the longitude spans .............................................................................................................................. 500
42.5.9 Straighten a span segment .................................................................................................................................... 501
42.5.1 Delete the span segment over the wall ............................................................................................................ 501
0
42.5.1 Edit the span cross section orientation ........................................................................................................... 501
1
42.5.1 Generate the longitude strips .............................................................................................................................. 502
2
42.5.1 Check for punching shear ...................................................................................................................................... 502
3
Regenerate the mesh ................................................................................................................................................................ 503
Calculate and view the results .............................................................................................................................................. 504
42.7.1 Review Calc Options ................................................................................................................................................ 504
42.7.2 Calculate ........................................................................................................................................................................ 504
42.7.3 View the design strips with tendons ................................................................................................................ 504
42.7.4 Edit span segment 6-2 ............................................................................................................................................ 505
42.7.5 Recalculate ................................................................................................................................................................... 505
42.7.6 Design status ............................................................................................................................................................... 506
42.7.7 Design reinforcement .............................................................................................................................................. 507
42.7.8 Concrete stresses ...................................................................................................................................................... 510
42.7.9 Deflection ..................................................................................................................................................................... 511
42.7.1 Bending Moments ..................................................................................................................................................... 514
0

Chapter 43: PT Flat Plate Tutorial: AS3600-2001 ................................................................... 516


43.1
43.2

Import the CAD drawing ......................................................................................................................................................... 516


Define the structure ................................................................................................................................................................... 516
43.2.1 Show the drawing on the mesh input layer ................................................................................................... 516
43.2.2 Draw the slab area .................................................................................................................................................... 517
43.2.3 Draw the balcony slab area .................................................................................................................................. 518
43.2.4 Draw the drop caps .................................................................................................................................................. 519
43.2.5 Draw the opening ...................................................................................................................................................... 520
43.2.6 Hatch the slab areas ................................................................................................................................................. 521
43.2.7 Define the column locations and properties ................................................................................................. 522
43.2.8 Define the wall location and properties .......................................................................................................... 522
43.2.9 Generate the mesh .................................................................................................................................................... 523
43.2.1 View the mesh ............................................................................................................................................................ 524
0

RAM Concept

19

User Manual

43.3

43.4

43.5

43.6
43.7

43.2.1 View the structure .................................................................................................................................................... 524


1
Define the loads ........................................................................................................................................................................... 525
43.3.1 Define the typical live load .................................................................................................................................... 525
43.3.2 Define the balcony live load ................................................................................................................................. 525
43.3.3 Define the other dead loading ............................................................................................................................. 526
Define the post-tensioning ..................................................................................................................................................... 527
43.4.1 Define the manual latitude tendons Pt. 1 ....................................................................................................... 527
43.4.2 Define the manual latitude tendons Pt. 2 ....................................................................................................... 528
43.4.3 Define the manual latitude tendons Pt. 3 ....................................................................................................... 529
43.4.4 Define the manual latitude tendons Pt. 4 ....................................................................................................... 530
43.4.5 Define the manual latitude tendons Pt. 5 ....................................................................................................... 530
43.4.6 Define the manual latitude tendons Pt. 6 ....................................................................................................... 531
43.4.7 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 1 .................................................................................................................... 532
43.4.8 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 2 .................................................................................................................... 533
43.4.9 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 3 .................................................................................................................... 533
43.4.1 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 4 .................................................................................................................... 534
0
43.4.1 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 5 .................................................................................................................... 535
1
43.4.1 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 6 .................................................................................................................... 536
2
Create the design strips ........................................................................................................................................................... 536
43.5.1 Generate the latitude spans .................................................................................................................................. 537
43.5.2 Generate the latitude strips .................................................................................................................................. 537
43.5.3 Hatch the strips .......................................................................................................................................................... 538
43.5.4 Straighten a span segment .................................................................................................................................... 538
43.5.5 Edit the span cross section orientation ........................................................................................................... 539
43.5.6 Draw a Span Boundary Polyline ......................................................................................................................... 539
43.5.7 Regenerate the latitude span strips .................................................................................................................. 540
43.5.8 Draw a Span Boundary Polyline ......................................................................................................................... 540
43.5.9 Generate the longitude spans .............................................................................................................................. 541
43.5.1 Straighten a span segment .................................................................................................................................... 542
0
43.5.1 Delete the span segment over the wall ............................................................................................................ 542
1
43.5.1 Generate the longitude strips .............................................................................................................................. 542
2
43.5.1 Edit span segment with Span Boundaries and Strip Boundaries ......................................................... 543
3
43.5.1 Edit the span cross section orientation ........................................................................................................... 544
4
43.5.1 Check for punching shear ...................................................................................................................................... 544
5
Regenerate the mesh ................................................................................................................................................................ 545
Calculate and view the results .............................................................................................................................................. 545
43.7.1 Review Calc Options ................................................................................................................................................ 546
43.7.2 Calculate ........................................................................................................................................................................ 546
43.7.3 View the design strips with tendons ................................................................................................................ 546
43.7.4 Edit span segment 6-2 ............................................................................................................................................ 547
43.7.5 Edit span segment 2-3 ............................................................................................................................................ 547

RAM Concept

20

User Manual

43.7.6
43.7.7
43.7.8
43.7.9
43.7.1
0

Recalculate ................................................................................................................................................................... 548


Design status ............................................................................................................................................................... 548
Design reinforcement .............................................................................................................................................. 549
Deflection ..................................................................................................................................................................... 550
Bending Moments ..................................................................................................................................................... 552

Chapter 44: PT Flat Plate Tutorial: BS8110 / TR43 ................................................................. 554


44.1
44.2

44.3

44.4

44.5

Import the CAD drawing ......................................................................................................................................................... 554


Define the structure ................................................................................................................................................................... 554
44.2.1 Show the drawing on the mesh input layer ................................................................................................... 554
44.2.2 Draw the slab area .................................................................................................................................................... 555
44.2.3 Draw the balcony slab area .................................................................................................................................. 556
44.2.4 Draw the drop caps .................................................................................................................................................. 557
44.2.5 Draw the opening ...................................................................................................................................................... 558
44.2.6 Hatch the slab areas ................................................................................................................................................. 559
44.2.7 Define the column locations and properties ................................................................................................. 560
44.2.8 Define the wall location and properties .......................................................................................................... 560
44.2.9 Generate the mesh .................................................................................................................................................... 561
44.2.1 View the mesh ............................................................................................................................................................ 562
0
44.2.1 View the structure .................................................................................................................................................... 562
1
Define the loads ........................................................................................................................................................................... 563
44.3.1 Define the typical live load .................................................................................................................................... 563
44.3.2 Define the balcony live load ................................................................................................................................. 563
44.3.3 Define the other dead loading ............................................................................................................................. 564
Define the post-tensioning ..................................................................................................................................................... 565
44.4.1 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 1 ........................................................................................................................ 565
44.4.2 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 2 ........................................................................................................................ 566
44.4.3 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 3 ........................................................................................................................ 567
44.4.4 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 4 ........................................................................................................................ 567
44.4.5 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 5 ........................................................................................................................ 568
44.4.6 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 1 .................................................................................................................... 569
44.4.7 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 2 .................................................................................................................... 569
44.4.8 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 3 .................................................................................................................... 570
44.4.9 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 4 .................................................................................................................... 571
44.4.1 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 5 .................................................................................................................... 572
0
44.4.1 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 6 .................................................................................................................... 572
1
Create the design strips ........................................................................................................................................................... 573
44.5.1 Generate the latitude spans .................................................................................................................................. 573
44.5.2 Generate the latitude strips .................................................................................................................................. 574
44.5.3 Hatch the strips .......................................................................................................................................................... 575
44.5.4 Straighten a span segment .................................................................................................................................... 575
44.5.5 Edit the span cross section orientation ........................................................................................................... 576
44.5.6 Draw a Span Boundary Polyline ......................................................................................................................... 576
44.5.7 Regenerate the latitude span strips .................................................................................................................. 576
44.5.8 Generate the longitude spans .............................................................................................................................. 577
44.5.9 Straighten a span segment .................................................................................................................................... 578

RAM Concept

21

User Manual

44.6
44.7

44.5.1 Delete the span segment over the wall ............................................................................................................ 578
0
44.5.1 Edit the span cross section orientation ........................................................................................................... 578
1
44.5.1 Generate the longitude strips .............................................................................................................................. 578
2
44.5.1 Check for punching shear ...................................................................................................................................... 579
3
Regenerate the mesh ................................................................................................................................................................ 580
Calculate and view the results .............................................................................................................................................. 581
44.7.1 Review Calc Options ................................................................................................................................................ 581
44.7.2 Calculate ........................................................................................................................................................................ 581
44.7.3 View the design strips with tendons ................................................................................................................ 581
44.7.4 Edit span segment 6-2 ............................................................................................................................................ 582
44.7.5 Recalculate ................................................................................................................................................................... 582
44.7.6 Design status ............................................................................................................................................................... 583
44.7.7 Design reinforcement .............................................................................................................................................. 584
44.7.8 Concrete stresses ...................................................................................................................................................... 585
44.7.9 Deflection ..................................................................................................................................................................... 586
44.7.1 Bending Moments ..................................................................................................................................................... 588
0

Chapter 45: PT Flat Plate Tutorial: EC2 / TR43 ...................................................................... 590


45.1
45.2

45.3

45.4

Import the CAD drawing ......................................................................................................................................................... 590


Define the structure ................................................................................................................................................................... 590
45.2.1 Show the drawing on the mesh input layer ................................................................................................... 590
45.2.2 Draw the slab area .................................................................................................................................................... 591
45.2.3 Draw the balcony slab area .................................................................................................................................. 592
45.2.4 Draw the drop caps .................................................................................................................................................. 593
45.2.5 Draw the opening ...................................................................................................................................................... 594
45.2.6 Hatch the slab areas ................................................................................................................................................. 595
45.2.7 Define the column locations and properties ................................................................................................. 596
45.2.8 Define the wall location and properties .......................................................................................................... 596
45.2.9 Generate the mesh .................................................................................................................................................... 597
45.2.1 View the mesh ............................................................................................................................................................ 598
0
45.2.1 View the structure .................................................................................................................................................... 598
1
Define the loads ........................................................................................................................................................................... 599
45.3.1 Define the typical live load .................................................................................................................................... 599
45.3.2 Define the balcony live load ................................................................................................................................. 599
45.3.3 Define the other dead loading ............................................................................................................................. 600
Define the post-tensioning ..................................................................................................................................................... 601
45.4.1 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 1 ........................................................................................................................ 601
45.4.2 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 2 ........................................................................................................................ 602
45.4.3 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 3 ........................................................................................................................ 603
45.4.4 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 4 ........................................................................................................................ 603
45.4.5 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 5 ........................................................................................................................ 604
45.4.6 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 1 .................................................................................................................... 605
45.4.7 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 2 .................................................................................................................... 605
45.4.8 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 3 .................................................................................................................... 606

RAM Concept

22

User Manual

45.5

45.6
45.7

45.4.9 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 4 .................................................................................................................... 607


45.4.1 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 5 .................................................................................................................... 608
0
45.4.1 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 6 .................................................................................................................... 608
1
Create the design strips ........................................................................................................................................................... 609
45.5.1 Generate the latitude spans .................................................................................................................................. 609
45.5.2 Generate the latitude strips .................................................................................................................................. 610
45.5.3 Hatch the strips .......................................................................................................................................................... 611
45.5.4 Straighten a span segment .................................................................................................................................... 611
45.5.5 Edit the span cross section orientation ........................................................................................................... 612
45.5.6 Draw a Span Boundary Polyline ......................................................................................................................... 612
45.5.7 Regenerate the latitude span strips .................................................................................................................. 612
45.5.8 Generate the longitude spans .............................................................................................................................. 613
45.5.9 Straighten a span segment .................................................................................................................................... 614
45.5.1 Delete the span segment over the wall ............................................................................................................ 614
0
45.5.1 Edit the span cross section orientation ........................................................................................................... 614
1
45.5.1 Generate the longitude strips .............................................................................................................................. 614
2
45.5.1 Check for punching shear ...................................................................................................................................... 615
3
Regenerate the mesh ................................................................................................................................................................ 616
Calculate and view the results .............................................................................................................................................. 617
45.7.1 Review Calc Options ................................................................................................................................................ 617
45.7.2 Calculate ........................................................................................................................................................................ 617
45.7.3 View the design strips with tendons ................................................................................................................ 617
45.7.4 Edit span segment 6-2 ............................................................................................................................................ 618
45.7.5 Recalculate ................................................................................................................................................................... 618
45.7.6 Design status ............................................................................................................................................................... 619
45.7.7 Stress and Crack Width Designs ......................................................................................................................... 620
45.7.8 Design reinforcement .............................................................................................................................................. 623
45.7.9 Concrete stresses ...................................................................................................................................................... 625
45.7.1 Deflection ..................................................................................................................................................................... 627
0
45.7.1 Bending Moments ..................................................................................................................................................... 630
1

Chapter 46: PT Flat Plate Tutorial: IS 456 : 2000 ................................................................... 634


46.1
46.2

Import the CAD drawing ......................................................................................................................................................... 634


Define the structure ................................................................................................................................................................... 634
46.2.1 Show the drawing on the mesh input layer ................................................................................................... 634
46.2.2 Draw the slab area .................................................................................................................................................... 635
46.2.3 Draw the balcony slab area .................................................................................................................................. 636
46.2.4 Draw the drop caps .................................................................................................................................................. 637
46.2.5 Draw the opening ...................................................................................................................................................... 638
46.2.6 Hatch the slab areas ................................................................................................................................................. 639
46.2.7 Define the column locations and properties ................................................................................................. 640
46.2.8 Define the wall location and properties .......................................................................................................... 640
46.2.9 Generate the mesh .................................................................................................................................................... 641

RAM Concept

23

User Manual

46.3

46.4

46.5

46.6
46.7

46.2.1 View the mesh ............................................................................................................................................................ 642


0
46.2.1 View the structure .................................................................................................................................................... 642
1
Define the loads ........................................................................................................................................................................... 643
46.3.1 Define the typical live load .................................................................................................................................... 643
46.3.2 Define the balcony live load ................................................................................................................................. 643
46.3.3 Define the other dead loading ............................................................................................................................. 644
Define the post-tensioning ..................................................................................................................................................... 645
46.4.1 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 1 ........................................................................................................................ 645
46.4.2 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 2 ........................................................................................................................ 646
46.4.3 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 3 ........................................................................................................................ 647
46.4.4 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 4 ........................................................................................................................ 648
46.4.5 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 5 ........................................................................................................................ 648
46.4.6 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 6 ........................................................................................................................ 649
46.4.7 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 7 ........................................................................................................................ 649
46.4.8 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 1 .................................................................................................................... 650
46.4.9 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 2 .................................................................................................................... 650
46.4.1 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 3 .................................................................................................................... 651
0
46.4.1 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 4 .................................................................................................................... 652
1
46.4.1 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 5 .................................................................................................................... 653
2
46.4.1 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 6 .................................................................................................................... 654
3
Create the design strips ........................................................................................................................................................... 654
46.5.1 Generate the latitude spans .................................................................................................................................. 655
46.5.2 Generate the latitude strips .................................................................................................................................. 656
46.5.3 Hatch the strips .......................................................................................................................................................... 656
46.5.4 Straighten a span segment .................................................................................................................................... 656
46.5.5 Edit the span cross section orientation ........................................................................................................... 657
46.5.6 Draw a Span Boundary Polyline ......................................................................................................................... 658
46.5.7 Regenerate the latitude span strips .................................................................................................................. 658
46.5.8 Draw a Span Boundary Polyline ......................................................................................................................... 659
46.5.9 Generate the longitude spans .............................................................................................................................. 659
46.5.1 Straighten a span segment .................................................................................................................................... 660
0
46.5.1 Delete the span segment over the wall ............................................................................................................ 660
1
46.5.1 Generate the longitude strips .............................................................................................................................. 660
2
46.5.1 Edit span segment with Span Boundaries and Strip Boundaries ......................................................... 661
3
46.5.1 Edit the span cross section orientation ........................................................................................................... 662
4
46.5.1 Check for punching shear ...................................................................................................................................... 662
5
Regenerate the mesh ................................................................................................................................................................ 663
Calculate and view the results .............................................................................................................................................. 663
46.7.1 Review Calc Options ................................................................................................................................................ 664

RAM Concept

24

User Manual

46.7.2
46.7.3
46.7.4
46.7.5
46.7.6
46.7.7
46.7.8
46.7.9
46.7.1
0

Calculate ........................................................................................................................................................................ 664


View the design strips with tendons ................................................................................................................ 664
Edit span segment 6-2 ............................................................................................................................................ 665
Edit span segment 2-3 ............................................................................................................................................ 665
Recalculate ................................................................................................................................................................... 665
Design Status ............................................................................................................................................................... 666
Design reinforcement .............................................................................................................................................. 667
Deflection ..................................................................................................................................................................... 668
Bending Moments ..................................................................................................................................................... 670

Chapter 47: PT Flat Plate Tutorial: CSA A23.3-04 .................................................................. 672


47.1
47.2

47.3

47.4

47.5

Import the CAD drawing ......................................................................................................................................................... 672


Define the structure ................................................................................................................................................................... 672
47.2.1 Show the drawing on the mesh input layer ................................................................................................... 672
47.2.2 Draw the slab area .................................................................................................................................................... 673
47.2.3 Draw the balcony slab area .................................................................................................................................. 674
47.2.4 Draw the drop caps .................................................................................................................................................. 675
47.2.5 Draw the opening ...................................................................................................................................................... 676
47.2.6 Hatch the slab areas ................................................................................................................................................. 677
47.2.7 Define the column locations and properties ................................................................................................. 678
47.2.8 Define the wall location and properties .......................................................................................................... 678
47.2.9 Generate the mesh .................................................................................................................................................... 679
47.2.1 View the mesh ............................................................................................................................................................ 680
0
47.2.1 View the structure .................................................................................................................................................... 680
1
Define the loads ........................................................................................................................................................................... 681
47.3.1 Define the typical live load .................................................................................................................................... 681
47.3.2 Define the balcony live load ................................................................................................................................. 681
47.3.3 Define the other dead loading ............................................................................................................................. 682
Define the post-tensioning ..................................................................................................................................................... 683
47.4.1 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 1 ........................................................................................................................ 683
47.4.2 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 2 ........................................................................................................................ 684
47.4.3 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 3 ........................................................................................................................ 685
47.4.4 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 4 ........................................................................................................................ 685
47.4.5 Define the latitude tendons Pt. 5 ........................................................................................................................ 686
47.4.6 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 1 .................................................................................................................... 686
47.4.7 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 2 .................................................................................................................... 687
47.4.8 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 3 .................................................................................................................... 688
47.4.9 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 4 .................................................................................................................... 689
47.4.1 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 5 .................................................................................................................... 690
0
47.4.1 Define the longitude tendons Pt. 6 .................................................................................................................... 690
1
Create the design strips ........................................................................................................................................................... 691
47.5.1 Generate the latitude spans .................................................................................................................................. 691
47.5.2 Generate the latitude strips .................................................................................................................................. 692
47.5.3 Hatch the strips .......................................................................................................................................................... 693
47.5.4 Straighten a span segment .................................................................................................................................... 693
47.5.5 Edit the span cross section orientation ........................................................................................................... 693

RAM Concept

25

User Manual

47.6
47.7

47.5.6 Draw a Span Boundary Polyline ......................................................................................................................... 694


47.5.7 Regenerate the latitude span strips .................................................................................................................. 694
47.5.8 Generate the longitude spans .............................................................................................................................. 694
47.5.9 Straighten a span segment .................................................................................................................................... 695
47.5.1 Delete the span segment over the wall ............................................................................................................ 696
0
47.5.1 Edit the span cross section orientation ........................................................................................................... 696
1
47.5.1 Generate the longitude strips .............................................................................................................................. 696
2
47.5.1 Check for punching shear ...................................................................................................................................... 696
3
Regenerate the mesh ................................................................................................................................................................ 697
Calculate and view the results .............................................................................................................................................. 698
47.7.1 Review Calc Options ................................................................................................................................................ 698
47.7.2 Calculate ........................................................................................................................................................................ 698
47.7.3 View the design strips with tendons ................................................................................................................ 699
47.7.4 Edit span segment 6-2 ............................................................................................................................................ 699
47.7.5 Recalculate ................................................................................................................................................................... 700
47.7.6 Design status ............................................................................................................................................................... 700
47.7.7 Design reinforcement .............................................................................................................................................. 702
47.7.8 Concrete stresses ...................................................................................................................................................... 704
47.7.9 Deflection ..................................................................................................................................................................... 707
47.7.1 Bending Moments ..................................................................................................................................................... 709
0

Chapter 48: Mat Foundation Tutorial ................................................................................... 713


48.1
48.2

48.3

48.4

Import the CAD drawing ......................................................................................................................................................... 713


Define the structure ................................................................................................................................................................... 713
48.2.1 Show the drawing on the mesh input layer ................................................................................................... 713
48.2.2 Draw the slab area .................................................................................................................................................... 714
48.2.3 Define the column locations and properties ................................................................................................. 714
48.2.4 Define the wall location and properties .......................................................................................................... 714
48.2.5 Define the area spring location and properties ........................................................................................... 715
48.2.6 Generate the mesh .................................................................................................................................................... 715
48.2.7 View the mesh ............................................................................................................................................................ 715
48.2.8 View the structure .................................................................................................................................................... 715
Define the loads ........................................................................................................................................................................... 719
48.3.1 Define the other dead loading ............................................................................................................................. 719
48.3.2 Copy to the live (reducible) loading layer ...................................................................................................... 719
48.3.3 Define the ultimate seismic east loading ........................................................................................................ 720
Create the design strips ........................................................................................................................................................... 722
48.4.1 Draw latitude design strips .................................................................................................................................. 722
48.4.2 Generate the latitude strips .................................................................................................................................. 724
48.4.3 Hatch the strips .......................................................................................................................................................... 724
48.4.4 Edit the cross section orientation ...................................................................................................................... 725
48.4.5 Regenerate the latitude span strips .................................................................................................................. 725
48.4.6 Draw longitude design strips ............................................................................................................................... 726
48.4.7 Generate the longitude strips .............................................................................................................................. 728
48.4.8 Edit the cross section orientation ...................................................................................................................... 728
48.4.9 Regenerate the longitude span strips .............................................................................................................. 729

RAM Concept

26

User Manual

48.5
48.6

48.4.1 Check for punching shear ...................................................................................................................................... 729


0
Regenerate the mesh ................................................................................................................................................................ 730
Calculate and view the results .............................................................................................................................................. 730
48.6.1 Review Calc Options ................................................................................................................................................ 731
48.6.2 Calculate ........................................................................................................................................................................ 731
48.6.3 Look at reinforcement and design status ....................................................................................................... 731
48.6.4 View Specific Reinforcement ............................................................................................................................... 732
48.6.5 Bearing stresses ......................................................................................................................................................... 733

Chapter 49: Strip Wizard Tutorial ......................................................................................... 735


49.1
49.2
49.3
49.4
49.5
49.6
49.7
49.8
49.9
49.10
49.11
49.12

Start Strip Wizard ....................................................................................................................................................................... 735


Set the general parameters .................................................................................................................................................... 735
Enter the span data .................................................................................................................................................................... 736
Create the supports below ...................................................................................................................................................... 737
Add drop caps .............................................................................................................................................................................. 738
Specify the loads ......................................................................................................................................................................... 738
Define the post-tensioning ..................................................................................................................................................... 738
Specify the reinforcement parameters ............................................................................................................................. 739
Complete the Strip Wizard ..................................................................................................................................................... 739
Proceed with RAM Concept .................................................................................................................................................... 739
Comparison with PT Flat Plate Tutorial ........................................................................................................................... 740
Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 740

Chapter 50: Analysis Notes .................................................................................................. 742


50.1

50.2

50.3
50.4

50.5
50.6
50.7

Review of plate behavior ......................................................................................................................................................... 742


50.1.1 In-plane and out-of-plane behavior .................................................................................................................. 742
50.1.2 In-plane behavior ...................................................................................................................................................... 743
50.1.3 Out-of-plane behavior ............................................................................................................................................. 744
50.1.4 Interaction of in-plane and out-of-plane behavior ..................................................................................... 746
50.1.5 RAM Concept plotting and relevant axes ........................................................................................................ 747
Finite element analysis ............................................................................................................................................................ 747
50.2.1 About finite element analysis .............................................................................................................................. 747
50.2.2 Finite element formulation used in RAM Concept ...................................................................................... 748
50.2.3 Slab element general properties ........................................................................................................................ 748
Orthotropic behavior ................................................................................................................................................................ 748
50.3.1 K Factors and Instability ........................................................................................................................................ 748
50.3.2 Interaction of in-plane and out-of-plane stiffnesses .................................................................................. 749
Deep beam considerations ..................................................................................................................................................... 749
50.4.1 Analysis of slab and beam elements ................................................................................................................. 749
50.4.2 Analysis and design of deep beams for bending moment and shear ................................................. 752
50.4.3 Analysis and design of deep beams with transverse bending moments .......................................... 753
50.4.4 Analysis of deep beams with torsion ................................................................................................................ 755
50.4.5 Analysis and design of moment transfer through step-beams ............................................................. 757
Wall behavior ............................................................................................................................................................................... 758
50.5.1 Walls above slab ........................................................................................................................................................ 758
Post-tensioning loadings ......................................................................................................................................................... 759
50.6.1 Hyperstatic loading .................................................................................................................................................. 759
Self-equilibrium analysis ......................................................................................................................................................... 759
50.7.1 About self-equilibrium analysis .......................................................................................................................... 760
50.7.2 Uses of Self-Equilibrium Analyses ..................................................................................................................... 760

RAM Concept

27

User Manual

50.8

50.9

50.7.3 Using Self-Equilibrium Analyses ........................................................................................................................ 760


50.7.4 Self-Equilibrium Analyses Details ..................................................................................................................... 761
Design strip and design section forces .............................................................................................................................. 762
50.8.1 Design section axes and sign convention ....................................................................................................... 762
50.8.2 Design strip segment axes and sign convention .......................................................................................... 762
50.8.3 Design centroids ........................................................................................................................................................ 762
50.8.4 Calculating the forces on the cross section .................................................................................................... 763
50.8.5 Calculating the balanced load percentages .................................................................................................... 763
50.8.6 Using the Don't Reduce Integrated M and V due to Sign Change option ....................................... 764
Result categories in RAM Concept ...................................................................................................................................... 765
50.9.1 Standard results ........................................................................................................................................................ 765
50.9.2 Envelope results ........................................................................................................................................................ 766
50.9.3 How RAM Concept calculates envelope results ........................................................................................... 766

Chapter 51: Section Design Notes ........................................................................................ 768


51.1

General Design Approach ....................................................................................................................................................... 768


51.1.1 Strip and Section Design A 3 Step Process ................................................................................................. 768
51.1.2 Non-prestressed Reinforcement Stress-Strain Curves ............................................................................. 768
51.1.3 Post-tensioning Material Stress-Strain Curves ............................................................................................ 768
51.1.4 Relationship of Bonded Post-tensioning Strains to Cross-Section Strains ...................................... 769
51.1.5 Unbonded Post-tensioning Stress-Strain Curves General Theory ................................................... 770
51.1.6 Unbonded Post-tensioning Stress-Strain Curves Program Implementation ............................... 771
51.1.7 Tendons External Load or Internal Force? ................................................................................................. 771
51.1.8 Tendons inclusion of force vector on a cross section ............................................................................ 772
51.1.9 Tendons calculation of number of ducts ..................................................................................................... 772
51.1.1 Concrete Stress-Strain Curves ............................................................................................................................. 772
0
51.1.1 Creep and Shrinkage Effects ................................................................................................................................. 773
1
51.1.1 Cracked Section Analyses ...................................................................................................................................... 773
2
51.1.1 Bransons Stress Ratio ............................................................................................................................................ 774
3
51.1.1 Eurocode 2 Cracking Distribution Stress Ratio ........................................................................................... 775
4
51.1.1 Calculation of Effective Curvature Ratio ......................................................................................................... 775
5
51.1.1 Use of ECR .................................................................................................................................................................... 776
6
51.1.1 Crack Width Predictions ........................................................................................................................................ 776
7
51.1.1 Cracking Moment Used in Design Calculations ........................................................................................ 778
8
51.1.1 Concrete Core Determination .......................................................................................................................... 779
9
51.1.2 Torsion Considerations .......................................................................................................................................... 779
0
51.1.2 Wood-Armer Torsion Design ............................................................................................................................... 780
1

Chapter 52: Live Load Reduction Notes ................................................................................ 781

RAM Concept

28

User Manual

52.1
52.2
52.3
52.4
52.5
52.6
52.7
52.8
52.9
52.10
52.11
52.12
52.13
52.14
52.15
52.16

Live Load Reduction for Loadings, Load Combinations and Rule Sets ............................................................... 781
52.1.1 Loadings ........................................................................................................................................................................ 781
52.1.2 Load Combinations and Rule Sets ..................................................................................................................... 781
Tributary Area Calculations ................................................................................................................................................... 782
Influence Area Calculations .................................................................................................................................................... 782
52.3.1 Example of Influence Areas .................................................................................................................................. 783
ASCE-7 2002 Live Load Reduction ...................................................................................................................................... 787
ASCE-7 2010 Live Load Reduction ...................................................................................................................................... 788
IBC 2003 Live Load Reduction .............................................................................................................................................. 788
IBC 2006 Live Load Reduction .............................................................................................................................................. 788
IBC 2009 Live Load Reduction .............................................................................................................................................. 789
UBC 1997 Live Load Reduction ............................................................................................................................................ 789
AS/NZS 1170.1-2002 Live Load Reduction ..................................................................................................................... 790
BS 6399-1:1996 Live Load Reduction ............................................................................................................................... 790
IS 875 (Part 2) - 1987 Live Load Reduction .................................................................................................................... 790
Eurocode 1-2002 (UK Annex) Live Load Reduction ................................................................................................... 791
National Building Code of Canada 2005 Live Load Reduction ............................................................................... 791
Mat Foundations ......................................................................................................................................................................... 791
Special Member Considerations ........................................................................................................................................... 791
52.16. Columns Above the Slab ......................................................................................................................................... 792
1
52.16. Columns Above and Below the Slab .................................................................................................................. 792
2

Chapter 53: Reinforcement Notes ........................................................................................ 793


53.1

53.2

53.3
53.4
53.5
53.6

Span detailing ............................................................................................................................................................................... 793


53.1.1 About Concepts detailing calculations ............................................................................................................ 795
53.1.2 Span detailing assumptions .................................................................................................................................. 796
53.1.3 ACI 318-99, 318-02, 318-05, 318-08, 318-11 Code Span Detailing Rules ....................................... 796
53.1.4 AS 3600 - 2001 Code Span Detailing Rules .................................................................................................... 797
53.1.5 AS 3600 - 2009 Code Span Detailing Rules .................................................................................................... 797
53.1.6 BS 8110 - 1997 Code Span Detailing Rules .................................................................................................... 797
53.1.7 CSA A23.3-04 Code Span Detailing Rules ....................................................................................................... 797
53.1.8 IS 456 - 2000 Code Span Detailing Rules ........................................................................................................ 798
53.1.9 EC2 Code Span Detailing Rules ........................................................................................................................... 798
Development lengths / anchorage ...................................................................................................................................... 798
53.2.1 ACI 318-99, 318-02, 318-05, 318-08, 318-11 Development Lengths ................................................ 799
53.2.2 AS 3600 Development Lengths ........................................................................................................................... 800
53.2.3 BS 8110-1997 Development Lengths .............................................................................................................. 802
53.2.4 IS 456-2000 Development Lengths ................................................................................................................... 803
53.2.5 EC2 Development Lengths .................................................................................................................................... 804
53.2.6 CSA A23.3-04 Development Lengths ................................................................................................................ 805
How RAM Concept lays out longitudinal program reinforcement ........................................................................ 806
How RAM Concept details longitudinal user and program reinforcement ....................................................... 807
How Concept treats transverse user and program reinforcement and individual transverse bars ...... 808
Example 1: reinforcement results ....................................................................................................................................... 809
53.6.1 Strength (only) calculations ................................................................................................................................. 809
53.6.2 Code Minimum and Strength calculations ..................................................................................................... 815

Chapter 54: ACI 318-99 Design ............................................................................................. 821


54.1

ACI 318-99 default loadings .................................................................................................................................................. 821

RAM Concept

29

User Manual

54.2

54.3
54.4

54.5

54.6

54.1.1 Temporary Construction (At Stressing) Loading ........................................................................................ 821


ACI 318-99 default load combinations .............................................................................................................................. 821
54.2.1 All Dead LC ................................................................................................................................................................... 822
54.2.2 Initial Service LC ........................................................................................................................................................ 822
54.2.3 Service LC: D + L + Lr ............................................................................................................................................... 822
54.2.4 Service LC: D + L + S ................................................................................................................................................. 822
54.2.5 Sustained Service LC ................................................................................................................................................ 823
54.2.6 DL + 0.25LL LC ........................................................................................................................................................... 823
54.2.7 Factored LC: 1.4D + 1.7L + 1.7S .......................................................................................................................... 823
54.2.8 Service Wind LC: D + L + Lr + W ......................................................................................................................... 824
54.2.9 Service Wind LC: D + L + S + W ........................................................................................................................... 824
54.2.1 Service Wind LC: 0.6D + W ................................................................................................................................... 824
0
54.2.1 Service Seismic LC: D + L + Lr + 0.7E ................................................................................................................ 824
1
54.2.1 Service Seismic LC: D + L + S + 0.7E .................................................................................................................. 825
2
54.2.1 Service Seismic LC: 0.6D + 0.7E .......................................................................................................................... 825
3
54.2.1 Factored Wind LC: 1.05D + 1.28L + 1.28S + 1.6W ...................................................................................... 825
4
54.2.1 Factored Seismic LC: 1.2D + f1L + 0.7S + E .................................................................................................... 826
5
ACI 318-99 / ASCE-7 / IBC 2003 live load factors ....................................................................................................... 826
ACI 318-99 Material Behaviors ............................................................................................................................................ 826
54.4.1 Concrete Behavior .................................................................................................................................................... 827
54.4.2 (Non-prestressed) Reinforcement Behavior ................................................................................................ 827
54.4.3 Bonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior ............................................................................................. 827
54.4.4 Unbonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior ........................................................................................ 828
ACI 318-99 code rule selection ............................................................................................................................................. 828
54.5.1 Minimum Reinforcement ....................................................................................................................................... 828
54.5.2 Initial Service .............................................................................................................................................................. 829
54.5.3 Service ............................................................................................................................................................................ 829
54.5.4 Sustained Service ...................................................................................................................................................... 830
54.5.5 Strength ......................................................................................................................................................................... 830
54.5.6 Ductility ......................................................................................................................................................................... 831
54.5.7 UBC DL + 0.25 LL ....................................................................................................................................................... 831
ACI 318-99 code implementation ....................................................................................................................................... 832
54.6.1 Section 7.12 Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement ...................................................................... 832
54.6.2 Section 10.2 Factored Moment Resistance (Non prestressed) ............................................................. 832
54.6.3 Section 10.3.3 Ductility (Non prestressed) .................................................................................................... 833
54.6.4 Section 10.5.1 Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members (Non Prestressed) ..................... 833
54.6.5 Section 10.6.4 Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members (Non Prestressed) ..................... 834
54.6.6 Section 11.3 Shear Resistance of Beams (Non Prestressed) .................................................................. 834
54.6.7 Section 11.4 Shear Resistance of Beams (Prestressed) ............................................................................ 834
54.6.8 Section 11.6 Beam Torsion ................................................................................................................................... 835
54.6.9 Chapter 13 (Two-way slab systems) ................................................................................................................ 836
54.6.1 Section 18.4.1a Initial (at stressing) Compressive Stress Limit ........................................................... 836
0
54.6.1 Section 18.4.1b Initial (at stressing) Tensile Stress Limit ....................................................................... 836
1

RAM Concept

30

User Manual

54.6.1
2
54.6.1
3
54.6.1
4
54.6.1
5
54.6.1
6
54.6.1
7
54.6.1
8
54.6.1
9
54.6.2
0
54.6.2
1

Section 18.4.2a Sustained Compressive Stress Limit ................................................................................ 836


Section 18.4.2b Service Compressive Stress Limit ..................................................................................... 837
Section 18.4.2c Service Tensile Stress Limit ................................................................................................. 837
Section 18.7 Design Flexural Resistance (Prestressed) ........................................................................... 837
Section 18.8.1 Ductility (Prestressed) ............................................................................................................. 838
Section 18.8.3 Cracking Moment ........................................................................................................................ 838
Section 18.9.2 Minimum Reinforcement - One Way .................................................................................. 838
Section 18.9.3.2 Midspan Two Way Minimum Reinforcement ............................................................. 839
Section 18.9.3.3 Support Two Way Minimum Reinforcement .............................................................. 839
Punching Shear Design ........................................................................................................................................... 840

Chapter 55: ACI 318-02 Design ............................................................................................. 841


55.1
55.2

ACI 318-02 default loadings .................................................................................................................................................. 841


55.1.1 Temporary Construction (At Stressing) Loading ........................................................................................ 841
ACI 318-02 default load combinations .............................................................................................................................. 841
55.2.1 All Dead LC ................................................................................................................................................................... 842
55.2.2 Initial Service LC ........................................................................................................................................................ 842
55.2.3 Service LC: D + L + Lr ............................................................................................................................................... 842
55.2.4 Service LC: D + L + S ................................................................................................................................................. 843
55.2.5 Sustained Service LC ................................................................................................................................................ 843
55.2.6 Factored LC: 1.4D ...................................................................................................................................................... 843
55.2.7 Factored LC: 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5Lr ........................................................................................................................ 843
55.2.8 Factored LC: 1.2D + f1L+ 1.6Lr ........................................................................................................................... 844
55.2.9 Factored LC: 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5S .......................................................................................................................... 844
55.2.1 Factored LC: 1.2D + f1L+ 1.6S .............................................................................................................................. 845
0
55.2.1 Service Wind LC: D + L + Lr + W ......................................................................................................................... 845
1
55.2.1 Service Wind LC: D + L + S + W ........................................................................................................................... 845
2
55.2.1 Service Wind LC: 0.6D + W ................................................................................................................................... 846
3
55.2.1 Service Seismic LC: D + L + Lr + 0.7E ................................................................................................................ 846
4
55.2.1 Service Seismic LC: D + L + S + 0.7E .................................................................................................................. 846
5
55.2.1 Service Seismic LC: 0.6D + 0.7E .......................................................................................................................... 846
6
55.2.1 Factored Wind LC: 1.2D + f1L+ 0.5Lr + 1.6W ............................................................................................... 847
7

RAM Concept

31

User Manual

55.3
55.4

55.5

55.6

55.2.1 Factored Wind LC: 1.2D + f1L+ 0.5S + 1.6W .................................................................................................. 847
8
55.2.1 Factored Wind LC: 1.2D + 1.6Lr + 0.8W .......................................................................................................... 848
9
55.2.2 Factored Wind LC: 1.2D + 1.6S + 0.8W ............................................................................................................ 848
0
55.2.2 Factored Seismic LC: 1.2D + f1L+ f2S + E ....................................................................................................... 848
1
ACI318-02 / ASCE-7 / IBC 2003 live load factors ........................................................................................................ 848
ACI 318-02 Material Behaviors ............................................................................................................................................ 849
55.4.1 Concrete Behavior .................................................................................................................................................... 849
55.4.2 (Non-prestressed) Reinforcement Behavior ................................................................................................ 849
55.4.3 Bonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior ............................................................................................. 850
55.4.4 Unbonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior ........................................................................................ 850
ACI 318-02 code rule selection ............................................................................................................................................. 850
55.5.1 Code Minimum Reinforcement ........................................................................................................................... 850
55.5.2 User Minimum Reinforcement ............................................................................................................................ 851
55.5.3 Initial Service .............................................................................................................................................................. 852
55.5.4 Service ............................................................................................................................................................................ 852
55.5.5 Sustained Service ...................................................................................................................................................... 853
55.5.6 Strength ......................................................................................................................................................................... 853
55.5.7 Ductility ......................................................................................................................................................................... 854
ACI 318-02 code implementation ....................................................................................................................................... 854
55.6.1 Section 7.12 Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement ...................................................................... 854
55.6.2 Section 10.2 Factored Moment Resistance (Non prestressed) ............................................................. 855
55.6.3 Section 10.3.5 Ductility (Non prestressed) .................................................................................................... 856
55.6.4 Section 10.5.1 Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members (Non Prestressed) ..................... 856
55.6.5 Section 10.6.4 Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members (Non Prestressed) ..................... 857
55.6.6 Section 11.3 Shear Resistance of Beams (Non Prestressed) .................................................................. 857
55.6.7 Section 11.4 Shear Resistance of Beams (Prestressed) ............................................................................ 857
55.6.8 Section 11.6 Beam Torsion ................................................................................................................................... 858
55.6.9 Chapter 13 (Two-way slab systems) ................................................................................................................ 859
55.6.1 Section 18.3.3 Service Tensile Stress Limit ................................................................................................... 859
0
55.6.1 Section 18.4.1a Initial (at stressing) Compressive Stress Limit ........................................................... 860
1
55.6.1 Section 18.4.1b Initial (at stressing) Tensile Stress Limit ....................................................................... 860
2
55.6.1 Section 18.4.2a Sustained Compressive Stress Limit ................................................................................ 861
3
55.6.1 Section 18.4.2b Service Compressive Stress Limit ..................................................................................... 861
4
55.6.1 Section 18.4.4 Reinforcement Spacing Limits for Class C Members ................................................... 861
5
55.6.1 Section 18.7 Design Flexural Resistance (Prestressed) ........................................................................... 862
6
55.6.1 Section 18.8.2 Cracking Moment ........................................................................................................................ 862
7
55.6.1 Section 18.9.2 Minimum Reinforcement - One Way .................................................................................. 863
8

RAM Concept

32

User Manual

55.6.1
9
55.6.2
0
55.6.2
1

Section 18.9.3.2 Midspan Two Way Minimum Reinforcement ............................................................. 863


Section 18.9.3.3 Support Two Way Minimum Reinforcement .............................................................. 864
Punching Shear Design ........................................................................................................................................... 864

Chapter 56: ACI 318-05 Design ............................................................................................. 865


56.1
56.2

ACI 318-05 default loadings .................................................................................................................................................. 865


56.1.1 Temporary Construction (At Stressing) Loading ........................................................................................ 865
ACI 318-05 default load combinations .............................................................................................................................. 865
56.2.1 All Dead LC ................................................................................................................................................................... 866
56.2.2 Initial Service LC ........................................................................................................................................................ 866
56.2.3 Service LC: D + L ........................................................................................................................................................ 866
56.2.4 Service LC: D + Lr ...................................................................................................................................................... 867
56.2.5 Service LC: D + S ........................................................................................................................................................ 867
56.2.6 Service LC: D + 0.75L + 0.75Lr ............................................................................................................................ 867
56.2.7 Service LC: D + 0.75L + 0.75S ............................................................................................................................... 867
56.2.8 Sustained Service LC ................................................................................................................................................ 868
56.2.9 Factored LC: 1.4D ...................................................................................................................................................... 868
56.2.1 Factored LC: 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5Lr ........................................................................................................................ 868
0
56.2.1 Factored LC: 1.2D + f1L+ 1.6Lr ........................................................................................................................... 868
1
56.2.1 Factored LC: 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5S .......................................................................................................................... 869
2
56.2.1 Factored LC: 1.2D + f1L+ 1.6S .............................................................................................................................. 869
3
56.2.1 Service Wind LC: D + W .......................................................................................................................................... 869
4
56.2.1 Service Wind LC: D + 0.75L + 0.75Lr + 0.75W .............................................................................................. 870
5
56.2.1 Service Wind LC: D + 0.75L + 0.75S + 0.75W ................................................................................................ 870
6
56.2.1 Service Wind LC: 0.6D + W ................................................................................................................................... 870
7
56.2.1 Service Seismic LC: D + 0.7E ................................................................................................................................. 871
8
56.2.1 Service Seismic LC: D + 0.75L + 0.75Lr + 0.525E ........................................................................................ 871
9
56.2.2 Service Seismic LC: D + 0.75L + 0.75S + 0.525E .......................................................................................... 871
0
56.2.2 Service Seismic LC: 0.6D + 0.7E .......................................................................................................................... 871
1
56.2.2 Factored Wind LC: 1.2D + f1L+ 0.5Lr + 1.6W ............................................................................................... 872
2
56.2.2 Factored Wind LC: 1.2D + f1L+ 0.5S + 1.6W .................................................................................................. 872
3
56.2.2 Factored Wind LC: 1.2D + 1.6Lr + 0.8W .......................................................................................................... 872
4

RAM Concept

33

User Manual

56.3
56.4

56.5

56.6

56.2.2 Factored Wind LC: 1.2D + 1.6S + 0.8W ............................................................................................................ 873


5
56.2.2 Factored Seismic LC: 1.2D + f1L+ f2S + E ....................................................................................................... 873
6
ACI318-05 / ASCE-7 / IBC 2006 live load factors ........................................................................................................ 873
ACI 318-05 Material Behaviors ............................................................................................................................................ 874
56.4.1 Concrete Behavior .................................................................................................................................................... 874
56.4.2 (Non-prestressed) Reinforcement Behavior ................................................................................................ 874
56.4.3 Bonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior ............................................................................................. 875
56.4.4 Unbonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior ........................................................................................ 875
ACI 318-05 code rule selection ............................................................................................................................................. 875
56.5.1 Code Minimum Reinforcement ........................................................................................................................... 875
56.5.2 User Minimum Reinforcement ............................................................................................................................ 876
56.5.3 Initial Service .............................................................................................................................................................. 877
56.5.4 Service ............................................................................................................................................................................ 877
56.5.5 Sustained Service ...................................................................................................................................................... 878
56.5.6 Strength ......................................................................................................................................................................... 878
56.5.7 Ductility ......................................................................................................................................................................... 879
ACI 318-05 code implementation ....................................................................................................................................... 879
56.6.1 Section 7.12 Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement ...................................................................... 879
56.6.2 Section 10.2 Factored Moment Resistance (Non prestressed) ............................................................. 880
56.6.3 Section 10.3.5 Ductility (Non prestressed) .................................................................................................... 881
56.6.4 Section 10.5.1 Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members (Non Prestressed) ..................... 881
56.6.5 Section 10.6.4 Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members (Non Prestressed) ..................... 882
56.6.6 Section 11.3 Shear Resistance of Beams (Non Prestressed) .................................................................. 882
56.6.7 Section 11.4 Shear Resistance of Beams (Prestressed) ............................................................................ 882
56.6.8 Section 11.6 Beam Torsion ................................................................................................................................... 883
56.6.9 Chapter 13 (Two-way slab systems) ................................................................................................................ 884
56.6.1 Section 18.3.3 Service Tensile Stress Limit ................................................................................................... 884
0
56.6.1 Section 18.4.1a Initial (at stressing) Compressive Stress Limit ........................................................... 885
1
56.6.1 Section 18.4.1b Initial (at stressing) Tensile Stress Limit ....................................................................... 885
2
56.6.1 Section 18.4.2a Sustained Compressive Stress Limit ................................................................................ 885
3
56.6.1 Section 18.4.2b Service Compressive Stress Limit ..................................................................................... 886
4
56.6.1 Section 18.4.4 Reinforcement Spacing Limits for Class C Members ................................................... 886
5
56.6.1 Section 18.7 Design Flexural Resistance (Prestressed) ........................................................................... 887
6
56.6.1 Section 18.8.2 Cracking Moment ........................................................................................................................ 887
7
56.6.1 Section 18.9.2 Minimum Reinforcement - One Way .................................................................................. 887
8
56.6.1 Section 18.9.3.2 Midspan Two Way Minimum Reinforcement ............................................................. 888
9
56.6.2 Section 18.9.3.3 Support Two Way Minimum Reinforcement .............................................................. 888
0

RAM Concept

34

User Manual

56.6.2
1

Punching Shear Design ........................................................................................................................................... 889

Chapter 57: ACI 318-08 Design ............................................................................................. 890


57.1
57.2

ACI 318-08 default loadings .................................................................................................................................................. 890


57.1.1 Temporary Construction (At Stressing) Loading ........................................................................................ 890
ACI 318-08 default load combinations .............................................................................................................................. 890
57.2.1 All Dead LC ................................................................................................................................................................... 891
57.2.2 Initial Service LC ........................................................................................................................................................ 891
57.2.3 Service LC: D + L ........................................................................................................................................................ 891
57.2.4 Service LC: D + Lr ...................................................................................................................................................... 892
57.2.5 Service LC: D + S ........................................................................................................................................................ 892
57.2.6 Service LC: D + 0.75L + 0.75Lr ............................................................................................................................ 892
57.2.7 Service LC: D + 0.75L + 0.75S ............................................................................................................................... 892
57.2.8 Sustained Service LC ................................................................................................................................................ 893
57.2.9 Factored LC: 1.4D ...................................................................................................................................................... 893
57.2.1 Factored LC: 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5Lr ........................................................................................................................ 893
0
57.2.1 Factored LC: 1.2D + f1L+ 1.6Lr ........................................................................................................................... 893
1
57.2.1 Factored LC: 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5S .......................................................................................................................... 894
2
57.2.1 Factored LC: 1.2D + f1L+ 1.6S .............................................................................................................................. 894
3
57.2.1 Service Wind LC: D + W .......................................................................................................................................... 894
4
57.2.1 Service Wind LC: D + 0.75L + 0.75Lr + 0.75W .............................................................................................. 895
5
57.2.1 Service Wind LC: D + 0.75L + 0.75S + 0.75W ................................................................................................ 895
6
57.2.1 Service Wind LC: 0.6D + W ................................................................................................................................... 895
7
57.2.1 Service Seismic LC: D + 0.7E ................................................................................................................................. 896
8
57.2.1 Service Seismic LC: D + 0.75L + 0.75Lr + 0.525E ........................................................................................ 896
9
57.2.2 Service Seismic LC: D + 0.75L + 0.75S + 0.525E .......................................................................................... 896
0
57.2.2 Service Seismic LC: 0.6D + 0.7E .......................................................................................................................... 896
1
57.2.2 Factored Wind LC: 1.2D + f1L+ 0.5Lr + 1.6W ............................................................................................... 897
2
57.2.2 Factored Wind LC: 1.2D + f1L+ 0.5S + 1.6W .................................................................................................. 897
3
57.2.2 Factored Wind LC: 1.2D + 1.6Lr + 0.8W .......................................................................................................... 897
4
57.2.2 Factored Wind LC: 1.2D + 1.6S + 0.8W ............................................................................................................ 898
5
57.2.2 Factored Seismic LC: 1.2D + f1L+ f2S + E ....................................................................................................... 898
6

RAM Concept

35

User Manual

57.3
57.4

57.5

57.6

57.2.2 Factored Seismic LC: 0.9D + E ............................................................................................................................. 898


7
ACI318-08 / ASCE-7 / IBC 2009 live load factors ........................................................................................................ 899
ACI 318-08 Material Behaviors ............................................................................................................................................ 899
57.4.1 Concrete Behavior .................................................................................................................................................... 899
57.4.2 (Non-prestressed) Reinforcement Behavior ................................................................................................ 900
57.4.3 Bonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior ............................................................................................. 900
57.4.4 Unbonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior ........................................................................................ 900
ACI 318-08 code rule selection ............................................................................................................................................. 900
57.5.1 Code Minimum Reinforcement ........................................................................................................................... 901
57.5.2 User Minimum Reinforcement ............................................................................................................................ 901
57.5.3 Initial Service .............................................................................................................................................................. 902
57.5.4 Service ............................................................................................................................................................................ 902
57.5.5 Sustained Service ...................................................................................................................................................... 903
57.5.6 Strength ......................................................................................................................................................................... 903
57.5.7 Ductility ......................................................................................................................................................................... 904
ACI 318-08 code implementation ....................................................................................................................................... 905
57.6.1 Section 7.12 Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement ...................................................................... 905
57.6.2 Section 10.2 Factored Moment Resistance (Non prestressed) ............................................................. 905
57.6.3 Section 10.3.5 Ductility (Non prestressed) .................................................................................................... 906
57.6.4 Section 10.5.1 Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members (Non Prestressed) ..................... 906
57.6.5 Section 10.6.4 Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members (Non Prestressed) ..................... 907
57.6.6 Section 11.2 Shear Resistance of Beams (Non Prestressed) .................................................................. 907
57.6.7 Section 11.3 Shear Resistance of Beams (Prestressed) ............................................................................ 908
57.6.8 Section 11.5 Beam Torsion ................................................................................................................................... 908
57.6.9 Chapter 13 (Two-way slab systems) ................................................................................................................ 909
57.6.1 Section 18.3.3 Service Tensile Stress Limit ................................................................................................... 909
0
57.6.1 Section 18.4.1a Initial (at stressing) Compressive Stress Limit ........................................................... 910
1
57.6.1 Section 18.4.1c Initial (at stressing) Tensile Stress Limit ....................................................................... 910
2
57.6.1 Section 18.4.2a Sustained Compressive Stress Limit ................................................................................ 911
3
57.6.1 Section 18.4.2b Service Compressive Stress Limit ..................................................................................... 911
4
57.6.1 Section 18.4.4 Reinforcement Spacing Limits for Class C Members ................................................... 911
5
57.6.1 Section 18.7 Design Flexural Resistance (Prestressed) ........................................................................... 912
6
57.6.1 Section 18.8.2 Cracking Moment ........................................................................................................................ 912
7
57.6.1 Section 18.9.2 Minimum Reinforcement - One Way .................................................................................. 913
8
57.6.1 Section 18.9.3.2 Midspan Two Way Minimum Reinforcement ............................................................. 913
9
57.6.2 Section 18.9.3.3 Support Two Way Minimum Reinforcement .............................................................. 914
0
57.6.2 Punching Shear Design ........................................................................................................................................... 914
1

Chapter 58: ACI 318-11 Design ............................................................................................. 915

RAM Concept

36

User Manual

58.1
58.2

58.3
58.4

ACI 318-11 default loadings .................................................................................................................................................. 915


58.1.1 Temporary Construction (At Stressing) Loading ........................................................................................ 915
ACI 318-11 default load combinations .............................................................................................................................. 915
58.2.1 All Dead LC ................................................................................................................................................................... 916
58.2.2 Initial Service LC ........................................................................................................................................................ 916
58.2.3 Service LC: D + L ........................................................................................................................................................ 916
58.2.4 Service LC: D + Lr ...................................................................................................................................................... 917
58.2.5 Service LC: D + S ........................................................................................................................................................ 917
58.2.6 Service LC: D + 0.75L + 0.75Lr ............................................................................................................................ 917
58.2.7 Service LC: D + 0.75L + 0.75S ............................................................................................................................... 917
58.2.8 Sustained Service LC ................................................................................................................................................ 918
58.2.9 Factored LC: 1.4D ...................................................................................................................................................... 918
58.2.1 Factored LC: 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5Lr ........................................................................................................................ 918
0
58.2.1 Factored LC: 1.2D + f1L+ 1.6Lr ........................................................................................................................... 918
1
58.2.1 Factored LC: 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5S .......................................................................................................................... 919
2
58.2.1 Factored LC: 1.2D + f1L+ 1.6S .............................................................................................................................. 919
3
58.2.1 Service Wind LC: D + 0.6W ................................................................................................................................... 919
4
58.2.1 Service Wind LC: D + 0.75L + 0.75Lr + 0.45W .............................................................................................. 920
5
58.2.1 Service Wind LC: D + 0.75L + 0.75S + 0.45W ................................................................................................ 920
6
58.2.1 Service Wind LC: 0.6D + 0.6W ............................................................................................................................. 920
7
58.2.1 Service Seismic LC: D + 0.7E ................................................................................................................................. 921
8
58.2.1 Service Seismic LC: D + 0.75L + 0.75Lr + 0.525E ........................................................................................ 921
9
58.2.2 Service Seismic LC: D + 0.75L + 0.75S + 0.525E .......................................................................................... 921
0
58.2.2 Service Seismic LC: 0.6D + 0.7E .......................................................................................................................... 921
1
58.2.2 Factored Wind LC: 1.2D + f1L+ 0.5Lr + W ...................................................................................................... 922
2
58.2.2 Factored Wind LC: 1.2D + f1L+ 0.5S + W ........................................................................................................ 922
3
58.2.2 Factored Wind LC: 1.2D + 1.6Lr + 0.5W .......................................................................................................... 922
4
58.2.2 Factored Wind LC: 1.2D + 1.6S + 0.5W ............................................................................................................ 923
5
58.2.2 Factored Seismic LC: 1.2D + f1L+ f2S + E ....................................................................................................... 923
6
58.2.2 Factored Seismic LC: 0.9D + E ............................................................................................................................. 923
7
ACI318-11 / ASCE-7 / live load factors ............................................................................................................................ 924
ACI 318-11 Material Behaviors ............................................................................................................................................ 924
58.4.1 Concrete Behavior .................................................................................................................................................... 924

RAM Concept

37

User Manual

58.5

58.6

58.4.2 (Non-prestressed) Reinforcement Behavior ................................................................................................ 925


58.4.3 Bonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior ............................................................................................. 925
58.4.4 Unbonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior ........................................................................................ 925
ACI 318-11 code rule selection ............................................................................................................................................. 925
58.5.1 Code Minimum Reinforcement ........................................................................................................................... 926
58.5.2 User Minimum Reinforcement ............................................................................................................................ 926
58.5.3 Initial Service .............................................................................................................................................................. 927
58.5.4 Service ............................................................................................................................................................................ 927
58.5.5 Sustained Service ...................................................................................................................................................... 928
58.5.6 Strength ......................................................................................................................................................................... 928
58.5.7 Ductility ......................................................................................................................................................................... 929
ACI 318-11 code implementation ....................................................................................................................................... 930
58.6.1 Section 7.12 Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement ...................................................................... 930
58.6.2 Section 10.2 Factored Moment Resistance (Non prestressed) ............................................................. 930
58.6.3 Section 10.3.5 Ductility (Non prestressed) .................................................................................................... 931
58.6.4 Section 10.5.1 Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members (Non Prestressed) ..................... 931
58.6.5 Section 10.6.4 Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members (Non Prestressed) ..................... 932
58.6.6 Section 11.2 Shear Resistance of Beams (Non Prestressed) .................................................................. 932
58.6.7 Section 11.3 Shear Resistance of Beams (Prestressed) ............................................................................ 933
58.6.8 Section 11.5 Beam Torsion ................................................................................................................................... 933
58.6.9 Chapter 13 (Two-way slab systems) ................................................................................................................ 934
58.6.1 Section 18.3.3 Service Tensile Stress Limit ................................................................................................... 934
0
58.6.1 Section 18.4.1a Initial (at stressing) Compressive Stress Limit ........................................................... 935
1
58.6.1 Section 18.4.1c Initial (at stressing) Tensile Stress Limit ....................................................................... 935
2
58.6.1 Section 18.4.2a Sustained Compressive Stress Limit ................................................................................ 936
3
58.6.1 Section 18.4.2b Service Compressive Stress Limit ..................................................................................... 936
4
58.6.1 Section 18.4.4 Reinforcement Spacing Limits for Class C Members ................................................... 936
5
58.6.1 Section 18.7 Design Flexural Resistance (Prestressed) ........................................................................... 937
6
58.6.1 Section 18.8.2 Cracking Moment ........................................................................................................................ 937
7
58.6.1 Section 18.9.2 Minimum Reinforcement - One Way .................................................................................. 938
8
58.6.1 Section 18.9.3.2 Midspan Two Way Minimum Reinforcement ............................................................. 938
9
58.6.2 Section 18.9.3.3 Support Two Way Minimum Reinforcement .............................................................. 939
0
58.6.2 Punching Shear Design ........................................................................................................................................... 939
1

Chapter 59: AS 3600-2001 Design ......................................................................................... 940


59.1
59.2

AS 3600-2001 default loadings ............................................................................................................................................ 940


59.1.1 Temporary Construction (At Stressing) Loading ........................................................................................ 940
59.1.2 Snow Loading ............................................................................................................................................................. 940
AS 3600-2001 default load combinations ....................................................................................................................... 941

RAM Concept

38

User Manual

59.3

59.4

59.5

59.2.1 All Dead LC ................................................................................................................................................................... 941


59.2.2 Initial Service LC ........................................................................................................................................................ 941
59.2.3 Service LC: D + L .................................................................................................................................................... 941
59.2.4 Service LC: D + L + S ............................................................................................................................................ 942
59.2.5 Max Service LC: D + L .............................................................................................................................................. 942
59.2.6 Ultimate LC: 1.35D .................................................................................................................................................... 942
59.2.7 Ultimate LC: 1.2D + 1.5L ......................................................................................................................................... 942
59.2.8 Ultimate LC: 1.2D + L + S ................................................................................................................................... 943
59.2.9 Service Wind LC: D + L + W .............................................................................................................................. 943
59.2.1 Service Seismic LC: D + L + E ........................................................................................................................... 943
0
59.2.1 Ultimate Wind LC: 1.2D + L + W ..................................................................................................................... 944
1
59.2.1 Ultimate Seismic LC: D + L + E ........................................................................................................................ 944
2
59.2.1 Sustained Service LC ................................................................................................................................................ 944
3
59.2.1 AS3600 / AS/NZS 1170.1 live load factors .................................................................................................... 945
4
AS 3600-2001 Material Behaviors ...................................................................................................................................... 945
59.3.1 Concrete Behavior .................................................................................................................................................... 945
59.3.2 (Non-prestressed) Reinforcement Behavior ................................................................................................ 946
59.3.3 Bonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior ............................................................................................. 946
59.3.4 Unbonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior ........................................................................................ 946
AS 3600-2001 code rule selection ...................................................................................................................................... 946
59.4.1 Code Minimum Reinforcement ........................................................................................................................... 947
59.4.2 User Minimum Reinforcement ............................................................................................................................ 947
59.4.3 Initial Service .............................................................................................................................................................. 948
59.4.4 Service ............................................................................................................................................................................ 948
59.4.5 Max Service .................................................................................................................................................................. 949
59.4.6 Strength ......................................................................................................................................................................... 949
59.4.7 Ductility ......................................................................................................................................................................... 950
AS 3600-2001 code implementation ................................................................................................................................. 950
59.5.1 Concrete Modulus of Elasticity ............................................................................................................................ 950
59.5.2 Concrete Flexural Tensile Strength ................................................................................................................... 951
59.5.3 Unbonded Post-Tensioning Stress-Strain Curves ....................................................................................... 951
59.5.4 Section 8.1 Strength of Beams in Bending ..................................................................................................... 951
59.5.5 8.1.4 Minimum Flexural Strength ...................................................................................................................... 952
59.5.6 8.1.4.2 Transfer Compressive Stress Limits .................................................................................................. 952
59.5.7 Section 8.1.3 Ductility of Beams in Bending .................................................................................................. 952
59.5.8 Section 8.2 Shear Design ........................................................................................................................................ 953
59.5.9 Section 8.3 Beam Torsion Design ....................................................................................................................... 953
59.5.1 Section 8.6.1 RC Beam Crack Control ............................................................................................................... 954
0
59.5.1 Section 8.6.2 PT Beam Crack Control ............................................................................................................... 955
1
59.5.1 Section 9.1 Strength of Slabs in Bending ........................................................................................................ 955
2
59.5.1 Section 9.4.1 RC Slab Crack Control .................................................................................................................. 955
3

RAM Concept

39

User Manual

59.5.1
4
59.5.1
5
59.5.1
6

Section 9.4.2 PT Slab Crack Control .................................................................................................................. 956


Section 9.4.3.2 Shrinkage and Temperature ................................................................................................. 957
Punching Shear Design ........................................................................................................................................... 957

Chapter 60: AS 3600-2009 Design ......................................................................................... 958


60.1
60.2

60.3
60.4

60.5

60.6

AS 3600-2009 default loadings ............................................................................................................................................ 958


60.1.1 Temporary Construction (At Stressing) Loading ........................................................................................ 958
60.1.2 Snow Loading ............................................................................................................................................................. 958
AS 3600-2009 default load combinations ....................................................................................................................... 959
60.2.1 All Dead LC ................................................................................................................................................................... 959
60.2.2 Initial Service LC ........................................................................................................................................................ 959
60.2.3 Service LC: D + L .................................................................................................................................................... 959
60.2.4 Service LC: D + L + S ............................................................................................................................................ 960
60.2.5 Max Service LC: D + L .............................................................................................................................................. 960
60.2.6 Ultimate LC: 1.35D .................................................................................................................................................... 960
60.2.7 Ultimate LC: 1.2D + 1.5L ......................................................................................................................................... 961
60.2.8 Ultimate LC: 1.2D + L + S ................................................................................................................................... 961
60.2.9 Service Wind LC: D + L + W .............................................................................................................................. 961
60.2.1 Service Seismic LC: D + L + E ........................................................................................................................... 961
0
60.2.1 Ultimate Wind LC: 1.2D + L + W ..................................................................................................................... 962
1
60.2.1 Ultimate Seismic LC: D + L + E ........................................................................................................................ 962
2
60.2.1 Sustained Service LC ................................................................................................................................................ 963
3
AS3600 / AS/NZS 1170.1 live load factors ...................................................................................................................... 963
AS 3600-2009 Material Behaviors ...................................................................................................................................... 963
60.4.1 Concrete Behavior .................................................................................................................................................... 963
60.4.2 (Non-prestressed) Reinforcement Behavior ................................................................................................ 964
60.4.3 Bonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior ............................................................................................. 964
60.4.4 Unbonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior ........................................................................................ 964
AS 3600-2009 code rule selection ...................................................................................................................................... 965
60.5.1 Code Minimum Reinforcement ........................................................................................................................... 965
60.5.2 User Minimum Reinforcement ............................................................................................................................ 965
60.5.3 Initial Service .............................................................................................................................................................. 966
60.5.4 Service ............................................................................................................................................................................ 967
60.5.5 Max Service .................................................................................................................................................................. 967
60.5.6 Strength ......................................................................................................................................................................... 967
60.5.7 Ductility ......................................................................................................................................................................... 968
AS 3600-2009 code implementation ................................................................................................................................. 968
60.6.1 Concrete Modulus of Elasticity ............................................................................................................................ 969
60.6.2 Concrete Flexural Tensile Strength ................................................................................................................... 969
60.6.3 Unbonded Post-Tensioning Stress-Strain Curves ....................................................................................... 969
60.6.4 Section 8.1 Strength of Beams in Bending ..................................................................................................... 969
60.6.5 8.1.6 Minimum Flexural Strength ...................................................................................................................... 970
60.6.6 8.1.6.2 Transfer Compressive Stress Limits .................................................................................................. 970
60.6.7 Section 8.1.5 Ductility of Beams in Bending .................................................................................................. 971

RAM Concept

40

User Manual

60.6.8
60.6.9
60.6.1
0
60.6.1
1
60.6.1
2
60.6.1
3
60.6.1
4
60.6.1
5
60.6.1
6

Section 8.2 Shear Design ........................................................................................................................................ 971


Section 8.3 Beam Torsion Design ....................................................................................................................... 972
Section 8.6.1 RC Beam Crack Control ............................................................................................................... 972
Section 8.6.2 PT Beam Crack Control ............................................................................................................... 973
Section 9.1 Strength of Slabs in Bending ........................................................................................................ 974
Section 9.4.1 RC Slab Crack Control .................................................................................................................. 974
Section 9.4.2 PT Slab Crack Control .................................................................................................................. 974
Section 9.4.3.2 Shrinkage and Temperature ................................................................................................. 975
Punching Shear Design ........................................................................................................................................... 975

Chapter 61: BS 8110: 1997 Design ........................................................................................ 976


61.1
61.2

61.3
61.4

61.5

61.6

BS 8110 / TR 43 default loadings ........................................................................................................................................ 976


61.1.1 Default Pattern Loading Factors ......................................................................................................................... 976
61.1.2 Temporary Construction (At Stressing) Loading ........................................................................................ 976
BS 8110 / TR 43 Default Load Combinations ................................................................................................................. 977
61.2.1 All Dead LC ................................................................................................................................................................... 977
61.2.2 Initial Service LC ........................................................................................................................................................ 977
61.2.3 Service LC: D + L + S ................................................................................................................................................. 978
61.2.4 Ultimate LC: 1.4D + 1.6L + 1.6S ........................................................................................................................... 978
61.2.5 Service Wind LC: D + L + S + W ........................................................................................................................... 978
61.2.6 Service Wind LC: D + W .......................................................................................................................................... 978
61.2.7 Ultimate Wind LC: 1.2D + 1.2L + 1.2S + 1.2W ............................................................................................... 979
61.2.8 Ultimate Wind LC: D + 1.4W ................................................................................................................................. 979
61.2.9 Accident LC .................................................................................................................................................................. 979
61.2.1 Sustained Service LC ................................................................................................................................................ 979
0
BS 8110 / BS 6399-1 live load factors ............................................................................................................................... 980
BS 8110/TR43 Material Behaviors ..................................................................................................................................... 980
61.4.1 Concrete Behavior .................................................................................................................................................... 980
61.4.2 (Untensioned) Reinforcement Behavior ......................................................................................................... 982
61.4.3 Bonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior ............................................................................................. 983
61.4.4 Unbonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior ........................................................................................ 983
BS 8110 / TR 43 code rule selection .................................................................................................................................. 984
61.5.1 Code Minimum Reinforcement ........................................................................................................................... 984
61.5.2 User Minimum Reinforcement ............................................................................................................................ 985
61.5.3 Initial Service (Transfer) .................................................................................................................................... 985
61.5.4 Service ............................................................................................................................................................................ 986
61.5.5 Strength ......................................................................................................................................................................... 987
61.5.6 Ductility ......................................................................................................................................................................... 987
61.5.7 Accident ......................................................................................................................................................................... 988
BS8110 / TR43 code implementation ............................................................................................................................... 989
61.6.1 Section 3.2.2.1 Redistribution of moments (Ductility Check) ............................................................... 989
61.6.2 Section 3.4.4 Design resistance moment of beams .................................................................................... 989
61.6.3 Section 3.4.5 Design shear resistance of beams .......................................................................................... 990

RAM Concept

41

User Manual

61.6.4
61.6.5
61.6.6
61.6.7
61.6.8
61.6.9
61.6.1
0
61.6.1
1
61.6.1
2
61.6.1
3
61.6.1
4
61.6.1
5
61.6.1
6
61.6.1
7
61.6.1
8
61.6.1
9
61.6.2
0
61.6.2
1
61.6.2
2
61.6.2
3
61.6.2
4
61.6.2
5
61.6.2
6
61.6.2
7

Section 3.4.5.13 Torsion ......................................................................................................................................... 991


Section 3.5.4 Resistance moment of solid slabs ........................................................................................... 991
Section 3.5.5 Shear resistance of solid slabs ................................................................................................. 991
Section 3.12.5 Minimum areas of reinforcement in members .............................................................. 991
Section 3.12.11.2.1 Bar spacing .......................................................................................................................... 992
Section 3.12.11.2.4 Beam Bar spacing ............................................................................................................. 992
Section 3.12.11.2.7 Slab Bar spacing ................................................................................................................ 993
Section 4.2.3.1 Redistribution of Moments (Ductility Check) ............................................................... 993
Section 4.3.4.2 Compressive stresses in concrete ....................................................................................... 993
Section 4.3.4.3 Flexural tension stresses in concrete ................................................................................ 994
Determination of Bonded vs. Unbonded Cross Sections .......................................................................... 995
Calculation of Supplemental Untensioned Reinforcement ..................................................................... 995
Calculation of Supplemental Reinforcement Per 4.3.4.3(c) .................................................................... 995
Calculation of Supplemental Reinforcement Per TR 43, 6.10.5 ............................................................ 996
Section 4.3.5.1 Design compressive stresses (Transfer) ......................................................................... 996
Section 4.3.5.2 Design tensile stresses in flexure (Transfer) ................................................................. 997
Section 4.3.7 Ultimate limit state for beams in flexure ............................................................................. 997
Section 4.3.8 Design shear resistance of beams .......................................................................................... 998
Section 4.3.9 Torsion ............................................................................................................................................... 999
Section 4.4.1 / 4.3.8 Slabs (shear) ..................................................................................................................... 999
Section 4.12.2 Limitation on area of prestressing tendons .................................................................... 999
Part 2, Section 3.8.3 Assessment of Crack Widths ................................................................................... 1000
TR 43 / Section 6.10.6 Minimum un-tensioned reinforcement ......................................................... 1001
Punching shear design ......................................................................................................................................... 1001

Chapter 62: IS 456 : 2000 / IS 1343 : 1980 Design ................................................................ 1002


62.1
62.2

IS 456 / IS 1343 default loadings ...................................................................................................................................... 1002


62.1.1 Temporary Construction (At Stressing) Loading ..................................................................................... 1002
IS 456 Default Load Combinations ................................................................................................................................... 1002
62.2.1 All Dead LC ................................................................................................................................................................ 1003
62.2.2 Initial Service LC ..................................................................................................................................................... 1003
62.2.3 Service LC: D + L + S .............................................................................................................................................. 1003
62.2.4 Ultimate LC: 1.5D + 1.5L + 1.5S ........................................................................................................................ 1003

RAM Concept

42

User Manual

62.3
62.4

62.5

62.6

62.7

62.2.5 Service Wind LC: D + 0.8L + 0.8S + 0.8W ..................................................................................................... 1004


62.2.6 Service Wind LC: D + W ....................................................................................................................................... 1004
62.2.7 Ultimate Wind LC: 1.2D + 1.2L + 1.2S + 1.2W ............................................................................................ 1004
62.2.8 Ultimate Wind LC: 0.9D + 1.5W ........................................................................................................................ 1004
62.2.9 Service Seismic LC: D + 0.8L + 0.2S + 0.8E .................................................................................................. 1005
62.2.1 Service Seismic LC: D + E .................................................................................................................................... 1005
0
62.2.1 Ultimate Seismic LC: 1.2D + 1.2L + 0.3S + 1.2E ......................................................................................... 1005
1
62.2.1 Ultimate Seismic LC: 0.9D + 1.5E ..................................................................................................................... 1006
2
62.2.1 Sustained Service LC ............................................................................................................................................. 1006
3
IS 875 (Part 2) live load factors ......................................................................................................................................... 1007
IS 456 Material Behaviors .................................................................................................................................................... 1007
62.4.1 Concrete Behavior ................................................................................................................................................. 1007
62.4.2 (Untensioned) Reinforcement Behavior ...................................................................................................... 1009
62.4.3 Bonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior .......................................................................................... 1010
62.4.4 Unbonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior ..................................................................................... 1010
IS 456 code rule selection .................................................................................................................................................... 1010
62.5.1 Code Minimum Reinforcement ........................................................................................................................ 1011
62.5.2 User Minimum Reinforcement ......................................................................................................................... 1011
62.5.3 Initial Service (Transfer) ................................................................................................................................. 1012
62.5.4 Service ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1012
62.5.5 Strength ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1013
62.5.6 Ductility ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1014
IS 456 code implementation ............................................................................................................................................... 1015
62.6.1 Section 26.5.1.1 ....................................................................................................................................................... 1015
62.6.2 Section 26.5.2.1 ....................................................................................................................................................... 1015
62.6.3 Section 31.7.1 ........................................................................................................................................................... 1016
62.6.4 Section 37 / 38 Redistribution of moments (Ductility Check) ........................................................... 1016
62.6.5 Section 38 Design resistance moment of beams ...................................................................................... 1016
62.6.6 Section 40 Design shear resistance ................................................................................................................ 1017
62.6.7 Section 41 Torsion ................................................................................................................................................. 1018
62.6.8 Annex F Assessment of Crack Widths ........................................................................................................... 1018
IS 1343 code implementation ............................................................................................................................................ 1020
62.7.1 Section 18.6.3.2c Minimum transverse reinforcement .......................................................................... 1020
62.7.2 Section 18.6.3.3 Minimum longitudinal reinforcement ......................................................................... 1020
62.7.3 Section 18.6.3.3 Limitation on area of prestressing tendons .............................................................. 1020
62.7.4 Section 21.1.1 Redistribution of moments (Ductility Check) .............................................................. 1020
62.7.5 Section 22.1 Ultimate limit state for beams in flexure ........................................................................... 1021
62.7.6 Section 22.4 Design shear resistance of beams ......................................................................................... 1021
62.7.7 Section 22.5 Torsion ............................................................................................................................................. 1023
62.7.8 Section 22.7.1 Flexural tension stresses in concrete .............................................................................. 1023
62.7.9 Determination of Bonded vs. Unbonded Cross Sections ....................................................................... 1024
62.7.1 Calculation of Supplemental Untensioned Reinforcement .................................................................. 1024
0
62.7.1 Section 22.8.1 Design compressive stresses .............................................................................................. 1024
1
62.7.1 Section 22.8.2 Design compressive stresses (Transfer) ........................................................................ 1024
2

RAM Concept

43

User Manual

62.7.1
3

Punching Shear Design ........................................................................................................................................ 1025

Chapter 63: EN 1992-1-1: 2004 (Eurocode 2) With TR43 Design .......................................... 1026
63.1

63.2

63.3

63.4

EC2 default loadings ............................................................................................................................................................... 1028


63.1.1 Temporary Construction (At Stressing) Loading ..................................................................................... 1028
63.1.2 Snow Loading ........................................................................................................................................................... 1028
63.1.3 Live (Parking) Loading ........................................................................................................................................ 1028
EC2 Default Load Combinations ........................................................................................................................................ 1028
63.2.1 All Dead LC ................................................................................................................................................................ 1029
63.2.2 Dead + Balance LC .................................................................................................................................................. 1029
63.2.3 Initial Service LC ..................................................................................................................................................... 1029
63.2.4 Characteristic Service LC: D + L + 0.5S .......................................................................................................... 1029
63.2.5 Characteristic Service Snow LC: D + 0L + S ............................................................................................. 1030
63.2.6 Frequent Service LC: D + 1 L ......................................................................................................................... 1030
63.2.7 Frequent Service Snow LC: D + 2L + 0.2S ................................................................................................. 1031
63.2.8 Quasi-Permanent Service LC: D + 2L .......................................................................................................... 1031
63.2.9 Ultimate LC: 1.35D + 0.9H + 1.50L + 0.75S .............................................................................................. 1031
63.2.1 Ultimate LC: 1.35 D + 0.9H + 1.50L + 1.5S .............................................................................................. 1032
0
63.2.1 Ultimate LC: 1.35 D + 0.9H + 1.5L + 0.75S ................................................................................................. 1032
1
63.2.1 Accident LC ............................................................................................................................................................... 1033
2
63.2.1 Characteristic Service Wind LC: D + 0L + 0.5S + W .............................................................................. 1033
3
63.2.1 Characteristic Service Wind LC: D + 0L + S + 0W .............................................................................. 1033
4
63.2.1 Characteristic Service Wind LC: D + L + 0.5S + 0W .............................................................................. 1034
5
63.2.1 Frequent Service Wind LC: D + 2L + 0.2W ............................................................................................... 1034
6
63.2.1 Ultimate Wind LC: 1.35D + 0.9H + 1.50L + 0.75S + 1.50W ............................................................ 1035
7
63.2.1 Ultimate Wind LC: 1.35 D + 0.9H + 1.5L + 0.75S + 1.50W ............................................................... 1035
8
63.2.1 Ultimate Wind LC: 1.35 D + 0.9H + 1.50 L + 1.5S + 1.50W .......................................................... 1036
9
63.2.2 Ultimate Wind LC: 1.35 D + 0.9H + 1.50 L + 0.75S + 1.5W .............................................................. 1036
0
63.2.2 Equilibrium Wind LC: 0.9D + 1.5W ................................................................................................................. 1037
1
63.2.2 Eurocode 1 Part 1-1 (UK National Annex) Live Load Reduction ....................................................... 1037
2
EC2 Material behaviors ......................................................................................................................................................... 1037
63.3.1 Concrete Behavior ................................................................................................................................................. 1037
63.3.2 (Untensioned) Reinforcement Behavior ...................................................................................................... 1038
63.3.3 Bonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior .......................................................................................... 1038
63.3.4 Unbonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior ..................................................................................... 1039
EC2 code rule selection ......................................................................................................................................................... 1040
63.4.1 Code Minimum Reinforcement ........................................................................................................................ 1040

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63.5

63.4.2 User Minimum Reinforcement ......................................................................................................................... 1041


63.4.3 Initial Service (Transfer) ................................................................................................................................. 1041
63.4.4 Characteristic Service ........................................................................................................................................... 1042
63.4.5 Frequent Service ..................................................................................................................................................... 1043
63.4.6 Quasi-Permanent Service ................................................................................................................................... 1044
63.4.7 Strength ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1045
63.4.8 Ductility ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1045
63.4.9 Accident ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1046
EC2 code implementation .................................................................................................................................................... 1046
63.5.1 Section 5.5 Redistribution of moments (Ductility Check) .................................................................... 1046
63.5.2 Section 5.10.2.2 Limitation of Concrete Stress (Transfer) ................................................................... 1046
63.5.3 Section 6.1 Design resistance moment ......................................................................................................... 1047
63.5.4 Section 6.2 Design shear resistance ............................................................................................................... 1047
63.5.5 Section 6.3 Torsion ................................................................................................................................................ 1048
63.5.6 7.2 Stress Limitation ............................................................................................................................................. 1049
63.5.7 7.3.1 Assessment of Crack Widths .................................................................................................................. 1049
63.5.8 Section 9.2.1.1 Beam Minimum Reinforcement ........................................................................................ 1051
63.5.9 Section 9.3.1.1 RC Slab Minimum Reinforcement .................................................................................... 1052
63.5.1 Section 9.10 Tying Systems for Accidental Design Situations ............................................................ 1052
0
63.5.1 Determination of Bonded vs. Unbonded Cross Sections ....................................................................... 1053
1
63.5.1 TR-43 5.8.1 PT Service Stresses (UK National Annex only) ................................................................ 1053
2
63.5.1 TR-43 5.8.2 PT Initial Service (transfer) Stresses (UK National Annex Only) ............................. 1056
3
63.5.1 TR-43 5.8.3 PT Crack Control (UK National Annex Only) ..................................................................... 1056
4
63.5.1 TR-43 5.8.5 PT Ultimate Limit State ............................................................................................................... 1056
5
63.5.1 TR-43 5.8.7 PT Un-tensioned Reinforcement (UK National Annex Only) ..................................... 1057
6
63.5.1 TR-43 5.8.8 PT Minimum Reinforcement (UK National Annex Only) ............................................. 1057
7
63.5.1 TR-43 5.9 Shear Strength .................................................................................................................................... 1058
8

Chapter 64: CSA A23.3-04 Design ....................................................................................... 1059


64.1
64.2

CSA A23.3-04 default loadings ........................................................................................................................................... 1059


64.1.1 Temporary Construction (At Stressing) Loading ..................................................................................... 1059
64.1.2 Snow Loading ........................................................................................................................................................... 1059
CSA A23.3-04 default load combinations ...................................................................................................................... 1060
64.2.1 All Dead LC ................................................................................................................................................................ 1060
64.2.2 Initial Service LC ..................................................................................................................................................... 1060
64.2.3 Service LC: D + L + 0.45S ..................................................................................................................................... 1060
64.2.4 Service Snow LC: D + 0.5L + 0.9S ..................................................................................................................... 1061
64.2.5 Service Wind LC: D + 0.5L + 0.45S + 0.75W ................................................................................................ 1061
64.2.6 Service Wind LC: D + L + 0.45S + 0.3W ......................................................................................................... 1061
64.2.7 Service Wind LC: D + 0.5L + 0.9S + 0.3W ..................................................................................................... 1062
64.2.8 Sustained Service LC ............................................................................................................................................. 1062
64.2.9 Factored LC: 1.4D ................................................................................................................................................... 1062

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64.3
64.4

64.5

64.6

64.2.1 Factored LC: 1.25D + 1.5L + 0.5S ..................................................................................................................... 1063


0
64.2.1 Factored LC: 1.25D + 0.5L + 1.5S ..................................................................................................................... 1063
1
64.2.1 Factored Wind LC: 1.25D + 0.5L+ 0.5S + 1.4W .......................................................................................... 1063
2
64.2.1 Factored Wind LC: 1.25D + 1.5L + 0.5S + 0.4W ......................................................................................... 1064
3
64.2.1 Factored Wind LC: 1.25D + 0.5L+ 1.5S + 0.4W .......................................................................................... 1064
4
64.2.1 Factored Seismic LC: D + 0.5L+ 0.25S + E .................................................................................................... 1065
5
CSA A23.3-04/NBC 2005 live load factors .................................................................................................................... 1065
CSA A23.3-04 Material Behaviors ..................................................................................................................................... 1065
64.4.1 Concrete Behavior ................................................................................................................................................. 1065
64.4.2 (Non-prestressed) Reinforcement Behavior .............................................................................................. 1066
64.4.3 Bonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior .......................................................................................... 1066
64.4.4 Unbonded Prestressed Reinforcement Behavior ..................................................................................... 1066
CSA A23.3-04 code rule selection ..................................................................................................................................... 1067
64.5.1 Code Minimum Reinforcement ........................................................................................................................ 1067
64.5.2 User Minimum Reinforcement ......................................................................................................................... 1067
64.5.3 Initial Service ........................................................................................................................................................... 1068
64.5.4 Service ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1069
64.5.5 Sustained Service ................................................................................................................................................... 1069
64.5.6 Strength ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1070
64.5.7 Ductility ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1070
CSA A23.3-04 code implementation ................................................................................................................................ 1071
64.6.1 Section 7.8 Minimum Reinforcement in Slabs ........................................................................................... 1071
64.6.2 Section 10.1 Factored Moment Resistance ................................................................................................. 1071
64.6.3 Section 10.5.1 Minimum Reinforcement in Beams (Non prestressed) ........................................... 1072
64.6.4 Section 10.5.2 Redistribution of Moments - Ductility Check (Non prestressed) ........................ 1073
64.6.5 Section 10.6.1 Beams and One-way Slabs - Crack Control ................................................................... 1073
64.6.6 Section 10.5.1 Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members (Non Prestressed) ................... 1073
64.6.7 Section 10.6.1 Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members (Non Prestressed) ................... 1074
64.6.8 Section 11.3 Shear and Torsion Tension ...................................................................................................... 1074
64.6.9 Section 11.3 Shear Resistance of Beams ...................................................................................................... 1074
64.6.1 Section 11.3 Torsion Design .............................................................................................................................. 1075
0
64.6.1 Chapter 13 (Two-way slab systems) ............................................................................................................. 1076
1
64.6.1 Section 18.3.1.1a Initial (at stressing) Compressive Stress Limit ..................................................... 1076
2
64.6.1 Section 18.3.1.1b Initial (at stressing) Tensile Stress Limit ................................................................ 1076
3
64.6.1 Section 18.3.2a Sustained Compressive Stress Limit ............................................................................. 1077
4
64.6.1 Section 18.3.2b Service Compressive Stress Limit .................................................................................. 1077
5
64.6.1 Section 18.7 Cracking Moment ......................................................................................................................... 1077
6

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64.6.1
7
64.6.1
8
64.6.1
9

Section 18.8.2 Minimum Bonded Reinforcement .................................................................................... 1078


Section 18.8.3 Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members (Prestressed) ............................ 1078
Punching Shear Design ........................................................................................................................................ 1079

Chapter 65: Load History Deflections ................................................................................. 1080


65.1
65.2
65.3

65.4
65.5
65.6
65.7

About RAM Concepts load history deflection calculations ................................................................................... 1080


The load history deflection calculation process ......................................................................................................... 1081
Load history calculations on the cross section ........................................................................................................... 1082
65.3.1 Material Stress Strain Curves ............................................................................................................................ 1082
65.3.2 Creep ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1082
65.3.3 Shrinkage ................................................................................................................................................................... 1083
65.3.4 Cracking ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1083
65.3.5 Load History ............................................................................................................................................................. 1084
Element stiffness adjustments ........................................................................................................................................... 1084
Why are load history deflection results different from Long Term Deflection results plotted for the
strip? .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 1085
Advice on drawing cross sections ..................................................................................................................................... 1085
A final word of caution .......................................................................................................................................................... 1086

Chapter 66: Punching Shear Design Notes .......................................................................... 1087


66.1

66.2

66.3
66.4
66.5

66.6
66.7
66.8
66.9
66.10
66.11

Punching shear overview ..................................................................................................................................................... 1087


66.1.1 What is a punching shear failure? ............................................................................................................... 1087
66.1.2 How are forces really transferred in a punching zone? ......................................................................... 1087
66.1.3 How do the building codes handle punching shear? .............................................................................. 1087
How does RAM Concept handle punching shear? ..................................................................................................... 1088
66.2.1 Step 1: Determine the force envelopes to be checked ........................................................................... 1088
66.2.2 Step 2: Determine the column critical sections ..................................................................................... 1089
66.2.3 Step 3: Determine the code-model stresses on the column sections .............................................. 1090
66.2.4 Step 4: Determine the code-allowable stresses on the column sections ....................................... 1090
66.2.5 Step 5: Design stud shear reinforcement (SSR) if necessary .............................................................. 1090
66.2.6 Step 6: Summarize the Results ......................................................................................................................... 1091
Using RAM Concept's results to specify stud shear reinforcement (SSR) systems ..................................... 1091
Column connection type ....................................................................................................................................................... 1092
66.4.1 About Connection Type ....................................................................................................................................... 1092
ACI 318/CSA A23.3 Punching Shear Design ................................................................................................................ 1093
66.5.1 Critical Section Properties and Equations for Actual Stress ................................................................ 1093
66.5.2 ACI 318 Specific Provisions ............................................................................................................................... 1095
66.5.3 CSA A23.3 Specific Provisions .......................................................................................................................... 1097
AS 3600 Punching Shear Design ....................................................................................................................................... 1098
EN 1992-2004 Punching Shear Design .......................................................................................................................... 1102
66.7.2 Calculation of punching resistance for the unreinforced section ...................................................... 1102
Sign convention ........................................................................................................................................................................ 1106
Advice on the selection of punching check properties ............................................................................................ 1107
Miscellaneous information .................................................................................................................................................. 1108
Some final words of advice .................................................................................................................................................. 1108

Chapter 67: Vibration Analysis Notes ................................................................................. 1109


67.1

Dynamic Characteristics of Structures ........................................................................................................................... 1109

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67.2

67.3
67.4

67.1.1 Free Vibration .......................................................................................................................................................... 1109


67.1.2 Damping ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1110
67.1.3 Resonant vs. Impulsive Response ................................................................................................................... 1111
Resonant Footfall Response ................................................................................................................................................ 1111
67.2.1 Resonant Simplified (fast) Analysis ............................................................................................................... 1112
67.2.2 Resonant Modal Analysis .................................................................................................................................... 1113
67.2.3 RMS Values for Resonant Response ............................................................................................................... 1113
67.2.4 Calculation of Response Factor ........................................................................................................................ 1113
Impulsive Footfall Response ............................................................................................................................................... 1114
67.3.1 RMS Values for Impulsive Response .............................................................................................................. 1114
67.3.2 Calculation of Response Factor ........................................................................................................................ 1114
Evaluating Vibration Performance and Interpreting Results ............................................................................... 1114
67.4.1 Excitation and Response Node Options ........................................................................................................ 1114
67.4.2 Recommendations for Analysis Options ...................................................................................................... 1115
67.4.3 Velocity and Acceleration Contour Plots ...................................................................................................... 1116
67.4.4 Evaluation of Response Factor Plots .............................................................................................................. 1116

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Introduction
RAM Concept is an analysis and design program that uses the finite element method for elevated concrete floor
systems, or mat foundations. The floors or mats can be post-tensioned concrete (PT), reinforced concrete (RC),
or hybrid (a mixture of PT and RC). RAM Concept is extremely powerful and allows you to design an entire floor
in one model, or design individual strips or beams.
In this context, the term design means that:
The user defines the following: structural geometry, loads, load combinations, and post-tensioning layout (if
applicable).
RAM Concept calculates (for any number of load combinations): the required amount of reinforcement for
flexure and one-way shear according to relevant code requirements; the stud shear reinforcement (SSR) for
punching shear, stresses for flexure, and deflections.
A model consists of anything from a single simply supported beam or slab to an entire floor. All models are
three-dimensional (even those developed with Strip Wizard).
RAM Concept does not generally use strip methods other than to replicate the intent of concrete code rules, and
with the Strip Wizard interface.
Note: The Equivalent Frame method is not used.

1.1 Comparing with traditional methods


Historically, the vast majority of concrete floors have been analyzed by approximating a region of a slab as a
frame (or design strip), and then analyzing the frame/strip using variations of conventional frame or moment
distribution analysis techniques. There are two limitations to this approach. First, in irregular structures, the
approximation of the real structure into a frame model could be grossly inaccurate and designing with the
analysis results might not even satisfy equilibrium requirements in the real structure. The second limitation is
that even in regular structures with regular loadings, the frame analysis approximates the slab/column
interaction and provides no information regarding the distribution of forces across the design strip.
RAM Concept enables you to design post-tensioned and reinforced concrete slabs by using a finite element
model of the entire slab. RAM Concept can predict the elastic behavior of a slab much more accurately than
frame models. In addition, the finite element method guarantees that the analysis satisfies all equilibrium
requirements, regardless of a structures irregularities.

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Introduction
Strip Wizard

1.2 RAM Concept options


RAM Concept is available in the core configuration which is suitable for the analysis and design of reinforced
concrete mat foundations (rafts) of any size and shape as well as reinforced concrete floor systems of any size
and shape.
Increase RAM Concept s analysis and design capabilities by adding the Post-tension option:
RAM Concept PT option (post-tensioned option) Analysis and design of post-tensioned floors or mats in
conjunction with reinforced concrete.

1.3 Strip Wizard


Strip Wizard uses text input to generate a model. This allows the designer to perform quick preliminary design
in 2-D, or final design of straightforward structures.
Strips generated by Strip Wizard are three-dimensional, but boundary conditions are automatically introduced
which effectively model 2-D behavior. All models use the finite element method.
You can use Strip Wizard to design a beam or one-way slab without many mouse clicks. It can provide an initial
design of tendons and profiles, negating the need for the designer to start with a guess.

1.4 Structural systems


You can use RAM Concept for models that contain any combination of the following:

one-way slab systems


two-way slab systems
beams
girders
wide shallow beams (that behave similarly to slabs)
ribs (joists)
waffles (two-way rib systems)
mats (rafts)
openings

There may be steps and changes in thickness and elevations for all of these items.
RAM Concept is not effective, or you cannot use it directly, for the following:

deep beams using the strut and tie method


I-shaped sections
ramps
concrete sections with internal voids or cells

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Introduction
Learning RAM Concept
In most cases, you could model ramps with a large number of steps. The authors do not recommend that you do
this for evaluating post-tensioning behavior, as it is not particularly relevant.

1.5 Learning RAM Concept


The RAM Concept design process could be considered to comprise 5 stages:

Defining the concrete form (**)


Drawing loads (*)
Defining design strips (*****)
Defining tendons (if used) (***)
Interpreting results (****)

The (**) rating is meant to indicate relative degree of difficulty, or relative time you would expect to spend on
the stage.
You should not use RAM Concept for final design without a sufficient grounding in concrete design, or adequate
understanding of the program.
The manual contains a large amount of information. Ideally, you should read it all, but this may not be practical.
We recommend that you do the tutorials and read critical chapters.

1.5.1 Tutorials
We recommend that you start by doing the tutorials:
Chapter 41, Simple RC Slab Tutorial.
One of the following PT Tutorial Chapters: 42, 43, 44,45 46, or 46.
Note: Even if you do not have access to the PT version, it is advisable to do one of these tutorials as a thicker RC
slab.
For Mat (Raft Users): Chapter 48, Mat Foundation Tutorial.
The tutorials introduce you to the philosophy of the program. They quickly give you experience in some basic
modeling and many of the tools. The descriptions are not exhaustive, and you should reference the actual tool
description in the appropriate chapter for further information. This should prove useful for real projects.
It is recommended that you redo the tutorials. The completed tutorial files are available from the program
directory, so you dont have to start from scratch. For example, you could open the ACI 318-02 PT Tutorial,
delete the design strips, and then start with the design strips input.

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Introduction
Learning RAM Concept

1.5.2 Critical Chapters


We consider that you should at least read the following chapters, together with the tips in this chapter before
starting your first design.

Chapter 1, Introduction.
Chapter 2, Looking at the Workspace.
Chapter 3, Understanding Layers.
Chapter 4, Using Plans and Perspectives
Chapter 5, Drawing and Editing Objects

Note: Chapter 5 describes snapping. Nearly all meshing problems are due to the users failure to use snapping
properly.

Chapter 17, Defining the Structure


Chapter 22, Defining Design Strips.
Chapter 38, General Tips
Chapter 39, Frequently Asked Questions
Chapter 40, Errors and Warnings
Chapter 65, Load History Deflections.
The appropriate code chapter. See the section below: Know your building code.

1.5.3 Know your building code


RAM Concept does not replace the code. It implements some, but not all, of the code. Using the program does not
absolve you of knowing your building code.
You should review the appropriate code chapter:

Chapter 58, ACI 318-11 Design


Chapter 60, AS 3600-2009 Design
Chapter 61, BS 8110: 1997 Design
Chapter 62, IS 456 : 2000 / IS 1343 : 1980 Design
Chapter 63, EN 1992-1-1:2004 (Eurocode 2) With TR43 Design
Chapter 64, CSA A23.3-04 Design

These chapters discuss the following code specific issues:

default loadings
default load combinations
live load reduction
assumptions on material behavior
rule selection
rule implementation

In particular, you should review what rules are used and how the authors interpret and implement the rules.
Rules not considered

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Introduction
Technical support
Specifically, Concept does not consider the following:
ACI 318-99, ACI 318-02, ACI 318-05, ACI 318-08, ACI 318-11: Rule 13.5.3
AS3600-2001/2009 Rules 9.1.2 (detailing bars for 25% of the negative moment) and 9.1.3
BS8110: 1997 Rule 3.7.3.1

1.5.4 Upgrading Old Files


Recommendations for Old Files
We do not recommend that you upgrade old files that contain models that have been fully designed or are
nearing final design.
We recommend that you upgrade files that contain partially designed slabs.

1.6 Technical support


Bentley Systems want you to get the maximum benefit from your purchase of RAM Concept . If you have any
questions that are not answered in this manual, please contact us.
For customer support, please contact:
www.bentley.com/serviceticketmanager

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Looking at the Workspace


This chapter provides a basic orientation to the RAM Concept interface.

2.1 About the workspace


When you create a new file, RAM Concept generates layers, plans and perspectives for you to begin design. As
you open windows in the workspace, RAM Concept activates the relevant toolbars.
Workspace with a plan open:

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Looking at the Workspace


Creating and opening files

Figure 1: A. Standard toolbar for general operations. B. Menu Bar contains the set of menus for the program.
Includes the File, Edit, Criteria, Layers, Tools, Process, Report, View, Window, and Help menus. C. Action Tools for
manipulating the current view. D. Snap toolbar for setting coordinate snaps for the active plan. E. General Tools for
editing the active plan window. F. Layer Specific Tools for editing the active plan window. G. Report Contents
Window for viewing, opening, and reordering report sections. H. The active window. I. Status Bar for program
status information. J. Command Prompt for displaying tool relative instructions and the current cursor location in
plan coordinates.

2.2 Creating and opening files


When you start RAM Concept , you can create a new file or open an existing file. You can also create a new file
based on a template.

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Looking at the Workspace


Saving a file

2.2.1 Starting a new file


When creating a new file, you make basic decisions about your model in the New File dialog, which appears
when you choose File > New . You specify the type of slab, code and units to use. You can copy an existing RAM
Concept file or template by clicking Copy File on the New File dialog.

To start a new file


1. Start RAM Concept and choose File > New .
2. Specify options in the New File dialog box and then click OK.
Related Links
About templates on page 58

To start a new file from a template


1. Start RAM Concept , and choose File > New .
2. Click Copy File in the New File dialog.
3. Select the file or template you want to copy.

2.2.2 Opening an existing file


Use File > Open to open an existing RAM Concept file. For quick access, RAM Concept keeps track of the last ten
files you opened and lists them at the bottom of the File menu.
1. Choose File > Open .
2. Select the RAM Concept file you want to open.
Note: See Upgrading Old Files for discussion on using files from an earlier version.
Related Links
Upgrading Old Files on page 53

2.3 Saving a file


Save your files often. When you save, you ensure that the file is stored on your computer even in the event of a
power failure or system crash.

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Looking at the Workspace


Saving a file

2.3.1 To save and name a file for the first time


1. Choose File > Save As (since the file has not yet been saved, you could also choose File > Save ).
2. Select the folder in which to save the file.
3. Type a name for your file and click Save.
RAM Concept adds the filename extension .cpt if not provided.

2.3.2 To save any open file


1. Choose File > Save (if you have not yet saved the file, and the Save As dialog box appears, follow the previous
steps for saving for the first time).

2.3.3 To save a file as a template


1. Choose File > Save Template .
2. Click Continue on the warning message box.
3. Type a name for the template and click Save.
RAM Concept adds the filename extension .cpttmp (if not provided) and saves the file without the objects.
Related Links
About templates on page 58

2.3.4 Saving a copy of a file with a new name or location


Use the Save As command to create a copy of a file and change its name or location. The original file and the copy
are completely separate and any work you do on one file does not affect the other.

2.3.5 Reverting to a backup copy


For version control, RAM Concept creates a copy of your last save every time you save your file to allow you to
go back to an older version if necessary. RAM Concept creates the file with the filename extension .cpt.bak1.
If you need to revert to an older version of a file, use the backup copy created by RAM Concept .

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Looking at the Workspace


About templates

2.3.6 Restoring an auto-save file


As a safety net, RAM Concept automatically saves a copy of your working file in the same folder as the original
and with the filename extension .autosave. RAM Concept updates the auto-save file approximately every 2
minutes if you have made changes to your original file. Once you save your file, RAM Concept deletes the autosave file since your saved version is up to date. We recommend that you save often to prevent loss of work.
If a computer malfunction or loss of power occurs while you are using RAM Concept , when you restart RAM
Concept it detects the last auto-save file and open it automatically. If you open a second copy of RAM Concept
while one is running, the second copy may detect the auto-save file of the first and open it. In this case, just close
the auto-save file and continue.

2.4 About templates


A template file contains everything a normal file includes (such as specification settings, plans, etc.) but has no
objects. You can create a template from any RAM Concept file by choosing File > Save Template . RAM Concept
saves a copy of your file without any objects and with the .cpttmp filename extension. For details on how to
save a template, see To save a file as a template:. Copy an existing template file by choosing File > New and
clicking Copy File to create a new file based on the template. For more information on starting a new file from a
template, see Starting a new file.
Related Links
To save a file as a template on page 57
To start a new file on page 56

2.5 Expanding tool buttons


Some tool button icons have a small triangle in the lower right corner ( ). This indicates that there are other
similar tools available for this button. Press down on the left mouse button for one second over the tool button
to reveal a pop-up menu. Select a tool from the menu. The selected tool becomes the new tool for that button.
Expanding tool button with pop-up:

Figure 2: Pressing down on the left mouse button for one second over the Selection tool reveals a pop-up menu.

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Looking at the Workspace


Rearranging toolbars

2.6 Rearranging toolbars


You can move the toolbars in RAM Concept to suit your particular work habits. To move a tool bar, click on the
handle of the toolbar and drag the toolbar to its new location. The toolbar handle is two lines on the right edge of
horizontal toolbars or at the top edge of vertical toolbars. The toolbars snap to the edges of the application
window or can remain floating in the workspace.

2.7 Using the right mouse button


RAM Concept provides some of the commands available from the menus or toolbars in a special contextsensitive pop-up menu that appears when you click the right mouse button. The contents of the menu vary
depending on where you click, what window is active, and whether there is a current selection.

2.8 Undoing changes


RAM Concept provides multiple levels of undo to correct mistakes or reverse actions you have taken. RAM
Concept limits the amount of memory used to record undo information. RAM Concept is therefore able to undo
more small operations (deleting 10 objects) than large operations (deleting 1000 objects). Choose Edit > Undo
to reverse the last action taken. To redo a command that has been undone, choose Edit > Redo .
Note: The Undo command cannot reverse the Generate Mesh and Calc All commands. All changes you have made
are committed once you perform one of these operations.

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Understanding Layers
In RAM Concept , objects (such as walls, columns, slab areas, springs, loads, tendons, design strips, etc.) make up
the structural model. Since there are so many objects involved in modeling a structure, RAM Concept uses layers
to organize these objects.
A layer is a collection of related objects and each object in RAM Concept resides on one and only one layer. You
can handle all of the objects on a single layer as a group or individually.

3.1 Modeling with objects


Since objects make up the structural model, they are more than a combination of points and lines. Each object is
an individual entity with properties. Column object properties, for example, include concrete mix, height, width,
depth, and more.
You draw some objects on plans, and RAM Concept creates some objects automatically when you generate the
finite element mesh or run an analysis calculation. If you have wall, column, and slab area objects on the Mesh
Input layer, RAM Concept creates corresponding wall element, column element, and slab element objects on the
Element layer when you generate the finite element mesh.
If you want to create or edit objects on a layer, use the plans on that layer. When you draw columns on the
Standard Plan of the Mesh Input layer, you are creating objects on the Mesh Input layer. These objects belong to
the layer and not the plan. They are editable by any plan on the Mesh Input layer, but not by plans on any other
layer. Each object is an individual entity so you can manipulate it both separately and together with other objects
on the same layer.

3.2 Managing layers


RAM Concept performs most of the layer management automatically. Almost all of the layers you need to design
a structure are already in place when you start a new file. RAM Concept adds appropriate layers when you create
new Loadings, Load Combinations, and Rule Set Designs.
Note: You can create and edit a separate group of Line Objects, Dimension Objects, and Text Note Objects on
every layer.
Drawing Import Layer

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Understanding Layers
Managing layers
This layer contains all the imported CAD drawing information. RAM Concept automatically stores any imported
drawings on this layer.
Mesh Input Layer
This layer contains the objects that define the geometry of the structure. RAM Concept uses these objects to
generate corresponding finite element objects on the Element Layer.
Layer-Specific Objects: Column, Wall, Slab Area, Slab Opening, Beam, Point Support, Line Support, Point Spring,
Line Spring, Area Spring.
Element Layer
This layer contains the finite element objects. These objects can be generated by RAM Concept based on the
information on the Mesh Input Layer, or can be created by hand.
Layer-Specific Objects:Column Element, Wall Element, Slab Element, Point Support, Line Support, Point Spring,
Line Spring, Area Spring.
Loading Layers (Self-dead, Balance, Hyperstatic, Temporary Construction (at Stressing), Other Dead, Live
(Reducible), Live (Unreducible), Live (Storage), Live (Roof) and User-defined)
These layers contain all the information that defines the loads on the structure. In RAM Concept , a loading is a
set of loads applied as a group, such as the live loads. The loading layers also contain the loading analysis results.
RAM Concept provides the self-dead, balance, and hyperstatic loading layers by default and you cannot delete
them.
You can define an unlimited number of loadings and RAM Concept creates a corresponding layer for each.
Layer-Specific Objects:Point Loads, Line Loads, Area Loads.
Note: You cannot edit the load objects on the Self-Dead Loading Layer, Balance Loading Layer, and Hyperstatic
Loading Layer.
Pattern Layer
This layer contains the load patterns for the structure.
Layer-Specific Objects:Load Patterns.
Design Strip Layer
This layer contains the design strips, design sections and punching checks for the structure.
Layer-Specific Objects:Span Segments, Span Boundaries, Strip Boundaries, Design Sections, Punching Checks.
Tendon Parameters Layers (Latitude and Longitude)
These layers contain high level post-tensioning objects. Although there are two tendon layers, Latitude and
Longitude, there is no requirement to use both layers. You can draw tendon parameters on the tendon
parameters layers in whatever manner you wish.
Layer-Specific Objects:Banded Tendon Polyline, Distributed Tendon Quadrilateral, Tendon Void, Profile Polyline.
Manual Tendon Layers (Latitude and Longitude)
These layers contain the layout of post-tensioning tendons and jacks for the structure. Although there are two
tendon layers, Latitude and Longitude, there is no requirement to use both layers. You can draw tendons on the
tendon layers in whatever manner you wish.
Layer-Specific Objects:Tendon, Jack.

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Load Combination Layers (All Dead, Dead and Balance, Initial Service, Service, Sustained Service,
Factored and User-defined)
These layers contain the load combination analysis results.
Note: The load combinations listed are for ACI318. Other codes use some different terminology.
Rule Set Design Layers (Code Minimum, User Minimum, Initial Service, Service, Sustained Service,
Strength, Ductility)
These layers contain the rule set design analysis and design results.
Note: The rule set designs listed are for ACI318, other codesuse some different terminology.
Load History Deflection Layers
These layers contain the results of the load history analyses.
Additional Mass Loading Layer
This layer contains loads that are converted to mass for the vibration analysis.
Layer-Specific Objects: Point Loads, Line Loads, Area Loads.
Vibration Analysis Layer
This layer contains vibration related analysis results.
Layer-Specific Objects: Excitation Areas.
Design Status Layer
This layer contains the summary of all the design results. The summary information is automatically created by
RAM Concept when you Calc All. You cannot create, edit, or delete the objects on this layer but you can view
them.

3.2.1 Determining which plans contain objects


Some layer icons next to a layer name in the contents window have a dot on the top sheet. This indicates that
there is at least one object resident on that layer. In other words, the dot means there exists at least one object
that belongs to that layer. This is different to any visible objects on one of the layers plans, which may or may
not belong to that layer.
Note: There may be a lag time (such as 10 seconds) for this to happen after the first item on the layer is drawn.
Note: This feature is added in response to the frustration of having to search every layer in support files to see if
they contained any items.
Note: Dots do not typically appear on Load Combination layers as these layers have no items drawn on them.
This does NOT mean the load combo is not used in the design.

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Figure 3: Layer icons indicating that there are objects on the following layers: Drawing Import, Mesh Input,
Element, Design Strip, Reinforcement, Design Status

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Plan windows are used to create, view, and edit objects in two dimensions while perspective windows provide a
three dimensional view of those objects.

4.1 Using plans


A plan is a view of the geometric model and results. You can view any object on any plan. You can only create and
edit an object on a plan belonging to the objects layer. For example, an other dead load can only be edited on a
plan belonging to the Other Dead Loading layer.
Objects are drawn and edited with tools located in Layer-Specific toolbars, and the Tools menu. The available
tools are dependent on which plan is the active window in the workspace. Once you draw an object on a plan,
the object belongs to that plans layer.
Note: For information on drawing and editing objects, see the following chapter.

4.2 Creating new plans


Create new plans when you need additional ones to those provided by default.
1. Choose Layers > New Plan.
2. Enter a name for the plan. (RAM Concept automatically prepends the layer name and appends the word
Plan).
3. Select the layer on which you want the plan and click OK.

4.3 Viewing perspectives


Perspectives provide a three dimensional view of the model. You can view the model from any angle by rotating
the perspective about the x-, y-, and z-axes. The model can be viewed in parallel projection or perspective
projection and can be modeled as a solid or wire structure.

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Creating new perspectives

4.3.1 Setting the projection


You can render the model in either parallel or perspective projection. In parallel projection, lines that are
parallel in the original model are also drawn parallel in the three dimensional image. In perspective projection,
near objects appear larger than far objects of the same size. The Parallel Projection ( ) and Perspective
Projection ( ) toggles control which way the image is rendered. One, and only one, of these toggles is always
set.

4.3.2 Selecting the modeling


The Wire Frame Modeling (
) and Solid Modeling ( ) toggles control how the image is rendered. The wire
frame is made of only the edges of the visible objects whereas the solid model shows the visible objects surfaces.
The solid model is more realistic, however the wire frame image is often useful since it allows you to see through
the model. One, and only one, of these toggles is always set.

4.3.3 Rotating the model


Use the Rotate about x- and y-axes tool (
the screens x-, y-, and z-axes.

) and the Rotate about z-axis tool (

) to rotate the model about

1.

) or the Rotate about z-axis tool (


).
Select the Rotate about x- and y-axes tool (
2. Click once on the perspective window to begin and move the cursor until you position the model as desired.
3. Click on the perspective again to set the view.

4.4 Creating new perspectives


Create new perspectives when you need additional ones to those provided by default.
1. Choose Layers > New Perspective.
2. Enter a name for the perspective. (RAM Concept automatically prepends the layer name and appends the
word Perspective).
3. Select the layer on which you want the plan and click OK.

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Controlling views

4.5 Controlling views


You can manipulate the plan and perspective windows to show the desired view or information. Zooming and
panning allow you to change what portion of the model you are viewing. RAM Concept usually regenerates the
view automatically. It is sometimes necessary, however, to use the Redraw command ( ) to update the image
on the screen.
Plans and perspectives represent unique views of the model. You control which object types are visible and their
colors, font, and line type for each plan and perspective.

4.5.1 Zooming to magnify or diminish


Use zooming to magnify or diminish the plan or perspective view. If you have a mouse with a wheel button, roll
the wheel to zoom in and out at the cursor location. Zoom In (
view. Zoom Out (
Extent (

) and Zoom Rectangle (

) magnify the

) diminishes the view. You can set the view to encompass the entire model by using Zoom

).

To magnify or diminish the view with the mouse wheel button


1. Place the cursor on a location over the active plan or perspective window. This is the zoom center point.
2. Roll the mouse wheel button away from you to zoom in, and toward you to zoom out.

To magnify a specific area in the view


1.

Select the Zoom Rectangle tool (


).
2. Fence the area you want to magnify.

4.5.2 Panning to reposition


Panning allows you to reposition the view in the plan or perspective window. If you have a mouse with a wheel
button, press down on the wheel over the view and pan. You can use the Pan tool (
) to move the view as
well. In addition, plans have scroll bars along the bottom and right side of the window that you can use to
reposition the view.

To reposition the view with the mouse wheel button


1. Press down on the mouse wheel button over the active plan or perspective window.
2. Pan the view into position and release the wheel button.

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To reposition the view with a tool


1.

Select the Pan tool (


).
2. Click once on the plan to begin panning, click again when the view is in the desired position.

4.5.3 View History


The View Previous (

) and View Next (

) tools implement a history of your views.

The view history operates much like the forward and backward buttons in a web browser. Each zoom or pan
action is added to the view history. The View Previous (

) button steps back through previous views and the

View Next button (


) steps forward through the views. The buttons are disabled if there are no views in that
direction. If you step back to a previous view and perform a zoom or pan action, the new view will replace the
entire next view history.
The View History is implemented for plans and perspectives. Each plan or perspectives view history is
maintained separately. Switching from one plan or perspective to another does not affect the view history for
either plan.
All zoom, extent, pan, and rotation view changes are recorded in the view history. Some consecutive view
changes of the same type are compressed into one view history item to prevent the history from getting
cluttered with many similar views. For example, consecutive Zoom In actions -- whether by the Zoom In tool or
by mouse wheel movements -- add only one new view to the history.

4.5.4 Regenerating
Regenerating the view is necessary when anything occurs that invalidates the current view. When you generate
the mesh, analyze the model or change the settings, the open windows may need updating. In most cases, RAM
Concept automatically regenerates for you. If you find that the view is not up to date, click Redraw (
) to
regenerate the view in the active window.

4.5.5 Setting the visible objects


Use the Visible Objects dialog box to set which objects types are visible on a plan or perspective. Plans and
perspectives can show objects from any layer, but you can only edit objects on a plan from the objects layer.

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Figure 4: Visible Objects dialog box (Mesh Input tab)

To show or hide objects on a plan or perspective


To show or hide objects on a plan or perspective
1. Make the plan or perspective the active window.
2.
Choose View > Visible Objects (
).
3. Click on the tab for the objects layer.
The plan or perspectives layer is the one initially selected.
4. Check boxes to show objects and uncheck to hide objects, then click OK.
Note: You can also right click to see a popup menu that includes the Visible Objects command.

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4.5.6 Changing colors, font, and line type


Each plan and perspective has an associated appearance scheme that dictates the colors, font, and line type used
for the objects shown. When a plan or perspective is the active window, you can select and modify its
appearance scheme using the Appearance dialog. If you change the settings of an appearance scheme, it affects
all the plans and perspectives that use that scheme. You can create as many appearance schemes as you need to
customize the look of your plans and perspectives. When you create a new plan or perspective, the window
initially uses the default scheme.

Figure 5: Appearance dialog

To set the appearance scheme for a plan or perspective


1. Make the plan or perspective the active window.
2.
Choose View > Appearance (
).
3. Select the scheme from the list of schemes on the left side of the Appearance dialog and click OK.

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Note: You can also right click to see a popup menu that includes the Appearance command.

To create a new appearance scheme


1.

Choose View > Appearance (


).
2. Click New below the list of schemes in the Appearance dialog.
3. Type a name for the new scheme and select the base scheme. The settings from the base scheme initialize the
new scheme.

To delete an appearance scheme


1.

Choose View > Appearance (


).
2. Select the scheme you want to delete from the list of schemes in the Appearance dialog.
3. Click Delete below the list of schemes to delete the highlighted scheme.

To set a new default scheme


1.

Choose View > Appearance (


).
2. Select the scheme you want to make the new default scheme from the list of schemes in the Appearance
dialog.
3. Click Set As Default below the list of schemes to make the highlighted scheme the new default scheme. RAM
Concept uses this scheme to initialize newly created plans and perspectives.
You can select the color of every drawn object type for each appearance scheme. You can also set the
), RAM Concept uses the
background, grid and highlight colors. If an object type has no color selected (
color setting for the objects layer. For example, you can set the Tendon object color to no selection, and then
set the Latitude Tendon layer to red and Longitude Tendon layer color to blue. RAM Concept uses the
foreground color in the case that you have selected neither the object type color nor the layer default color.

To change the colors in an appearance scheme


1.

Choose View > Appearance (


).
2. Select the appearance scheme (if a plan or perspective is the active window, the selection is already the
scheme set for that window).
3. Select the item from the drop-down list (if changing plotting colors skip this step).
4. Click on the color selection box for the item and choose a color.
Lines of drawn objects can be set to solid, dashed, or dotted. Reference lines have Line Type and Line Width
properties that are independent of the appearance scheme setting.
The transparency of all Strip Plots in both 2-D and 3-D are controlled via the Transp. % control in the
Appearance Settings dialog. This setting is used to modify the transparency already set in the default strip plot
colors defined.

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Setting up the grid

4.5.7 Changing font size


You can change the font size in two ways. In the appearance schemes, you can select the font size for all text
other then text notes. With the font buttons, you can temporarily change the font size.
1.

Click Enlarge Fonts (

) or Shrink Fonts (

).

Note: The temporary font size change only affects the active window and RAM Concept discards the change
when the window is closed.

4.5.8 Changing font scale


You can select the font scale so that the font size either changes or stays unchanged as you zoom in and out on a
plan.
1.

Choose View > Appearance (


).
2. Select the appearance scheme (if a plan or perspective is the active window, the selection is already the
scheme set for that window).
3. Enter the font scale and click OK.

Note: A font scale of zero causes the font to stay a constant size regardless of the plan scale. A non-zero value
scales the font to be the same relative size as you zoom in and out

4.6 Setting up the grid


A grid can be set up to help you draw objects accurately by providing snap points at a designated spacing. The
Plan Grid Setup dialog allows you to make the grid visible and to change the spacing, origin, and rotation angle of
the grid. You can change the grid setting for the active plan window or all plan windows at once.

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Setting up the grid

Figure 6: Plan grid dialog box

4.6.1 To make the grid visible for a plan


1. Make the plan the active window.
2. Choose View > Grid .
3. Check Show Grid and click OK.
Note: If you want the grid to be visible on all plans then check Set for all Plans.
Note: You can also right click to see a popup menu that includes the Grid.

4.6.2 To change the grid settings for a plan


1. Make the plan the active window.
2. Choose View > Grid .
3. Enter values in the Plan Grid Setup dialog box and click OK.
Note: If you want the grid settings to apply to all plan windows then check Set for all Plans.

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Drawing and Editing Objects


Drawing objects is the cornerstone of using RAM Concept . There are many tools available to make this as
straightforward as possible.
To create or edit objects on a layer, use the plans on that layer. You draw and edit objects on plans using the
tools from the Layer-Specific toolbar.

5.1 Precision drawing with snaps


RAM Concept provides drawing tools and settings to help you work precisely. Snap tools allow you to snap the
cursor to precise points on objects or locations on the screen.
Using snaps is a quick way to specify an exact location on an object without drawing construction lines or
knowing the exact coordinate. Whenever you move your cursor over an object, RAM Concept identifies snap
points based on what snaps are active. To turn on a snap, click on its button. Click on the button again to turn off
the snap.
) snaps to the intersection of any two lines including polygon vertices.

Snap to Intersection (
Snap to Point (
polygon.

) snaps to any defined point such as the center of a column, end point of a line, or vertex of a

Snap to End Point (


Snap to Mid Point (

) snaps to the end points of lines (including vertices of polygons).


) snaps to the mid points of lines.

Snap Nearest Snapable Point (

) snaps to the point on a drawn object nearest to the cursor.

Snap Orthogonal ( ) snaps orthogonally in the direction of the grids local x- or y-axis. This need not be
parallel with the global x- and y-axes.
Snap to Perpendicular (
Snap to Center (
Snap to Grid (
Snap Extension (
snap settings.

) snaps perpendicularly from the last click to a line.

) snaps the center of polygons and columns.


) snaps to the grid.
) does not create a snapping mode by itself, but it affects the behavior of some of the other

In general, the snap extension setting causes the other snap calculations to behave as if the line segments
displayed extended to be infinitely long lines. The specific changes to the other snap settings are:
Intersection: intersections between infinite lines (defined by visible line segments) are snappable points.

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Point: no effect.
End Point: no effect.
Mid Point: no effect.
Nearest: nearby infinite lines (defined by visible line segments) are snappable.
Orthogonal: no effect.
Perpendicular: perpendicular point on infinite lines (defined by visible line segments) are snappable.
Center: no effect.
Grid: no effect.

5.2 Drawing objects


To draw objects on a plan, first select a drawing tool by clicking on it or choosing it from the Tools menu. The
selected tool will be the active drawing tool for the plan until you select a new tool. Follow the command
prompts for points to enter. For example, with a Mesh Input layer plan open, and the Column tool selected, the
command prompt will read Enter column center point:.
If you are drawing with a tool and wish to cancel what you have drawn, click the right mouse button, or press the
<Esc> key.
If you need to reposition or magnify the view while you are drawing and do not want to cancel the work you are
doing, use the mouse wheel button to pan or zoom. See Controlling views for more information on how to use
the mouse wheel button.

5.3 Entering coordinate points


Each point on a plan is a location represented by coordinates. Many tools require you to locate one or more
points on a plan. With a tool selected, you can enter points by clicking at a location on the plan, entering the
coordinates in the command line, entering the relative coordinates in the command line, or by using snaps.
1. With the appropriate tool selected, type the x- and y-coordinates separated by a comma (e.g. 10, 5).

5.4 Using relative coordinates


Relative coordinates locate a point on a plan by referencing it to the last point entered. They can be very useful
for moving and copying objects a set distance.
To enter relative coordinates
1. With the appropriate tool selected, type the letter r followed by the x- and y-coordinates separated by a
comma (e.g. r10, 5).

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Selecting objects

5.5 Selecting objects


Before you can edit objects on a plan, you must select them. Use the Selection tool (
) or the Utility tool ( )
to select objects on a plan. You select visible objects by fencing the area in which they are located. For example, if
you have a slab opening (on the Mesh Input layer) in the middle of a slab, fencing the opening selects both the
opening and the slab area because the rectangle crosses the slab area and surrounds the opening. If you want to
select just the opening, double click on it. You can select any single object by double clicking on it. To add objects
to the current selection, hold the <Shift> key down as you select.

5.5.1 To select an object or group of objects


1.

Choose the Selection tool (


) or the Utility tool ( ).
2. Click at opposite corners of a rectangle. This selects objects within and crossing the rectangular selection
area. (Hold down the Shift key on the first click to add objects to the current selection.)

5.5.2 To select only a single object


1.

Choose the Selection tool (


) or the Utility tool ( ).
2. Double click on the object you wish to select (Hold down the <Shift> key as you click to add the object to the
current selection).
When you are selecting, RAM Concept interprets a very small rectangle as a double click.

5.6 Deselecting objects


You can deselect objects from the current selection by holding the <Shift> key while you select objects to
remove from the selection.

5.6.1 To deselect an object or group of objects from a selection


1.

Choose the Selection tool (


) or the Utility tool ( ).
2. Hold down the <Shift> key as you fence the objects in the selection you want to deselect.
This deselects the selected objects within and crossing the rectangular area, and selects any objects in the
rectangular area not previously selected.

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Filtering selected objects

5.6.2 To deselect only a single object from a selection


1.

Choose the Selection tool (


) or the Utility tool ( ).
2. Hold down the <Shift> key as you double click on the object in the selection you wish to deselect. When you
are deselecting, RAM Concept interprets a very small rectangle as a double click.

5.7 Filtering selected objects


You can deselect objects from the current selection set by choosing the Selection Filter tool (
). This tool will
invoke a dialog that lists all of the currently selected objects grouped by object type. All of the objects of a
particular type can be removed from the selection set by unselecting the objects in the list.

5.8 Cutting, copying, and pasting objects


To cut or copy objects, first select the objects then choose the appropriate command from the Edit menu. RAM
Concept places objects that you cut or copy on the Windows clipboard. The coordinate locations of objects
pasted from the clipboard are the same as the coordinate location from where you copied or cut them. RAM
Concept makes the pasted objects the current selection, so you can reposition them after you paste.

5.8.1 To cut objects


1. Select the object or group of objects you want to cut.
2. Choose Edit > Cut (or right-click and choose Cut from the popup menu that appears).

5.8.2 To copy objects


1. Select the object or group of objects you want to copy.
2. Choose Edit > Copy (or right-click and choose Copy from the popup menu that appears).

5.8.3 To paste objects from the clipboard


1. Choose Edit > Paste (or right-click and choose Paste from the popup menu that appears).

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Copying and pasting objects by layer
You can also copy and move, rotate, stretch or mirror an object in one step by pressing the <Shift> key while you
use the Move tool ( ), Stretch tool ( ), Rotate tool ( ) or Mirror tool ( ). See Moving, rotating,
stretching, and mirroring objects for more information.

5.9 Copying and pasting objects by layer


The layer clipboard mode simplifies the process of copying data from multiple layers of one Concept file to
another Concept file. Clipboard data is built up from multiple objects on different layers. Each object added to
the clipboard data is tagged with its source layer. When the layer clipboard data is pasted into a plan, only data
that originated from the same layer as the destination plan will be pasted into the plan.

5.9.1 To append objects to the layer clipboard


1. Select the object or group of objects you want to copy.
2. Choose Edit > Append (or right-click and choose Append from the popup menu that appears).
3. Repeat for each layer.
When objects are appended from a layer, they completely replace the objects for that layer. Other layers are not
affected.

5.9.2 To paste objects from the layer clipboard


1. Choose Edit > Paste (or right-click and choose Paste from the popup menu that appears).
2. Repeat for each layer.
When the clipboard contains layer data, the Paste menu item is only enabled when the clipboard contains data
for the current plan's layer. The contents of the layer data cannot be viewed directly, but the enabled Paste menu
item is an indication that the clipboard contains data from the current layer.
The layer clipboard data is stored in the system clipboard selection. This means that the layer clipboard data is
cleared any time another Copy operation is performed, by Concept or by any other application on the system.
The selection is also lost if the system is shut down or restarted.

5.10 Editing polygon objects


Nodes can be added or removed from polygonal objects with the Add Node (

) and the Delete Node tools (

).

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Moving, rotating, stretching, and mirroring objects

5.10.1 To add a node to a polygonal object


1. Select the object or group of objects to edit.
2.
Select the Add Node tool (
).
3. Click on any edge of a polygonal object.
Nodes must be added to an edge of a polygonal object. It is possible to enter the new node coordinates, but it will
be ignored if the new location is not exactly on an edge. It is better to add the node at an approximate location,
then stretch the node to the final position. The exact location can be specfied as coordinates or by snapping with
the Stretch tool.

5.10.2 To delete a node from a polygonal object


1. Select the object or group of objects to edit.
2.
Select the Delete Node tool (
).
3. Click on any node of a polygonal object.
A node cannot be deleted if it would create a misshapened polygon (less than 3 points, or all points colinear).
Some polygonal objects may define a varying property, e.g. the force constant of an Area Spring. The varying
property is defined by seed values of the first 3 nodes of the polygon. Therefore, the first 3 nodes cannot be
colinear when the varying property is defined. Adding or deleting nodes does not change the value of the varying
property. However, the start of the polygon may have to be shifted to a new node, so that the first 3 nodes are
not colinear. The seed values will be adjusted accordingly for the new locations.

5.11 Moving, rotating, stretching, and mirroring objects


An object or group of objects must be selected before using the Move tool ( ), Stretch tool ( ), Rotate tool (
) or Mirror tool ( ) (See Selecting objects). If you hold down the <Shift> key on the first click of a move,
rotate, or mirror, the operation will be performed on a copy of the selection rather then the selection itself.

5.11.1 To move a selection


1.
2.
3.
4.

Select the object or group of objects to move.


Choose the Move tool ( ).
Enter the point from which to move (hold down the <Shift> key as you click to move a copy of the selection).
Click on the point to where you want the object, or group of objects, to move.

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Using the Utility tool to move and stretch

5.11.2 To stretch the selection


1.
2.
3.
4.

Select the object or group of objects to stretch.


Choose the Stretch tool ( ).
Snap to the point you want to stretch on the selection (limited to highlighted control points).
Click on the point to where you want the object, or group of objects, to stretch.

5.11.3 To rotate a selection


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Select the object or group of objects to rotate.


Choose the Rotate tool ( ).
Enter the rotation center point (hold down the <Shift> key as you click to rotate a copy of the selection).
Enter the rotation start angle or a point to create a line to rotate.
Click on the new end point of the rotation line or enter an end angle.

5.11.4 To mirror the selection


1. Select the object or group of objects to mirror.
2. Choose the Mirror tool ( ).
3. Enter the two points that create the line across which you would like to mirror the selected object(s). (Hold
down the <Shift> key as you click to mirror a copy of the selection.)

5.12 Using the Utility tool to move and stretch


The Utility tool ( ) is a multi-purpose tool used for selecting, moving, and stretching objects. See Selecting
objects for information on how to select objects with the Utility tool. Once you have selected an object or group
of objects, you can move or stretch a grip point by snapping to it on the selection.

5.12.1 To move an object by one of its grips


1. Choose the Utility tool ( ).
2. Select an object or group of objects.
3. Snap to a grip point and position the cursor in the top half of the snap area until you see the move cross
cursor (

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Manipulating the model as a whole
4. Click on the point to where you want the object, or group of objects, to move.

5.12.2 To stretch an object by one of its grips


1. Choose the Utility tool ( ).
2. Select an object or group of objects.
3. Snap to a grip point and position the cursor in the bottom half of the snap area until you see the stretch
) then click.
cursor (
4. Click on the point to where you want the object, or group of objects, to stretch.

5.13 Manipulating the model as a whole


The Move Model tool (
tool ( ), Mirror tool (

), Mirror Model tool (


), and Rotate Model tool (
) work just like the Move
), and Rotate tool ( ) except they affect the whole model (all layers). You can also

scale the entire model with the Scale Model tool (

).

5.13.1 To move the entire model


1.

Choose the Move Model tool (


2. Enter the start point.
3. Enter the move point.

).

5.13.2 To rotate the entire model


1.

Choose the Rotate Model tool (


).
2. Enter the rotation center point (hold down the <Shift> key as you click to rotate a copy of the model).
3. Enter the rotation start angle or a point to create a line to rotate.
4. Click on the new end point of the rotation line or enter an end angle.

5.13.3 To mirror the entire model


1.

Choose the Mirror Model tool (

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2. Enter the two points that create the line across which you would like to mirror the model (hold down the
<Shift> key as you click to mirror a copy of the model).

5.13.4 To scale the entire model


1.

Choose the Scale Model tool (


).
2. Enter a scale center point.
3. In the Scale Model dialog box, enter the relative scale factors and click OK.

5.14 Editing object properties


The properties of an object define its individual characteristics. For example, the properties of a Line object
include the Line Type and Line Width. Some objects properties can be edited together as a group. Specifically,
you can always modify objects of the same type together, and you can often modify objects of different types but
with similar properties together. For example, you can edit the Concrete Mix and Height properties of Column
and Wall objects together.
To change the properties of an object or group of objects
1. Select the object or group of objects.
2. Choose Edit > Selection Properties, or right-click and choose Selection Properties.
3. Specify the property values in the Properties dialog and click OK.

5.15 Setting default properties


It is useful to set the default properties of object drawing tools so that when you use the tool the drawn object
has the desired properties. This is valuable when many objects will have the same properties.
To set the default properties for an object drawing tool
1. Double click on the drawing tool or with the tool selected, choose Tools > Current Tool Properties.
2. Specify default property values in the Properties dialog and click OK.
When you now use the tool, it will draw objects with the specified default properties.
Note: Changing the default properties of an object drawing tool does not change the properties of such objects
already drawn.

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Adding reference lines, dimensions, and text notes

5.16 Adding reference lines, dimensions, and text notes


The Line tool (
), Dimension tool (
), and Text tool (
) are all used to add information to plans. These
objects are not part of the structural model and RAM Concept does not consider them when generating the mesh
or calculating results. As for all objects, the lines, dimensions and text objects belong to the layer on which they
are drawn.

5.16.1 To draw a line


1.

).
Choose the Line tool (
2. Click at the line start point (or enter the coordinates in the command line).
3. Click at the line end point (or enter the coordinates in the command line).

5.16.2 To draw a dimension line


1.

Choose the Dimension tool (


).
2. Click at the start point.
3. Click at the end point.
4. Click at the offset point where the dimension line will be located.

5.16.3 To draw text


1.

Choose the Text tool (


).
2. Click at a point (or enter the coordinates in the command line).
3. Right click and choose Selection Properties.
4. Enter the text and its properties.

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Viewing Objects in Text Tables


A text table shows all the objects of a particular type on a specific layer. Tables provide a customizable textual
view of each objects properties. You can access text tables from the Tables folder of any layer.
1. Go to the Tables folder of the object types layer.
2. Open the appropriate text table from the folder.
For example, the text table for Walls Below on the Mesh Input layer can be opened by choosing
Layers > Mesh Input > Tables > Walls Below .

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Customizing tables

Figure 7: Mesh Input: Walls Below Table

6.1 Customizing tables


You can choose which columns and rows are visible in the table, and the column widths. You can also sort the
rows based on a particular columns values in ascending or descending order.

6.1.1 Choosing which rows and columns to show


Customize the table columns and rows by clicking on the Customize button above the table. In the Customize
dialog box, you can select which rows and columns are visible in the table. Check the columns you want to see
and uncheck the columns you want hidden.
To make a table column visible or hidden
1. Click on the Customize button above the table.

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2. In the Customize dialog box, to make a column visible, check the checkbox. To hide the column, uncheck the
checkbox.
3. Click OK.

6.1.2 Sizing table columns


You can resize columns by changing the width of the column header.
To resize the width of the column
1. Place your cursor on the line between two columns on the table header and press down on the left mouse
button.
2. Drag the table header to its new width and release the left mouse button.
The table will print as seen on screen so the column widths you set will appear the same way on paper.

6.1.3 Sorting table rows


To sort the table rows according to the values in a column, click on the column header once for ascending order.
Click on the column header again to sort in the descending order.

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Choosing Units
RAM Concept allows you to work with three unit systems: US, SI and MKS.
Some designers refer to the US units system as US customary units, and others call it Imperial. SI and MKS
are metric unit systems, with MKS using mass rather than weight.
It is up to you which system you use but local practice should dictate your choice.
The choice of actual units is more subjective. For example, after choosing the US system, one designer might use
the default area load units of pounds per square feet, and another might change the selection to kips per square
feet.

7.1 About units


Internally, RAM Concept performs all calculations with the SI unit system. It converts all property values into an
equivalent SI unit prior to calculation. Once complete, it converts the values back into the selected units for
reporting.
It is possible to mix unit systems (e.g. pounds and meters) but this is not advisable.

7.2 Selecting units


A new file has default units that you can change at any time.

7.2.1 Selecting the default units


The default units depend on how you created the file. When you use a template or an existing file, the default
units are those of the source.
When you create a file using the New command, you only have a choice of default units for ACI 318 (US or SI).
For all other codes, the default units are SI.

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7.2.2 Changing the units


You can change either the unit system or individual units.
1. Choose Criteria > Units .
2. Do one of the following:
Select each unit by accessing the appropriate drop down box.
or
Select a unit system by clicking on US, SI, or MKS at the top of the window.
Note: There is often a long list of choices for the units. Scroll down the drop down menu to view the options.

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Specifying report as zero

7.3 Specifying report as zero


RAM Concept allows you to filter out trivial results with the Report as Zero option. For example, column
reactions have components for Fr, Fs, Fz, Mr and Ms. Some of these values, such as Fr and Fs, may be very
small and hence not important. Filtering small values from plan plots can make the results easier to read.
Note: Using this feature could result in human error, as you might later assume zeroed values are exactly equal
to zero.
You specify Report as Zero in the Units window.
1. Choose Criteria > Units .
2. Enter one or more Report as Zero values.
Note: You can also turn off plotted values such as Fr and Fs with the plot menu. See Setting the plotted results.

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Choosing Sign Convention


RAM Concept allows you to choose the sign convention for loads, analysis and reactions.
RAM Concept uses the Cartesian coordinate system with the following sign convention for axes:

You cannot change the sign of the coordinates axes.


Sign convention dictates how you input parameters and how RAM Concept displays results. For example, the
sign convention of an applied load dictates whether the input value is positive or negative.
Note that changing a sign setting does not change the real value of any previously specified data. For example if a
+10 kips downward load was specified when RAM Concept had a downward-positive load sign convention and
then the load sign convention was changed to upward-positive, the load value would now be reported as -10 kip,
but the load would still be a 10 kip downward load. Similarly, a change in sign convention does not affect the
true value of results.
When you add loads after a change in sign convention, you must observe the new sign convention.

8.1 Selecting sign convention


A new file has a default sign convention that you can change at any time.

8.1.1 Default sign convention


The default sign convention depends on how you created the file. If you use a template or an existing file then the
default sign convention is that of the source.
When you create a file (not from a template), the sign convention is as follows:

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Selecting sign convention

Figure 9: Left to right: Fx, Fy, Fz, Mx, My.


Fx In the positive x-direction (see coordinate axes).
Fy In the positive y-direction (see coordinate axes).
Fz In the negative z-direction (see coordinate axes).
Mx (moment about the X-axis) Per right-hand-rule.
My (moment about the Y-axis) Per right-hand-rule.
Mz (moment about the Z-axis) Per right-hand-rule.

Figure 10: Top row, left to right: Vertical Element Shear, Element Bending, Element Axial, Vertical Deflection.
Bottom row, left to right: Horizontal Shear, Twist, Lateral Deflection, Angular Deflection.
Vertical element shear Positive z-shear on the positive x- and y-faces.
Element bending Tension bottom face.
Element axial Tension.
Vertical deflection In negative z-direction (down).
Horizontal shear Positive y-shear on Positive x-face (equivalent to Positive x-shear on Positive y-face).
Twist Positive x-axis moment on positive x-face (equivalent to negative y-axis moment on positive y-face).
Lateral deflection Positive in x- and y-axes directions.
Angular deflection Per right-hand-rule about x- and y-axes.

Figure 11: Left to right: Fx, Fy, Fz, Coordinate Axis, Mx, My, Mz.
Fx In the positive x-direction (see coordinate axes).
Fy In the positive y-direction (see coordinate axes).
Fz In the positive z-direction (see coordinate axes).

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About plot sign convention
Mx (moment about the x-axis) Per right-hand-rule.
My (moment about the y-axis) Per right-hand-rule.
Mz (moment about the z-axis) Per right-hand-rule.
Note: The only difference in defaults between Positive Loads and Positive Reactions is Fz. This is because point
loads are usually down if positive, and vertical reactions are usually up if positive.

8.1.2 Changing the sign convention


You can change the sign convention for any loads or results, but only one at a time.
1. Choose Criteria > Signs .
2. Change each positive sign by clicking the appropriate graphic. The direction changes.

Figure 12: Signs Window

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About plot sign convention

8.2 About plot sign convention


With the exception of vertical deflection, line plots show positive results plotted above the axis line. This ensures
that plots do not appear upside down. For axis lines that are parallel to the y-axis (and hence have no above the
axis line direction), line plots show positive results to the left of the axis line.
Note: Line plots show positive vertical deflection below the axis line.
Perspectives are plotted with positive results in the global z-direction (what is considered positive is dependent
upon the sign convention of the Value Plotted). For example, a perspective of deflection shows positive
deflection up.
You cannot change the sign of the coordinates axes.

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Specifying Material Properties


RAM Concept uses materials as part of the input and the results. You specify concrete mixes and post-tensioning
systems as part of the input and RAM Concept reports reinforcement bar requirements as part of the results.
You can use the materials provided or create your own. For example, you might want to redesign the floor with
the actual tested strength of the concrete poured on site. In this case, you would create a new concrete mix
defined with that strength.
You can delete any of the materials that you find are unnecessary.

9.1 Viewing the available materials


The Materials window shows the names and properties of concrete mixes, PT systems and reinforcing bars.
1. Choose Criteria > Materials .

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Viewing the available materials

Figure 13: The Materials window.

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Material properties

9.2 Material properties


The following is a list of Material properties:

9.2.1 Concrete Mix


Mix Name The label used to identify a concrete mix. The mix name is not necessarily the concrete strength. Each
column, wall, slab and beam has a concrete mix property.
Density The concrete mass density used to calculate various stiffness properties for Concrete.
Density for Loads The concrete mass density used to calculate self weight.
fci The characteristic cylinder strength of the concrete mix at the time of applying prestress (also known as
initial strength).
fc The characteristic cylinder strength of the concrete mix.
Note: fci and fc are used for all codes except BS8110.
fcui The characteristic cube strength of the concrete mix at the time of applying prestress (also known as initial
strength).
fcu The characteristic cube strength of the concrete mix.
Note: fcui and fcu are only used for BS8110 and IS456.
Poissons Ratio The negative of the ratio of lateral strains to axial strains for an axially loaded material. This is
usually 0.2 for concrete.
Ec Calc The method used to calculate Youngs Modulus (for both initial characteristic strength and characteristic
strength). This can be according to the active code rules or a specified value.
User Eci The user defined Youngs Modulus used for initial cross section analysis.
User Ec The user defined Youngs Modulus used for global analysis, service cross section analysis and strength
design.

9.2.2 PT Systems
System Name The label used to identify a PT system. It usually describes the system, such as strand size and
bonding.
Type Whether the system has unbonded or bonded strand.
Aps The cross sectional area of one strand. Since strand is usually comprised of seven wires then the area is
more complicated than d2/4.

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Material properties
Eps The Youngs Modulus of the strand at zero strain.
fse The assumed effective stress in the strand after all losses. Using jacks overrides this assumption. See About
jacks for further information.
fpy The yield stress of the strand.
fpu The ultimate stress of the strand.
Duct Width The width or diameter of bonded tendon duct.
Max Strands Per Duct The maximum number of strands in a bonded tendon (use 1 for unbonded tendons).
Minimum Radius The minimum vertical radius that allows satisfactory placement of tendons in the field. You
should consult with a local PT supplier. A value of zero disables radius checking for this PT system.
Jacking Stress / Anchor Friction / Wobble Friction / Angular Friction / Seating Distance / Long-Term
Losses
Friction loss calculations use these properties. They have no effect unless tendon jacks are used. See Jack
properties in Chapter 26, Defining Tendons for further information.
Related Links
About jacks on page 314

9.2.3 Reinforcing Bars


Bar Name The label used to identify a reinforcing bar. It usually refers to the bars diameter.
As Cross sectional area of the bar.
Es The Youngs Modulus of the bar.
Fy The yield stress of the bar.
Coating The coating type of the bar (epoxy coating)
Straight Ld/Db The development length of straight bars, calculated either by Code or a user specified multiple
of bar diameter.
90 Hook Ld/Db The development length of 90 degree hook bars, calculated either by Code or a user specified
multiple of bar diameter.
180 Hook Ld/Db The development length of straight bars, calculated either by Code or a user specified
multiple of bar diameter.

9.2.4 SSR Systems


SSR System Name The label used to identify a SSR (stud shear reinforcement) system. It usually describes the
system, such as stud size.
Stud Area Cross sectional area of the stud stem that is used in strength calculations
Head Area The area of the stud head, generally about 10 times the stem area. RAM Concept uses this to calculate
the head diameter for clear spacing calculations.

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Min Head Spacing The minimum clear spacing between stud heads along the length of a rail. The design will not
succeed if this value is too large.
Specified Stud Spacing The desired stud spacing for the SSR design. If set to none, RAM Concept automatically
designs the stud spacing.
Fy The yield stress of the SSR reinforcement.
Stud Spacing Rounding Increment Specifies an increment to which all stud designs are rounded down. For
example, specifying a larger number forces a larger number of designs to have the same spacing, creating the
potential for grouping of designs at different columns.
Min Studs Per Rail Specifies the minimum number of studs that RAM Concept designs on any rail. This can be
useful in a number of situations. For example, if one face of a column has a small overhang for which the
designer does not want SSR reinforcement, this minimum stud number can be increased to prevent the design of
rails on that face.
System Type The type of system to use in the SSR design.

9.3 Adding and deleting materials


You can add materials to define properties of concrete mixes, PT systems and reinforcing bars. You can delete
materials as long as at least one material of each type remains.

9.3.1 To add materials


1. Choose Criteria > Materials .
2. Click Add Concrete Mix, or Add PT System, or Add Reinforcing Bar, or Add SSR System.
3. In the dialog box that appears, enter a name for the new material and click OK.
A new row appears at the bottom of the appropriate table.
4. Enter the property value for each cell in the new row.

9.3.2 To delete materials


1. Choose Criteria > Materials .
2. Click Delete Concrete Mix, Delete PT System, or Delete Reinforcing Bar, or Delete SSR System.
A dialog box appears with a list of the available materials.
3. Choose the material to delete and click OK.

9.4 About post-tensioning systems


There are two types of systems considered in RAM Concept .

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About post-tensioning systems
Unbonded systems: greased strand encased in plastic sheathing.
Bonded systems: bare strand within grouted ducts.
Strands are typically comprised of seven wires spirally wound. There are two dominant strand sizes used in
building construction:
0.5 inch diameter (12.7 mm)
0.6 inch diameter (15.2 mm)
For further discussion on post-tensioning systems, see Chapter 26, Defining Tendons.

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Specifying loadings
A loading is a set of point, line and area loads applied as a group.
You define loading properties in the loadings window. You draw the actual loads on the loading plans.
Loadings can be added (e.g. seismic, snow, soil and wind).
Loadings can be deleted (other than those of a special type, as described in About loading types below).
RAM Concept can perform pattern (or skip) loading and you define the factors that control this process in the
loading window.

10.1 About default loadings


RAM Concept provides default loadings for self-weight, post-tensioning and gravity loads. For mat files, RAM
Concept provides additional default loadings for wind and seismic.
Self-Dead Loading This is the self-weight of the concrete. All other dead loading is superimposed.
Balance Loading Post-tensioning tendons and anchors apply internal loads to the concrete structure. We call
this set of loads the Balance Loading because you normally design the post-tensioning to balance or offset the
other loadings applied to the slab.
Hyperstatic Loading The hyperstatic loading is a theoretical loading that considers the restraining effect of the
supports on the structure as it tries to deform due to the application of post-tensioning. Many people use the
term secondary in place of hyperstatic. The loading is not necessarily secondary in nature. RAM Concept
calculates the effects of the hyperstatic loading for all objects (elements, springs, supports, design sections,
design strip segments and punching checks) as described in Post-tensioning loadings.
Temporary Construction (At Stressing) Loading This set of superimposed loads is present during
construction when the contractor stresses the tendons. This loading is rarely used, and you need not consider it
for RC structures.
Other Dead Loading This set of superimposed dead loads applies to PT structures after stressing of posttensioning tendons. It is simply the superimposed dead loads for RC structures.
Live (Reducible) Loading
Live (Unreducible) Loading
Live (Storage) Loading
Live (Parking) Loading
Live (Roof) Loading

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Viewing the loadings
Different sets of live loads. See About loading types on page 102 for further description.
Snow Loading The snow loads on the structure.
Service Wind North Loading The set of wind loads in the north-south direction (for mat defaults only).
Service Wind East Loading The set of wind loads in the east-west direction (for mat defaults only).
Ultimate Seismic North Loading The set of seismic loads in the north-south direction (for mat defaults only).
Ultimate Seismic East Loading The set of seismic loads in the east-west direction (for mat defaults only).

10.2 Viewing the loadings


The Loading window lists the different loadings and their type and pattern factors.
1. Choose Criteria > Loadings .
2. If there are many loadings, scroll down to view them all.

Figure 14: Loadings Window

10.3 Loading properties


Loadings have the following properties:
Loading Name The label used to identify the loading.
Loading Type See About loading types for more information.

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About loading types
Analysis The type of analysis, which can be Normal, Hyperstatic or Lateral SE.
A Hyperstatic analysis is used for only the Hyperstatic Loading described in About default loadings.
For information on Lateral SE, see Self-equilibrium analysis in Chapter 50, Analysis Notes.
On-Pattern Factor The factor that applies to loads that are located within the loading pattern when performing
pattern-loading calculations. See About load pattern for more information.
Off-Pattern Factor The factor that applies to loads that are not located within the loading pattern when
performing pattern-loading calculations.
Note: Concept ignores the pattern factors if both factors are the same value. Setting both factors to 2.0 is
identical to setting both factors to 1.0

10.4 About loading types


Every loading in RAM Concept has a loading type. RAM Concept uses loading type to generate the appropriate
load combinations from the defined set of loadings, and to apply appropriate live load reductions.
See Rebuilding load combinations for information on how RAM Concept generates load combinations.
Related Links
Rebuilding load combinations on page 111

10.5 Available loading types


The available loading types are:
Self-Weight The structures concrete self-weight loads are always generated with this loading type. There is
always one and only one loading of this type.
Balance As described in About default loadings. There is always one and only one loading of this type.
Hyperstatic As described in About default loadings. There is always one and only one loading of this type.
Stressing Dead Loadings of this type contain superimposed loads applied before stressing of post-tensioning
tendons.
This loading type is rarely used and is generally not considered for other loading conditions. You need not
consider it for RC structures.
Dead Loadings of this type contain permanent dead loads other than those from the self-weight type.
Live (Reducible) Loadings of this type contain typical floor live loads that are reducible. See Chapter 52, Live
Load Reduction Notes for detailed information regarding how each live load reduction code handles loadings of
this type.
Live (Unreducible) Loadings of this type contain typical floor live loads that are not reducible (typically
assembly loadings - see About assembly loads).
Live (Storage) Loadings of this type contain typical floor live loads that are reducible using special storage
loading reduction rules.

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Available loading types
Live (Parking) Loadings of this type contain typical loads for parking garages or car parks.
Live (Roof) Loadings of this type contain typical roof live loads - except snow - that are reducible. RAM Concept
never reduces these loads (the RAM Structural System may reduce these loads).
Snow Loadings of this type contain typical snow loads. They generally do not consider drift or exceptional
circmstances, and they may be characteristic or design loads. See the specific code chapters for further details.
Other Loadings of this type contain loads of an unspecified nature. RAM Concept never considers these loadings
except in manually created or edited load combinations (or load combinations created in previous files). All
loading from Floor versions 2.3 and before, and RAM Concept versions 1.3 and before (except self-dead, balance
and hyperstatic) are given this type; it is often useful to change the loading types of these loadings from earlier
program versions.
Service Wind Loadings of these types contain wind loads at service force levels. Service Wind Loading N is
assumed to correspond to Ultimate Wind Loading N (if it exists).
Ultimate Wind Loadings of these types contain wind loads at ultimate force levels. Ultimate Wind Loading N is
assumed to correspond to Service Wind Loading N (if it exists).
Service Seismic Loadings of these types contain seismic loads at service force levels. Service Seismic Loading N
is assumed to correspond to Ultimate Seismic Loading N (if it exists).
Ultimate Seismic Loadings of these types contain seismic loads at ultimate force levels. Ultimate Seismic
Loading N is assumed to correspond to Service Seismic Loading N (if it exists).
Most of these loading types are also available in a transfer variation. See About Transfer Loading Types for
more information.
Note: All loading types except self-weight, balance and hyperstatic may be used for more than one loading.

10.5.1 About assembly loads


Assembly loadings deserve special consideration
Assembly loads It is recommended that, in order to get the appropriate factors, you assembly loads on a Live
(Unreducible) layer.
Refer to the live load reduction section listed below for detailed information regarding how a specific code
handles loadings of this type:

ACI318-99 / ASCE-7 / IBC 2003 live load factors


ACI318-02 / ASCE-7 / IBC 2003 live load factors
AS3600 / AS/NZS 1170.1 live load factors
BS 8110 / BS 6399-1 live load factors
IS 875 (Part 2) - 1987 Live Load Reduction
National Building Code of Canada 2005 Live Load Reduction

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Changing Loading Types

10.5.2 About Transfer Loading Types


Almost all of the loading types previously discussed are available with a transfer variation. The transfer
variations represent loads transferred from the structure above onto the level under consideration (via columns
or walls). A few loading types are not available with a transfer variation, or have a somewhat different meaning
with a transfer variation. These are:
Self-Weight There is no transfer variation of this loading type.
Balance The transfer variation of this loading type is for loads generated by the tendons in the structure above
the level under consideration. Unlike the non-transfer balance type: multiple loadings of this type may exist; the
loadings do not contain loads generated from the tendons; and the loadings of this type are user-editable.
Loadings of this type are considered in the calculation of hyperstatic effects.
Hyperstatic There is no transfer variation of this loading type.
Stressing Dead There is no transfer variation of this loading type.

10.6 Changing Loading Types


The type of any loading (except Self-Dead, Balance and Hyperstatic) may be changed in the Loadings window.
1. Choose Criteria > Loadings .
2. Click the loading type of the loading name.
A drop down menu appears.
3. Select the new loading type.

10.7 Changing Analysis


The analysis of any loading (except Self-Dead, Balance and Hyperstatic) may be changed in the Loadings
window.
1. Choose Criteria > Loadings .
2. Click the analysis of the loading name.
A drop down menu appears.
3. Select the new analysis.

10.8 Adding and deleting loadings


At times, you may wish to add loadings such as seismic or snow. Conversely, you may choose to delete loadings
such as Temporary Construction (At Stressing) Loading.

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10.8.1 To add a loading


1. Choose Criteria > Loadings .
2. Click Add Loading.
3. Enter a name for the new Loading in the Add Loading dialog box and click OK.
The new loading appears in a row at the bottom of the table.
4. Enter the Loading Type and Analysis for the new loading.
5. Enter the On-Pattern Factor and Off-Pattern Factor for the new loading.

10.8.2 To delete a loading


1. Choose Criteria > Loadings .
2. Click Delete Loading.
A dialog box appears with a list of the current loadings.
3. Choose the loading to delete and click OK.

10.9 About load pattern


In structural engineering, pattern loading refers to a load arrangement that ignores or reduces loads on selected
spans for the purpose of maximizing moments, shears or reactions. In 2D analysis, it is not difficult to create an
algorithm that determines the important patterns, but this is extremely difficult for a 3D program, especially for
irregular column layouts and panels. To handle pattern loading, RAM Concept uses the concept of load patterns.
Note: Some refer to pattern loading as skip loading.

10.9.1 How load patterns work


A load pattern creates a (invisible) pattern loading that contains only filtered loads for each standard loading.
The On-Pattern and Off-Pattern factors control the filtering.
The inclusion and exclusion of loads within the pattern area defines the pattern loading. RAM Concept multiplies
loads inside the pattern area by the on-pattern factor and multiplies loads outside the pattern area by the offpattern factor. The actual pattern area is dependent upon the finite element mesh. See Creating Pattern Loading
on page 196 , for further explanation.
On-Pattern areas (shaded) for 6-panel slab:

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About load pattern

For the figures above, if the live load is 100 psf, the on-pattern factor is 0.8 and the off-pattern factor is 0.1 then
two pattern loadings are created with a load of 80 psf on the hatched areas and a load of 10 psf on the remainder
of the slab.
RAM Concept uses the load patterns for a loading - along with the full loading - to determine the design force
envelopes for design strip segments, design sections and punching checks.

10.9.2 When to use load pattern


Whether you use pattern loading is a matter of which code you are using and your engineering judgment. Some
codes allow you to ignore pattern loading for certain types of structures and magnitudes of live loading.
Common sense should lead you to logical load patterns that produce very close to the maximum moments,
shears and reactions.
In most circumstances, you only pattern the live loading. There could be circumstances where you pattern other
loadings.
For patterned loads, the on-pattern factor often has a value of 0.75 and the off-pattern factor often has a value of
zero.
For non-patterned loads, both factors should be 1.0. In special circumstances, the on-pattern factor can exceed a
value of 1.0.

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When in doubt, all on-pattern and off-pattern factors should be 1.0. This results in no pattern loading.
See Chapter 21, Creating Pattern Loading, for further discussion.

10.9.3 How load pattern can approximate moving loads


You can approximate moving loads by using load patterns.
1. Specify an on-pattern factor of 10 and an off-pattern factor of zero.
2. Specify load factors (in the load combinations window) for the moving loading of one-tenth their actual
values.
3. Define the movement using the load patterns.
4. Draw the load once in each pattern.
Note: Concept still analyses a load combination with all the loads present that is included in the envelope. This is
the reason for scaling the on-pattern, off-pattern and load factors - it diminishes the effect of the all the loads
load combination.

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Specifying Load Combinations


A load combination is a factored linear combination of loadings. Strictly speaking, we should call it loading
combination, but we have adopted the commonly used terminology.

11.1 About default load combinations


Codes generally specify which loadings you need to consider in the design of a structure and how you should
combine these loadings.
RAM Concept 's default load combinations depend on how you created the file. When you use a template or an
existing file then the default load combinations are those of the source.
When you create a file using the New command the default load combinations depend on the code selected.
These load combinations are usually appropriate for the selected code, but there may be times when you need to
modify the load factors and add loadings.
The default load combinations for each code are described in detail in the relevant chapter:

Chapter 54, ACI 318-99 Design


Chapter 55, ACI 318-02 Design
Chapter 56, ACI 318-05 Design
Chapter 59, AS 3600-2001 Design
Chapter 61, BS 8110: 1997 Design
Chapter 62, IS 456 : 2000 / IS 1343 : 1980 Design
Chapter 63, EN 1992-1-1:2004 (Eurocode 2) With TR43 Design
Chapter 64, CSA A23.3-04 Design

11.2 Viewing the load combinations


The Load Combinations window lists the different load combinations and their design criteria and load factors.
1. Choose Criteria > Load Combinations.
2. If there are many load combinations, scroll down to view them all.

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Viewing the load combinations

Figure 15: Load Combination Window

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Rebuilding load combinations

11.3 Rebuilding load combinations


At times, you may wish to rebuild an existing load combination that includes a new or revised loading. For
example, if a loadings type changes, it affects the load factors and live load reduction process. You can account
for these changes by using the rebuild command.
RAM Concept will not automatically update load factors when a loading's loading type changes. RAM Concept
only sets the load factors when rebuilding load combinations.
1. Choose Criteria > Rebuild Load Combos
Another dialog box appears that requires you to specify if the load combinations are for an elevated slab or
mat foundation.
2. Select elevated slab or mat foundation
3. Select Rebuild

11.4 Adding and deleting load combinations


At times, you may wish to add load combinations such as seismic plus dead or snow plus dead. Conversely, you
might choose to delete load combinations such as Temporary Construction (At Stressing) LC.

11.4.1 To add a load combination


1. Choose Criteria > Load Combinations.
2. Click Add Load Combination.
3. In the dialog box that appears, enter a name for the new load combination and click OK.
Another dialog box appears that requires you to specify the plans that you want RAM Concept to create (Slab
Stress, Slab Deflection and Slab Force). These plans appear in the new load combinations folder.
4. Choose the plans that you want created and click OK.
The new load combination appears at the bottom of the window.
5. Select the active rule sets.
6. Enter the load factors and the alternative load factors for each loading in the load combination.

11.4.2 To delete a loading


1. Choose Criteria > Load Combinations.
2. Click Delete Load Combination.
A dialog box appears with a list of the current load combinations.
3. Choose the load combination to delete and click OK.

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Load combination properties

11.5 Load combination properties


Load Combination Name The label used to identify the load combination.
Combo Type The choices are:
Single: this is the standard type.
Lateral Group: this is used for a floor that is part of the lateral force resisting system [especially mat
foundations (rafts)].
Note: The primary purpose of Load Combination types is to reduce the number of lateral load combinations. A
secondary purpose is to provide easy enveloping for results such as soil bearing pressure.
Analysis Type The choices are:
Linear: this is the standard type.
Zero-Tension: these load combinations do NOT have alternate load factors and never consider pattern
loading.
Active Rule Sets These control which rule sets are used for design calculations. Up to six active rule sets can be
associated with each load combination. See Chapter 12, Selecting Design Rules for further explanation.
Load Factor The factor applied to a particular loading in the load combination.
Alternate Envelope Factor You should only use these if you fully understand the principle involved. Do not set
these factors to zero without understanding their use. If you are unsure then set them to equal the
corresponding load factors. See About alternate envelope factors.

11.6 About group load combinations


A group load combination has load factors for every non-lateral loading and for one single lateral loading type.
Effectively, a group load combination's results are the envelope of all the results from N invisible single load
combinations, where N is the number of loadings for the given lateral loading type.
A linear group load combination has a standard and alternate load factor for every non-lateral loading, and a
standard and alternate load factor for the selected lateral loading type. It never has zero tension iterations.
A zero-tension group load combination has a single load factor for every non-lateral loading, and a single load
factor for the selected lateral loading type. It has zero-tension iterations as necessary for invisible (internal)
component load combo, and will be the envelope of all of the component load combos combined. It never
considers pattern loading.
The following figure is intended to explain the ramifications of load combination type selection.

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About alternate envelope factors

Load Combination TYPE

Single

Lateral

All loadings are listed


Each loading has load factors
Linear Load Combinations have
an Alternate Envelope Factor
Zero-Tension Load Combinations
do not have Alternate Envelope
Factors

All non-lateral loads are listed


One and only one key loading
type can be used (per load
combination)
All N loadings within the Key
Loading Type are used to
generate N load combinations

Figure 16: Ramifications of Load Combination Type


Refer to Summary of load combination types on page 114 for more information.

11.7 About alternate envelope factors


There can be situations where the application of a loading has an unconservative effect on the results.
For example
a retaining wall loading that applies compression to a floor.
a cantilever live loading that reduces the internal span moment.
In such circumstances, it is desirable to analyze the structure both with and without the full loading. While you
could do this by creating an additional load combination, RAM Concept provides a much simpler solution Alternate Envelope Factors (AEF).

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Summary of load combination types

Figure 17: This beam supports dead loads (not shown) and live loads (shown). The live loading reduces the positive
span moment. By using an AEF less than the corresponding load factor, you create a load combination with a
reduced live loading. Note that the AEF affects the entire live loading, not just the live load on the cantilever.
Conceptually, RAM Concept considers alternate envelope factors by analyzing the load combination 2L times
(where L is the number of loadings) - once for every permutation of load factors and alternate envelope factors
for all of the loadings. RAM Concept then envelopes the design strip forces, design section forces and punching
shear reactions for all of the load combination analyses. RAM Concept uses these force envelopes later for design
purposes. You can also plot the force envelopes or view them in tables.
RAM Concept fully considers any pattern loading effects while considering the load factors.
Note that the general analysis forces that are not used as design forces by RAM Concept - such as standard slab
bending moments and deflections - are only stored for the load combination considering the standard load
factors.
As stated above, you should only use alternate envelope factors if you fully understand the principle involved. Do
not set them to zero without understanding their use. If you are unsure then set them to equal the corresponding
load factors.

11.7.1 Example of Alternate Load Factors


The following figure shows the suggested way to use the factors for a strength design of the ACI318-05 Factored
LC.

Figure 18: Factored LC load factors and alternate envelope factors.

11.8 Summary of load combination types


The effects of using different load combination types and analysis types are summarized in the following table.

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Table 1: Load Combination Summary
Linear

Zero-tension

Single

Standard and Alternate load


factors for every loading
No zero-tension iterations
Considers pattern loading

Standard load factor for every


loading
Zero-tension iterations as
necessary
Ignores pattern loading

Group

Standard and Alternate load


factors for every non-lateral
loading
Standard and Alternate load
factors for the selected lateral
loading type
No zero-tension iterations
Considers pattern loading
No results for point springs, line
springs, point supports, line
supports, walls.
No Standard results for any
quantity
See the second figure in this
chapter for more information.

Standard load factor for every


non-lateral loading
Standard load factor for the
selected lateral loading type
Zero-tension iterations as
necessary
Ignores pattern loading
No results for point springs, line
springs, point supports, line
supports, walls.
No Standard results for any
quantity
See the second figure in this
chapter for more information.

ACI 318-05 Elevated floor file with lateral loadings added


To simplify the example, four loadings have been deleted from the standard file.

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Summary of load combination types

Figure 19: Loading table for ACI 318-05 Elevated Floor - six wind loadings have been added (and one stressing dead
and three live loadings have been deleted)
After adding and deleting some loadings, the load combinations have been rebuilt. See Rebuilding load
combinations.
The Rebuild operation adds the load combination Factored Wind LC: 1.2D + f 1L+ 0.5Lr + 1.6W, as shown in the
following figure.

Figure 20: Rebuilt load combination: Factored Wind LC: 1.2D + f1 L+ 0.5Lr + 1.6W
RAM Concept now expands this load combination and calculates the following load combinations:
1. 1.2 Self-dead + 1.0 Hyperstatic + 1.2 Other dead + 0.5 Live (reducible) + 1.6 North Wind + 1.6 North Wind
(transfer)
2. 1.2 Self-dead + 1.0 Hyperstatic + 1.2 Other dead + 0.5 Live (reducible) - 1.6 North Wind - 1.6 North Wind
(transfer)
3. 1.2 Self-dead + 1.0 Hyperstatic + 1.2 Other dead + 0.5 Live (reducible) + 1.6 East Wind
4. 1.2 Self-dead + 1.0 Hyperstatic + 1.2 Other dead + 0.5 Live (reducible) - 1.6 East Wind

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Summary of load combination types
5. 1.2 Self-dead + 1.0 Hyperstatic + 1.2 Other dead + 0.5 Live (reducible) + 1.6 Trade Wind + 1.6 Sirocco Wind +
1.6 Zephyr Wind
6. 1.2 Self-dead + 1.0 Hyperstatic + 1.2 Other dead + 0.5 Live (reducible) - 1.6 Trade Wind - 1.6 Sirocco Wind 1.6 Zephyr Wind

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Selecting Design Rules


You design concrete floors manually by calculating the resultants (moments, shears and axial forces) of a load
combination and applying the appropriate code rules and formula. You select code rules based upon the type of
member (reinforced slab, post-tensioned beam, etc.) and the type of load combinations. For example, codes
intend some load combinations are for strength design and others for serviceability design.
RAM Concept uses a similar method. It sorts code rules into sets of rules and applies them to the resultant
envelopes of load combinations. Thus, a rule set design is one or more code rules applied to the resultant
envelope of one or more load combinations.
For example, the set of code formula for bending and shear strength is the strength rule set. RAM Concept
applies this rule set to the envelope of all factored (or ultimate) load combinations. The strength rule set does
not apply to service load combinations.
You design most floors or members for more than one rule set. For example, a post-tensioned floor is usually
checked for initial service stresses, service stresses and strength, all with different load combinations.

12.1 Using rule set designs


RAM Concept uses the concept of a design strip to link finite element analysis with concrete code rules (see
Chapter 22, Defining Design Strips). Each design strips properties include design system (beam / one-way
slab / two-way slab) and the considered as post-tensioned option. Design strips contain design cross sections.
You assign each load combination active rule set designs in the load combinations window.
How RAM Concept utilizes rule set designs:
1. Load combinations generate envelopes for resultants (moments, shears, axial forces and torsions).
2. All load combination envelopes with the same rule set design are in turn enveloped. This is a rule set design
envelope.
3. For each rule set design envelope, design strips generate rule set design force envelopes.
4. Each design strip determines which code rules are appropriate for each rule set design. Design strip
properties impact which particular rules are used.
5. Design and checking rules are applied to the rule set design section envelopes.
6. A design summary envelopes the reinforcement requirements and section status for all rule set design
section envelopes.
Example:
The following example describes how RAM Concept selects the ACI 318-02 design rules for a post-tensioned
beam with live and wind loadings.

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Rule set design properties

Figure 21: Example of load combinations and rule sets


RAM Concept s process is as follows:
The two load combinations generate envelopes for resultants.
The five active rule set designs (service design, code minimum design, user minimum design, strength design
and ductility design) each create envelopes from the load combinations.
Each rule set design envelope creates a rule set design section envelope.
The design strip properties of Structural system: beam and consider as post-tensioned determines the
following rules from ACI 318-02 are applicable:
Strength Design: rules 18.7.2 (flexural strength) and 11.4 and 11.5 (shear strength) are used with the
beam clauses.
Minimum Design: rule 18.9.2.
Service Design: rules 18.3.3 and 18.4.2 (b).
These rules are applied to the rule set design section envelopes.
The reinforcement requirements and section status for all rule set design section envelopes are in turn
enveloped for a design summary.

12.2 Rule set design properties


The following is a list of rule set design properties:
Name This relates to the rule set design. It most cases it is the same as the active rules, but there can be
exceptions (see adding rule set designs - below).
Active Rules This describes the set of rules applied by this rule set.

12.3 Types of active rules


The available ACI 318-02 active rules are:

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Adding and deleting rule set designs
Code Minimum
Design

Rules for minimum reinforcement (shrinkage, detailing, etc.) based upon geometry
rather than stress or moment level. Does not include shear reinforcement.

User Minimum
Design

Reinforcement based on user defined reinforcement ratio. See the design strip
property description in chapter 22.

Initial Service Design Checks of PT floor stresses just after application of prestress (when dead load is
minimal).
Service Design

Checks of PT floor stresses due to service loads.


Rules for reinforcement bar based upon bar stress levels.

Sustained Service
Design

Checks of PT floor compression stresses due to sustained loads.

Strength Design

Rules to ensure section has sufficient strength in bending and shear for factored (or
ultimate) moments, and minimum shear reinforcement.

Ductility Design

Rules intended to produce ductile behavior.

Soil Bearing

This is used in mat foundation (raft) files to facilitate the enveloping of soil bearing
pressure. It does not use any active rules.

12.4 Adding and deleting rule set designs


Adding a duplicate rule set design allows you to separate the results for different load combinations with the
same active rules. For example, if a strength design is required for three different load combinations (1. Dead
and Live; 2. Dead, Reduced Live and Snow; 3. Seismic) then you could keep the results separate by creating two
new rule set designs with names such as Snow and Seismic which both use the code strength rules. This way
you can view the strength reinforcement requirements separately.
You can delete non-applicable rule set designs to simplify the file. For example, in ACI 318-02, initial service
design, and sustained service design are not required for floors without post-tensioning. Another example is DL
+ 0.25LL Design is not required if the UBC is not used.

12.4.1 To add a rule set design


1. Choose Criteria > Design Rules .
2. Click Add Rule Set Design.
3. Type a name for the new Rule Set Design in the Add Rule Set Design dialog box and click OK.
A dialog box appears that requires you to specify the plans that you want created (Top and Bottom
Reinforcement, Shear Reinforcement and Punching).
4. Choose the plans that you want created and click OK.
The new rule set design appears at the bottom of the window.
5. Select the active rules.

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Adding and deleting rule set designs

12.4.2 To delete a rule set


1. Choose Criteria > Design Rules.
2. Click Delete Rule Set Design.
A dialog box appears with a list of the current rule set designs.
3. Choose the rule set design to delete and click OK.

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Using a CAD Drawing


You can define the models geometry quickly if there is a CAD file (with .dwg or .dxf filename extension)
available to use as a background. You trace the CAD drawing with object tools to facilitate the finite element
mesh generation. You can also use the CAD drawing to locate other objects such as loads. Snap tools make
tracing the imported CAD drawing easier.
Note: RAM Concept itself does not recognize the meaning of actual drawing lines.
It is not necessary, however, to use a CAD file. If the floor is straightforward, or there is no drawing available, you
should skip this chapter. For strip-like models that do not warrant the use of a CAD file, it may be better to use
Strip Wizard.

13.1 Importing, verifying and viewing a drawing


To use a background drawing you import the drawing and then verify that it is at the correct scale.

13.1.1 Importing a CAD file


You can import a drawing at any time. An imported drawing overwrites any previously imported drawing. RAM
Concept can work with either a .dwg or a .dxf file. It is typically best to use a .dwg file.
1. Choose File > Import Drawing.
2. Select the CAD drawing file you want to import.
If Concept cannot determine the units of CAD file, the File Units dialog box will appear with a list of units. The
units relate to the CAD file, not the RAM Concept file.
3. Select the appropriate units and click OK.
Note: It is possible to import a CAD drawing with one set of units into a model with another set of units.

13.1.2 Checking the imported information


When you import the drawing file, it will be visible on the Standard Plan of the Drawing Import Layer. You
should verify that the plan scale is correct.

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Importing, verifying and viewing a drawing
To check that the imported drawing is at the correct scale
1. Choose Layers > Drawing Import > Standard Plan.
2.
Click Zoom Extent (
) to ensure that you are viewing the entire CAD plan.
3.
Select the Dimension tool (
) and draw a dimension line between two snapable points that are a known
distance apart. The distance between the two points will appear as a dimension.
If this dimension is not as expected then the imported file may be in the wrong scale. Consider importing the
drawing with different units to fix this problem.

13.1.3 Making the drawing visible on other plans


You can make the imported drawing visible on any plan through the Visible Objects dialog box. Usually you want
to make it visible on the Mesh Input Standard Plan (for defining the floor geometry), and perhaps on some
loading plans (for locations of line and point loads). You may choose to turn off some CAD layers if they clutter
the drawing. If you happened to bring in an architectural drawing, it is probably a good idea to turn off the
furniture. See Controlling views for more information on making objects visible or hidden.

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Importing a Database from the RAM Structural


System
Note: In many places in this chapter the RAM Structural System is referred to as RSS.
RAM Concept can import concrete structure information and loads from the RAM Structural System (Version
9.01 or higher) into a RAM Concept file.
RAM Concept can also export support member forces back to RSS.

14.1 What can be imported from the RAM Structural System


RAM Concept allows the selective import of concrete members (slabs, beams, openings, columns and walls),
applied loads and member loads from one story of a RAM Structural System database. Member loads can be from
gravity and / or lateral analyses.

14.2 Controlling which concrete members are imported


A story defined in the RAM Structural System can have two types of floors: elevated or mat foundation. The floor
type designation determines which concrete members in the story are imported.
The following figure and table show the relationship between the selected story, the import slab type and the
slab area imported. Note that mats are below the designated story. For example, the 2nd story mat is the mat
that supports the second story elevated floor.

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Controlling which concrete members are imported

Figure 22: The slab areas shown above (A,B,C,D) will be imported based upon the selections shown below.
Table 2: Relationship between the selected story, the import slab type, and the slab area imported.
Story

Import Type
Elevated

Mat Foundation

1st

2nd

14.2.1 Definition of the import perimeter


The selected slab areas define the import perimeter. Only RAM Structural System support members within the
import perimeter will be imported. For example, in the figure in Controlling which concrete members are
imported, if the 1st story elevated slab is imported with the columns above setting, the two furthermost right
columns between the 1st story and 2nd story will not be imported as they are not within the slab perimeter of
the 1st story elevated slab.
The following structural members can be imported:
1. Slabs
All slabs of the selected slab type.
2. Beams
All concrete beams from the selected story.
3. Openings and Penetrations
All openings and penetrations within the import perimeter.
4. Columns
Any column (below and / or above) whose center point lies inside the import perimeter.
5. Walls

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About load importation
Any wall (below and / or above) whose center line is contained by or crosses any part of the import
perimeter.
6. Grids
All orthogonal and radial grids.
Note: All structural members are imported into RAM Concept s Mesh Input layer. Grids are imported into the
Drawing Import layer.

14.3 About load importation


RAM Concept imports applied loads and analyzed member forces from the selected member group.
Certain components of member loads are ignored when importing. The components that are ignored depend on
the slab type and whether the member forces are from gravity and lateral loads.
The following table summarizes the force components that are imported onto a mat foundation and an elevated
slab.
Table 3: Relationship between the slab type, member loading type, and imported force components for a slab.
Slab Type

Loading Type

Forces Imported

Mat

Transfer Gravity

Fz, Mx, My

Mat

Transfer Lateral

Fx, Fy, Fz, Mx, My

Elevated

Transfer Gravity

Fz

Elevated

Transfer Lateral

Fz, Mx, My

Wall forces are resolved into a statically equivalent linearly varying force applied along the length of the wall.
The following loads can be imported
1. Direct gravity loads
Point, line and area gravity loads applied directly to the imported slabs.
The following table shows how RSS load cases are mapped to RAM Concept loading layers.
Table 4: Mapping of RSS load cases
RSS Load Case

RAM Concept Loading Layer

Dead

Dead Load

Live

Ignored (imported as 4 individual live loadings)

Live Reducible

Live Reducible

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Importing a database
RSS Load Case

RAM Concept Loading Layer

Live Unreducible

Live Unreducible

Live Storage

Live Storage

Live Roof

Live Load Roof

Partition

Partition (imported as Live Unreducible type)

Construction Dead

Construction Dead Load

Construction Live

Ignored

Mass Dead

Ignored

2. Transfer gravity loads


RAM Concept imports transferred gravity loads from RSS members above the import slabs. The loads
include member self-weight with the transferred gravity loads. The loads are imported as point loads and
line loads into separate RAM Concept loading layers.
A new RAM Concept transfer gravity loading layer is created for each RSS Load Case, as in Table 14-3, but
with the string (transfer) appended to the name. For example, transfer loads from the RSS Dead load
case are imported into the Concept Dead Load (transfer) loading layer. The Concept (transfer) loading
layers are not created if the Transfer Gravity Loads are not imported.

3. Lateral Member Loads


Lateral member forces (such as wind and seismic) from members above and below the imported slab are
imported as point loads. The member loads are imported into a new loading layer for each analyzed load
case in RSS. RAM Concept creates the name for the new loading layer from the user's label and the RSS
load type.
For example, the name could be mySeismic(EQ_UBC97_X_+E_F).
Note: Mat foundation loads imported from the RAM Structural System will always be reduced during the import.
For this reason you should always choose the live load reduction code of None in these files.

14.4 Importing a database


You can import from the RAM Structural System at anytime. An import overwrites some or all previously
imported time. An import overwrites some or all previously imported data, and may overwrite information you
have directly input to RAM Concept .
Note: Concept may not be able to import data correctly if the RSS file does not pass the Data Check operation in
the RAM Modeler module. It is strongly recommended that your RSS file have no errors before attempting to
import it into Concept.
1. Choose File > Import RAM Structural System.

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Importing a database
a. If there is no open RAM Concept file the Open RAM Structural System Database dialog box will appear.
Browse and select a RSS database (.rss) file and click OK.
b. When a valid RSS database file is selected, the RAM Structural System dialog box in the following figure
appears.
c. The RSS filename selected appears after File: at the top of the window.
d. You may click on the Browse button at the top of the window to select a different file with the file
browser.
Note: If you select a file with a version prior to 9.0, an error will be displayed and you will be returned to the
file browser. Clicking the Cancel button cancels the import operation.
Note: If you are running RSS version 9, select RSS database files with the .ram extension.
2. Select the story and slab type.
3. Select the structural members from the check boxes under Structure.

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Importing a database

Figure 23: RSS import dialog box


The dialog box makes Columns Below Slab, Walls Below Slab, Beams and Openings and Penetrations
unavailable for a Mat Foundation.
4. Select the loadings from the check boxes under Loading.
The dialog box makes Direct Gravity Loads unavailable for a Mat Foundation.
5. Click OK to import the file, or Cancel to cancel the import operation.
After an RSS file is imported, a RAM Import Status dialog box, similar to that shown in the following figure,
appears with a summary and any warnings.

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Reimporting a database

Figure 24: Example of an import summary with warnings


The RSS geometry definitions and loads are now imported into RAM Concept.
You can now generate the finite element mesh. See Chapter 18, Generating the Mesh.
Note: If you are reimporting there could be additional dialog boxes that appear with more warnings.
Note: Importing lateral analysis loads from RSS models that contain a large number of lateral load cases will
cause Concept to create a large number of load combinations which will result in sluggish performance.

14.5 Reimporting a database


If the information in the RAM Structural System database changes, the RAM Concept model will not be
automatically updated. You can, however, reimport the changed information.
Changes to structural members and loads made in RAM Concept can be lost when importing an RSS file, so care
should be taken to avoid losing information.

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Reimporting a database

14.5.1 Resolving loading conflicts


If the RAM Concept file has existing loadings that do not match the RSS loadings to be imported, a dialog box like
that in the following figure asks if you want to keep or delete the existing loadings.
If you have already specified (drawn) loads in the loadings that RAM Concept has proposed to delete, then you
should keep the loadings that RAM Concept offers to remove. If you want to export the reactions from these preexisting loads to RSS, you need to copy the loads from the original loadings to the corresponding RSS loadings
that are being imported (after which you should manually delete the non-RSS loadings).
Note: If you have used the Export Geometry to RAM Structural System feature (section 36.2) prior to importing,
then you always see this warning. The recommended workflow is to either draw the loads in RSS or draw the
loads in Concept after importing from RSS; with either of these workflows, you can safely allow the loadings
proposed for removal to be deleted.

Figure 25: Choices for dealing with new loadings


RAM Concept will also prompt you to determine if you require rebuilding of the load combinations and design
rules, as shown in the following figure.
You have three choices:
Rebuild: load combinations and design rules in the RAM Concept file are rebuilt
Dont Rebuild: the new load cases are added to the RAM Concept file, but not included in the load
combinations.
Cancel: RAM Concept returns you to the file browser.

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Reimporting a database

Note: When reimporting a particular member type, e.g. beams, all entities of that category are removed from the
RAM Concept file before importing. For example, if beams are imported, all beams in the RAM Concept file are
removed first. Any beams you have added manually in RAM Concept will be lost. If beams are not selected for
import, then beams in the RAM Concept file will not be affected when the file is reimported.
Note: If any loading categories are selected, then ALL loads in reimported loading layers are removed. Any loads
you have added manually on a loading layer being reimported will be lost.You have the option whether to
regenerate load combinations or not.
RAM Concept always asks you to confirm a reimport operation, because it may lead to loss of information. It
warns you if the data to be reimported would be significantly different from the previously imported data, or if
significant information will be lost. For example, RAM Concept warns you when reimporting a mat foundation
after previously importing an elevated slab, or vice versa.

14.5.2 To reimport from the RAM Structural System


1. Select File > Import RSS .
A file dialog box will open with the name of the last RSS file you imported into this RAM Concept file.
2. Select the RSS file and click OK.
The file can be a different RSS file which may have a significant (and possibly negative) effect on the RAM
Concept model.
The RAM Structural System Import dialog box will appear with a list of options. The default options will be
the story and slab type from the last import.
3. Select the story, slab type, structure and loading and click OK.
A New Loadings confirmation box may appear that describes loadings in the RSS file that are not in the
current RAM Concept file. Click Replace, Add, or Cancel.
Figure 26: Examples of warnings for an import operation with different levels and structure type

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A confirmation box appears that warns about differences from previously imported data.
4. Click Replace or Cancel.
A RSS Import Status dialog box will appear with a summary and any warnings.
5. Click OK.

14.6 Limitations, Defaults and Assumptions


14.6.1 Limitations
Not all information stored in a RAM Structural System database can be transferred into RAM Concept .
RAM Concept models RAM Structural System data using either the ACI 318-99, ACI 318-02, ACI 318-05, AS
3600:2001, Eurocode 2: 2004, CAN/CSA A23.3-04 or BS 8110: 1997 building code. A RAM Structural System
database that has live load reduction set to China GB or Hong Kong will be imported using the BS 8110: 1997
building code; a live load reduction setting of NBC of Canada will be imported using the CAN/CSA A23.3-04
standard; otherwise the building code set in RAM Concrete is used to set the RAM Concept code. The building
code can be changed, if necessary after the importation is complete.
RAM Concept does not model beam fixity.
RAM Concept models a column end as fixed if the RAM Structural System column is fixed along either its
major or minor axis.
RAM Concept only models walls of constant height. RAM Concept will create a wall with the average height of
the RAM Structural System wall.
The lateral loads applied to the structure in RAM Frame Analysis are not imported.
RAM Concept ignores holes in walls modeled in RSS version 10.

14.6.2 Defaults
RAM Concept uses the following defaults for properties that are not defined in the RAM Structural System.
Beams
Surface elevation is 0.0.

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Columns
Compressible is true.
Roller is false, except above mat foundations.
Columns above mat foundations are pinned at the top regardless of the setting in the RAM database.
Walls

Neither the top nor the bottom is fixed.


Modeled as a Shear Wall.
Modeled as compressible.
The RAM Structural System cracked section factor is ignored.

14.6.3 Assumptions
All loads are applied to the surface of the slab.
Wall forces are applied as a linearly varying force along the length of the wall that is statically equivalent to
the wall forces and moments.
Refer to the following tables for mapping of RAM load cases and types to RAM Concept s loadings and force
levels.
Table 5: RAM Modeler Force Level Assumptions
RSS Load Type

RAM Concept Loading

RAM Concept Loading Force Level


(Limit State)

Wind

Wind

Service *

Seismic

Seismic

Ultimate *

Other

Seismic

Ultimate *

Virtual

Ignored

Note: * denotes assumed


Table 6: RAM Frame Load Cases
RSS Load Case Type

Sub-Type

RAM Concept Loading

RAM Concept Loading


Force Level (Limit State)

Wind

User defined story forces

Wind

Service *

Wind

all others

Wind

Service

Seismic

User defined story forces

Seismic

Ultimate *

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Tight integration with the RAM Structural System

RSS Load Case Type

Sub-Type

RAM Concept Loading

RAM Concept Loading


Force Level (Limit State)

Seismic

UBC 94

Seismic

Service

Seismic

all others

Seismic

Ultimate

Dynamic

Eigen solution

Ignored

Dynamic

all others

Ignored

User defined story forces

Seismic

Center of rigidity

Ignored

Virtual Work

Ignored

Ultimate *

Note: * denotes assumed

14.7 Tight integration with the RAM Structural System


Starting with version 14.5, the RAM Structural System can be used to control the model data exported, run
Concept, and manage the Concept data file as part of the RSS model file. Selection of the data to be imported into
Concept is very similar to that described here. For more information, refer to the RSS Structural System
documentation.
Concept executes in a restricted mode when it is run from RAM Manager. The following operations are disabled:

New
Open
Close
Save As
Save Template
Strip Wizard
Sync ISM / New from Repository
All Sync RSS Operations
All Sync STAAD Operations

These restrictions are in place primarily to maintain the integrity of the Concept files when they are imbedded in
the RSS model file.

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Data Transfer from STAAD


The STAAD analysis and design program can transfer structure geometry and loading information to RAM
Concept .

15.1 STAAD Interface


In STAAD, you can select slabs elements, wall elements, column elements and beams for export into RAM
Concept . You can also select STAAD load cases for export and associate them with RAM Concept loading types.
The STAAD interface allows you to either run RAM Concept immediately with the exported data or to save the
data to a GCFF file for later import into RAM Concept .
If the STAAD file changes (perhaps loads or column sizes change), you can update the RAM Concept file by reexporting the STAAD information.
Please see the STAAD manuals for more information on the STAAD interface.

15.2 RAM Concept Interface


15.2.1 Data Transfer Paths
RAM Concept can import STAAD information in four ways:
1.
2.
3.
4.

RAM Concept is started by STAAD to create a new file.


RAM Concept is started by STAAD to update a previously created file.
The RAM Concept File menu item New From STAAD GCFF file is chosen to create a new file.
The RAM Concept File menu item Update from STAAD GCFF file is chosen to update an already opened RAM
Concept file.

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15.2.2 New file options in RAM Concept


When creating a new file from STAAD information - either via the New from STAAD GCFF file menu item or by
STAAD starting RAM Concept , the dialog box shown in the following figure opens.

Figure 27: File options dialog box

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The options at the top of the dialog window are the same as for creating any new RAM Concept file and are not
discussed further here.
The checkboxes at the bottom of the window allow you to import one or more of the following classes of
information: slabs (including beams), walls, columns and loads.

15.2.3 Update file options in RAM Concept


When updating a ConceptRAM Concept file with new STAAD information - either via the Update From STAAD
GCFF file menu item or by STAAD starting RAM Concept , the following dialog box opens.

Figure 28: Update file options dialog box


The options in the window are the same as those discussed in New file options in RAM Concept, but behave
slightly differently due to the operation being an update. For example if Columns is selected, all existing
columns will be removed and new columns defined by the STAAD information. If Columns is not selected, no
changes will be made to the columns in the RAM Concept file.

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Data Transfer from ISM


RAM Concept can exchange structure information with Bentleys Integrated Structural Model (ISM) technology.

16.1 What is ISM?


Bentleys Integrated Structural Model (ISM) is a technology for sharing structural engineering project
information among structural modeling, analysis, design, drafting and detailing applications. ISM is similar to
Building Information Modeling (BIM), but focuses on the information that is important in the design,
construction and modification of the load bearing components of buildings, bridges and other structures.

16.1.1 Purpose
There are two related purposes for ISM:
The transfer of structural information between applications.
The coordination of structural information between applications.
To provide for transferring information, ISM provides a means of defining, storing, reading and querying ISM
models.
To provide for coordination of information, ISM can detect differences between ISM models, allowing you to
selectively update either an ISM repository or an applications data. This gives you control over the consistency
between the two data sets.

16.1.2 ISM and Application Data


ISM is not intended to store all of the information that all of its client applications contain. Rather, it is intended
to store and communicate a consensus view of data that is common to two or more of its client applications, such
as RAM Concept .
RAM Concept continues to hold and maintain its own private copy of project data. Some of RAM Concept s data
will duplicate that of the associated ISM repository. RAM Concept s data may even conflict with that in the ISM
repository. RAM Concept (or you as its user) may decide that maintaining conflicting data is best for RAM
Concept s and ISMs different uses.

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16.2 ISM Sync Tools Overview


RAM Concept can send structural data to and from an ISM repository through a set of ISM synchronization tools.
These tools allow you to both create and update RAM Concept models as well as ISM repositories. These flexible
tools also allow you to create models and move data as your workflow dictates.
There are four ISM operations:
Create ISM repository: creates a new ISM repository from the model currently open in RAM Concept .
Create RAM Concept file: creates a new RAM Concept model from an existing ISM repository.
Update ISM repository: transfers changes made to the current RAM Concept model into an existing ISM
repository, and allows you to accept some or all of those changes.
Update RAM Concept model: transfers changes made to the ISM repository into the current RAM Concept
model, and allows you to accept some or all of those changes.
When the Update operations are executed, the Structural Synchronizer update dialog opens to coordinate which
changes are to be reflected in the models and repository.

16.2.1 Create ISM Repository


To create an ISM repository from a RAM Concept model:
1. Select File > Sync ISM > Create repository .
2. Select the repository file and click OK.
The Export Story dialog opens, as in the following figure.

Figure 29: ISM Export Dialog


3. Type a story Name and Elevation (in the indicated units), and click OK.
The story name and elevation are both required.
4. (Optional) Type a Substructure name, if wanted.
If included, the substructure is created if it does not already exist and all ISM objects exported by RAM
Concept are made members of this substructure.

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5. (Optional) Set the Open Structural Synchronizer checkbox to open the Structural Synchronizer update
dialog next.
Use this window for manual inspection and filtering of the items to be exported.
6. Click OK.

16.2.2 Create RAM Concept File


To create a RAM Concept File from one story defined in an ISM repository:
1. Select File > Sync ISM > New from repository .
2. Select the ISM repository file and click OK.
The New File dialog opens, as in the following figure.

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3.
4.
5.
6.

Figure 30: New File (from ISM) dialog


Select the file's Structure Type.
Select an option for the Code and Units.
Select the story to be imported from the Story drop-down list.
The Substructure drop-down list is populated with the names of substructures defined in the ISM
repository. Either:
Selection

Result

select a substructure name

only the members within that substructure will be imported in the model

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Selection

Result

select No Substructure

no substructure filtering is applied to the selected story

7. (Optional) Set the Open Structural Synchronizer checkbox to open the Structural Synchronizer update
dialog next.
Use this window for manual inspection and filtering of the items to be imported.
8. Click OK.

16.2.3 Update ISM Repository


To update the ISM repository with changes made to the RAM Concept file, select File > Sync ISM > Update
repository . The Structural Synchronizer update dialog opens, giving you control over each change to the
repository. If the ISM repository cannot be found, you are given the opportunity to select its new location or
cancel the operation.

16.2.4 Update RAM Concept Model


To update the RAM Concept File with changes made to the ISM repository, select File > Sync ISM > Update from
repository . The Structural Synchronizer update dialog opens, giving you control over each change to the RAM
Concept file.

16.3 Import and Export Details


It is useful to describe here the differences between the ISM and RAM Concept models, the conversion process,
and how the RAM Concept model is modified to make the conversion process smoother.

16.3.1 Filtering
The ISM model is very general. It can represent diverse structure types, such as buildings and bridges, and
material types like steel, wood, and concrete. RAM Concept filters out any part of the ISM repository that it does
not model or is not relevant. The Update operations use the filtered model to determine the context of the
changes to be applied.
For example, RAM Concept filters out all steel members. When RAM Concept updates the ISM repository, it does
not need to replicate steel members in the model. The Change Management deduces that RAM Concept is not
deleting the steel members because it never read them in.
The RAM Concept filter retains only the following objects from the ISM model:
The imported story information
Concrete slabs, footings and beams on the imported story
Concrete walls and columns that are connected to the slabs or beams retained

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Static load cases and their loads that are applied to the slabs or beams retained
Concrete materials and curve member sections that are used by the members retained
Concentrated and area surface rebar in slabs
Layer parallel rebar inside and parallel to a beam
Rebar materials used by imported rebar
Straight, rectangular tie, and open U tie perpendicular rebar in slabs or inside and parallel to a beam

RAM Concept ignores the following ISM objects:

Non-planar slabs, walls, and surface loads


Sloped slabs
Modifiers and openings in walls
Beams, columns, and curve loads with geometry not equivalent to a single line segment
Beams and columns that do not have the Orientation, Section, and SectionPlacementPoint properties
set
Beams with a non-vertical Orientation
Duplicate load cases that correspond to fixed RAM Concept loadings
Hyperstatic load case cause
Rebar in walls or columns
Non-horizontal rebar

RAM Concept and ISM use slightly different terminology for structural members and loading types. The
following table is a cross-reference of RAM Concept and ISM type names.
Table 7: Concept and ISM Type Name Cross-Reference
RAM Concept Name

ISM Type(/Use)

N/A

Story

Concrete Mix

Concrete

Slab Area

Surface Member/Slab or Surface Member Modifier

Slab Opening

Surface Opening

Beam

Curve Member/Beam

Column

Curve Member/Column

Wall

Surface Member/Wall

Loading

Load Case

Point Load

Point Load

Line Load

Curve Load

Area Load

Surface Load

N/A

Section

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RAM Concept Name

ISM Type(/Use)

Rebar

Rebar Material

Concentrated Rebar

Concentrated Surface Rebar

Distributed Rebar

Area Surface Rebar

Transverse Rebar

Perpendicular Rebar

16.3.2 The ISM Model


ISM structure models consist of multiple stories. Each slab or beam is on exactly one story. Wall and column
members may extend through multiple stories and are connected to slab and beam members. Load Cases
contain point, line and area loads that are applied to exactly one member.

16.3.3 Slabs and Openings


ISM and RAM Concept model slab areas differently. It is instructive to describe the differences in detail here to
explain how the import and export operations are affected.
RAM Concept slabs are defined by a collection of slab areas and openings with arbitrary overlapping polygonal
boundaries. Each slab area defines material, thickness and surface elevation properties. An integer priority
determines which slab area or opening takes precedence where two or more slab areas overlap.
ISM slabs are defined by a collection of surface members with polygonal boundaries. Each surface member may
contain any number of surface member modifiers. The surface member and its modifiers define the slab
material, thickness and surface position properties. Modifier boundaries must lie inside the parent surface
member's boundary. Modifier boundaries may overlap, so modifiers have an integer priority to determine
precedence in overlapping areas. Modifiers always take precedence over the parent surface member. Normal
practice is for modifier priorities to be sequential, starting at 1.
A surface member may also contain any number of surface member openings. Like modifier boundaries, opening
boundaries must lie within the parent surface member's boundary and may overlap. However, openings always
take precedence over the surface member and its modifiers. In effect, surface members have an infinitely low
priority, surface member modifiers have an explicit integer priority, and openings have an infinitely high
priority.
Note: We use the term effective shape to mean the surface member boundary minus all of its openings. This
shape is not necessarily polygonal. Although not common, it may have holes and islands. The effective shape may
also be disjoint if surface member openings split it into pieces. We also use the term outer boundary of an
arbitrary shape. This is the shape with all interior holes filled. It may consist of more than one disjoint shapes,
but each shape will be polygonal.
Therefore, ISM surface member boundaries may overlap, as long as there is no overlap between the surface
member effective shapes.

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Importing ISM Slabs to RAM Concept


Importing a single ISM surface member as a set of RAM Concept slab areas and openings is straightforward. The
surface members and surface member modifiers are imported as RAM Concept slab areas. The openings are
imported as RAM Concept openings. The slab area created from the surface member is assigned a priority of 0.
The openings are assigned a priority of 90. The slab areas created from the surface member modifiers are
assigned priorities in the range 10-89, with an increment of at least 2. Modifier priorities are compressed where
possible (e.g., where two non-overlapping modifiers may be set to the same priority). A surface member that
overflows this range (i.e., it contains modifiers in a configuration that requires more than 45 distinct modifier
priorities) should be very rare. In this case, some of the modifiers will have duplicate priorities. You will need to
fix this model in the RAM Concept modeler and then update the ISM repository.
The priority mapping is applied to each surface member on the story. If the boundaries of surface members
overlap, it should only be in the opening of one surface member. The priorities of the slab areas and openings of
the overlapping surface member are offset by a multiple of 100 to make the RAM Concept model unambiguous.

Exporting RAM Concept slabs to ISM


Exporting overlapping RAM Concept slab areas and openings to ISM objects is more complicated. The ISM
repository creation and update operations will be less error-prone and less confusing if the RAM Concept slabs
and openings map directly to ISM objects. The RAM Concept slab area and opening geometries and priorities will
sometimes be modified before the export operation so that they will map directly to ISM objects.
The lowest priority RAM Concept slab area is expanded to contain overlapping slab areas and is then exported as
a parent ISM surface member. Overlapping slab areas are exported as surface modifiers of the parent surface
member. RAM Concept slabs that do not overlap are exported as separate ISM surface members. Any RAM
Concept slab that does not have any effect on the slabs it overlaps is not exported.
ISM surface openings effectively have an infinite priority. In order to model ISM surface openings, any RAM
Concept slab openings that are obscured by higher-priority slab areas are first trimmed to their effective shape.
New slab openings are added to the RAM Concept model if the trimming operation splits an opening into two or
more pieces. Openings that are completely obscured by higher-priority slab areas are not added to the ISM
model.
The slab areas and slab opening priorities are compressed and reassigned as described for importing ISM
surface members. You will be notified when the shape or priority of a RAM Concept slab area or opening is
changed or when openings are added or removed. You can stop the export operation at any point and the RAM
Concept model will not be changed.

Small Features
Changing the shape of a slab can sometimes introduce small features that are not detected until the model is
meshed. For example, the corner of a drop cap might extend slightly past the edge of the lowest priority slab.
When the lowest priority slab is extended to contain the drop cap, it may have a very small (< 50 mm) edge. The
Line too short (39.1.2) or Feature eliminated (39.1.3) warnings will be generated when meshing the model.
Removing these features will generally not hurt anything, but it is best to fix them manually in RAM Concept and
update the ISM repository to eliminate future warnings.

Slab Modeling Guidelines


Almost any RAM Concept slab model can be converted to an equivalent ISM model. Following these modeling
guidelines in RAM Concept will reduce the chance of problems in model consistency.

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Drop Caps and Panels, on the interior or exterior, should not be modeled by adding openings to a slab and
filling them with other slabs. Instead, increase the priority on the drop panel slabs so that they override the
base slab.
Slab area islands can be handled properly if modeled with care. A slab area island is completely contained
within, and higher priority than, a slab opening. The slab opening is contained within or on the edge of, and
higher priority than, another slab area. If the island slab area does not overlap the outer slab area's effective
shape, it will converted into a separate ISM surface member. The preferred ISM model is a surface member
with an opening and a modifier. This can be accomplished by splitting the opening so that it surrounds the
island slab without covering the larger slab. If the RAM Concept slab is constructed with openings whose
priorities are larger than all of the slab areas, then it will map correctly to the ISM surface member.

16.3.4 Support Members


ISM wall and column definitions are much more flexible than those in RAM Concept . However, because most
building structures have regular features such as vertical columns, this normally wont be a significant issue.
An ISM repository models an entire building. Support members may extend through all stories of the building
and be connected to members on each story. ISM walls are surface members; they may be as complex as slabs,
with openings, arbitrary shapes and thickness variations. Walls and columns can also be sloped.
On the other hand, RAM Concept only models vertical support members, and their height is assumed to extend
just to the next slab above or below. RAM Concept walls are rectangular and openings are not supported.

Importing ISM Support Members to RAM Concept


RAM Concept imports only ISM support members that are connected to a slab or beam that is on the story
imported. RAM Concept creates one or two support members above and below the imported slab. RAM Concept
models the support member height from the imported story to the next connected slab or beam above (or
below), or to the end of the member if it is not connected to another story above (or below). If the ISM support
member ends at the imported story or the next connected story, RAM Concept models the complete support
height to that end. If the support member does not terminate on one of these stories, the RAM Concept member
height is modeled from the elevation midpoint of all slabs and beams connected to it on that story.
RAM Concept will not create support members shorter than 500 mm for cases where the member extends only a
short distance past the import story. If the ISM support member is sloped, RAM Concept models the sloped
length of the member, not the difference in elevation of ends (i.e. the modeled height will be greater than the
elevation difference).
For example, consider a column that is connected to a slab on the imported story and stories above and below,
and ends on the stories above and below. The column heights will be computed relative to the elevation
midpoint of the imported slab. If a drop cap or deep beam is added to the imported slab and connected to the
column in the ISM repository, the elevation midpoint imported slab will shift downward. When the RAM Concept
model is updated, the RAM Concept column height above will increase and the column height below will
decrease by equal amounts.

Exporting Concept Support Members to ISM


When exporting support members to ISM, pairs of matching support members at the same location are merged
to create a single ISM support member. Two support members are merged only if all of their properties match
(e.g., concrete mix, thickness, etc.), and either they were imported from the same ISM support member, or they

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are both new in RAM Concept . If a pair of support members at a location cannot be merged, then two ISM
support members are exported.
The support member exported by RAM Concept extends only to the ends of the heights modeled in RAM
Concept , relative to the center of the slab or beam the support member passes through. Dealing with this
geometry approximation requires some care when updating RAM Concept or ISM. When updating RAM Concept
from ISM, the RAM Concept model may have shortened support members. In general, the ISM geometry can be
accepted to capture changes made to the repository, and RAM Concept will just create a new approximation.
There are times when you should reject changes to the RAM Concept support member geometry. For example,
when the RAM Concept support member geometry has been adjusted to compensate for a problem in the RAM
Concept approximation. In those cases, the Reject setting in the Structural Synchronizer update dialog will
prevent the RAM Concept geometry from changing.
It is usually not desirable to update the ISM repository with the approximate RAM Concept support member
geometry. For this reason, updating the ISM repository support member is disabled by default. See 16.3.10 for
information on enabling updates to support members. If updating support members is enabled, you can decide
which properties should be changed. The support member geometrydefined by the Location or Boundary
propertiescan be updated for simple one or two story support members. Changes to concrete mixes,
dimensions or column orientation can also be updated.

16.3.5 ISM Section Shapes


ISM supports a wide array of section shapes, including parametric sections, custom section shapes, composite
sections, and linearly varying sections. RAM Concept supports only two section shapes: solid rectangles for
beams and solid rectangles or circles for columns. RAM Concept must therefore create a rectangular or circular
approximation for any non-rectangular or non-circular ISM section shape.
ISM Parametric Sections use a small number of parameters to define the most common section shapes. For
column members, RAM Concept maps solid and hollow circular ISM parametric section shapes to solid circles.
All other parametric shapes for beams and columns are approximated by rectangles.
The following table shows the width and height the RAM Concept rectangular section approximations for each
ISM Parametric Section Type:
Table 8: Rectangular Section Approximations to ISM Parametric Section Shapes
ISM Parametric Section Type

RAM Concept Width

RAM Concept Height

Solid Rectangle

Width

Height

Hollow Rectangle

Width

Height

Solid Circle

Outer Diameter

Outer Diameter

Hollow Circle

Diameter

Diameter

Web Thickness

Depth

Web Thickness

Depth

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ISM Parametric Section Type

RAM Concept Width

RAM Concept Height

Thickness

Depth

Web Thickness

Depth

Double L

2Thickness

Depth

Double T

2Web Thickness

Depth

ISM also defines Custom, Built Up and Varying section shapes. ISM Custom sections are defined by an arbitrary
geometric shape. RAM Concept approximates Custom sections by a square of the same area. ISM Built Up
sections are composites of other parametric or custom sections. RAM Concept approximates Built Up sections by
a square with the area of the sum of the areas of the section's components.
ISM Varying sections vary shape linearly along a member. RAM Concept approximates a Varying section shape
by applying the rules for constant sections to the start of the first varying section segment.
When updating an ISM repository, RAM Concept section approximations will appear as changes in the Structural
Synchronizer update dialog. The Change action on these changes can be set to Always Reject to prevent the ISM
sections from being replaced.

16.3.6 ISM Load Cases and Loads


ISM Load Case objects and their Load Cause property are analogous to RAM Concept Loadings and their Loading
Type property. The following table gives the RAM Concept Loading Type imported for each ISM Dead Load
Cause.
Table 9: Concept Dead Loading Types Imported
Ism Load Cause

RAM Concept Loading Type

DeadConstruction

Stressing Dead

DeadStructure

Other Dead

DeadSuperimposed

Other Dead

DeadUnspecified

Other Dead

The following table gives the RAM Concept Loading Type imported for each ISM Floor Load Cause.
Table 10: Concept Floor Loading Types Imported
Ism Load Cause

RAM Concept Loading Type

FloorAssembly

Live Unreducible

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Ism Load Cause

RAM Concept Loading Type

FloorOffice

Live Reducible

FloorResidential

Live Reducible

FloorRetail

Live Reducible

FloorStorage

Live Storage

FloorUnspecified

Live Reducible

ParkingHeavy

Live Parking

ParkingLight

Live Parking

ParkingUnspecified

Live Parking

The following table gives the RAM Concept Loading Type imported for each ISM Roof Load Cause
Table 11: Concept Roof Loading Types Imported
Ism Load Cause

RAM Concept Loading Type

RoofAccess

Live Roof

RoofRain

Live Roof

RoofSnowDrift

Snow

RoofSnowUniform

Snow

RoofSnowUnspecified

Snow

RoofUnspecified

Live Roof

The following table gives the RAM Concept Loading Type imported for each ISM Lateral Load Cause.
Table 12: Concept Lateral Loading Types Imported
Ism Load Cause

RAM Concept Loading Type

SeismicService

Seismic Service

SeismicUltimate

Seismic Ultimate

SeismicUnspecified

Seismic Ultimate

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Ism Load Cause

RAM Concept Loading Type

WindService

Wind Service

WindUltimate

Wind Ultimate

WindUnspecified

Wind Service

The following table gives the RAM Concept Loading Type imported for each ISM Other Load Cause.
Table 13: Concept Other Loading Types Imported
Ism Load Cause

RAM Concept Loading Type

EarthPressureService

Other

EarthPressureUltimate

Other

EarthPressureUnspecified

Other

FloorConstruction

Other

FluidContained

Other

FluidUncontained

Other

FluidUnspecified

Other

GroundWaterPressure

Other

Hydrodynamic

Other

Hydrostatic

Other

Ice

Other

Other

Other

PostTensioning

Balance

Settlement

Other

Shrinkage

Other

Thermal

Other

The following table defines the ISM Load Cause exported for each RAM Concept Loading Type.

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Table 14: ISM Load Cases Exported
RAM Concept Loading Type

Ism Load Cause

Balance

PostTensioning

Stressing Dead

DeadConstruction

Other Dead

DeadSuperimposed

Live Reducible

FloorUnspecified

Live Unreducible

FloorAssembly

Live Storage

FloorStorage

Live Parking

ParkingUnspecified

Live Roof

RoofAccess

Snow

RoofSnowUnspecified

Other

Other

Wind Service

WindService

Wind Ultimate

WindUltimate

Seismic Service

SeismicService

Seismic Ultimate

SeismicUltimate

The Balance loading is not exported to ISM by default. It is not always useful to other programs, and it may
significantly increase the size of the ISM repository. See the Options section below for information on enabling
Balance loading export.

16.3.7 Member Loading


RAM Concept loads are applied to the highest priority slab or beam they intersect. ISM loads are applied to a
single ISM member. When exporting loads to ISM, RAM Concept must determine which single ISM member the
load should be applied to. RAM Concept may have to split line or area loads that straddle more than one ISM
member.
A RAM Concept Point Load is applied to an ISM beam if it lies on the beam centerline. Otherwise, it is applied to
the surface member whose effective shape contains the point.
A RAM Concept Line Load that is completely contained in the beam centerline is applied to that beam. Otherwise,
the line load is trimmed to the effective shape of each ISM surface member it intersects. If the line load intersects

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more than one surface member or has a disjoint intersection with a single surface member, it is split into shorter
line loads and applied to the surface members they overlap.
RAM Concept area loads are trimmed to the outer boundary of the effective shapes of all ISM surface members
that they intersect. If the intersection is disjoint, the RAM Concept area load is split into smaller polygonal area
loads and applied to the surface members they overlap.
It is possible to create a RAM Concept model in a way that makes it impossible for RAM Concept to maintain the
accuracy of both the RAM Concept and ISM models. For example, consider a RAM Concept slab containing an
opening and a second slab inside the hole (an island). RAM Concept maintains the user's intentions by creating
an ISM surface member for each slab. If there is an area load covering both slabs, RAM Concept must create an
additional area load for the island slab. However, the larger RAM Concept area load will still cover the island
slab, so the next Update operation would create yet another area load on the island slab. Instead, RAM Concept
does not create a new area load for the island slab and will leave the ISM surface member unloaded. The
preferred method for modeling this configuration is to split up the larger area load so that it does not overlap the
island slab.

16.3.8 Rebar
Exporting RAM Concept Rebar to ISM
RAM Concept exports three types of rebar to ISM.

User Concentrated Rebar


RAM Concept User Concentrated rebar are exported as ISM Concentrated Surface Rebar. When the RAM Concept
rebar is entirely contained within a beam and is parallel to the beam centerline, it is exported as ISM Layer
Parallel Rebar. Plain, anchor, 90 degree, and 180 degree hook types are exported.

User Distributed Rebar


RAM Concept User Distributed Rebar are exported as ISM Area Surface Rebar. Plain, anchor, 90 degree, and 180
degree hook types are exported.

User Transverse Rebar


RAM Concept User Transverse Rebar are exported as ISM Straight Perpendicular, Rectangular Tie, and Open U
Tie rebar. ISM does not directly support shear rebar with 3 or more legs. A RAM Concept User Transverse Rebar
with 3 or more legs will be exported as a Rectangular or Open U Tie rebar and one or more Straight rebar for the
interior legs.
The RAM Concept User Transverse Rebar object is intended to be used in areas of uniform slab geometry. ISM
Perpendicular rebar are completely uniform with respect to the width, depth, and spacing of the bars. A RAM
Concept User Transverse Rebar that crosses nonuniform regions slab geometry will be exported as end-to-end
groups of ISM Perpendicular rebar.

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The actual width, depth, and spacing properties of the RAM Concept shear rebar are only determined after
analyzing the RAM Concept model and generating individual shear rebar. Also, no individual shear rebar will be
generated for a RAM Concept User Transverse Rebar if it is not required structurally. Therefore, a RAM Concept
User Transverse Rebar is not exported at all if individual shear rebar have not been generated for it.

Importing ISM Rebar into Concept


RAM Concept imports only rebar that reinforces slabs or beams that are also being imported. RAM Concept does
not import non-horizontal ISM rebar. It also does not import any incompletely defined ISM rebar type.
Rebar Type

Required Properties

ISM Concentrated Surface rebar

BarDirection
BarSpacing
BarCount
BarLength
LayoutDirection
LayoutPoint
HookLocalAxes

ISM Area Surface rebar

BarDirection
BarSpacing
LayoutBoundary
HookLocalAxes

ISM Layer Parallel rebar

LayoutPath

ISM Perpendicular rebar

LayoutPath

ISM Anchor, Hook90, Hook180 and None (straight) rebar end types are supported. An Unset or Other hook type
is imported as straight. Hook135 is imported as a 90 degree hook. LapSplice, OffsetLapSplice, MechanicalSplice
and WeldedSplice are imported as anchors.
RAM Concept imports ISM Concentrated Surface Rebar and ISM Area Surface Rebar into RAM Concept as User
Concentrated and User Distributed rebar. ISM Layer Parallel Rebar that are in an imported beam are imported as
User Concentrated rebar.

Importing ISM Perpindicular Rebar


When importing ISM Perpendicular Rebar, RAM Concept first clusters together groups of ISM Perpendicular to
define stirrups of 3 or more. Any Straight Perpendicular rebar that starts and ends on the first and last stirrup
bar of a Rectangular Tie or Open U Tie rebar is considered an interior leg of the stirrup. The Straight
Perpendicular rebars do not have to be spaced uniformly or parallel to the Rectangular Tie or Open U Tie rebar.
The groups of ISM Perpendicular rebar are considered User Transverse Rebar candidates, with the Rectangular
Tie or Open U layout path. The intersection of each candidate's path with each beam or slab generates a separate
RAM Concept User Transverse Rebar. Priority is given to beam intersections where the candidate path intersects
both.

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It may be the case that a single RAM Concept User Transverse Rebardrawn across nonuniform slab geometry
will be exported as several groups of ISM Perpendicular rebar. When the RAM Concept model is updated from
ISM, the original User Transverse Rebar object's geometry will be changed, and new User Transverse Rebar
objects will be added for the additional ISM Perpendicular rebar.

16.3.9 ISM Options dialog


This dialog is used to set options controlling the ISM operations.
Select File > Sync ISM > Options to open this dialog.

Figure 31: ISM Options dialog


Update Support
Members in ISM
Repository

Walls and columns in the ISM repository are updated only when this option is enabled.
This option is stored in the file; by default, support members are not updated. Support
members are always imported from the ISM repository to create or update the RAM
Concept model and are always exported when creating an ISM repository.

Export Balance
Loading

the Balance loading is exported to ISM only when this option is enabled. This option is
stored in the file. It is off by default, so the Balance loading is not exported

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17

Defining the Structure


The easiest and recommended way to define the concrete structure is to use RAM Concept s automatic meshing
facility (otherwise known as the Mesher). This approach requires that you define supports, slabs (of varying
thickness), beams and openings with objects that Mesher uses to generate the finite element model. You do this
on the Mesh Input Layers Standard Plan.

17.1 Using the Mesh Input Layer


There is no set order in which you must define objects. Some people choose to draw supports first, whereas
others draw the slab outline first. You can edit whatever drawn objects later.
If you have imported a CAD drawing, make it visible on the Mesh Input Plan before drawing the structure.

17.2 About columns and walls


RAM Concept allows for single story models whereby you define columns and walls below and above the slab.
Supports above the slab do not provide vertical support, only horizontal support and bending resistance.

17.3 Column properties


RAM Concept column properties are separated into two categories: general and live load reduction.

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Column properties

17.3.1 General column properties

Figure 32: Column properties: general


Concrete Mix Type of concrete used (defined in Materials Specification).
Height Vertical distance from centroid of slab element to far end of column.
Support Set Defines the column as below or above the floor.
Width Measured along the columns r-axis. Set to zero for round columns.
Depth / Diameter Measured along the columns s-axis.
Angle Plan angle measured counterclockwise from the global x-axis. It determines the columns r-axis (and is
usually zero).
Bending Stiffness Factor Used to modify the bending stiffness without changing the dimensions or height. For
example, you may expect an edge column to crack and rotate more than an internal column and so you might
consider setting this value to 0.5. You could use the BSF to increase a columns stiffness, but this is an unlikely
scenario.
Roller at Far End Results in zero horizontal shear in column.
Fixed Near Provides a moment connection (about x- and y-axes) between column and slab; otherwise pinned.
Fixed Far Provides a moment connection (about x- and y-axes) at far end; otherwise pinned.
Compressible Allows for column to elongate in the z-direction according to Hookes law; otherwise
incompressible. Compressible columns usually produce results that are more accurate.

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17.3.2 Live load reduction column properties


See Specifying Live Load Reduction Parameters.
Related Links
Specifying Live Load Reduction Parameters on page 318

17.4 Drawing columns


Each column is located with an x- and y-coordinate. Two columns cannot have the same coordinates unless one
is above and one is below.
Note: Ensure you are working on the Mesh Input layer, not the Element layer.
Note: See Setting default properties for relevant information.
Related Links
Setting default properties on page 81

17.4.1 To draw a column


1.

Choose the Column tool (


2. Click at the column center.

).

17.4.2 To copy columns from below to above


1. Select the columns and choose Edit > Copy .
2. Choose Edit > Paste . This pastes the new column objects in the same location as the original column objects.
The pasted columns are the active selection.
3. Change the Support Set property from below to above in the Column Properties dialog box.
Note: If you do not change the Support Set designation then there are duplicated columns that do not allow
the model to run properly. If you have copied a large number, it is tedious to delete the second column at
each location (one by one).

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Drawing walls

17.5 Wall properties


Wall properties are similar to column properties though instead of width, depth and angle there is thickness. The
fixity settings are somewhat different, and there is no Bending Stiffness Factor.
The following is a list of RAM Concept wall properties:
Concrete Mix Type of concrete used (defined in Materials Specification).
Height Vertical distance from centroid of slab element to far end of wall.
Support Set Defines the wall as below or above the floor.
Thickness
Shear wall Locks the wall to the slab horizontally and thus restrains it; otherwise, the slab can slide over the
wall.
Fixed Near Provides a moment connection between wall and slab about the walls r-axis; otherwise pinned.
Fixed Far Provides a moment connection about the walls r-axis at far end; otherwise pinned.
Compressible Allows for the wall to elongate in the z-direction according to Hookes law; otherwise
incompressible. Compressible walls usually produce results that are more accurate.

17.6 Drawing walls


The wall tool is very similar to the column tool except that it uses a line rather than a point. A wall can pass
through a column, or intersect another wall.
Note: Ensure you are working on the Mesh Input layer, not the Element layer.
Note: The Wall tool (
), Right Wall tool ( ) & Left Wall tool (
Specific toolbar. See Expanding tool buttons.

) share the same button on the Layer

17.6.1 To draw a wall


1.

).
Choose the Wall tool (
2. Click at the wall end center points.

17.6.2 To copy walls from below to above


1. Select the walls and choose Edit > Copy .
2. Choose Edit > Paste . This pastes the new wall objects in the same location as the original wall objects. The
pasted walls are the active selection.

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About point and line supports
3. Change the Support Set property from below to above in the Wall Properties dialog box.

17.7 About point and line supports


The result of defining a point support is a single support at a finite element node. The result of defining a line
support is one or more line supports that are each located at a finite element edges. RAM Concept uses the
thickness of the lowest numbered element in determining the support elevation. For this reason, it is not
advisable to locate point supports or line supports at slab steps.
All supports that have a horizontal rigidity should be placed at the mid-depth of the slab or they may cause an
unintended arch action in addition to their horizontal rigidity (mid-depth placement is done by setting the
Elevation above slab soffit to be one-half of the slab depth).
Normally there is no need to use horizontal fixities in point and line supports, as RAM Concept automatically
stabilizes the structure in the x- and y-directions (you can turn this automatic stabilization off in the General tab
of the Calc Options dialog box). One situation where you might use a horizontal support is a structure braced
against sidesway but modeled without bracing members (perhaps something other than a concrete wall
provides the bracing).
Be very careful about specifying anything but Fixed in z-direction for point supports and Translation in zdirection fixed for line supports. For point supports, fixing the point support in the r- or s-direction could result
in arch / membrane action. For line supports, fixing the slab translation along or across the support could result
in arch / membrane action.

17.8 Point support properties


The following is a list of RAM Concept point support properties:
Elevation above slab soffit Vertical distance between the point support and the soffit.
Angle (r=x, s=y@0) Allows you to set the local axes.
Fixed in r-direction Prevents movement along the local r-axis.
Fixed in s-direction Prevents movement along the local s-axis.
Fixed in z-direction Prevents movement along the global z-axis.
Rotation about r-axis fixed Prevents rotation about the local r-axis.
Rotation about s-axis fixed Prevents rotation about the local s-axis.

17.9 Drawing point supports


Each point support is located with an x- and y-coordinate. Two point supports cannot have the same
coordinates.

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Line support properties

Note: The Point Support tool (


) and Line Support tool (
toolbar. See Expanding tool buttons.

) share the same button on the Layer Specific

To draw a point support


1.

Choose the Point Support tool (


).
2. Click at the point support location.
Related Links
Expanding tool buttons on page 58

17.10 Line support properties


The following is a list of RAM Concept line support properties:
Elevation above slab soffit Vertical distance between the line support and the soffit.
Translation along support fixed (OFF for line of symmetry) Prevents the slab from moving along the support
axis.
Translation across support fixed (ON for line of symmetry) Prevents the slab from moving across the
support axis.
Translation in z-direction fixed (OFF for line of symmetry) Prevents the slab from deflecting up or down at
the support axis.
Rotation about support axis fixed (ON for line of symmetry) Prevents rotation of the slab about the
supports longitudinal axis.
Rotation about perp.-to-support fixed (OFF for line of sym) Prevents rotation of the slab about the supports
transverse axis.

17.11 Drawing line supports


You can use line supports as an axis of symmetry. This is very useful if a floor is symmetrical and you wish to
model only half of it. Be aware that line supports could prevent post-tensioning forces being applied to the floor.
Note: The Point Support tool (
) and Line Support tool (
toolbar. See Expanding tool buttons.
1.

Choose the Line Support tool (


2. Click at the support end points.

) share the same button on the Layer Specific

).

Related Links
Expanding tool buttons on page 58

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About springs

17.12 About springs


The result of defining a point spring is a single spring at a finite element node. The result of defining a line spring
is one or more line springs that are each located at a finite element edge. RAM Concept uses the thickness of the
lowest numbered element in determining the spring elevation. For this reason, it is not advisable to locate
springs at slab steps.
All springs that have a horizontal stiffness should be placed at the mid-depth of the slab or they may cause an
unintended arch action in addition to their horizontal stiffness (mid-depth placement is done by setting the
Elevation above slab soffit to be one-half of the slab depth). For slabs with varying centroid elevations, it can be
difficult to avoid adding a rotational restraint to the slab when using lateral springs and supports.
Normally there is no need to use horizontal springs, as RAM Concept automatically stabilizes the structure in the
x- and y-directions (you can turn this automatic stabilization off in the General tab of the Calc Options dialog
box). One situation where you might use a horizontal spring is a structure braced against sidesway but modeled
without bracing members (perhaps soil friction provides the bracing).
Be very careful about specifying anything but a z-force constant. R- and s-force constants could result in
membrane action.

17.13 Point spring properties


The following is a list of RAM Concept point spring properties:
Elevation above slab soffit Vertical distance between the point spring and the soffit.
Spring Angle (r=x, s=y@0) Orientation of the local axes. The plan shows spring orientation.
R-Force Constant Spring constant in the direction of the local r-axis.
S-Force Constant Spring constant in the direction of the local s-axis.
Z-Force Constant Spring constant in the direction of the global z-axis.
R-Axis Moment Constant Angular spring constant about the local r-axis.
S-Axis Moment Constant Angular spring constant about the local s-axis.

17.14 Drawing point springs


Each point spring is located with an x- and y-coordinate. Two point springs cannot have the same coordinates.
Note: The Point Spring tool (
), Line Spring tool (
), and Area Spring tool (
on the Layer Specific toolbar. See Expanding tool buttons.

) share the same button

To draw a point spring

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Line spring properties
1.

Choose the Point Spring tool (


2. Click at the spring location.

).

Related Links
Expanding tool buttons on page 58

17.15 Line spring properties


The following is a list of RAM Concept line spring properties:
Elevation above slab soffit Vertical distance between the line spring and the soffit.
Spring Angle (R=X, S=Y@0) Orientation of the local axes. The plan shows spring orientation.
R-Force Constant Spring constant in the direction of the local r-axis at each end.
S-Force Constant Spring constant in the direction of the local s-axis at each end.
Z-Force Constant Spring constant in the direction of the global z-axis at each end.
R-Moment Constant Angular spring constant about the local r-axis at each end.
S-Moment Constant Angular spring constant about the local s-axis at each end.
Note: If the force constant (or moment constant) is uniform you need to enter only one value. Otherwise you
need to enter two values separated by a comma (ends 1 and 2). This allows linear variation of the force constant
(or moment constant).

17.16 Drawing line springs


The line spring tool is very similar to the point spring tool except that it uses a line rather than a point.
Note: The Point Spring tool (
), Line Spring tool (
), and Area Spring tool (
on the Layer Specific toolbar. See Expanding tool buttons.

) share the same button

To draw a line spring


1.

Choose the Line Spring tool (


).
2. Click at the line spring end points.
Related Links
Expanding tool buttons on page 58

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Area spring properties

17.17 Area spring properties


The following is a list of RAM Concept area spring properties:
Elevation above slab soffit Vertical distance between the area spring and the soffit.
Spring Angle (R=X, S=Y@0) Orientation of the local axes. The plan shows spring orientation.
R-Force Constant Spring constant in the direction of the r-axis.
S-Force Constant Spring constant in the direction of the s-axis.
Z-Force Constant Spring constant in the direction of the global z-axis.
R-Moment Constant Angular spring constant about the local r-axis.
S-Moment Constant Angular spring constant about the local s-axis.
Note: If the force constant (or moment constant) is uniform you need to enter only one value.
Note: The force constant (or moment constant) can linearly vary in any direction.
Note: If the force constant (or moment constant) varies you need to enter three values, separated by commas
(corners 1, 2 and 3). This allows linear variation of the force constant (or moment constant) in two directions.
See the following figure.
Note: If you use the Area Spring tool to specify a varying force constant (or moment constant), Concept
calculates the unique value of the fourth corner (three points define a plane).

Figure 33: Area spring properties varying from 100 to 200 to 300 units at the first three corners. For quad areas,
Concept calculates the fourth corner value.

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Drawing area springs

17.18 Drawing area springs


You use the Area Spring tool (

) to locate the spring area corners.

Note: The Point Spring tool (


), Line Spring tool (
), and Area Spring tool (
on the Layer Specific toolbar. See Expanding tool buttons.

) share the same button

To draw an area spring


1.

Choose the Area Spring tool (


).
2. Click at the vertices of the area spring (or enter the coordinates in the command line).
3. Close the polygon by typing c in the command line or clicking at the first vertex.
Note: An Area Spring object can be larger than the structure it supports.
Related Links
Expanding tool buttons on page 58

17.19 About floor areas and members


Objects representing slabs, beams and openings define floor areas and members. Often these objects overlap.

17.19.1 The priority method


At any floor location, only one thickness (depth) is used, and the object with the highest priority defines that
thickness.
The thicknesses of overlapping objects do not add to define the thickness.
For example, you would expect the overall thickness of a drop panel located at a column to take priority over the
slab thickness. By assigning a Priority to each object, the automatic mesh generator understands how to
generate the finite elements.
The lowest Priority is 1. This is so that you can keep adding beams, thickenings and slab areas with higher
priorities. There is no limit to the highest priority (other than your computer and text overflow).
Note: Overlapping objects for slabs, beams and openings must have different priorities. Priority numbers need
not be sequential.

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About floor areas and members

17.19.2 Meshing beams as slabs


Beam objects by default do not need to have priorities specified. However, beams have an option to be meshed
Mesh as Slab using the priority method. Any beams using the priority method will be meshed first along with
slab and opening areas. The remaining beams are meshed last and are merged with the elements that result
from the mesh resulting from the priority method. Any gaps between the beams and other meshed surfaces are
filled during the process, although this will result in a warning.
Note: Supports do not have priorities.

Figure 34: Slab, beam and opening objects defined in the Mesh Input Standard Plan

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Slab area properties

Figure 35: The Element Slab Summary Plan after mesh generation from the previous figure.

17.20 Slab area properties


Slab area properties fall into two categories: general and behavior.
The following is an explanation of RAM Concept slab area properties:

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Slab area properties

Figure 36: Slab area properties - general


Concrete Mix Type of concrete used (defined in Materials Specification).
Thickness You define slab thickenings, such as drop caps and drop panels, by specifying an increased thickness.
Surface Elevation It is customary to set the typical elevation as 0. Setting the elevation to a very large value
(such as 100 feet or 30 m) may result in round off errors in the analysis. You create surface and soffit steps by
using different surface elevations for different areas.
Priority Generally, the typical slab thickness has a Priority of 1.

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Figure 37: Slab area properties - behavior


R-Axis defines an orientation for the slab. If the slab is a two way slab with identical properties in all directions
(isotropic), then the R-Axis is irrelevant, because there is no inherent orientation of the slab. However, if the
slab is not isotropic, then this axis (defined as the counter-clockwise angle from 3 o'clock) defines the r-axis
which is used along with the other slab area properties to define the behavior of the slab. The s-axis is always 90
degrees counter-clockwise from the r-axis.
Behavior This defines the slab areas behavior type. It has four possible designations:
Two-way slab The slab is isotropic and behaves in the same manner in all directions.
One-way slab The slab has normal bending stiffness along the r-axis and about the s-axis (Ms). The slab has
only minimal bending stiffness in the perpendicular direction (Mr). The slab also has reduced torsional
stiffness (Mrs). The in-plane stiffnesses are not affected by this setting.
No-torsion 2-way slab The slab behaves like a two-way slab, except that it has only minimal torsional
stiffness (Mrs).
Custom All of the stiffnesses (relative to the isotropic slab stiffness) can be specified by the user. These
values are called KMr, KMs, KMrs, KFr, KFs and KVrs. In general, we do not recommend using this option.
Refer to Orthotropic behavior for further information on the use of Behavior properties.

17.21 Drawing slab areas


Use the Slab Area tool (
) to define the slab area by clicking on each consecutive point (vertex). To close the
polygon, click on the first polygon point or type c and press <Return>.
To draw a slab area
1.

Choose the Slab Area tool (

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2. Click at each slab area vertex consecutively.
3. Snap to the first vertex and click to close the polygon (or type c and press <Return>).
Note: You can approximate curves by a series of straight edges.

17.22 About beams


In RAM Concept , you model beams as thickened slabs with the beam tool. You can assign properties that
differentiate beam behavior from slab behavior.

17.23 Beam properties


Beam properties fall into two categories: general and behavior.
The following is an explanation of RAM Concept beam properties:

Figure 38: Beam properties - general


Concrete Mix Type of concrete used (defined in Materials Specification).
Thickness is the same as beam depth.
Surface Elevation It is customary to set the typical elevation as 0. Setting the elevation to a very large value
(such as 100 feet or 30 m) may result in round off errors in the analysis. You create surface and soffit steps by
using different surface elevations for different areas.
Width The beam width automatically appears to scale.
Priority Generally, beams have higher priorities than slabs.

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Mesh As Slab If checked, this beam will be meshed identically to slabs using the priority method.

Figure 39: Beam properties - behavior


The beam behavior properties are very similar to the slab area properties. The beam R-Axis is automatically set
to the beam longitudinal axis.
Behavior This defines the beams behavior type. It has four possible values:
Standard The beam is isotropic and behaves in the same manner in all directions.
No-torsion The beam behaves like a two-way slab, except that it has only minimal torsional stiffness (Mrs).
Custom All of the stiffnesses (relative to the isotropic slab stiffness) can be specified by the user. These
values are called KMr, KMs, KMrs, KFr, KFs and KVrs. In general, we do not recommend using this option.

17.24 Drawing beams


You draw a beam by clicking the start and end points of its centerline using the Beam tool (
). Each beam has
six control points. The four additional points are automatically located so that the beam-ends are perpendicular
to the sides. You can stretch the corner grip points to define mitered corners.
Note: The Beam tool (
), Right Beam tool (
Specific toolbar. See Expanding tool buttons.

) & Left Beam tool (

) share the same button on the Layer

17.24.1 To draw a beam


1.

).
Choose the Beam tool (
2. Click at the each end of the beam centerline.

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Slab opening properties

17.24.2 To define mitered corners on a beam


1. Select the beam and choose the Stretch tool ( ).
2. Snap to the beam corner grips and stretch them into position.

17.25 Slab opening properties


There is only one slab opening property:
Priority Generally, openings have the highest priorities in the floor.

17.26 Drawing slab openings


The Slab Opening tool (

) defines an opening in the slab.

To draw a slab opening


1.

Choose the Slab Opening tool (


).
2. Click at each slab-opening vertex consecutively.
3. Snap to the first vertex and click to close the polygon (or type c and press <Return>).
Note: You approximate curves with a series of straight edges.

17.27 Checking the structure definition


After you have fully defined the structures geometry, you should check for obvious errors. RAM Concept flags
illegal modeling when generating the mesh. A list of possible errors appears in Chapter 18, Generating the
Mesh.
Once you have drawn all the support and floor objects on the Mesh Input Plan, you must generate the actual
finite element mesh. The structure does not exist until you generate the mesh.

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Generating the Mesh


There are two ways to generate the finite element mesh in RAM Concept :
Using the automatic meshing facility that uses the mesh input objects described in Chapter 17, Defining the
Structure.
Using the manual meshing tools.
The first method is certainly easier and faster. It is the recommended method for nearly all models.
The second method allows more control over mesh intensity. The mesh size can be more widely varied in
different areas of the floor, but editing is more difficult. Instructions for the second (manual) method are in
Chapter 19, Manually Drawing the Finite Elements.

18.1 Generating the mesh automatically


Finite elements do not exist (and hence there is no structure) until the mesh has been generated. You need to
have defined the mesh input objects (using the procedure described in the preceding chapter) before generating
the mesh.
It is preferable to generate the mesh as soon as possible, although it is possible to draw additional objects on
other layers (such as loads) before generation.

18.1.1 Deciding what mesh element size to use


When generating the mesh you need to decide what element size to use. The maximum is 32.8 feet (10 meters).
To speed the analysis, it is useful to choose a coarse mesh for preliminary design and a fine mesh for final design.
A coarse mesh might have an element size of span length / 6. A fine mesh might have an element size of span
length / 12. If in doubt, you should investigate the effects of different mesh element sizes.
1.

Click Generate Mesh (


).
The following dialog box will appear.

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Generating the mesh automatically

Figure 40: Generate mesh dialog box


2. Specify the Element Size in the Generate Mesh dialog box.
3. Click Generate.
The time taken to generate the mesh depends upon the size of the floor and the specified mesh element size. For
most models, the mesh generates in less than 15 seconds.
Note: Every time you generate a mesh, RAM Concept deletes any existing mesh and generates a new one.

18.1.2 Limitations of the automatic meshing


The main automatic meshing limitation is that the minimum element size is 50 mm (0.164 feet). RAM Concept
can usually overcome this limitation by adjusting the mesh input objects to generate a mesh. RAM Concept
moves mesh input line objects (for example, walls, line supports) to accommodate point objects (for example,
columns, point supports).
RAM Concept automatically adjusts the mesh input objects if:
Two control points are closer than the minimum element size.
A control point is closer to a line than the minimum element size.
Note: RAM Concept generates warnings during the meshing if it was necessary to make adjustments. You can
stop the meshing and make corrections. If you continue, you should check the mesh to see if the adjustments are
satisfactory.
Note: RAM Concept generates a warning if two slab areas (or beams or openings) with the same priority overlap.
You can stop the meshing and make corrections. If you continue you should check the mesh to see if the
adjustments are satisfactory as the choice of which slab area (or beam) governs the elements is effectively
random.
Note: RAM Concept moves two columns to the same point that you draw closer than the minimum element size.
A mesh generates but the model does not run properly if:
A column or point support is outside of the slab areas.
A wall or line support is partially outside the slab areas.
An area spring is completely outside the slab areas.

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Generating the mesh automatically
Two columns or walls of the same support set are duplicated (intersecting walls are allowed).

To avoid mesh warnings


Do any one of the following:
1. Adjust objects on the Mesh Input plan so that the minimum element size dimension (or more) separates
them.
2. Edit priorities so that slab areas, beams and openings with the same priorities do not overlap.

18.1.3 Viewing the finite element mesh


You can view the finite element mesh on any plan, but the Standard Plan of the Element layer is the preferred
plan to use.
1. Open Layers > Element > Standard Plan
2. The mesh generated at this stage appears to be somewhat random. This is normal and in fact, for sensible
mesh sizes it produces highly satisfactory design results. At times, however, such a mesh (adversely) affects
the contour plots.

18.1.4 Improving the mesh


You can significantly improve the mesh once design strips are drawn. The following diagrams show the
differences.

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Generating the mesh automatically

Figure 41: Mesh before Design Strips

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Selectively refining the mesh

Figure 42: Mesh after drawing Design Strips and Regenerating.

18.2 Selectively refining the mesh


Although there is no setting that makes the mesh finer in some areas than others, you can employ a trick to
achieve this.

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Selectively refining the mesh

18.2.1 Using point and line supports to refine the mesh


You can draw dummy point or line supports to ensure that the mesh is finer in particular areas. You must
ensure that all fixity boxes are unchecked, as shown in the two following figures.
A refined mesh example is shown in the last figure.

Figure 43: Point support dialog box with all fixity boxes unchecked.

Figure 44: Line support dialog box with all fixity boxes unchecked

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Selectively refining the mesh

Figure 45: Two slabs, identical in every way except for the implementation of line supports to refine the mesh.

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Manually Drawing the Finite Elements


Note: In most cases, you do not need to draw the finite element mesh manually. If you have used the automatic
method, there is no need to read this chapter
There are two ways to generate the finite element mesh in RAM Concept :
Using the automatic meshing facility, described in Chapter 18, Generating the Mesh, that uses the mesh
input objects, described in Chapter 17, Defining the Structure.
Using the manual meshing tools described in this chapter.
The first method is certainly easier and faster. It is the recommended method for nearly all models.
The second method allows more control over mesh intensity: the mesh size can be more widely varied in
different areas of the floor. The method is, however, more prone to user error and editing is more difficult.
Do not use the manual method to supplement a mesh made with the automatic meshing facility. This is because
manual elements would be lost if you used the mesh generation facility. For example, if you added a column
element above in the element layer it would be lost when you regenerated.

19.1 Using the Element layer


There is no set order in which you must define objects. Most people choose to draw supports first.
If you have imported a CAD drawing, make it visible on the Element Standard Plan before drawing the structure.

19.2 About column elements and wall elements


RAM Concept allows for single story models whereby you define columns and walls below and above the slab.
Supports above the slab do not provide vertical support, only horizontal support and bending resistance.

19.3 Column element properties


The following is a list of RAM Concept column element properties:
Concrete Mix Type of concrete used (defined in Materials Specification).

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Drawing column elements
Height Vertical distance from centroid of slab element to far end of column.
Support Set Defines the column as below or above the floor.
Width Measured along the columns r-axis. Set to zero for round columns.
Depth / Diameter Measured along the columns s-axis.
Angle Plan angle measured counterclockwise from the global x-axis. It determines the columns r-axis (and is
usually zero).
Bending Stiffness Factor Used to modify the bending stiffness without changing the dimensions or height. For
example, you may expect an edge column to crack and rotate more than an internal column and so you might
consider setting this value to 0.5. You could use the BSF to increase a columns stiffness, but this is an unlikely
scenario.
Roller at Far End Results in zero horizontal shear in column.
Fixed Near Provides a moment connection (about x- and y-axes) between column and slab; otherwise pinned.
Fixed Far Provides a moment connection (about x- and y-axes) at far end; otherwise pinned.
Compressible Allows for column to elongate in the z-direction according to Hookes law; otherwise
incompressible. Compressible columns usually produce results that are more accurate.

19.4 Drawing column elements


Each column is located with an x- and y-coordinate. Two columns cannot have the same coordinates unless one
is above and one is below.
Note: If slab elements are already drawn, you need to draw column elements at slab element nodes.

19.4.1 To draw a column element


1.

Choose the Column Element tool (


2. Click at the column center.

).

19.4.2 To copy columns from below to above


1. Select the column elements and choose Edit > Copy .
2. Choose Edit > Paste . This pastes the new column elements in the same location as the original column
elements. The pasted column elements are the active selection.
3. Change the Support Set property from below to above in the Column Element Properties dialog box.

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Wall element properties
Note: If you do not change the Support Set designation then there are duplicated column elements that do not
allow the model to run properly. If you have copied a large number, it is tedious to delete the second column
element at each location (one by one).

19.5 Wall element properties


Wall element properties are similar to column element properties though instead of width, depth and angle
there is thickness. The fixity settings are somewhat different, and there is no Bending Stiffness Factor.
The following is a list of RAM Concept wall element properties:
Concrete Mix Type of concrete used (defined in Materials Specification).
Height Vertical distance from centroid of slab element to far end of wall element.
Support Set Defines the wall element as below or above the floor.
Thickness
Shear wall Locks the wall element to the slab horizontally and thus restrains it; otherwise, the slab can slide
over the wall.
Fixed Near Provides a moment connection between the wall element and the slab about the wall elements raxis; otherwise pinned
Fixed Far Provides a moment connection about the wall elements r-axis at far end; otherwise pinned.
Compressible Allows for wall element to elongate in the z-direction according to Hookes law; otherwise
incompressible. Compressible walls usually produce results that are more accurate.

19.6 Drawing wall elements


The wall element tool is very similar to the column tool except that it uses a line rather than a point.
A wall element can pass through a column element, or intersect another wall element.
Note: If slab elements are already drawn, you need to draw wall elements along the edge of the slab elements.
The ends of the wall elements must be at slab element nodes. Wall elements cannot traverse a slab finite
element.

19.6.1 To draw wall elements on slab elements


1.

).
Choose the Wall Element tool (
2. Click at the wall end center points.

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About point and line supports

19.6.2 To draw wall elements where there are no slab elements


1.

Choose the Wall Element tool (


).
2. Click at the wall end center points.
3. Specify the number of elements in the Wall Element Tool dialog box and click OK.

19.6.3 To copy walls from below to above


1. Select the wall elements and choose Edit > Copy .
2. Choose Edit > Paste . This pastes the new wall elements in the same location as the original wall element
objects. The pasted wall elements are the active selection.
3. Change the Support Set property from below to above in the Wall Element Properties dialog box.

19.7 About point and line supports


The result of defining a point support is a single support at a finite element node. The result of defining a line
support is one or more line supports that are each located at a finite element edge. RAM Concept uses the
thickness of the lowest numbered element in determining the support elevation. For this reason, it is not
advisable to locate point supports or line supports at slab steps.
All supports that have a horizontal rigidity should be placed at the mid-depth of the slab or they may cause an
unintended arch action in addition to their horizontal rigidity (mid-depth placement is done by setting the
Elevation above slab soffit to be one-half of the slab depth).
Normally there is no need to use horizontal fixities in point and line supports, as RAM Concept automatically
stabilizes the structure in the x- and y-directions (you can turn this automatic stabilization off in the General tab
of the Calc Options dialog box). One situation where you might use a horizontal support is a structure braced
against sidesway but modeled without bracing members (perhaps something other than a concrete wall
provides the bracing).
Be very careful about specifying anything but Fixed in z-direction for point supports and Translation in zdirection fixed for line supports. For point supports, fixing the point support in the r- or s-direction could result
in arch / membrane action. For line supports, fixing the slab translation along or across the support could result
in arch / membrane action.

19.8 Point support properties


See Point support properties for more information on point support properties.

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Drawing point supports

19.9 Drawing point supports


You draw point supports by clicking at their location with the Point Support tool (
Note: The Point Support tool (
toolbar.

) and Line Support tool (

).

) share the same button on the Layer Specific

Note: If slab elements are already drawn, you need to draw point supports at slab element nodes.
To draw a point support
1.

Choose the Point Support tool (


).
2. Click at the point support location.

19.10 Line support properties


See Line support properties for more information on line support properties.

19.11 Drawing line supports


You can use line supports as an axis of symmetry. This is very useful if a floor is symmetrical and you wish to
model only half of it. Be aware that line supports could prevent post-tensioning forces being applied to the floor.
Note: The Point Support tool (
toolbar.

) and Line Support tool (

) share the same button on the Layer Specific

Note: If slab elements are already drawn, you need to draw line supports along the edge of the slab elements.
The ends of the line supports must be at slab element nodes. Line supports cannot traverse a slab finite element.
To drawing a line support on slab elements
1.

Choose the Line Support tool (


2. Click at the support end points.

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Point spring properties

19.12 About springs


The result of defining a point spring is a single spring at a finite element node. The result of defining a line spring
is one or more line springs that are each located at a finite element edge. RAM Concept uses the thickness of the
lowest numbered element in determining the spring elevation. For this reason, it is not advisable to locate
springs at slab steps.
All springs that have a horizontal stiffness should be placed at the mid-depth of the slab or they RAM Concept
may cause an unintended arch action in addition to their horizontal stiffness (mid-depth placement is done by
setting the Elevation above slab soffit to be one-half of the slab depth). For slabs with varying centroid
elevations, it can be difficult to avoid adding a rotational restraint to the slab when using lateral springs and
supports.
Normally there is no need to use horizontal springs, as RAM Concept automatically stabilizes the structure in the
x- and y-directions (you can turn this automatic stabilization off in the General tab of the Calc Options dialog
box). One situation where you might use a horizontal spring is a structure braced against sidesway but modeled
without bracing members (perhaps soil friction provides the bracing).
Be very careful about specifying anything but a z-force constant. R- and s-force constants could result in
membrane action.

19.13 Point spring properties


See Point spring properties for more information on point spring properties.

19.14 Drawing point springs


Each point spring is located with an x- and y-coordinate. Two point springs cannot have the same coordinates.
Note: The Point Spring tool (
on the Layer Specific toolbar.

), Line Spring tool (

), and Area Spring tool (

) share the same button

Note: If slab elements are already drawn, you need to draw point springs at slab element nodes.
To draw a point spring
1.

Choose the Point Spring tool (


2. Click at the spring location.

).

19.15 Line spring properties


See Line spring properties for more information on line spring properties.

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Drawing line springs

19.16 Drawing line springs


The line spring tool is very similar to the point spring tool except that it uses a line rather than a point.
Note: The Point Spring tool (
on the Layer Specific toolbar.

), Line Spring tool (

), and Area Spring tool (

) share the same button

Note: If slab elements are already drawn, you need to draw line springs along the edge of the slab elements. The
ends of the line springs must be at slab element nodes. Line springs cannot traverse a slab finite element.
To draw a line spring
1.

Choose the Line Spring tool (


).
2. Click at the line spring end points.

19.17 Area spring properties


See Area spring properties for more information on area spring properties.

19.18 Drawing area springs


You use the Area Spring tool (
Note: The Point Spring tool (
on the Layer Specific toolbar.

) and locate the spring area corners.


), Line Spring tool (

), and Area Spring tool (

) share the same button

To draw an Area Spring


1.

).
Choose the Area Spring tool (
2. Click at the four corner point locations of the area spring.
Note: An Area Spring object can be larger than the structure it supports.

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Slab element properties

19.19 About floor areas


You define floor slabs and beams manually with the slab meshing tools. Drawing elements manually requires
more thought on the drawing process. Poor decisions could require a significant amount of editing and
duplication of work.
Drawing elements manually also requires careful application of the tools to ensure that the side of each element
is the same length as the adjacent element. In other words, each element node must be at the corner of any
element that touches it. Elements cannot overlap.
You model beam elements as thickened slab elements with the same slab element tools. You model openings as
empty spaces in the mesh.

19.20 Slab element properties


Slab area properties fall into two categories: general and behavior.
The following is an explanation of RAM Concept slab area properties:
Concrete Mix Type of concrete used (defined in Materials Specification).
Thickness You define slab thickenings, such as drop caps and drop panels, by specifying an increased thickness.
Surface Elevation It is customary to set the typical elevation as 0. Setting the elevation to a very large value
(such as 100 feet or 30 m) may result in round off errors in the analysis. You create surface and soffit steps by
using different surface elevations for different areas.

Figure 46: Slab element properties - behavior


R-Axis defines an orientation for the slab. If the slab is a two way slab with identical properties in all directions
(isotropic), then the R-Axis is irrelevant, because there is no inherent orientation of the slab. However, if the
slab is not isotropic, then this axis (defined as the counter-clockwise angle from 3 o'clock) defines the r-axis

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Drawing the slab elements
which is used along with the other slab area properties to define the behavior of the slab. The s-axis is always 90
degrees counter-clockwise from the r-axis.
KMr, KMs, KMrs, KFr, KFs, KVrs Relative stiffnesses (compared to isotropic slab stiffness).
Refer to Orthotropic behavior for further information on the use of Behavior properties.

19.21 Drawing the slab elements


You can draw slab elements one or more at a time. Usually you would attempt to draw as many as practical in
) or the Poly Slab Mesh Elements tool (
one operation using the Rect Slab Mesh Elements tool (
would often mean drawing slab panels (with columns in the corners) in one operation.
Note: The Rect Slab Mesh Elements tool (
on the Element layer toolbar.

) and Poly Slab Mesh Elements tool (

). This

) share the same button

Note: You can approximate curves by a series of straight edges.

19.21.1 To draw a rectangular slab mesh area


1.

Choose the Rect Slab Mesh Elements (


) tool.
2. Click at two opposite corners of the rectangle.
3. Specify the element size in the Rect Mesh Tool dialog box and click OK.

19.21.2 To draw a polygon slab mesh area


1.

Choose the Poly Slab Mesh Elements (


) tool.
2. Click at each slab panel vertex consecutively.
3. Snap to the first vertex and click to close the polygon (or type c and press <Return>).
4. Specify the element size in the Poly Mesh Tool dialog box and click OK.

19.21.3 To draw a single mesh element


1.

Choose one of the single element tools (


).
2. Click at each of the three (or four) slab panel vertices consecutively.
3. Snap to the first vertex and click to close the polygon (or type c and press <Return>).

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A few final words

19.22 A few final words


Do not click Generate Mesh (
you have drawn.

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Drawing Loads
RAM Concept allows you to draw point, line and area loads and moments on any loading plan. These loads can be
in the directions of the global x-, y- and z-axes and the moments can be about the global x- and y-axes.
Each load belongs to a loading layer, such as Live Loading. You define each loading in the loadings window, and
draw the loads on plans.
There is no limitation to the number of loads defined.
Loads are independent of the finite element mesh and have no effect on the automatic mesh generation. This is
satisfactory for most loads. For very heavy point or line loads (such as on a mat or transfer slab), however, the
loads should correlate with the finite element mesh nodes. You can do this by drawing pinned columns and walls
above the floor, and drawing the loads at these locations with the help of snaps. Alternatively, you can refine the
mesh locally with the use of dummy slab objects. Refer to Selectively refining the mesh for further
information.
Horizontal loads may cause applied moments depending upon the elevation above the slab surface of the loads.
If a load is located at a slab surface step, RAM Concept uses the thickness of the lowest numbered slab element in
determining the load elevation. For this reason, it is not advisable to locate point or line loads at steps.
Importing a CAD drawing may assist you in drawing loads.

20.1 About self-weight


RAM Concept automatically calculates the floors self-weight for the Self-Dead Loading.

20.2 About superposition of loads


Point loads cannot be at the same location on the same loading layer.
Line loads can intersect or overlap, but cannot have the exact same length and location on the same loading
layer.
Area Loads can overlap, but cannot have the exact same shape and location on the same loading layer.
Overlapping loads are additive.

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Point load properties

20.3 Point load properties


The following is a list of RAM Concept point load properties:
Elevation above slab surface Vertical distance between the point load and the slab surface.
Fx Point force in the direction of global x-axis (horizontal force).
Fy Point force in the direction of global y-axis (horizontal force).
Fz Point force in the direction of global z-axis (vertical force).
Mx Point moment about the global x-axis.
My Point moment about the global y-axis.
Note: Although point loads need not be located at a finite element node, you should consider locating very large
loads at nodes. Point loads must be located on finite elements; Concept issues a warning if you violate this rule.
Note: Sign convention is defined in Criteria > Signs . See Chapter 8, Choosing Sign Convention.
Note: Horizontal forces (Fx, Fy) cause applied moments unless the Elevation above slab surface is set to apply
the load at the slab centroid.

20.4 Drawing point loads


Each point load is located with an x- and y-coordinate.
To draw a point load
1.

).
Choose the Point Load tool (
2. Click at the load location (or enter the coordinates in the command line).

20.5 Line load properties


The following is a list of RAM Concept line load properties:
Elevation above slab surface Vertical distance between the line load and the slab surface.
Fx Line force in the direction of global x-axis (horizontal force).
Fy Line force in the direction of global y-axis at each end (horizontal force).
Fz Line force in the direction of global z-axis at each end (vertical force).
Mx Line moment about the global x-axis at each end.

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Drawing line loads
My Line moment about the global y-axis at each end.
Note: If the line force (or moment) is uniform you need to enter only one value. Otherwise you need to enter two
values separated by a comma (ends 1 and 2). This allows linear variation of the line force (or moment). See the
following figure.
Note: Although line loads need not be located at a finite element node, you should consider locating very large
loads at element edges. Line loads must be completely located on finite elements; Concept issues a warning if
you violate this rule.
Note: Sign convention is defined in Criteria > Signs .
Note: Horizontal forces (Fx, Fy) cause applied moments unless the Elevation above slab surface is set to apply
the load at the slab centroid.

Figure 47: Line load properties varying from 10 to 20 units.

20.6 Drawing line loads


There are two line load tools.

20.6.1 Standard line load


The line load tool is very similar to the point load tool except that it uses two points rather than one point.
To draw a line load
1. Choose the Line Load tool (

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2. Click at the load end points (or enter the coordinates in the command line).

20.6.2 Perimeter line load


The perimeter line load tool facilitates the drawing of multiple line load objects around the perimeter, with or
without an offset.
To draw a perimeter line load
1. Choose the Perimeter Line Load tool ( ).
2. Click anywhere on the slab.
3. In the dialog box that appears, enter the Inset Distance, and click Apply.

20.7 Area load properties


The following is a list of RAM Concept area load properties:
Elevation above slab surface Vertical distance between the area load and the slab surface.
Fx Area force in the direction of global x-axis (horizontal force).
Fy Area force in the direction of global y-axis (horizontal force).
Fz Area force in the direction of global z-axis (vertical force).
Mx Area moment about the global x-axis.
My Area moment about the global y-axis.
Note: If the area force (or moment) is uniform you need to enter only one value per axis.
Note: The area force (or moment) can linearly vary in any direction. The area force variation could be for
snowdrift, or sloping soil.
Note: If the area force (or moment) varies you need to enter three values, separated by commas (vertices 1, 2
and 3). This allows linear variation of the line force (or moment) in two directions. See the following figure.
Note: If you use more than three vertices, Concept calculates the unique value at all vertices (three points define
a plane).
Note: Area loads must be at least partially located on finite elements; Concept issues a warning if you violate this
rule. Concept ignores any part of an area load not on a finite element.
Note: Sign convention is defined in Criteria > Signs .
Note: Horizontal forces (Fx, Fy) cause applied moments unless the Elevation above slab surface is set to apply
the load at the slab centroid.

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Drawing area loads

Figure 48: Area load properties varying from 10 to 20 to 30 units at the first three vertices. Concept calculates the
values at all other vertices.

20.8 Drawing area loads


You use the Area Load tool (

) to locate the area load vertices.

While it is neater to draw area loads that match the floor, it is satisfactory to make the load oversize. RAM
Concept ignores any part of an area load that is not on a floor element. Exaggerating the size too much affects the
automatic printing and zooming bounds.
To draw an area load
1. Choose the Area Load tool ( ).
2. Click at the vertices of the area load (or enter the coordinates in the command line).
3. Close the polygon by typing c in the command line or clicking at the first vertex.

20.9 Copying loads


You can copy loads from one Loading plan to another. This is convenient since in practice most loads have values
for more than one loading.
To copy a load from one loading to another
1. Select the load and choose Edit > Copy .
2. Open the loading plan to which you wish to paste.
3. Choose Edit > Paste . This pastes the new load in the same plan location as the original load. The pasted load
is the active selection.

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Copying loads
4. Edit the properties of the new load.
Note: You can copy, paste and edit multiple loads simultaneously.

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Creating Pattern Loading


RAM Concept generates pattern loadings based upon the load patterns that you draw. About load pattern
explains the principle of load pattern.

21.1 Deciding how many load patterns to use


Mathematically, there could a large number of floor pattern loadings, which would all have different results. For
practical reasons, the maximum number of load patterns is ten. This allows you to draw five load patterns in
each direction.
Typical pattern loading configurations are:

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Drawing load patterns

Figure 49: Beam Pattern Loadings. Note that these will not necessarily produce the maximum negative moments,
but they will produce moments that are very close to the maximum and represent a practical solution in most
situations.

21.2 Drawing load patterns


You draw load patterns as part of the pattern loading process.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Choose Layers > Pattern .


Open one of the load pattern plans (from Load Pattern 1 through Load Pattern 10).
Double click the Pattern Load tool ( ).
Specify which pattern number you wish to use (the number should correspond to the load pattern plans
number). Draw the on-pattern areas with a polygon.
5. Click at each slab area vertex consecutively.

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Load pattern filtering
6. Snap to the first vertex and click to close the polygon (or type c and press <Return>).
7. Repeat for all patterns.
Note: Regardless of which load pattern plan you are using, the pattern number will be the last one specified. You
will need to change this for each different pattern plan.

21.3 Load pattern filtering


Internally, RAM Concept resolves a pattern loading by determining which slab and beam finite elements are
partially or wholly within the related load pattern. The loads on these elements (the element loads) are
multiplied by the on-pattern factor. For elements totally outside the pattern, the element loads are multiplied by
the off-pattern factor.
Thus, RAM Concept s calculation pattern areas approximate the pattern areas that you draw. You should
consider this when drawing load patterns and choosing mesh size as it will affect the actual pattern loadings
generated.

21.3.1 Effect of mesh on load pattern


The finite element mesh regularity and intensity has an effect on the load pattern process. The following
example best explains the process.
Load pattern for four-panel slab

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Load pattern filtering

Figure 50: To generate the maximum My at midspan you would use this load pattern.
Actual pattern areas for an irregular coarse mesh

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Figure 51: The point load and some additional area load will be included in the pattern loading.
Actual pattern areas for an irregular fine mesh

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Figure 52: With the finer mesh, the point load will not be included and there will be less additional area load in the
pattern loading.

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Load pattern filtering
Actual pattern areas for a regular coarse mesh

Figure 53: This mesh generates a pattern loading with an area that closely resembles the load pattern.

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Load pattern filtering
Drawing design strips significantly improves the mesh. See Chapter 18, Generating the Mesh for more
information on improving the mesh.
Note:
The mesh becomes more regular if you generate or regenerate after design strips are drawn.

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Note: Design strips are perhaps the most important tool in RAM Concept . It is highly recommended that the
designer takes the time to fully understand what a design strip does, and how to use them. If you use design
strips improperly then the results will be meaningless.
Finite element analysis often produces high peak moments and stress concentrations which are inappropriate
for calculation of reinforcement and evaluating performance.
Code rules are generally intended for strip methods that assume an averaging (or smearing) of moment and
shear across a designated width, such as a column strip. RAM Concept uses design strips and design sections to
link finite element analysis with concrete code rules and concrete design.

22.1 Definition of a design strip


A design strip is an object that:
contains a series of cross sections at specific locations
is usually the length of a span, or part of a span, but can in fact have any length within the structure
integrates resultants (moments, shears, axial forces, torsions) for all load combinations along each cross
section (and, hence, across the design strips width)
applies appropriate code rules to the resultants
A design strip is the same as a span segment strip.

22.2 Design strip terminology


It is important to understand the different objects used to define design strips.
Span segment A line segment-line entity that is intended to indicate a portion of a structural span or a whole
structural span. The at support properties of the Span Segment indicate where the span starts and stops.
Span One or more connected Span Segments that together make up a single structural span. Nearly all spans
require only one Span Segment.
Frame One or more Spans that are connected together to form a continuous line of spans.
Span Segment Strip A set of cross sections associated with a Span Segment. The Span Segment can have up to
three Span Segment Strips (left, center and right). These are known as design strips.

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Understanding how a design strip works
See the following image for further explanation.

Figure 54: Design strips for a two-way flat plate.

22.3 Understanding how a design strip works


RAM Concept generates design strips from span segments.
A design strip is normally the length of a span with a logical width.
RAM Concept subdivides each individual design strip segment according to the following parameters:

minimum number of divisions


maximum division spacing
support width
changes in concrete section along the span

RAM Concept locates a design strip cross section at the start of each division, plus one at the end. The length of
each cross section equals the width of the design strip at that location.
RAM Concept modifies the geometrical properties of each design strip cross section according to the cross
section trimming and inter cross section slope limit settings.
RAM Concept integrates the resultants for each load combination along the length of each design strip cross
section (and hence across the width of the design strip).
RAM Concept uses some properties of each span segment to determine applicable code rules (beam or slab, posttensioned or reinforced) for the corresponding design strip.
RAM Concept applies the code rules to the envelope of the load combination integrals within a rule set. Other
span segment properties (reinforcement bar sizes, cover) facilitate the actual code rule calculations. See Span
segment properties for more information.

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The design strip process
RAM Concept separates design strips into two sets: latitude and longitude. The two sets are for convenience and
recognize that concrete floors should be designed in two directions.
Note: As with all plans, you can rename the Latitude Design Strip Plan and Longitude Design Strip Plan by
choosing Layer > Rename .

Figure 55: Column strip and two middle strips belonging to one span with cross sections visible.

Figure 56: Moment about the y-axis (My) plotted across one cross section of three design strips.

22.4 The design strip process


1. Create the span segments. Specify the default span segment properties by either:
Generate span segments (and supplement and adjust if necessary)
or
Draw span segments manually.
These two methods can be used in conjunction.
2. Create span segment strips.
You can create span segment strips from span segments with the Generate Strips tool. You cannot draw or
directly edit span segment strips.

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Span segment properties
3. Review and modify span segment strips:
a. Examine span segment strips.
Check the Lock Generated Strips box of any Span Segment that has satisfactory strips.
b. Edit span segment properties.
Use the Strip Generation tab of the Span Segment properties dialog to modify the span segment strips.
c. Edit span segments manually.
Use the Span Boundary, Strip Boundary, and Orient Span Cross Section tools to control the strip
generation.
d. Set cross section trimming.
This enables you to modify the concrete section used for shear and flexure calculations.
4. Continue by repeating steps 2 and 3 as necessary.

22.5 Span segment properties


Span segment properties serve different purposes. RAM Concept uses properties to determine the following:

design method (e.g. inclusion of axial force)


design strip width and cross section geometry
appropriate code design rules (e.g. beam or slab)
reinforcement
live load reduction

The following is an explanation of RAM Concept span segment properties:

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Figure 57: Span segment properties - General


Span Set Determines the set the span segment belongs to: latitude or longitude.
Environment The environment setting affects which service rules RAM Concept selects in some codes.
Refer to the appropriate code discussion chapter for more information:

Section 55.5.4 and Section 55.6.10 for relevance to ACI318-02.


Section 59.6.15 for relevance to AS3600.
Section 61.5.4 for relevance to BS8110.
Section 62.5.4 for relevance to IS 456.
Section 63.5 for relevance to EC2.
Section 64.5 for relevance to CSA A23.3.

Note: This setting has a significant effect on reinforcement quantities.


Consider Axial Force in Strength Design Uses the net section axial force in bending design.
This is a very important setting related to the effect of axial force resultants (not necessarily axial loads) in a
cross section. If you select this option, RAM Concept includes the interaction of the axial force with the bending
in the cross section strain calculations, similar to typical column design using strain compatibility. We generally

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recommend the consideration of axial forces in strength design. For sections with net axial compression this will
tend to reduce the reinforcement demand while for sections with net axial tension it will typically increase the
reinforcement demand.
Consider as Post-Tensioned Enables RAM Concept to decide which code rules are used.
This determines if the design strip segment is checked for initial service design code rules (for the Initial Service
LC) and whether RC or PT code rules are used (some codes do not make this distinction).
Note: If consider as post-tensioned is not used then Concept ignores tendons in strength calculations.
Dont reduce integrated M and V due to sign change The intent of this option is to allow for safe, conservative
designs where cross sections include regions of moment (or shear) with opposite signs that cause the moment
(or shear) recorded for the cross section to be less than that for a shorter sub- cross section.
When this option is selected, the design forces are always more conservative than when the option is not
selected. This option should not be used without due consideration.
See Using the Don't Reduce Integrated M and V due to Sign Change option for explanation.

Figure 58: Span segment properties - Strip Generation


Span Width Calc This determines how RAM Concept calculates the span width.

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The choices are:
Automatic: this applies (sometimes fallible) logic to calculate the span width as the closest of:
the Span Boundaries (in the same latitude/longitude set as the Span Segment)
the slab edges
half-way to the nearby spans or walls
Manual: this overrides the automatic calculation and determines span widths by the closest Span Boundary
items (in the same latitude/longitude set as the Span Segment). See Drawing span segments manually for
further information.
Note: When the Manual setting is used in a strip segment, all of the span boundaries for that strip segment must
be defined. A strip segment generates a span width of zero when some of its length does not have any span
boundaries defined.
Column Strip Width Calc This determines how the column strip width is determined. The term column strip
width is used for more than flat slabs with column and middle strips. The choices are:
Full Width: this is typical for PT slabs designed to ACI318 and TR43. The column strip width is the same as
the span width.
Code Slab: this is typical for two-way RC slabs, and two-way PT slabs designed to AS3600. The column strip
width is the narrower of:
the span width
the Strip Boundaries (in the same latitude/longitude set as the Span Segment)
a fraction of the distance to the adjacent spans or supports (for all current codes this fraction is 0.25)
a fraction of the span length on each side of the span line (for all current codes this fraction is 0.25)
Code T-beam: the column strip width is the narrower of:

the span width


the Strip Boundaries (in the same latitude/longitude set as the Span Segment)
the web width plus 8 times the flange thickness on either side (ACI codes only)
25% of the span length (ACI codes only)
the web width plus 0.07 times the span length on either side (AS 3600 and BS 8110 only)
the web width plus 0.058 times the span length plus 3 times the flange thickness on either side (IS 456
only)
the web with plus 0.07 times the span length plus 0.2 times the overhanging flange width on either side,
not to exceed 0.14 times the span length (EC2 only)
The web width plus 12 times the flange thickness on either side (CSA A23.3 codes only)
The web width plus 0.1 times the span length on either side (CSA A23.3 codes only)
Manual: the column strip width is the narrower of:
the span width
the Strip Boundaries (in the same latitude/longitude set as the Span Segment)
Design Column Strip for Column + Middle Strip Resultants instructs RAM Concept to combine the column
and middle strip forces into a single resultant at the centroid of the column strip cross section. The middle strip
cross sections will still be generated, but the resulting forces in them will be zero.
This can be useful, for example, when designing a beam with a column strip sized for the effective flange width
and middle strips for the slab between the beam effective flanges. Using this option in this scenario will result in
the beam cross section being designed for all forces in the entire bay. The middle strip cross sections will not
have any design forces, but can still be designed for minimum reinforcement.

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Skew Angle The angle between the design strip cross section and a line perpendicular to the span segment. The
typical value is zero.
Min Number of Divisions Determines how many design cross sections per span.
For N divisions there are N+1 design cross sections. It is generally advisable to make N an even number. The
upside of more divisions is greater design accuracy; RAM Concept s ability to find critical design locations and
length of reinforcement is a function of the number of divisions. The downside of more divisions is that
calculating takes longer; for large models, you might consider using a small number of divisions (say, 4) and then
increasing the number for final design (but you should consider the effect of the next property).
There is no reason for all design strips to have the same number of divisions. Should you be designing a transfer
beam within a flat plate it would probably make sense to have more divisions for the beam design strip.
Max Division Spacing Overrides the Min Number of Divisions with an upper bound on division spacing.
Detect Supports and Edges Automatically (resets supports and widths below) This detects:
the presence of supports at ends of span segments and overrides Consider End as Support and Support
Width.
where the span spine is near the slab edge and pulls back the closest cross section by x, where x is the bar
end cover plus 1 inch / 25 mm.
This is done by setting the support width to x.
If the spine end near the slab edge has detected a support, then the slab edge detection is NOT performed
(and the regular support width calcs are used).
Consider End 1 as Support These checkboxes allow RAM Concept to determine your interpretation of spans
in the structure. This determination of spans affects how RAM Concept applies code rules that are span-related,
including determining support regions, span regions and areas used in live load reduction.
Support Width at End 1 The dimension of the support parallel to the design strip. The support width
determines where the first and last design strip cross sections are located. Their locations are at half the support
width (measured in the direction of the span) from the ends of the design strip. This is to facilitate reduction of
moments to face of supports (it is thus important to start and end design strips at the center of supports). It is
conservative to enter the support width as zero.

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Figure 59: Span segment properties - Column Strip


Cross Section Trimming Reduces design strip cross sections based on geometry. See About cross section
trimming for more information.
Inter Cross Section Slope Limit Reduces design strip cross sections based on slope limits. See Inter Cross
Section Slope Limit Trimming for more information.
CS Top Bar The label used to identify the top face reinforcing bar used for flexural design.
CS Bottom Bar The label used to identify the bottom face reinforcing bar used for flexural design.
CS Shear Bar The label used to identify the reinforcing bar used for one-way shear design.
The label is not necessarily the bar size. Reinforcement bar labels (and their properties) are specified in the
Criteria > Materials . It is possible for different design strips to have different bars.
After completing the calculation process, RAM Concept reports design strip reinforcement requirements based
upon the bars specified in the design strip properties. You can view the required reinforcement area in plots and
tables.
CS Top Cover Clear cover to the top longitudinal bars.
CS Bottom Cover Clear cover to the bottom longitudinal bars.

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CS Legs in Shear Reinforcement Determines the area of vertical shear reinforcement by multiplying the
number of legs by the Shear Bar area.
CS Torsion Design The method used for torsion design.
See Torsion Considerations of Chapter 51, Section Design Notes for further explanation.
CS Design System The design system (beam / one-way slab / two-way slab) for the design strip.
Minimum reinforcement and other rules are dependent upon what type of system is in use in the span. For
example, the minimum requirements for beam stirrups are different to those for a one-way slab.
CS Service Design Type (Eurocode 2 only) The service design type for members defined as PT for the design
strip.
The choices are:
Stress: Perform a hypothetical stress limit design as prescribed in TR43.
Crack Width: Perform a crack width design in accordance with Eurocode 2 clause 7.2/7.3.
Stress & Crack Width: Perform both Stress and Crack Width design.
CS Crack Width Limit (Eurocode 2 only) The crack width limit w max to use when designing for Eurocode 2
clause 7.3. When Code is selected the values in UK National Annex Table NA.4 are used.
CS Span Detailer The detailing system used. See Span detailing of Chapter 53, Reinforcement Notes.
The choices are:
None
Code
User-defined
CS Min. Reinforcement Location Determines the face for minimum reinforcement.
The choices are:
Elevated Slab: Some minimum tensile reinforcement code rules do not consider flexural stress conditions; they
determine minimum reinforcement based solely on geometry and the expected tensile face. For example, ACI
318-99 Rule 18.9.3.3 stipulates that the minimum reinforcement at a column in an elevated slab should be in the
top face. This setting ensures RAM Concept uses that face.
Mat Foundation: Similar to above, you would expect the minimum reinforcement at a column in a mat to be in
the bottom face.
Tension Face: This setting details the minimum reinforcement on the tensile face, or the face with the least
amount of compression.
Top: This setting details the minimum reinforcement on the top face, regardless of the concrete stresses.
Bottom: This setting details the minimum reinforcement on the bottom face, regardless of the concrete stresses.
None: No minimum reinforcement is detailed.
CS Min. Top Reinforcement Ratio The user defined reinforcement ratio for the top face. RAM Concept
multiplies the trimmed cross sectional area by this ratio.
CS Min. Bottom Reinforcement Ratio The user defined reinforcement ratio for the bottom face.

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Figure 60: Span segment properties - Middle Strip


Note: Middle strips have one additional property to column strips. The rest of the properties are the same, but
can have different values to those of the column strips.
Middle Strip uses Column Strip Properties Sets the middle strip properties to those of the column strip.

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Creating span segments

Figure 61: Span segment properties - Live Load Reduction


Max live Load Reduction See Chapter 52, Live Load Reduction Notes for information on RAM Concept s
implementation of live load reduction.
User specified LLR parameters See Chapter 52, Live Load Reduction Notes for information on RAM
Concept s implementation of live load reduction.

22.6 Creating span segments


You can create span segments in two ways: automatic and manual. For most models you use the automatic
feature to generate span segments once in each orthogonal direction, and then make manual adjustments.

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22.6.1 Generating span segments automatically


Unless you have a truly one-way concrete floor, it would be usual to first generate one set of span segments (and
hence design strips) on the Latitude Design Spans Plan, and then an orthogonal set on the Longitude Design
Spans Plan.
1.

Click the Generate Spans tool (


), or choose Process > Generate Spans .
The Generate Spans dialog box appears.

2. Set Spans to Generate to latitude.


3. Select other options and click OK.
The span segments appear (with nominated orientation) on the Latitude Design Spans Plan.
You should repeat this process for the longitude direction.

22.6.2 Drawing span segments manually


You sometimes need to manually draw or adjust span segments for floors that are not rectilinear or have
complications.

To draw a single span segment


1. Choose the Span Segment tool ( ).
2. Click at the span segment start point.

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3. Click at the span segment end point.
The two clicks define the span segment spine.

To draw multiple span segments


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Choose the Span Segment Polyline tool ( ).


Click at the first span segment start point.
Click at the first span segment end point.
Click at the second span segment end point.
Continue to click segment end points until all related segments are drawn.
Right click and select enter to close the operation.

Note: Start and end points are normally supports. There are, however, exceptions, such as a design strip used for
a pour strip to discriminate between PT and RC areas, or used for a span with user-defined reinforcement in
discrete locations.

22.7 Creating span segment strips (design strips)


You generate span segment strips from span segments. This can be done for all strips (on both latitude and
longitude plans) or just selected strips.

22.7.1 To generate span segment strips


1. Select either:
the Generate Strips tool (

or
Process > Generate Strips
Note: The Generate Strips command does not generate strips for any span segment with the Lock Generated
Strips checked. This is useful when you are satisfied with some, but not all, of the design strips.
Note: Each span segment can generate up to 3 strips: a center (column) strip, a left (middle) strip and a right
(middle) strip. Together, these three strips form the entire span strip.

22.7.2 To generate some span segment strips


1. Select one or more span segments
2. Choose the Generate Selected Strips tool (

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RAM Concept recalculates the span segment strips for the selected span segments.

22.8 Defining span segment widths and strip widths manually


RAM Concept often generates span segment widths and strips that require modification. This tendency becomes
apparent once you have tried the span segment generation a few times. You should always examine the strip
widths to determine that they are to your satisfaction.

22.8.1 Defining span segment boundaries manually


You can manually define the span segment width when the automatic span width calculation has not provided a
satisfactory result.
To set the span segment width
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Choose the Span Boundary Polyline tool.


Click at the span boundary start point.
Click at the next span boundary point.
Continue to click span boundary points until all are defined.
Right click and select enter to close the operation.

Note: Boundaries with a span set of latitude (longitude) only affect latitude (longitude) span segment strips.

Figure 62: Slab with span segments.

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Figure 63: Strips generated from the span segments in previous figure. One span has some illogical design strips
because the calculated span width is excessive.

Figure 64: Regenerated design strips after modification of span width with span boundaries (shown inside ellipses).

Figure 65: The same span segment strips with the cross sections oriented to ninety degrees. This did not require
manual span boundaries.

22.8.2 Defining strip boundaries manually


You can manually define the column strip boundaries when the Column Strip Width Calc has not provided a
satisfactory result.
To set the strip boundary

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Defining span segment widths and strip widths manually
1.
2.
3.
4.

Choose the Strip Boundary Polyline tool( )


Click at the strip boundary start point.
Click at the next strip boundary point.
Continue to click strip boundary points until all are defined.

Unequal spans are a source of varying column strip widths. You can choose to accept the column strip widths
that RAM Concept calculates, or make some modifications.

BS8110 Clause 3.7.2.9


BS8110 Clause 3.7.2.9 states the following:
Columns strips between unlike panels: Where there is a support common to two panels of such dimensions
that the strips in one panel do not match those in the other, the division of the panels over the region of the
common support should be taken as that calculated for the panel giving the wider column strip.
The column strips in the following example are modified with logic derived from this clause.
The following three figures show the use of strip boundaries to control the column strip width

Figure 66: Slab with span segments.

Figure 67: Strips generated from the span segments in the previous figure.

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Figure 68: Strip boundaries have made transitioning column strip widths
Note: The short span segments in the preceding figure have Column Strip Width Calc set to Manual
The following four figures show the use of strip boundaries to control the column strip width.

Figure 69: Slab with span segments

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Figure 70: Strips generated from the span segments in previous figure. One span (with gray shading) has illogical
span width and column strip width.

Figure 71: Span boundaries have made a logical span width, but the column strip width is still a problem.

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Figure 72: Strip boundaries have made a logical column strip width.
Short spans and cantilevers present problems for the design because RAM Concept will generate narrow column
strips.
Codes recommend that columns strips are no more than half the span in width. RAM Concept makes the
(commonly used) assumption that the equivalent length of a cantilever is 2L. The cantilever column strip width
is thus L. This can be quite narrow for short cantilevers.

Figure 73: Slab with span segments

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Cross Section Trimming

Figure 74: Strips generated from the span segments in previous figure.

Figure 75: Strip boundaries have made a logical column strip width.

22.9 Cross Section Trimming


RAM Concept automatically trims cross sections in span segment strips according to the trimming settings in the
associated span segments.

22.9.1 About cross section trimming


True cross section shapes in a slab can be quite irregular due to slab steps and other forming or architectural
considerations. While it is generally advised to model the geometry of the concrete as per the form in the
constructed building, it is not advised to always use the true geometry in design. It is often better to modify cross
sections considering both their own shape and that of the nearby concrete.

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Cross Section Trimming
RAM Concept offers two types of cross section trimming: Single Cross Section Trimming and Inter Cross Section
Slope Limits.
Single Cross Section Trimming considers one cross-section at a time and modifies the cross-section based on the
user-specified trimming type.
Inter Cross Section Slope Limits trims the top and/or bottom of cross-sections based on the adjacent crosssections, their elevations, and the distance between the cross-sections.
Inter Cross Section Slope Limit trimming always occurs after Single Cross Section Trimming.

22.9.2 About shear core


It is important to understand shear core before using cross section trimming.
RAM Concept defines the shear core as the parts of the trimmed cross section that include any vertical slices
that extend from the top of the cross section to the bottom of the cross section, as shown in the following figure.
RAM Concept bases one-way shear calculations on the entire shear force and shear core. For example, in a Tbeam the shear calculations are based on the cross-sectional area of the stem and the flange immediately above
the stem.
Cross-sections can have multiple separate cores. For example, in a double-T-beam, the core is the two stems and
the flange areas above the two stems. RAM Concept typically considers this core to be the same as a single core
with the same (total) width.
Note: The shear core is modified for post-tensioning ducts as described in Concrete Core Determination.

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Cross Section Trimming

Figure 76: Shear core (shaded) for various cross sections

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Some odd shaped cross-sections do not have a shear core. In such cases, RAM Concept cannot calculate some
capacity values (such as shear capacity).

Figure 77: One cross section with a narrow shear core and one with zero shear core.

22.9.3 Shear core in slabs


It is common for RAM Concept to report unexpected shear reinforcement in slabs with section changes when the
trimming is not set appropriately.
It is quite possible for a slab cross section with a small shear core to show large amounts of shear reinforcement
or even design failure, even when the shear force is small. See Section 22.9.5 for trimming settings for
rectification.

Figure 78: Slab depression showing shear core (right). Such narrow shear core slivers often result in shear
reinforcement and design failure.

22.9.4 Viewing a perspective of design strip cross sections


Viewing a perspective of the design strip cross sections is a useful way of checking the validity of the design strip
cross section trimming settings.
1. Choose Layers > Design Strips > Latitude Cross Sections Perspective

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Figure 79: Design strip cross section perspective. Parts of the cross section not in the shear core are a different
color.

22.9.5 Single Cross Section Trimming


RAM Concept offers six different types of single cross section trimming:
Max Rectangle The top and bottom of the cross section is trimmed, and other pieces may be removed to
produce a cross section with a uniform top and bottom elevation, and a maximum area. The rectangle formed
may actually be multiple separated rectangles with the same top and bottom elevations.

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Cross Section Trimming

Figure 80: Untrimmed slab showing cross-section (left) and shear core (right).

Figure 81: Beam rectangle trimming (left) and Slab Rectangle trimming (right) showing revised cross-sections.
The shear core is now the same as the cross section.
Beam Rectangle Vertical slices of the cross section are removed until the remaining portion is the maximum
height rectangle possible. This rectangle can be multiple separated rectangles with the same top and bottom
elevations.
Slab Rectangle The top and bottom of the cross section is trimmed to produce a cross section with a uniform
top and bottom elevation, and a maximum width. If multiple maximum-width rectangles are possible, the
deepest on (maximum area) is used. The rectangle formed may actually be multiple separated rectangles with
the same top and bottom elevations.
T or L The top and bottom of the cross section is trimmed, and other pieces may be removed to produce a cross
section with a uniform top elevation, and only two bottom elevations (flange bottom and web bottom). The Tees
and Els formed can be joined (such as double-tees) or separated. Rectangles are considered the same as
flangeless Tees.

Figure 82: Untrimmed beam showing cross-section (left) and shear core (right).

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Cross Section Trimming

Figure 83: T or L trimming showing revised section (left) and shear core (right).
Inverted T or L Same as T or L, but with the flange on the bottom.
Max Shear Core The top and/or bottom of the cross section is trimmed to produce a cross section with the
maximum shear core area.

Figure 84: Untrimmed beam showing cross- section (left) and shear core (right).

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Cross Section Trimming

Figure 85: Max Shear Core trimming showing revised section (left) and shear core (right).
None - No (single) cross section trimming is performed.

22.9.6 Selecting cross section trimming


You must determine which cross section trimming is most appropriate, but the following is provided for
guidance:
Typical slabs with drop caps (but not The best trimming is usually Max Rectangle.
drop panels):
Slabs with drop panels (but not drop The best trimming is usually T or L.
caps):
Slabs with drop panels and drop
caps:

The best trimming is usually T or L, but this assumes that the drop
cap cross-sectional area is smaller than the drop panel cross sectional
area.

Down-turned beams:

The best trimming is usually T or L.

Up-turned beams:

The best trimming is usually Inverted T or L.

After a Calc-All, you can view the actual cross-section perspectives. See Viewing a perspective of design strip
cross sections.
Related Links
Selecting cross section trimming on page 231

22.9.7 Inter Cross Section Slope Limit Trimming


Once cross sections have been individually trimmed, they are trimmed relative to each other. This Inter Cross
Section Slope Limit trimming effectively trims the top and bottom elevations of adjacent cross section to limit the
slopes between them.
This is done because compression and tension forces cannot flow at sharp angles from one cross-section to the
next.

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Cross Section Trimming

Figure 86: Elevation of thickened slab. It would be unrealistic to use a design depth of t2 at cross-section A-A.

Figure 87: Elevation of effective design slab thickness using a slope limit of 0.25.
A slope limit of 0.0 will not allow any change between adjacent cross sections top elevations and bottom
elevations. This effectively trims all the cross sections in a span segment strip to have the same top and bottom
elevation.
In general, we do not recommend using a slope limit over 0.25.

Figure 88: Elevation of stepped slab. It would be unrealistic to use the full depth for all cross-section design

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Improving the mesh

Figure 89: Elevation of effective design slab thickness using a slope limit of 0.25.

22.10 Improving the mesh


The presence of design strips can significantly improve the regularity of the finite element mesh. We recommend
that once you have completed the design strips, you regenerate the mesh. See Chapter 18, Generating the Mesh
for more information.

22.11 Additional design strip information


RAM Concept automates a large percentage of the design strip process. It is relatively straightforward to
rationalize the layout of design strips when the support arrangement is rectilinear.
The more complicated the geometry the more you have to think about the design strip layout and make manual
changes.
If there is a lot of repetitive geometry in a floor then it should not be necessary to use design strips everywhere.
You should only use as many as required to adequately design the floor. For example, if a floor has many beams
of the same loading, tributary area, span and size then there is no need to use design strips for each similar
beam. This is just as you would not perform hand calculations for each of twenty identical beams. Not
withstanding, although slabs or beams may appear identical, continuity effects and other considerations may
have a significant influence and the results could be different.
It is better to define design strips properly in some critical areas than to cover the floor with unsuitable strips.
When in doubt, draw a design strip, but keep in mind that the number of design strips affects the calculation
time. Some engineering judgement is always a good thing.
Keep in mind that any area without strips will not have the finite elements improved when you regenerate the
mesh.
In general, design strips for one span set (latitude or longitude) should not overlap.
For beam and slab systems, you might consider placing design strips parallel and in between the beams. This is
because the beam strips only collect the moments and shears over the width of the strip. If the beams are not
significantly stiffer than the slab, there may be design reinforcement required for the slab.
The following sections discuss some situations with irregular geometry.

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Irregular column layouts
Note: See Miscellaneous tips for some more tips and hints.

22.12 Irregular column layouts


Laying out design strips for irregular column layouts requires consideration of a number of issues.
These include:
1. Skew angles: whether latitude and longitude design strips should be strictly orthogonal.
2. If tendons components from two directions are affecting the design strip.
The following sections discuss these issues.

22.12.1 Design Strip Skew Angles


It is intuitive that there would be a limit on the skew angle of design strips. One reference guideline is the
Eurocode (EC2: 4.3.1.1 P(8)): For slabs, deviations between the direction of the principal stress and the main
reinforcement of less than 15 degrees may be ignored.
This suggests that flat slabs / flat plates should be designed for two directions that are between 75 and 105
degrees apart, which means the skew angle should not exceed fifteen degrees.
The span segment property Skew Angle enables you to manipulate span segments such that design strip cross
sections are normalized in each direction.

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Irregular column layouts

Figure 90: Span segment 2-2 has an angle of 15 degrees. The skew angle is zero so the cross sections (shown in
Figure ) are perpendicular to the span segment.

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Figure 91: Design strip cross-section

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Figure 92: Span segment 2-2 has an angle of 15 degrees. The skew angle is minus fifteen degrees so the cross
sections (shown in the following figure) are parallel to those of adjacent spans

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Figure 93: Revised design strip cross sections.

22.12.2 Effect of tendon components on design strip cross sections


In many instances the latitude and longitude tendons may be detailed and constructed in a non-orthogonal
manner. This is often ignored in hand or strip calculations but it is a real issue that can affect design criteria such
as service, strength and ductility.
RAM Concept considers the force components of all tendons that cross a design strip cross section (or a design
section). The following figures show an example.

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Figure 94: A skewed design strip with three design cross sections. The latitude tendons are not orthogonal to the
longitude tendons.

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Figure 95: Perspective shows the central cross section is perpendicular to the latitude tendons which are at the low
point. Due to the layout the strip collects a component of the longitude tendon which is at its high point. This
configuration may cause design issues.

22.12.3 Examples of irregular grids


The following examples show design strip layouts for non-rectilinear grids.
Column and middle strips

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Figure 96: Irregular column layout

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Figure 97: Spans generated by Concept.

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Figure 98: Design strips generated by Concept. Span 3-2 has unsatisfactory design strips.

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Figure 99: Span 2-1, 3-2 and 4-1 deleted

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Figure 100: Manually drawn spans (2-1, 3-1, 4-1 and 5-1) after renumbering

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Figure 101: Regenerated design strips based on revised spans.

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Figure 102: Regenerated design strips after using the Orient Span Cross Section tool.
Full panel design strips for an irregular grid (ACI318 and TR43 post-tension design)

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Figure 103: Irregular column layout

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Figure 104: Spans generated by Concept.

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Figure 105: Design strips generated by Concept. Span 3-2 has unsatisfactory design strips.

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Figure 106: Span 2-1, 3-2 and 4-1 deleted

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Figure 107: Manually drawn spans (2-1, 3-1, 4-1 and 5-1) after renumbering

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Figure 108: Regenerated design strips based on revised spans.

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Figure 109: Regenerated design strips after using the Orient Span Cross Section tool.

22.12.4 Drawing design strips near walls


There are some considerations for drawing design strips near walls.
Omission of design strips parallel to walls
Since a wall is a continuous support, there is usually no need to design a floor over, and parallel to, a wall for
strength.
You may, however, be interested in the minimum reinforcement requirements and so a design strip could be
warranted.
Strips over or under walls will occasionally have unrealistic stress peaks as the forces and moments are
continually transferred back and forth between the wall elements and the slab elements. For this reason, some
designers eliminate span segments over and under walls.

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Miscellaneous tips

Figure 110: Column and middle strips with strip omitted over wall.

22.12.5 Changing from PT to RC design


It is quite common for a floor to have a mixture of PT and RC areas. For example, a pour strip (an area with no
post-tensioning that joins two post-tensioned slabs).
For most codes, PT design rules are different from those for RC. As such, you should use multiple design strip
segments in one span.
The following figure shows two examples of a slab with tendons stopping either side of a pour strip (in gray).
On the left, span segment 2-1 has been generated and extends from support to support. This means that the
entire segment is designed according to the Consider as Post-Tensioned option. If the option is checked, then
the pour strip design is wrong.
On the right, span segments 1-1, 1-2(2) and 1-1 (3) have been drawn manually. The Consider End x as Support
options have been unchecked, and support widths set to zero, where end x is at the pour strip.
The Consider as Post-Tensioned option is checked for 1-1 and 1-1(3), but not 1-1(2). The pour strip is thus
designed as reinforced, not post-tensioned, concrete. RAM Concept designs the PT span segments for service
stress rules and checks initial stresses, but not the RC areas.

Figure 111: Multiple span segments used to model an RC pour strip.


Note: You could define the pour strip to have orthotropic behavior such that it is very flexible in the Y direction.
This is done in the Mesh Input Layer. See Slab area properties of Chapter 17, Defining the Structure.

22.13 Miscellaneous tips


Middle strip support widths

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A final word on design strips
Middle strip support widths are the same as those of the associated column strip. Should you require to use
middle strips with a different support width (say, zero), you need to manually draw span segments for the
column and middle strips and use the span boundary tool.
Span segments that have no width
A span segment has zero width if the Span Width Calc is set to manual and some of its length does not have any
span boundaries defined.
Design strips (span segment strips) with no cross sections
You can specify a design strips minimum number of divisions as zero. Combined with a large maximum spacing,
the number of cross sections could then be zero.
This could be useful in affecting other span segments strip generation, without slowing down the calculations.
(The overall number of cross sections has a significant effect on calculation time).
For an example of this application, see steps 13 to 15 in Chapter 48, Mat Foundation Tutorial.

22.14 A final word on design strips


Design strips are extremely powerful tools, but that is all they are: tools. It is important that you understand the
calculations that these tools perform, so you can determine the appropriateness of the calculation for the
situation under consideration, and so you can set the tools parameters correctly.

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Defining Design Sections


A design section is the equivalent of one design strip cross section. You draw design sections manually to
supplement design strips.

23.1 Using design sections


There are situations where you may choose to use design sections rather than design strips. This would include:
In some areas, you may only require design information at one cross section rather than for an entire span.
A design strip may not provide sufficient design information.
A design strip may be inappropriate. For example, a slab step may not be orthogonal to the span (and design
strip) and you want the reinforcement bars designed perpendicular to the step. In this case, you might draw a
design section parallel to the step.
You find it is too difficult to define a design strip for an area with very complicated structural geometry.

23.2 Design section properties


Design sections have similar properties to design strips. See Span segment properties for definitions and
explanations.
The following properties are unique to design sections:

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Design section properties

Figure 112: Design section properties - General


Top Ignore Depth

The top concrete ignored in flexural and one-way shear design. See About ignore depths
for more information on this important issue.

Bottom Ignore
Depth

The bottom concrete ignored in flexural and one-way shear design. See About ignore
depths for more information on this important issue.

Figure 113: Design section properties - Design Parameters


Span Length

Used to calculate the following:


Minimum reinforcement rules for some codes.
The upper bound on f ps for unbonded tendons based upon the selected codes criteria
(these criteria often include a span length parameter).

Tributary
Length

This creates a zone over which the reinforcement required by the design section must be
provided (development lengths, if required, are in addition to this zone).
The zone length on the right side of the design section is the smaller of these two values:

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TributaryLength/2.0
(SpanRatio - 0.0) * SpanLength
The zone length on the left side of the design section is the smaller of these two values:
TributaryLength/2.0
(1.0 - SpanRatio) * SpanLength
The intent of the span-ratio-based limit is to restrain the reinforcement zone to within the
span, even if the design section is at the beginning or end of a span.
Note: The Visible Objects dialog can be used to show the reinforced zone to be outlined and
hatched. The region displayed also considers all the span ratio implications. The hatched
region does not display before a calc-all.
Span Ratio

Determines the location of the design section relative to supports and midspan.

Strip Type
(Eurocode 2
only)

Determines the type of strip defined by this design section.


The choices are:
Col. Strip (Full Width): Use design rules for full bay width cross sections (generally used
without middle strips).
Col. Strip (w/ Mid. Strips): Use design rules for partial bay width column strips (generally
used in conjunction with middle strips).
Middle Strip: Use design rules for partial bay width middle strips (generally used in
conjunction with column strips).

CS Service
Design Type
(Eurocode 2
only)

The service design type for members defined as PT for the design strip.
The choices are:
Stress: Perform a hypothetical stress limit design as prescribed in TR43.
Crack Width: Perform a crack width design in accordance with Eurocode 2 clause 7.2/7.3.
Stress & Crack Width: Perform both Stress and Crack Width design.
See Chapter 57, BS EN 1992-1-1:2004 (Eurocode 2) with TR43 Design for additional
information.

CS Crack Width The crack width limit w max to use when designing for Eurocode 2 clause 7.3. When Code is
Limit
selected the values in UK National Annex Table NA.4 are used.
(Eurocode 2
only)

23.3 Drawing design sections


When using design sections it is advisable to draw one set on the Latitude Design Spans Plan, and the other on
the Longitude Design Spans Plan.
Design sections are located by a line that has a start point and an end point.

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About ignore depths
1. Choose the Design Section tool (
).
2. Click at the design section start point.
3. Click at the design section end point.
Note: You can use relative coordinates to define exact lengths. Alternatively, you can draw User Lines to provide
snap points to define exact lengths.

23.4 About ignore depths


Design sections use the full concrete section available unless overridden by Top Ignore Depth or Bottom
Ignore Depth.
In many instances, it is inappropriate to use the full concrete cross-section properties of a design section for
flexural and one-way shear design since some concrete is not effective.
Note: Design section ignore depth settings are the equivalent of design strip cross section trimming settings.
See Cross Section Trimming in Chapter 22, Defining Design Strips for more information.

23.4.1 When to use ignore depths


It is sometimes obvious when to use ignore depth. Often, however, engineering judgement is required to
determine the use of ignore depth.
You should decide if the concrete is effective based on code rules and a practical assessment of the situation.
There are too many permutations of concrete form to lay down rules, and, as such, the following is for discussion
purposes only.

23.4.2 Examples of concrete form that should use ignore depth


The following are examples of when design sections should ignore part of the concrete cross-section.

Example 1
A two-way slab thickening that the building code deems does not comply as a drop panel. That is, a
drop cap. You should ignore the incremental thickness of the drop cap below the slab. RAM Concept
then only uses the drop cap for punching checks.

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About ignore depths

Figure 114: Two-way slab with drop cap that should be ignored for flexure.

Example 2
A beam or slab that supports an upstand that is not an effective part of the concrete section. You
should enter an appropriate Top Ignore Depth value.

Figure 115: Beam with upstand to be ignored.

Example 3
A beam or slab that deepens abruptly and the full depth of the concrete cannot be mobilized for
flexure. You should enter an appropriate Bottom Ignore Depth value.
The following figure shows bending moments in a slab perpendicular to a beam. For such an
arrangement you need to decide if the slab should be designed for the bending moment at the face of
the beam, or within the beam.

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About ignore depths

Figure 116: Slab bending moments


If the slab is to be designed for the bending moment at the face of beam, then it is a matter of locating
a design section within the slab depth.
If the slab is to be designed for the bending moment within the beam then you should consider the
actual depth that can be mobilized for bending.

Figure 117: Slab supported by a beam that is effective for slab bending.

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A final word on design sections

Figure 118: Slab supported by a deep beam that is not fully effective for slab bending. Ignore depth
should be used for the design sections to utilize a shallower section.

23.4.3 Effect of ignore depth on reinforcement location


RAM Concept locates reinforcement based upon the covers and ignore depth settings. You should consider this
to ensure that reinforcement bars are designed at the appropriate depth.

23.5 A final word on design sections


Design sections are powerful tools, but that is all they are: tools. It is important that you understand the
calculations that these tools perform, so you can determine the appropriateness of the calculation for the
situation under consideration, and so you can set the tools parameters correctly.

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Defining Punching Shear Checks


Punching shear is often a critical consideration when designing slabs, In particular, post-tensioned slabs are
usually thinner than their reinforced counterparts and hence punching considerations are even more important.

24.1 About punching shear checks


RAM Concept can calculate punching failure planes and the punching shear stresses due to column reactions (Fz,
Mx, My).
RAM Concept is not infallible in its determination of potentially critical sections. For unusual geometries, RAM
Concept may not check the appropriate section and / or may check inappropriate sections that give higher than
appropriate stress ratios. You should review RAM Concept s selections of potentially critical sections and use
engineering judgment to decide if RAM Concept s selections and the application of the ACI 318 model are
appropriate.

24.2 Punching shear check properties and options


The following explains the general and code specific Punching Shear Check properties and options.

24.2.1 General
Maximum Search Radius The radius that defines the area RAM Concept searches for potential failure locations.
The analysis is conservative when you set a very large radius, but this has two detrimental effects: RAM Concept
will need to review a larger area of slab and hence take longer to check that punching location. More
importantly, RAM Concept will consider slab openings that are far from the column in determining the
potentially critical section that may result in a smaller critical section than is appropriate.
Cover to CGS The distance that will be subtracted from the slab depth in each region to determine the effective
depth for critical section calculations.
For columns under, this is usually the distance from the top of the slab to the bottom of the top bar. RAM Concept
subtracts this distance from the slab thickness to determine the d distance.
If the depth in any region is smaller than the specified Cover to CGS, the region is treated as a hole.

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Punching shear check properties and options
Angle This is the angle of the first ray measured counter-clockwise from the global x-axis.
Number of Desired Sections per Zone A zone can be envisioned as a region outside a column, drop cap, beam,
etc. A column connection in a simple plate will have only one zone. A column connection with a drop cap will
have multiple zones. This property enables RAM Concept to determine how many sections you want to generate
in each of these zones.
This property can be used to eliminate unwanted sections, but caution should be used when reducing the
desired number of sections. The sections generated are based upon the minimum critical section cross-sectional
area, and they are not actually analyzed until after they are generated. By setting this value to 1 you would be
likely to get only the most critical section in each zone but this is not guaranteed.
Edge Treatment This determines how RAM Concept treats edges and openings.
An edge treatment of Sector Voids is always conservative. For columns near a slab edge, however, the Sector
Voids setting stops the critical section before it reaches the slab edge (at a ray from the column center to the slab
edge that has a length equal to the search radius).
An edge treatment of Failure Planes probably produces better results for critical sections at edge and corner
locations. This setting, however, requires you to review the results more carefully to ensure that RAM Concept
has checked all the appropriate sections.
An edge treatment of Ignore Edges is generally unconservative. You may want to try this setting to see if RAM
Concept finds a critical section that it missed with the other settings.
Connection Type This determines which column classification RAM Concept uses for calculating allowable
stresses.
A Corner type uses corner column rules (post-tensioning is ignored).
An Edge type uses edge column rules (post-tensioning is ignored).
An Interior type uses interior column rules (RAM Concept considers the section as post-tensioned if the P/A
exceeds 125 psi).
An Auto type determines if the column is corner, edge or interior type based upon the total void angle around it.
If the void angle is less than 90 degrees then the column is an interior type. If the void angle is between 90 and
180 degrees then the column is an edge type. If the void angle is 180 degrees or more then the column is a
corner type.
See Column connection type in Chapter 66, Punching Shear Design Notes for more information.
Use Ancon Shearfix SSR System If this option is selected then the Ancon Shearfix system will be used for any
necessary SSR design.
SSR System The stud shear reinforcement system used, if required, for design. These systems can be edited on
the Materials page. This selection is only applicable if the Use Ancon Shearfix SSR System is not selected.
Max Overhang Factor The maximum distance, as a function of effective depth d, to allow the critical sections
to extend from the originating shape.
Align with Rectangular Columns Aligns the punch check angle with the rectangular column angle during a
calc all.
Design SSR if Necessary Generates an SSR design (if possible) where the unreinforced strength is insufficient.
Align SSR w/ Punch Check Axis Aligns the SSR with the punch check axis. For example, it is intended to be used
when the slab edge is not parallel to the column faces and it would be preferable to have the rails align with the
slab geometry instead of the column face.

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Punching shear check properties and options
Note: This last option is not available for AS3600 as the SSR are always aligned with the punching check axis.

24.2.2 Ancon Shearfix Parameters


Top and Bottom Cover The cover is used in conjunction with the slab depth to determine the physical rail
depth.
Stud Size The Ancon Shearfix stud size (diameter) to use in the design. If auto is selected, RAM Concept will
design the smallest stud size possible for the maximum stud spacing and fixed rail layout.
Note: These parameters are only used when the Use Ancon Shearfix SSR System option is selected.
Use ACI 421.1R-99 Increased Max Vn Suggestion Allows the use of a higher maximum Vn for SSR design.
Use ACI-421.1R-99 Increased Vc Suggestion Allows the use of a higher vc value for use in strength
computations for SSR design.
Use ACI-421.1R-99 Increased Max Stud Spacing Suggestion Allows higher maximum stud spacings,
depending upon the stress levels in the critical sections.
Note: Although ACI 421.1R-99 is an ACI publication, it is not officially recognized by the ACI 318 standard. As
such, it should only be utilized under the discretion and judgment of an Engineer with a full understanding of the
provision and its recommendations.

24.2.3 AS3600 specific options


Closed Ties In R/S-Axis Torsion Strip Use these options if you are providing minimum closed ties in the
torsion strips in accordance with AS3600. RAM Concept does not actually design this reinforcement, but uses the
appropriate code provisions in calculating the punching capacity. You should ensure that this reinforcement is
provided if using these options.

24.2.4 BS 8110/EC2 specific options


Rail Layout Pattern Controls the layout of the primary rails around a column. The cruciform layout selection
will provide parallel rails along each column face and a diagonal rail in each corner. The
radial layout selection will provide rails that are radial from the punch check center.
Note that for columns with small dimensions it is possible for the layout selection to
produce identical layouts.
Apply
supplemental max
stress limit

RAM Concept

This option provides a supplemental maximum stress limit on the basic control
perimeters as suggested in the paper Effectiveness of punching shear reinforcement to
EN 1992-1-1:2004 in The Structural Engineer 87 (10) May 2009.

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Reinforcement
Ratio

For specification of 1 for equation 6.47. You should calculate the input value using the
equation in clause 6.4.4 of the EN 1992-1-1:2004 code. This value is only used if the
Auto Calc Reinforcement Ration option is not specified.

Auto-Calc
Reinforcement
Ratio

Automatically calculate the value used in equation 6.47 using the user reinforcement
on the specified face. Program reinforcement is not used in this calculation. See the notes
on auto calculation of 1 on page 1104 .

Bar Location

Specifies the user bar location (top or bottom) to use in the auto calculation of
reinforcement ratio.

Beta Factor

This represents a ratio of the maximum stress on a critical section (including shear and
moment transfer) over the maximum stress due to shear only. This option allows the
user to select Auto Calc, 1.15 (interior), 1.4 (edge), 1.5 (corner), or input any positive
value for Beta directly.
The factors for each column condition are taken from clause 6.4.3 (6) of the EN
1992-1-1:2004 Code and are meant to be used only when lateral stability does not
depend upon frame action and where adjacent spans do not differ in length by more
than 25%.
Auto Calc uses the model and calculation methods described in Chapter 66, Punching
Shear Design Notes on page 1087 .

24.3 Drawing punching shear checks


You can draw punching shear checks for all columns simultaneously.
1. Choose Layers > Design Strips > Punching Checks Plan.
2.
).
Select the Punching Shear Check tool (
3. Fence the columns.
A circle of the prescribed radius appears at each column within the fence.

24.4 A final word on punching shear checks


Punching shear checks are extremely powerful tools, but that is all they are: tools. It is important that you
understand the calculations that these tools perform, so you can determine the appropriateness of the
calculation for the situation under consideration, and so you can set the tools parameters correctly.

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Drawing Reinforcement Bars


Note: Drawing your own reinforcement bars is not necessary but an advanced feature you may wish to utilize
once you are experienced with the program.
The Reinforcement layer allows you to:
supplement the Program reinforcement by drawing actual (User) bars on plans using various tools
change some Program bars to User reinforcement
The Reinforcement layer facilitates a production quality reinforcement layout.

25.1 Reinforcement bar definitions


25.1.1 About User and Program Reinforcement
There are two types of reinforcement bar: Program and User. All reinforcement is tagged (identified) as one type
or the other.
When performing design calculations, RAM Concept generates Program reinforcement required in addition to
any existing User reinforcement. In subsequent calculations, RAM Concept removes all of the Program
reinforcement before starting the calculations.
You can change Program Concentrated Reinforcement to User Concentrated Reinforcement merely by changing
its tag (in the object properties window). You might do this to modify RAM Concept 's design. When performing
subsequent calculations, RAM Concept only designs reinforcement needed in addition to the reinforcement
tagged as User.
You could also change User reinforcement to Program reinforcement, but this has no value since RAM
Concept removes all existing program reinforcement when it generates new Program reinforcement.

25.1.2 Reinforcement object types


There are seven object types in the Reinforcement layer:
Concentrated Reinforcement - a fixed number of bars over a parallelogram area

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Distributed Reinforcement - a bar spacing applied over a polygon area.


Individual Bars - single bars that are generated from Concentrated and Distributed Reinforcement.
Transverse Reinforcement - a fixed number of transverse bars at a fixed spacing.
Transverse Individual Bars - single transverse bars (strirrups/links/ligatures) that are generated from
Transverse Reinforcement
Stud Shear Reinforcement (SSR) Callouts - a fixed number of SSR rails with a fixed number of studs.
SSR Rails - individual rails that are generated from SSR Callouts.
You can directly create (by drawing) Concentrated Reinforcement, Distributed Reinforcement, and Transverse
Reinforcement. You cannot directly create any of the other types of reinforcement.

25.2 Reinforcement properties

Figure 119: Concentrated rebar properties - General

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Reinforcement properties

Figure 120: Distributed rebar properties - General


Span Set Determines the set the reinforcement belongs to: latitude or longitude.
Elevation Reference The choices are:
Absolute: the elevation relative to the zero datum. This is not recommended other than for very complicated
geometry.
Above Soffit: The elevation is measured from the soffit elevation to the center of the bar.
Above Surface: The elevation is measured from the surface elevation to the center of the bar. The value is
almost always negative
Top Cover: The elevation is measured from the surface elevation to the top of the bar. The value is always
positive.
Bottom Cover: The elevation is measured from the soffit elevation to the underside of the bar. The value is
always positive.
Elevation The distance used with the elevation reference.
Ending at End 1 The choices are:

Straight:
90 Hook:
180 Hook:
Anchored:

Ending at End 2 Similar to End 1


Slab Face This is used for (1) graphic display purposes (2) design rules.
The choices are:

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Per Elev. Reference - the default and typical setting


Top
Bottom
Both
Auto

Note: Special Caution - Reinforcement set to Auto face will not appear on either the top or the bottom
reinforcement plans. If you use Auto face reinforcement, change the default plan settings (or add some plans)
to be certain that all of the reinforcement used is visible on the plans in your report.
Bar Type The label used to identify the reinforcing bar. The label is not necessarily the bar size. Reinforcement
bar labels (and their properties) are specified in the Criteria > Materials .
Bar Extent Skew The orientation of the bars extent line in degrees (concentrated reinforcement only - see The
Skew Reinforcement Extent tool for more information).
Quantity Type The choices are:
Quantity: number of bars
Spacing: bar spacing
Number of bars Only editable if Quantity Type is set to Quantity
Spacing Only editable if Quantity Type is set to Spacing.
Orientation The plan angle of the reinforcement (distributed reinforcement only - see The Orient
Reinforcement tool for more information).
Zone Width The width of the concentrated reinforcement zone.
Designed By The choices are:
User: Bars drawn by the user
Program: Bars calculated and drawn by RAM Concept .
Note: See Concentrated and distributed reinforcement callouts for discussion on the second (Presentation) tab.
Related Links
The Skew Reinforcement Extent tool on page 283
The Orient Reinforcement tool on page 282

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Transverse Reinforcement properties

25.3 Transverse Reinforcement properties

Figure 121: Transverse rebar properties - General


In addition to properties that are common with longitudinal reinforcement, transverse reinforcement has the
following special properties:
Shape

The choices are:


Open: Capable of resisting shear only
Closed: Two legs are capable of resisting torsion in addition to shear

Number of
Legs

The number of vertical legs in the transverse reinforcement

Spacing
Control

If the length/spacing are not in equal increments, this controls which is the independent
property (that remains fixed) and which is the dependant property (that gets adjusted). The
choices are:
Length Fixed: The length remains fixed, and the input spacing is taken as a maximum
spacing and adjusted down to create an equal number of spaces.
Spacing Fixed: the spacing remains fixed, and the input length is adjusted up to an equal
increment of the input spacing. The length is always adjusted at the end of the transverse
rebar object, and the start point remains fixed.

Length

The specified length of the region which contains transverse reinforcement.

Spacing

The specified spacing between the transverse reinforcement along the region.

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About drawing reinforcement

25.4 About drawing reinforcement


You can draw reinforcement in a number of ways:
A group of one or more concentrated reinforcement bars using one of the three Concentrated Reinforcement
tools
A group of distributed reinforcement bars using one of the three Distributed Reinforcement tools
A region of transverse reinforcement using the Transverse Reinforcement tool

25.4.1 Expected workflows


It is expected that you will typically convert the Program reinforcement to User reinforcement and modify it.
One common exception to this might be that you may want to specify a bottom mat of reinforcement. There is no
difficulty if you convert some reinforcement and directly draw other reinforcement.

25.5 Drawing concentrated reinforcement


Concentrated reinforcement consists of one or more bars located within a parallelogram.
The parallelogram is initially a rectangle with a default width, but you can use the stretch tool to edit the width
and the skew tool to change the shape.

25.5.1 Drawing concentrated reinforcement


You can draw concentrated rebar by specifying the end points or specifying the midpoint and one endpoint.
1. Select the Concentrated Reinforcement tool (
2. Click at one endpoint.
3. Click at the other endpoint.

).

Note: See Drawing concentrated bottom bars for more information.

To draw concentrated reinforcement #2


1.

Select the Concentrated Reinforcement tool (


2. Click at the midpoint.
3. Click at one endpoint.

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Drawing distributed reinforcement
Note: See Drawing concentrated bottom bars by defining the midpoint for more information.

25.5.2 Drawing concentrated reinforcement in two directions


You can draw concentrated rebar in two directions by specifying the midpoint and one endpoint.
1. Select the Concentrated Reinforcement Cross tool (
2. Click at the midpoint.
3. Click at one endpoint.

).

Note: This creates two reinforcement objects: one that belongs to the latitude reinforcement layer and one that
belongs to the longitude reinforcement layer.
Note: See Drawing concentrated bottom bars in two directions for more information.

25.6 Drawing distributed reinforcement


Distributed reinforcement consists of a group of bars located within a polygon.

25.6.1 Drawing distributed reinforcement


You draw distributed reinforcement within a polygon. This is done by defining the polygon with mouse clicks or
using the slab perimeter.
1. Choose the Distributed Reinf. tool ( ).
2. Click at each polygon vertex consecutively.
3. Snap to the first vertex and click to close the polygon (or type c and press <Return>).
Note: This creates two objects: a polygon and a reinforcement object that belongs to either the latitude
reinforcement layer or longitude reinforcement layer.
Note: Once the file is run you can view the individual bars through the Visible Objects dialog box.
Note: See Drawing distributed bottom bars over part of the floor for more information.

To draw distributed reinforcement #2


1. Choose the Distributed Reinf. in Perimeter tool ( ).
2. Click somewhere on the slab.
3. Click at another point to define the orientation of the reinforcement.

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Drawing transverse reinforcement
Note: This creates two objects: a polygon matching the slab outline and a reinforcement object that belongs to
either the latitude reinforcement layer or longitude reinforcement layer.
Note: Once the file is run you can view the individual bars.
Note: See Drawing distributed bottom bars over the entire floor for more information.

To draw distributed reinforcement #3


1. Choose the Distributed Reinf. Cross in Perimeter tool ( ).
2. Click somewhere on the slab.
3. Click at another point to define the orientation of the reinforcement.
A polygon appears that is the shape of the slab. Once the file is run you can view the individual bars.
Note: This creates three objects: a polygon matching the slab outline, a reinforcement object that belongs to the
latitude reinforcement layer and a reinforcement object that belongs to the longitude reinforcement layer.
Note: See Drawing a bottom mat over the entire floor for more information.

25.7 Drawing transverse reinforcement


Transverse reinforcement consists of one or more transverse bars located along a line segment.

25.7.1 Drawing transverse reinforcement


You can draw transverse reinforcement by specifying the end points.
1.
Select the Transverse Reinforcement tool (

).

You can use the stretch tool to edit the length and location of the region, or change the length and/or spacing
properties. The transverse reinforcement line segment must intersect any shear cores in cross sections you want
to reinforce. The size, shape, and orientation of the transverse reinforcement take on the size and shape of the
containing shear core.

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Concentrated and distributed reinforcement drawing examples

25.8 Concentrated and distributed reinforcement drawing examples


25.8.1

Drawing concentrated bottom bars

Figure 122: Concentrated bars drawn by clicking at points A and B with the first Concentrated
Reinforcement tool.

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Concentrated and distributed reinforcement drawing examples

25.8.2

Drawing concentrated bottom bars by defining the


midpoint

Figure 123: Concentrated bars drawn by clicking at points A and B with the second Concentrated
Reinforcement tool.

25.8.3

Drawing concentrated bottom bars in two directions

Figure 124: Concentrated bars in two directions drawn by clicking at points A and B with the
Concentrated Reinforcement Cross tool.

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Concentrated and distributed reinforcement drawing examples

25.8.4

Drawing distributed bottom bars over part of the floor

Figure 125: Distributed bar polygon drawn over part of the slab by clicking at 5 vertices with the
Distributed Reinforcement tool. Hatching is turned ON.

Figure 126: Individual distributed bars shown via Visible Objects dialog box. Hatching is turned OFF.

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Concentrated and distributed reinforcement drawing examples

25.8.5

Drawing distributed bottom bars over the entire floor

Figure 127: Distributed bars polygon drawn over the slab by clicking at points A and B with the
Distributed Reinforcement in Perimeter tool. Hatching is turned ON.

Figure 128: Individual distributed bars shown via Visible Objects dialog box. Hatching is turned OFF.

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Transverse reinforcement drawing examples

25.8.6

Drawing a bottom mat over the entire floor

Figure 129: Distributed bottom mat polygon drawn over the slab by clicking at points A and B with the
Distributed Reinforcement Cross in Perimeter tool. Hatching is turned ON.

Figure 130: Individual distributed bars shown via Visible Objects dialog box. Hatching is turned OFF.

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Transverse reinforcement drawing examples

25.9 Transverse reinforcement drawing examples

Figure 131: Two scenarios of user transverse reinforcement, both resulting in individual bars that are coplanar to
the cross sections that the line segment intersects.

Figure 132: Resulting individual transverse bars when with no cross section trimming

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Other reinforcement plan tools

Figure 133: Resulting individual bars when cross section trimming is set to Slab Rectangle

25.10 Other reinforcement plan tools


There are three special tools in the Reinforcement layer that you can use to edit the plan properties of
reinforcement.

25.10.1 The Orient Reinforcement tool


This tool allows you to draw a line segment that represents the desired orientation of selected reinforcement
objects individual bars.
After you draw this line, RAM Concept rotates any selected concentrated reinforcement objects, and orients any
distributed reinforcement parallel to the drawn line. The selected reinforcement creates individual bars of the
same orientation after calculation.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Select the reinforcement object.


Choose the Orient Reinforcement tool ( ).
Click anywhere on the plan.
Click at a location on the plan to create a line parallel to the desired direction of the reinforcement.

Note: Use snap orthogonal or snap to perpendicular to help with orientation where appropriate
Note: Selecting both reinforcement objects created with the Concentrated Rebar Cross tool or the Distributed
Rebar Cross in Perimeter tool orientates both reinforcement objects.
Note: See Orientating concentrated reinforcement for more information.

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Other reinforcement plan tools

25.10.2 The Skew Reinforcement Extent tool


This tool allows you to draw a line segment that represents the desired orientation of selected Concentrated
Reinforcement objects' extent line. This tool allows you to create parallelogram regions of Concentrated
Reinforcement. Distributed reinforcement cannot be skewed.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Select the concentrated reinforcement object.


Choose the Skew Reinforcement Extent tool ( ).
Click anywhere on the plan (but preferably near the reinforcement object)
Click at a location on the plan to create a line parallel to the desired extent line.

Note: See Skewing concentrated reinforcement for more information.

25.10.3 Auto Hook tool


This tool allows you to automatically extend concentrated rebar callouts in close proximity to the slab edge and
apply hooks to a selected set of user reinforcement.
To apply hooks to reinforcement near the slab edge
1. Select the user concentrated reinforcement that you wish to modify.
2.
).
Choose the Auto Hook tool (
3. Select the hook type from the drop down menu.
4. Set the Edge Detection Tolerance. Only bar ends within this distance of a slab edge will be modified
5. If you want the bar end extended to the slab edge, check the Perform Bar Extension box and set the desired
edge cover and bar rounding length.
6. Click OK.
Note: See Automatically applying hooks to user reinforcement for more information.

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Other reinforcement plan tools

Orientating concentrated reinforcement

Figure 134: Using the Orient Reinforcement tool to define the line A B parallel to the desired orientation

Figure 135: The reoriented concentrated reinforcement

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Other reinforcement plan tools

Skewing concentrated reinforcement

Figure 136: Using the Skew Reinforcement tool to define the line A B parallel to the desired skewed ends

Figure 137: The skewed concentrated reinforcement with the extent line parallel to line AB.

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Other reinforcement plan tools

Stretching concentrated reinforcement

Figure 138: Using the stretch tool at point A to widen the concentrated reinforcement parallelogram

Figure 139: The stretched concentrated reinforcement

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Layout and Detailing Parameters

Automatically applying hooks to user reinforcement

Figure 140: Use the auto hook tool to apply hooks to all four concentrated bar callouts

Figure 141: Hooks applied and bars extended to the slab edge

25.11 Layout and Detailing Parameters


There are five calculation option parameters that influence how RAM Concept lays out and details
reinforcement. Refer to Reinforcement layout and detailing parameters in Chapter 28, Calculating Results.

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Reinforcement Text Formatting

25.12 Reinforcement Text Formatting


Concentrated Reinforcement, Distributed Reinforcement and SSR Callouts all have format specifiers that you can
modify so the reinforcement is described per your office standards.

25.12.1 Concentrated and distributed reinforcement callouts

Figure 142: Concentrated rebar properties - Presentation

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Reinforcement Text Formatting

Figure 143: Distributed rebar properties - Presentation


Callout by
The Concentrated and Distributed Reinforcement format specifiers use the following key
Quantity/Spacing values:
Format
$Q - Bar quantity
$F - Bar face
$B - Bar name
$L - Bar length
$U - Bar length units
$u - Bar spacing units
$S - Bar spacing
\n - Start new line

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Reinforcement Text Formatting

25.12.2 Transverse reinforcement callouts

Figure 144: Transverse reinforcement properties - Presentation


Callout Format

The transverse reinforcement format specifiers use the following key values:

$B - Bar name
$S - Spacing
$N - Number of spaces
$L - Number of legs (and shape)
$U - Spacing units
\n - Start a new line

25.12.3 SSR Callout


The SSR Callout format specifiers use the following key values:

$R - Rail quantity
$S - Studs per rail
$F - First stud spacing
$T - Typical stud spacing
$N - SSR system name
$U - Stud spacing units
$S - Stud spacing
\n - Start new line

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About SSR callouts and SSR rails:
The SSR Callout format specifier ($R)$S@$T First Spacing = $F $U\n$N would generate text on the plan view
such as:
(12)8@3 First Spacing = 2.5 inches
3/8 SSR
For the same SSR Callout, the format specifier $R rails with $S studs would generate the text:
12 rails with 8 studs

25.12.4 Examples of reinforcement text formatting


The following examples show generated text for different codes.
ACI 318-05
The Concentrated Reinforcement format specifier $Q $B x $L $U $F@$S $u would generate text on the plan
view such as:
28 #5 x 15 feet T @ 12.1 inches
For the same Concentrated Reinforcement, the format specifier ($Q)$Bx$L$F" would generate the text:
(28)#5x15T
AS 3600-2001
The Concentrated Reinforcement format specifier $Q $B x $L $U $F@$S $u" would generate text on the plan
view such as:
28 N16 x 4.57 m T @ 307 mm
For the same Concentrated Reinforcement, the format specifier ($Q)$Bx$L$F would generate the text:
(28)N16x4.57T
BS 8110 : 1997, EC2 and IS456-2000
The Concentrated Reinforcement format specifier $Q $B x $L $U $F@$S $u" would generate text on the plan
view such as:
28 T16 x 4.57 m T @ 307 mm
For the same Concentrated Reinforcement, the format specifier ($Q)$Bx$L$F would generate the text:
(28)T16x4.57T

25.13 About SSR callouts and SSR rails:


RAM Concept generates SSR Callouts and SSR Rails from the results of its punching shear calculations. This
generated reinforcement is for display purposes only - it is not used in calculations and cannot be changed to
user reinforcement.

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Defining Tendons
Note: You could bypass this chapter if you are designing a structure with only bar reinforcement.
There is no unique quantity or layout of post-tensioning that provides a satisfactory PT design. This is
particularly true with partial prestress design where the emphasis is on strength, deflection and crack control
rather than hypothetical service stresses.
Historically, many 2D programs have used allowable service stresses to drive their algorithms for providing a PT
solution. This is fast losing favor; some codes have all but abandoned using (hypothetical) service stresses as a
design criterion, and other codes (such as ACI 318) are moving in that direction. Some computer generated
tendon layouts are not practical for real design.
Whereas you expect a 2D program to help provide a workable tendon design based upon spans, sections and
loads, the possible randomness of supports makes this extremely difficult in 3D.
Thus, in RAM Concept , it is necessary for you to define the tendons by generating or drawing them in plan and
specifying parameters such as profile and number of strands. For guidance, you should use one of the following
for your first estimate:

your experience
a preliminary run with Strip Wizard
a logical guess based upon precompression (P/A) considerations
a random guess (correctly drawn design strips flag incorrect guesses, and you can use The Auditor for help
in iterating)

26.1 Tendon definitions


26.1.1 Post-Tensioning terminology and definitions
Strand - a single wire or group of bundled wires. In post-tensioned construction a strand is a unit of posttensioning reinforcement, similar to a reinforcing bar being the unit of RC reinforcement.
Duct - a tube, conduit, or sheathing containing one or more strands with a single anchorage. The maximum
number of strands in a duct is defined in the prestressing material properties. For monostrand tendons
(bonded or unbonded), each duct contains a single strand.
Tendon - In practice, the PT industry defines a tendon as a group of strands that share a common anchorage.
The group may be just one strand, as is the case with most unbonded systems, or monostrand. It is not

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always necessary for real tendons to match RAM Concept tendon exactly. For example, it is common practice
in monostrand to group tendons together in the field. For this situation, it is usually convenient to specify the
total number of strands in the group in a single RAM Concept tendon. In this case the correct number of ducts
can still be calculated correctly using the input duct properties.

26.1.2 Using the latitude and longitude prestressing folders


RAM Concept has two folders for prestressing called latitude and longitude.
By using RAM Concept s two tendon folders, you can separate tendons and tendon parameters into two groups.
Separating orthogonal tendons allows for easier editing and a clearer presentation.
Each folder contains three layers:
Tendon Parameters Layer - defines high level objects used for the generation of individual tendons. This
layer facilitates a production quality presentation of high level tendon layout information.
Generated Tendon Layer - contains the individual tendons generated from the parameter objects on the
Tendon Parameters Layer. The generated individual tendons can not be edited, but can be selected and
copied to the Manual Tendon Layer for further manipulation.
Manual Tendon Layer - contains individual tendons drawn or otherwise manipulated manually by the user.
During analysis and design, all tendons on the generated tendon layers (latitude and longitude) and the manual
tendon layers (latitude and longitude) are included in the calculations. Therefore it is important not to duplicate
tendons on the generated and manual layers.
Note: Latitude and longitude are just names. You could define all tendons, which might be at various plan angles,
on one plan.

26.2 Tendon Parameters Layer


26.2.1 Tendon Parameters object types
There are five object types in the Tendon Parameters Layer:
Banded Tendon Polyline - a polyline representing a specification for generation of a group of tendons at a
fixed spacing and parallel to the polyline segments.
Distributed Tendon Quadrilateral - a quadrilateral representing a specification for generation of an array of
tendons at a specified angle within the shape.
Distributed Tendon Overlap - a graphical only object that displays the cumulative force or number of strands
in an area of overlapping distributed tendon quadrilaterals.
Tendon Void - a polygon shape that represents an area where no tendons are to be generated. Typical usage
might be stressing blockouts or small slab areas that are too short for tendons to get stressed.
Profile Polyline - a polyline that defines a tendon elevation at the location where any banded tendon polyline
or distributed tendon quadrilateral intersects it.

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26.2.2 Banded Tendon Polyline and Distributed Tendon Quadrilateral Properties

Figure 145: Distributed tendon quadrilateral properties - General

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Figure 146: Banded tendon polyline properties - General


Tendon Specification Type Determines the mode for specifying strand quantities that go into the generated
tendons. The choices are:
Force
Strands
Effective Force Only enabled when force is selected for Tendon Specification Type. For banded tendon
polylines, this value represents the total effective force to be generated in the banded group. For distributed
tendon quadrilaterals, this represents the effective force per unit width of slab to generate in the distributed
tendon array.
Number of Strands Only enabled when strands is selected for Tendon Specification Type. For banded
tendon polylines, this value represents the total number of strands to be generated in the banded group. For
distributed tendon quadrilaterals, this represents the number of strands per unit width of slab to generate in the
distributed tendon array.
Max Strands/Tendon For banded tendon polylines, this value defines the maximum number of strands to put
into a single generated tendon.
Layout Type For banded tendon polylines, this value defines the layout type of the generated tendons. The
choices are:

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Spacing
Width
Tendon Spacing Defines the lateral spacing between generated tendons.
Layout Width For banded tendon polylines, defines the total width of the generated tendon layout when
width is selected for Layout Type. The width includes a half space on each side of the outermost generated
tendons.
Tendon Type For banded tendon polylines, defines the behavior of the banded tendon polyline and the
properties of the generated tendon. The choices are:
Primary
Added
Added Tendon Generation For banded tendon polylines, controls the behavior of the automatic generation of
added tendons to balance forces at connected banded tendon polyline ends. The choices are:
None
Fixed Length
Span Fraction
Added Tendon Length For banded tendon polylines when Fixed Length is selected for Added Tendon
Generation, controls the length of the automatically generated banded tendon polyline.
Added Tendon Span Fraction For banded tendon polylines when Span Fraction is selected for Added
Tendon Generation, controls the length of the automatically generated banded tendon polyline as a function of
the span containing the joint that the added tendon is attached.
PT System The label used to identify the PT system for the generated tendons. The label is not necessarily the
size and type of strand. The Materials Specification defines the PT system properties. It is possible to mix
systems in a single tendon parameters layer.
Inflection Point Ratio Determines the distance, x, from end 1 in the span to the point where the tendon
curvature changes sign. The inflection point ratio is the ratio of x to the distance from end 1 to end 2. A value of
0.2 places the inflection point 10% of the span distance from end 1 if end 2 is at midspan. This is a commonly
used value.
Note: An inflection point ratio of zero results in a simple parabola.
Harped Specifies the tendon segment as having a straight profile (as opposed to a parabolic profile).

26.2.3 Distributed Tendon Overlap and Tendon Void Properties


These objects have no user editable properties

26.2.4 Profile Polyline Properties


Elevation The vertical distance from the elevation reference to the centroid of the tendons strands, also
referred to as CGS (center of gravity of strand).

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Note: This version of RAM Concept measures the top and bottom cover to the CGS of the strands. Future versions
will allow inputting of duct dimensions and allow a top and bottom cover to the outside of the duct to be input.
Note: The CGS is not the same as mid-depth of a bonded tendons duct.
Elevation Reference The choices are:
Absolute: the elevation relative to the zero datum. This is not recommended other than for very complicated
geometry.
Above Soffit: The elevation is measured from the soffit elevation to the CGS of the tendon.
Above Surface: The elevation is measured from the surface elevation to the CGS of the tendon. The value is
almost always negative.
Top Cover: The elevation is measured from the surface elevation to the CGS of the tendon. The value is always
positive.
Bottom Cover: The elevation is measured from the soffit elevation to the CGS of the tendon. The value is
always positive.
Profile Location Determines the orientations of the created tendon half-spans (and the corresponding inflection
point location). The choices are:
Support
Span
The support profile polylines are displayed graphically as solid lines on plan, while the span polylines are
displayed as dashed lines.

26.3 Tendon properties


Before you begin drawing tendons, specify the default properties for the tool(s) you will use. The default values
are set in the Default Properties dialog box. Double click one of the tendon drawing tools (Half Span Tendon (
), Full Span Tendon (
properties.

), Half Span Tendon Panel (

), or Full Span Tendon Panel (

)) to edit its

Note: Setting the default properties for one tendon drawing tool sets properties for all the tendon drawing tools.
The following is a list of RAM Concept tendon properties:
PT System The label used to identify the PT system for the generated tendons. The label is not necessarily the
size and type of strand. The Materials Specification defines the PT system properties. It is possible to mix
systems in a single tendon layer.
Strands per Tendon Specifies the number of strands in the selected tendon(s). It need not be an integer value.
While the total number of strands in RAM Concept and the real structure must match, the grouping of strands
into tendons need not be the same in RAM Concept as in the real structure. It is usually not necessary to model
each real tendon as a RAM Concept tendon - fewer RAM Concept tendons (with a larger number of strands per
tendon) are often used. An exception is for specific code rules that require a deduction in shear area for duct
size. In those situations you should specify the correct duct size and number of strands per tendon.
For example, if you model six 4-strand ducts containing 2 strands each, as three 4-strand ducts containing 4
strands each, RAM Concept considers the correct number of strands (12), but only three of the six ducts.

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Elevation (Elevation Value at end 1 and Elevation Value at end 2) The vertical distance from the elevation
reference to the centroid of the tendons strands, also referred to as CGS (center of gravity of strand).
Note: This version of RAM Concept measures the top and bottom cover to the CGS of the strands. Future versions
will allow inputting of duct dimensions and allow a top and bottom cover to the outside of the duct to be input.
Note: The CGS is not the same as mid-depth of a bonded tendons duct.
Elevation Reference The choices are:
Absolute: the elevation relative to the zero datum. This is not recommended other than for very complicated
geometry.
Above Soffit: The elevation is measured from the soffit elevation to the CGS of the tendon.
Above Surface: The elevation is measured from the surface elevation to the CGS of the tendon. The value is
almost always negative.
Top Cover: The elevation is measured from the surface elevation to the CGS of the tendon. The value is always
positive.
Bottom Cover: The elevation is measured from the soffit elevation to the CGS of the tendon. The value is
always positive.
The dimension from the elevation reference (at that exact plan location) to the CGS is the Elevation Value. Thus,
if a profile point is located over a slab thickening (drop cap, beam etc.) then the thickening should be taken into
account if the elevation reference refers to the changing surface. RAM Concept does not currently use
dimensions to underside of duct, or cover, to determine elevation values. Future versions will incorporate this
calculation.
The path of a tendon along with the number of strands determines the forces the tendon exerts on the concrete.
Profile points (that are usually the tendon high and low points) define this path. If necessary, you can introduce
intermediate profile points.
Tendons are comprised of segments. For elevated floors, each segment has a high point (end 1) and a low point
(end 2). For mats, the reverse is generally true. Each segment can represent a half of a span, or a partial half
span.
Most user defined spans have a tendon with two segments. Cantilevers and some user defined spans have
tendons with one segment.
Selections for Elevation Value and Elevation Reference should consider cover and load balancing. Profiles
typically vary according to span lengths.
Note: Profile values displayed in RAM Concept are always from the soffit. When structure and/or tendon
changes are made, the profile values can be temporarily out of date and incorrect. In order to update the profile
values, use the Generate Tendons command or run a Calc All.
Inflection Point Ratio Determines the distance, x, from end 1 in the span to the point where the tendon
curvature changes sign. The inflection point ratio is the ratio of x to the distance from end 1 to end 2. A value of
0.2 places the inflection point 10% of the span distance from end 1 if end 2 is at midspan. This is a commonly
used value.
Note: An inflection point ratio of zero results in a simple parabola.
Harped Specifies the tendon segment as having a straight profile (as opposed to a parabolic profile).

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Half Span Ratio (Half Span Ratio End 1 and Half Span Ratio End 2) Specifies the portion of the half span that
this segment represents. The end 2 half span ratio must always be greater than the end 1 half span ratio. Half
span ratios of 0 and 1 represent an entire half span. It is not recommended that these values be changed by the
user.
Position Profile Point 2 for equal balance loads If two entire half span tendon segments in a single span have
different values for end 1 then the Position Profile Point 2 for equal balance loads option moves the low point in
plan to equilibrate the uplift during an analysis calculation.
Note: Do not select this option if the half span ratios of both tendon segments are not 0 and 1 or if the profile
values are at the same elevation. A segment with such profiles would have zero uplift and so the formulation
does not work.

26.4 About creating tendons


There are two ways to generate tendons:
Specification of objects on the tendon parameters layers, resulting in generated tendons on the generated
tendon layers.
Drawing individual tendons directly on the manual tendon layers.
These tendon generation schemes support a number of workflows related to tendon generation and design. The
most common are outlined here:

26.4.1 All tendon definition done on the tendon parameters layers


The Engineer specifies all prestressing on the tendon parameters layers, allowing RAM Concept to automatically
generate individual tendons from the tendon parameters objects. When making changes to the tendon layout the
Engineer will add, delete, or edit objects on the tendon parameters layer only. The Engineer might use the
tendon parameter plans or the generated tendon plans for their tendon design plans.

26.4.2 Most tendon definition done on the tendon parameters layers


The Engineer specifies most prestressing on the tendon parameters layers but wants to supplement with
isolated individually drawn tendons on the manual tendon layers. This might be faster to make minor
adjustments than changing tendon parameter objects. The drawing production workflow might be to export
tendon parameter and manual tendon plans on the plan(s), then modify those objects in CAD to product the final
drawings.

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Drawing banded tendon polylines

26.4.3 All work done on manual tendon layers


The Engineer prefers working with individual tendons for both design and production of final tendon plans. The
Engineer can draw the individual tendons on the manual tendon layers, or define objects on the tendon
parameters layers to quickly generate a large number of tendons that can then be manipulated manually. Since
the tendon objects on the generated tendon layers can not be edited, they will need to be copied and pasted from
the generated tendon layers to the manual tendon layers. The objects on the tendon parameters layers would
then be deleted to avoid duplication.

26.5 Drawing banded tendon polylines


Banded tendon polylines consist of two or more connected points that define a polyline. Once drawn the stretch
tool can be used to modify the location of any of the points.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

).
Choose the Banded Tendon Polyline tool (
Click at the tendon polyline start point.
Click the next tendon polyline point (can be drawn across multiple spans or partial spans).
Continue to click tendon polyline points until all are defined.
Right click and select enter to complete the operation.

Note: Banded tendon polylines can be connected at their end points to single or multiple other banded tendon
polylines. However, it is an error to define banded tendon polylines that overlap.

26.6 Drawing distributed tendon quadrilaterals


Distributed tendon quadrilaterals define a specification to generate a specific force or number of strands per
unit width at a given angle within a defined 4 sided polygon.
1.
Choose the Distributed Tendon Quadrilateral tool (
).
2. Click each of the four vertices of the quadrilateral vertex sequentially (the quadrilateral can extend across
multiple spans or bays).
Since distributed tendon quadrilaterals are meant to represent a smeared tendon force, the spacing specified
isnt typically critical. However, due to geometrical irregularities inaccuracies can be introduced near the edges
of the shape. RAM Concept automatically attempts to provide a half space at each edge of the tendon layout area
to minimize this effect. This effect can also be minimized by specifying a smaller spacing, at the expense of a
larger number of generated tendons and increased run time. A spacing of 2 ft (0.75 m) will normally provide a
good balance between accuracy and computational expense.

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Defining profiles for banded tendon polylines and distributed tendon quadrilaterals
Note: Distributed tendon quadrilaterals with common spacing, PT System, inflection point ratio, and harped
property can be drawn overlapping and RAM Concept will consider the cumulative force/strands in overlapping
regions.

26.7 Defining profiles for banded tendon polylines and distributed


tendon quadrilaterals
Profiles are determined for banded tendon polylines and distributed tendon quadrilaterals by creating profile
polylines. Tendon half spans are created wherever a generated tendon intersects a profile polyline.
The generated half span tendons are oriented in the following direction (which will determine the inflection
point location):
support polyline - span polyline
support polyline - slab edge
slab edge - span polyline
Where generated tendons intersect identical profile polyline types (i.e, both supports), the tendon is oriented
from the location of highest absolute elevation to the location of lowest absolute elevation. If the end elevations
are the same then the orientation will be random (and not important).
Where banded tendon polylines end away from a profile polyline or intersect a slab edge, the tendon is profiled
to the mid-depth of the slab at the end or slab edge intersection location.
Where distributed tendon quadrilaterals end between two profile polylines or the slab edge, the tendons are
profiled as if they were extended to the next adjacent profile polyline or slab edge (representing a partial half
span). This allows two distributed tendon quadrilaterals with different angles to be drawn adjacent to each
other along a span and represent continuous span tendons. Where distributed tendon quadrilaterals intersect
the slab edge and there is no profile polyline near the edge, the tendons are profiled to the mid-depth of the slab.
Profile polylines can be created in a number of ways:
Drawing them manually.
Generating them for the entire floor in one span direction using the Generate Profile Polylines tool.
Generate span polylines from already defined support polylines using the Generate Span Polylines tool.

26.7.1 Drawing Profile Polylines


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Choose the Banded Tendon Polyline tool (


).
Click at the profile polyline start point.
Click the next profile polyline point.
Continue to click profile polyline points until all are defined.
Right click and select enter to complete the operation.

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26.7.2 Defining profile polylines using the Generate Profile Polylines tool
This tool allows you to generate profile polylines automatically using span segments that have already been
defined on the design strip layer. Support polylines are generated from existing span segments. Latitude tendon
support polylines are generated from longitude span segments and vice-versa. Span polylines are created from
the support polylines created in the first step of the operation. If no span segments are drawn on the
corresponding layer then no profile polylines will be created.
To generate profile polylines
1.
Choose the Generate Profile Polylines tool (
).
2. Select the span set to generate profile polylines for. Generally you will select the layer in the prestressing
folder you are currently working in.
3. To generate support polylines from the span segments, check the generate support polylines box and set
the elevation reference and elevation desired for the generated support polylines.
4. If support polylines are generated, to generate span polylines check the generate span polylines box and set
the elevation reference and elevation desired for the generated span polylines. If the tendon span angle is
consistent throughout the floor then set it in the Span Orientation Angle box. This will generate the span
polylines in the specified direction between the generated support polylines. If there is more than one span
orientation angle in the floor then Use Medial Axis can be selected. The Use Medial Axis option will generate
span polylines that are equidistant from the generated support polylines. For a single spanning direction, the
best results will normally be achieved by setting this angle.

Figure 147: Generate profile polylines tool

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26.7.3 Defining span polylines using the Generate Span Polylines tool
This tool allows you to generate span polylines automatically using support polylines that have been previously
generated.
To generate profile polylines
1.

Select the support polylines that you want span polylines generated between (

).

2.
Choose the Generate Profile Polylines tool (
).
3. Set the elevation reference, elevation, and span orientation angle for the generated span polylines.
4. Set the span ratio for the generated span polylines. This is the desired span control point. For a profile
control point at mid-span, set this value to 0.5.

Figure 148: Generate span polylines tool

26.8 Other tendon parameter plan objects and tools


26.8.1 Drawing tendon voids
Tendon void polygons can be defined in areas where generated tendons are not desired. This might be used to
create a stressing blockout in a banded tendon polyline or to prevent very short tendons from being created in
an area covered by a distributed tendon quadrilateral. Tendon void polygons prevent creation of tendons inside
their boundaries and apply only to the layer on which they are drawn. These objects do not affect the manual
tendon layers.
1.
Select the Tendon Void tool (
).
2. Click at each polygon vertex consecutively.
3. Snap to the first vertex and click to close the polygon (or type c and press <Return>).

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26.8.2 Segment banded tendon polyline tool


The segment banded tendon polyline tool is used to segment previously created banded tendon polylines where
they cross the defined segmentation line. This can be useful, for example, where tendons need to be added in an
end span of a previously defined banded tendon polyline.
1.
Select the Segment Banded Tendon Polylines tool (
).
2. Click two points defining a line that will segment all banded tendon polylines that cross it.

26.8.3 Generate program tendons tool


The generate program tendons tool is used to create tendons on the generated tendon layers from the objects on
the tendon parameters layer. It also updates the graphical representation of the objects on the tendon
parameters layer such as the fillet data for the banded tendon polylines. These operations will also be performed
during a calc all, if they are out of date.
1.

Click the generate program tendons tool (


).
2. A log will be displayed if any warnings or errors occurred during the generation.

26.9 Tendon parameter drawing examples


Drawing banded tendon polylines

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Figure 149: Banded tendon polylines drawn by clicking on points A,B,C,D,E in sequence with Banded Tendon
Polyline tool.
Drawing distributed tendon quadrilaterals

Figure 150: Three distributed tendon quadrilaterals drawn by clicking on points A-D with distributed tendon
quadrilateral tool.

26.10 Tendon parameter drawing and text formatting


Banded tendon polylines, distributed tendon quadrilaterals, and distributed tendon overlap areas have drawing
controls and format specifiers intended to aid in the production of design quality drawings.

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26.10.1 Banded tendon polyline formatting options


Banded tendon polylines have a number of formatting properties to aid in the production of drawings:
Description - a user formatted string used to describe the banded tendon polyline properties.
The formatted description strings for the banded tendon polyline use the following key values:
$F - force
$f - force units
$N - number of strands
$P - PT system name
$I - inflection point ratio
$S - spacing
$s - spacing units
$T - number of tendons
\n - new line
Draw Fillets - displays filleted connections between segments of banded tendon polylines using the Fillet
Radius property set. The Fillet Radius property can be set to Use Maximum or a value smaller than the
maximum can be typed into this box.
Profile Points - displays the profile control point information for the banded tendon polyline. The profile
values are always referenced from the slab soffit to the CGS of the strands.
Symbol @ End 1,2 - displays the symbol at the end of the banded tendon polyline. Choices are:
None
Stressing End
Dead End

26.10.2 Distributed tendon quadrilateral formatting options


Distributed tendon quadrilaterals have a number of formatting properties to aid in the production of
drawings:
Description - a user formatted string used to describe the distributed tendon quadrilateral properties.
The formatted description strings for the banded tendon polyline use the following key values:

$F - force/width
$f - force/width units
$N - number of strands
$n - number of strands/width units
$P - PT system name
$I - inflection point ratio
$S - spacing
$s - spacing units
$A - angle and units
\n - new line

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Profile Points - displays the profile control point information for the banded tendon polyline. The profile
values are always referenced from the slab soffit to the CGS of the strands. In addition to the profile points
where the main tendon intersects profile polylines, the following additional points are provided to describe
the distributed tendon profiles:
Edges - profiles at the edge of the distributed tendon quadrilaterals or slab edges.
Span Changes - profiles at drastic changes in span profiles.
Concrete Elevation Changes - profile changes where the concrete reference plane changes such as beams
or drop caps.
Profile Polyline Ends - profiles at the ends of profile polylines
The intent is that with all these points displayed the profiling of all tendons within the distributed tendon
quadrilateral are defined by connecting support and span profile points. Profile points are not displayed at slab
edges where no profile polylines are used.
Symbol @ End 1,2 - displays the symbol at the end of the distributed tendon quadrilateral main tendon.
Choices are:
None
Stressing End
Dead End
Break
Symbol @ Extent Ends - displays the symbol at the end of the distributed tendon quadrilateral extent line.
Choices are:
None
Arrow

26.11 About drawing individual tendons


You can draw individual tendons on the manual tendon layers in a number of ways:

A single tendon one segment at a time using the Half Span Tendon tool (typically used for cantilevers).
A single tendon one span at a time using the Full Span Tendon tool.
A single tendon with numerous spans using the Tendon Polyline tool.
A number of tendons one segment at a time using the Half Span Tendon Panel tool.
A number of tendons one span at a time using the Full Span Tendon Panel tool.

You use these tools in different situations. You might find drawing one tendon and then copying it is quicker
than using the polyline and panel tools.

26.12 Drawing single tendons


The following instructions are relevant for elevated floors where the tendon has a high point at supports and a
low point near midspan. For mats, the reverse is generally true.

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26.12.1 Drawing a half-span tendon


You might use the half-span tendon tool for cantilevers and short end spans. For such uses, the Profile at End 2
value would commonly be half the slab thickness or the beam centroid dimension.
1.

Select the Half Span Tendon tool (


2. Click at the tendon high point.
3. Click at the tendon low point.

).

Note: The order of mouse clicks is very important when drawing half-span tendons because the tool measures
the inflection point from the high point (end 1).

26.12.2 Drawing a full-span tendon


You typically use the full-span tendon tool for conventional spans.
1.

Select the Full Span Tendon tool (


).
2. Click at the two tendon high points. The low point (End 2) automatically locates at the midpoint of the
tendon.
The low point can be adjusted with the Stretch tool (
option in the Tendon Properties dialog box.

) or the Position Profile Point 2 for equal balance loads

26.12.3 Drawing a multi-span tendon with the tendon polyline


The Tendon Polyline tool (

) allows you to draw a series of full span tendons with fewer mouse clicks.

1.

Select the Tendon Polyline tool (


).
2. Click a series of tendon high points. The low points (End 2) automatically locate at the midpoint of high
points.
3. Right-click after clicking the last high point.
4. Click Enter

26.13 Drawing multiple tendons


You can draw a group of tendons in one operation with the tendon panel tools. You designate the panel to lay out
the tendons, along with the desired tendon spacing, and RAM Concept draws the tendons.

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The drawing process requires you to draw the panel points sequentially in a clockwise or counter-clockwise
manner to form a quadrilateral.

26.13.1 Tendon panel layout options


Layout The choices are Parallel and Splayed.

Figure 151: Tendons with parallel layout and spacing not to exceed five feet.
Tendons with splayed layout and spacing not to exceed five
feet.

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Figure 152:
Tendon Spacing The choices are Fixed, Equal and Auto Connect.
Fixed draws tendons at exactly the specified spacing distance apart. It is not available with splayed tendons.
Equal (not to exceed maximum) draws tendons an equal distance apart that is at most the spacing value.
Auto connect (based on last edge) draws tendons connected to the profile points on the last edge of the tendon
panel area.
Skip Start Tendon / Skip End Tendon Omits edge tendons.

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Figure 153: Tendons after Auto Connect.

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Figure 154: Tendons after Auto Connect.

To draw a Half-Span Tendon Panel


1.

Select the Half Span Tendon Panel tool (


).
2. Click at the tendon high and low points of the first tendon in the tendon panel area.
3. Click at the tendon low and high points of the opposite edge of the tendon panel area.
The Tendon Panel dialog box appears after the fourth click.
4. Select options (see discussion above).

To draw a Full-Span Tendon Panel


1.

Select the Full Span Tendon Panel tool (


).
2. Click at the tendon high points of the first tendon in the tendon panel area.

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3. Click at the tendon high points of the opposite edge of the tendon panel area (following a clockwise or
counterclockwise direction).
The Tendon Panel dialog box appears after the fourth click.
4. Select options (see discussion above).
Note: A low point (End 2) automatically locates at the midpoint of each tendon.

26.14 Editing tendons


As with any object, you can edit tendons on the manual tendon layers after they are drawn.

26.14.1 Calc profile tool


You can adjust profiles manually or use the Calc Profile tool (

) for automatic adjustment.

Too much uplift in a tendon can cause deflection reversals that may crack the slab. For this and other reasons, it
is a good idea to have the amount of uplift or load balance somewhat consistent from span to span.
To edit a tendon based on uplift
1. Select a tendon segment.
2.
Click the Calc Profile tool (
).The Calc Tendon Profile dialog box appears and reports the current balance
load.
3. Input the desired balance load (values are typically negative) in the Calc Tendon Profile dialog box and click
Calc.
The low point (end 2) adjusts to provide the desired uplift. You can select two segments in the same span and
RAM Concept calculates the low point based on average uplift. It is generally not necessary to balance exactly the
same amount of load in each span. It is not advisable to have an excessive number of different low points.
Manually rounding the profile values can produce a more practical design.
If the desired balance load is too high then RAM Concept could calculate a negative profile that causes an error
when calculating the results.
Note: RAM Concept does not check cover violations

26.14.2 Change profiles tool


When a plan viewing one of the tendon layers is active, RAM Concept adds a Change Profiles items to the Tools
menu.
This menu item allows you to change all tendon profiles with a given value to a new value. This can be very
useful in circumstances such as change slab or beam depths.

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1. Open a plan from the Latitude Tendon or Longitude Tendon layer.
2. Choose Tools > Change Profiles.
The Change Tendon Profiles dialog box appears.
3. Enter the profile value that you wish to change.
4. Enter the new profile value.
5. Uncheck either tendon layer that you do not want edited.
6. Uncheck either end number that you do not want edited, and click OK.

Figure 155: Change tendon profiles tool

26.15 About jacks


Jacks can be specified for tendons on manual tendon layers.
RAM Concept calculates the force losses in a tendon if you draw jacks at live (stressing) ends. If you draw a jack
at each end of a tendon then it is double end stressed. If only one jack is drawn then the other end of the tendon
is a dead end. If you draw a single jack on a tendon layer then every tendon on that layer must have at least one
jack attached.
RAM Concept uses the relevant value of fse (specified in the Materials criteria page) as the effective stress for any
tendon without a jack.

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26.16 Jack properties


Set the default jack properties in the Default Jack Properties dialog box by double clicking the Jack tool (
). You
can choose to ignore the jack property values in the Jack Properties dialog and instead use the PT System values.
The following is a list of jack properties:
Jacking Stress The stress in the strand at the jack at jacking.
Anchor Friction Coefficient Loss of stress due to friction in the anchorage. It is a fraction with no units. You
would enter a 2% loss as 0.02. Most PT suppliers recommend a value of zero for unbonded tendons. You might
consult with a local PT supplier regarding bonded tendons.
Wobble Friction Coefficient Friction calculations use this property (k) to estimate losses due to accidental
curvature (in the horizontal and vertical planes). It is the product of the angle friction coefficient and the
accidental angular change per unit length.
Note: Some engineering communities (Australia in particular) use a definition of wobble coefficient that is the
accidental angular change per unit length. These communities can calculate the wobble coefficient that Concept
uses, k, with the following relationship: k = AngularWobbleCoefficient * mu.
Angle Friction Coefficient Loss due to deliberate curvature (in the horizontal and vertical planes). Most
designers know it as mu.
Seating Distance The distance that the wedges recede into the anchorage. This occurs when the field operator
releases the tension in the jack.
Long Term Losses The sum of losses such as creep and shrinkage of concrete, and relaxation of strand. It also
includes the loss due to elastic shortening of the concrete even though it is a short-term loss.

26.17 Drawing the jacks


You draw jacks with the Jack tool (

) by clicking a rectangle around the stressed ends of the tendons.

1. Select the Jack tool ( ).


2. Click at opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the tendon live ends.
Note: You can delete a single jack by double clicking it. To delete multiple jacks, consider making all objects
except the jacks invisible, then select and delete the jacks.

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Using Live Load Reduction


RAM Concept can automatically perform live load reduction calculations on columns, punching checks, design
strip segments and design sections per the requirements of the selected live load reduction code.

27.1 About Live Load Reduction


Most design codes allow the design of members supporting large areas to ignore a fraction of the live load effects
on the member. This live load reduction is allowed because the probability of all of a large supported area
being simultaneously fully loaded is small. While each code has its own rules, the common approach is that the
larger the supported area, the larger the allowed reduction, up to a limit.

27.2 Live Load Reduction Options


RAM Concept currently allows several different live load reduction calculation options:
ASCE 7-02 Reduction using ASCE 7-02, section 4.8.
ASCE 7-10 Reduction using ASCE 7-10, section 4.7.
IBC 2003 Reduction using IBC 2003, section 1607.9.
IBC 2006 Reduction using IBC 2006, section 1607.9.
IBC 2009 Reduction using IBC 2009, section 1607.9.
UBC 1997 Reduction per UBC 1997, section 1607.5.
AS/NZS 1170.1-2002 Reduction per AS/NZS 1170.1, section 3.4.2.
BS 6399-1:1996 Reduction per BS 6399, sections 6.1 through 6.3.
IS 875 (Part 2) - 1987 Live Load Reduction Reduction per IS 875 (Part 2) section 3.2
Eurocode 1-2002 (UK Annex) Reduction per clause 6.3.1.2 and UK Annex 2.5-2.6
National Building Code of Canada 2005 Reduction per clause 4.1.5.9
None No live load reduction is performed.

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Setting the Live Load Reduction Code

27.3 Setting the Live Load Reduction Code


You choose the live load reduction code in the Calc Options. The default live load reduction code is None,
causing no reductions to be used.
1. Choose Criteria > Calc Options
2. Choose the General tab
3. Choose the live load reduction code, as shown in the following figure.

Figure 156: Calc Options Dialog

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Live Load Reduction Parameters

27.4 Live Loading Types


RAM Concept allows several different live loading types. These types are affected by live load reduction in
different ways, depending upon the design code. The types are:
Live (Reducible) Loading Standard live load reduction is performed
Live (Unreducible) Loading No live load reduction is performed
Live (Storage) Loading Special storage live load reduction is performed if allowed in the specified code.
Live (Parking) Loading Special parking live load reduction is performed if allowed in the specified code.
Live (Roof) Loading No live load reduction is performed.
These loading types are specified in the Loadings window. See section 10.2 though section 10.6 of Chapter 10,
Specifying Loadings for more information.
Note: Live (Roof) Loading is reducible in the RAM Structural System, but not in RAM Concept .

27.5 Live Load Reduction Parameters


RAM Concept uses up to six parameters to determine the allowed reduction factors:
Loading type - Only certain loading types may be reduced (as is discussed above)
Member type - Most codes have special reduction rules for certain member types (such as columns)
Maximum allowed reduction - The user may specify a maximum reduction value for each member.
Number of levels supported - Most codes consider the number of levels supported when calculating the
allowed reductions. If RAM Concept's automatic calculation of areas is used, then the number of levels supported
is assumed to be one.
Tributary area - Most codes use the tributary area of the member as the primary live load reduction parameter.
Influence area - RAM Concept has options for two codes that use the influence area of the member as the
primary live load reduction parameter.
RAM Concept calculates the last three parametric values. You can view the values on plan as described in To
view the column element LLR results and To view the latitude design strip LLR results.
You can override the calculation by specifying the parameters values. The next section describes how to edit
these values.

27.6 Specifying Live Load Reduction Parameters


You can specify live load reduction values for columns, punching checks, design strip segments and design
sections.
To specify overriding values for number of levels supported, tributary area, and influence area

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Implementation of Live Load Reduction
1.
2.
3.
4.

Open the appropriate plan


Select the object(s)
Choose Edit > Selection properties
In the Default Properties dialog box (see the following figure):
a. Click the Live Load Reduction tab
b. Check the Use Specified LLR Parameters box
c. Set the values for LLR Levels, Trib Area, and Influence Area.
5. Click OK.

Figure 157: Live Load Reduction Properties

27.7 Implementation of Live Load Reduction


See Chapter 52, Live Load Reduction Notes for information on RAM Concept s implementation of live load
reduction.

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Calculating Results
You generally calculate results many times during the modeling and design process. You can calculate as soon as
elements have been generated (e.g. self-weight deflection) or wait until modeling is close to finished.
It is conceivable that you would not calculate results until all tendons, loads and design strips are drawn. It
makes sense, however, to run the file during modeling to check for errors. That way you could avoid repeating
the same modeling error.

28.1 Calculating the results


You can calculate all or some of the results with or without a review of the calculation options.

28.1.1 Calculating all of the results


1. Click Calc All (

), or choose Process > Calc All.

Modeling errors are common and you may encounter error messages when calculating results. If the file runs
successfully without errors, the Calc All icon becomes grayed-out. If errors occur then the calculator does not
become grayed-out. See About analysis errors for more information.
Related Links
About analysis errors on page 328

28.1.2 Partially calculating the results


1. Do either of the following:
Click Calc Partial (

or
Select Process > Calc Partial

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Figure 158: Calc dialog box


The slider on the left side of the Calc dialog box determines the level to which RAM Concept performs the
calculations. The options are:
Through
analysis

Calculations are performed up to and including the global slab analysis (slab moments
deflections, etc.) and the strip and section forces.

Through design RAM Concept performs the design of strips, sections and punching shear checks, in addition
to all the Through analysis calculations.
Through layout RAM Concept performs the layout of program reinforcement on the Reinforcement layer, in
addition to all the Through design calculations.
All

RAM Concept performs the detailing of program reinforcement into individual bars
(viewable in perspectives), in addition to all the Through layout calculations.

The checkboxes on the right side of the Calc dialog window provide options on how RAM Concept performs the
calculations. The options are:
Skip warnings

Optional warnings do not stop the calculations, but are added as notes to the Calc
Log. This setting is off by default.

Calculate only out-ofdate items

Existing calculation results are not replaced by new calculations unless RAM Concept
detects that the existing calculations are out-of-date. This setting is on by default.

Warnings invalidate
calculations

Previous calculation warnings are considered to invalidate their associated results,


causing the re-calculation of the item that caused the warning. This setting is on by
default.

28.1.3 Calculation options


You can review and change the calculation options.
To access the Calc Options
1. Choose Criteria > Calc Options .

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2. Choose the General tab.

Figure 159: Calc options dialog, General tab


The following describes the calculation options:

28.1.4 General options


Auto-stabilize structure in X- and Y-directions Auto-stabilization introduces a small horizontal brace for
structures that have no horizontal restraint. This is only suitable for structures with no external horizontal loads.
Create viewable self-dead loading This setting controls whether RAM Concept creates loads that are viewable
in plans and perspectives for the self-dead loading. This setting has no effect on the actual loading calculations.
You would normally leave this unchecked.
Include supports above slab in self-dead loading This includes the weight of supports (columns and walls) as
loads. You should consider that RAM Concept bases punching shear calculations at columns below on the total
column reaction that includes any loads applied directly above.

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Include tendon component in punch check reaction This includes the vertical component of the tendon force
within the punch zone (which often reduces the punch check reaction). See Contribution from the Vertical
Component of Prestress in Chapter 66, Punching Shear Design Notes for more information.
Check capacity of long. user reinf. without designing additional program reinf. This option instructs RAM
Concept to perform a check of the existing defined longitudinal user reinforcement and post-tensioning and
report any failed locations. Since RAM Concept does not currently have user defined transverse (shear)
reinforcement, RAM Concept always performs a transverse shear (and SSR design for punching shear) design for
the given longitudinal reinforcement. When a calc all is run using this option, any program reinforcement will
be deleted before the start of the analysis and no additional program reinforcement will be designed.
Related Links
Rebuilding load combinations on page 111

28.1.5 Code options


Design The applicable design code.
You can switch design codes during the design process. Note that switching codes does not automatically change
the load factors. See Rebuilding load combinations for information on changing code specific load factors.
Live load reduction The applicable loading code.
See Chapter 27, Using Live Load Reduction, for information on the loading code.

28.1.6 Zero tension iteration options


If a mat is flexible or there are large overturning loads then the springs may initially be resisting tension. You can
reduce this tension by iteration.
Zero tension iterations use an accelerator factor to make convergence faster. An accelerator value of 1 results
in no acceleration, while a value that is too large may result in wild oscillations instead of convergence. RAM
Concept calculates the accelerator value as follows:
accelerator = (T j / T i )power maxAccelerator
where
=
Tj
=
Ti
power
=
maxAccelerator
=

the tension force offset in iteration j (j = i+1)


the tension force offset in iteration i
the user-controlled Accelerator Power (typically 1.0)
the user-controlled maximum allowed acceleration
(typically 1.5)

Iterations to use The number of iterations used in calculations. The higher the number of iterations, the closer
the tension is to zero.
Accelerator Power The power in the above formula; typically this is 1.
Max. Acceleration The maximum allowed acceleration.

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28.1.7 Reinforcement layout and detailing parameters


There are five parameters that influence how Concept lays out and details reinforcement.
Three of the parameters are layout cost values that affect RAM Concept 's priorities when laying out program
reinforcement. They have no effect on user reinforcement.
The cost parameters are:
Bar Length Cost When this value is increased RAM Concept gives a higher priority to minimizing the weight of
the reinforcement. This also causes RAM Concept to create a larger number of callouts.
Bar Group Length Cost When this value is increased RAM Concept gives a higher priority to minimizing the
total length of all of the callouts summed together. This also causes RAM Concept to use more reinforcement
than necessary in some areas.
Bar Callout Cost When this value is increased RAM Concept gives a higher priority to minimizing the total
number of callouts. This also causes RAM Concept to use more reinforcement than necessary in some areas, and
may cause RAM Concept to provide reinforcement where none is required.
Using the default values for these three cost parameters usually results in acceptable program reinforcement
layouts. However, you may want to try adjusting these parameters if you want RAM Concept to arrive at
different layouts.
The other two parameters are as follows:
Bar Rounding Length RAM Concept lays out the program reinforcement with lengths that are a multiple of this
value. The only instance where the program reinforcement does not use this rounding length is where both ends
of a reinforcement callout are not straight (they are hooked or anchored).
Bar End Cover RAM Concept uses this value when detailing both user and program reinforcement. Bar ends except for bar ends with anchors - are always pulled back from slab edges by this amount.

28.1.8 Load History / Effective curvature ratio options


Load history and effective curvature ratio options are accessible on the Load History / ECR tab.

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Figure 160: Calc options dialog, Load History / ECR tab


RAM Concept calculates an effective curvature ratio (ECR) at every cross section:
ECR = Ce/Cg
where
Ce
Cg

=
=

the effective cross section curvature


the gross section curvature

RAM Concept calculates Ce by the approximate formula:


Ce = (kc BSR Cg) + ((1 BSR)Cccs)
where
kc

the concrete design creep factor (often 3.35) = total strain / elastic strain
Note: ACI 209 reports the value of 3.35 as an average creep value. RAM
Concept files adopt this value as a default.

BSR
Cccs

RAM Concept

=
=

Branson's Stress Ratio


the cross section curvature considering cracking, creep and shrinkage

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See Section Design Notes on page 768 for further explanation.
Creep factor, kc

As defined above. See Load History Deflections on page 1080 for additional information.

Shrinkage strain The design shrinkage value used to determine long-term curvature in cross sections. See
Load History Deflections on page 1080 for additional information.

28.1.9 Load History


These are parameters that apply to RAM Concept 's load history calculations.
Initial Load
Application

The time of application of the initial loads. This becomes the start time of the first load
history step specified in the Load History Criteria page.

Moist Cure
Duration

The duration of the moist cure period. This is used in the calculation of shrinkage strains.

Convergence
Tolerance

The maximum specified difference in calculated deflection between iterations in order to


consider RAM Concept to have converged upon the solution.

Ageing Coefficient

The coefficient that accounts for various behaviors in the calculation of sustained loads.
See Load History Deflections on page 1080 for additional information.

Shrinkage
Restraint %

A percentage of the free shrinkage strain to consider as externally restrained. The


shrinkage restraint is used to calculate a hypothetical tension strain which is included in
the tension stiffening calculations. A normal range for this value will be 0 to 20%. See
Load History Deflections on page 1080 for additional information.

Iterations to Use

The maximum number of iterations to use to calculate instantaneous or sustained


portion of a unique load history step.

Accelerator factor

A value that determines how much weight to give newly calculated curvatures in an
iteration compared to the average curvatures from the previous iteration. A value of 1.0
indicates to give the newly calculated curvature equal weight as the previous average
curvature. A value of greater than 1.0 will give the newly calculated curvature more
weight than the previous average curvature.

28.1.10 Vibration options


Vibration and footfall analysis options are accessible on the vibrations tab.

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Figure 161: Calc options dialog, Vibrations tab


These are parameters that apply to RAM Concept 's vibration calculations.
Number of modes The number of modes for RAM Concept to calculate in the Eigenvalue analysis.
Dynamic concrete modulus factor The ratio of concrete modulus of elasticity to use in the dynamic analysis
over the concrete modulus of elasticity defined for the static analysis.
Stiffness matrix Controls the stiffness matrix that is used to solve the Eigenvalue analysis. The global linear
elastic analysis model can be used, or any load history step can be selected.
Minimum footstep frequency The minimum footstep frequency to consider in the footfall analysis. Normal
footstep rates range from 1.5 to 2.5 Hz.
Maximum footstep frequency The maximum footstep frequency to consider in the footfall analysis. Normal
footstep rates range from 1.5 to 2.5 Hz.
Damping Ratio The damping ratio to use in the vibration analysis, as a fraction of critical damping (damping
ratio = 1). Normal range for concrete buildings is 0.01 to 0.04.

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About analysis errors
Simplifed (fast) calculation This analysis uses a fast calculation technique that is generally suitable for day to
day design where RMS velocity values are not required.
Modal Analysis This analysis uses a comprehensive dynamic modal superposition analysis which is suitable for
structures that are vibrationally sensitive or if RMS velocity values are required.
Simplifed (fast) calculation This analysis uses a fast calculation technique that is generally suitable for day to
day design where RMS velocity values are not required.
Duration, Time Increment Defines the number of time points that are used to calculate the modal analysis. The
duration should generally be set to capture at least 30 cycles of forcing and the time increment should be set to
at least 10 times shorter than the 4th harmonic of the fastest walking frequency.
Weight of Person The static weight of the person walking.
Simplifed (fast) calculation This analysis uses a fast calculation technique that is generally suitable for day to
day design where RMS velocity values are not required.
Max natural frequency Defines the maximum natural frequency that is used in the dynamic analysis for the
resonant response.
All nodes Will consider excitation at every node.
Critical Nodes Will consider excitation only at nodes where the expected response factor is greater than or
equal to the Excitation Response Factor Threshold.
Excitation Response Factor Threshold When considering Critical Nodes, the threshold value of interest.
All DOF at all nodes Will calculate a response at every DOF at every node for the Modal Analysis (not
recommended).
Vertical DOF at all nodes Will calculate a response at every node, but only for vertical DOF.
Vertical DOF at all nodes Will calculate a response only at the excited nodes.

28.2 About analysis errors


Two types of errors can occur during calculation: fatal and non-fatal. RAM Concept generates an Analysis Error
message if an error occurs.
If a fatal error occurs, analysis cannot continue. You must correct the problem, then recalculate. For example, if
the structure is unstable then RAM Concept cannot triangularize the stiffness matrix.
After non-fatal error occurs, you can choose whether to continue the analysis calculation or not. For example, if a
point load is not located on the structure, you can do one of the following:
continue the analysis and ignore the point load
fix the problem and continue calculation
stop the analysis

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28.3 Recalculating
Some or all of the calculation analysis information becomes out-dated when you edit the model. Click Calc All (
) to run a new analysis calculation. If the Calc All option is grayed-out (

), the analysis results are current.

When you recalculate, the analysis starts from the point where the information is no longer valid. For example, if
you were to add a load, it would not affect the stiffness matrix. The recalculation would start with the analysis of
loads and then move on to design. If you were to edit the concrete elements however, the calculation would start
from the beginning.

28.4 Calculating load history deflections


To calculate results
1. Click Calc Load History Deflections(

), or choose Process > Calc Load History Deflections.

If any calculations are out of date at the time, a Calc All will effectively be performed prior to calculating the
Load History Deflections.

28.5 Calculating vibration analysis


To calculate results
1. Click Calc Vibration Analysis(), or choose Process > Calc Vibration Analysis .
Note: If a load history stiffness matrix is selected, the load history analysis must be run after specifying the load
history step to use and prior to running the vibration analysis.

28.6 Reviewing the calc log


After RAM Concept calculates results, you can review the calc log to check for detected errors.

28.6.1 To open the Calc Log


1. Choose Report > Calc Log .

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28.6.2 To open the Load History Calc Log


1. Choose Report > Load History Calc Log .

28.6.3 To open the Vibration Calc Log


1. Choose Report > Vibration Calc Log .

28.7 Decreasing calculation time


The time it takes RAM Concept to calculate results is dependent upon a number of parameters. You have control
over some of these parameters.
Desired Element Size
The time to analyze the stiffness matrix is a function of the number of finite element nodes. You can speed up the
analysis time by using larger finite elements for preliminary work. This means specifying a large Desired
Element Size when generating the mesh.
Design Strip Min Number of Divisions and Max Division Spacing
The calculation time is a function of the number of span segment strip cross sections and design sections on the
slab. Each span segment strip with n internal divisions produces at least n+1 design cross sections; more if
the maximum spacing governs. You can speed up the analysis time by using a small number of divisions and
large maximum spacing for preliminary design.
Enveloping
Load patterns and alternate envelope factors produce additional calculations. The RAM Concept algorithms for
enveloping are quite efficient and so do not slow down the calculations very much. You could, however, speed up
the calculation time by eliminating load patterns and setting alternate envelope factors to the same as load
factors in the Load Combinations window (Choose Criteria > Load Combo to open the Load Combinations
window).
SSR Design
Stud shear reinforcement design adds significantly to the calculation time. You might consider delaying the
drawing of punching checks until most of the design is close to finish.
Detailed Section Analysis
A cracked section analysis takes significant time. If you are not interested in these results or they are not
appropriate then you can turn the detailed section analysis off.

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28.7.1 To turn off Detailed Section Analysis


1. Choose Criteria > Design Rules .
2. Uncheck the Include detailed section analysis boxes.

28.7.2
Load History Deflections
Load history deflection calculation time is affected significantly by the number of cross sections and the
convergence tolerance/iterations to use. Calculation time can be reduced by reducing the number of cross
sections or increasing the convergence tolerance and/or reducing the iterations to use.

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29

Viewing the Results


RAM Concept produces a large volume of results from the model analysis.
If you take the time to understand how RAM Concept calculates results (and their accessibility), RAM Concept
can be a much more powerful tool in your workplace.

29.1 Type of results


You can view the results generated via text tables, plans, and perspectives on layers of the following types:

Loading
Load Combination
Rule Set Design
Vibrations
Design Status

To locate a particular result, you need to know on which layer it belongs. Only that layer contains the plans,
perspectives and text tables that show those results. For example, you find the Live Loading: Deflection Plan on
the Live Loading layer, but the service deflection is in the Service LC layer.

29.2 Viewing frequently used results


In general, using plans is the most useful way to view results. Most results of interest relate to the following:

reinforcement quantities
status
deflections
support reactions
precompression
load balance
bending moment contours
section stresses (for some codes)
punching shear
bearing pressures

This section explains how to find such results.

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Viewing frequently used results
Note: When you create a new file without using a template, the file hasRAM Concept 's default new file setup. The
default new file setup provides preconfigured plans to show some of the results in an organized way. You can
change these plans by editing the visible objects and plots. Keep in mind that this may void or make irrelevant
some of the instructions below.

29.2.1 Viewing reinforcement results


RAM Concept stores the envelope of all required reinforcement for all rule set designs in the Design Status
folder. There are a number of plans available to show different reinforcement. The names of reinforcement plans
in the default new file setup match the visible reinforcement.

To view reinforcement
1. Choose Layers > Design Status > Reinforcement Plan.
If this plan shows more information than you require, consider using an alternate plan such as the Longitude
Bottom Reinforcement Plan.

To view longitudinal direction bottom reinforcement


1. Choose Layers > Design Status > Longitude Bottom Reinforcement Plan.

To view a reinforcement plot


1. Choose a reinforcement plan.
2.
Choose View > Plot (
).
The Plot dialog box appears with the Section Design dialog.
3. Check the Active box.
4. Select a reinforcement radio button.
5. Enter the Min Frame # and Max Frame #, and click OK.

29.2.2 Viewing status


It is possible for a concrete member not to comply with code irrespective of the reinforcement provided. For
example, there is a limit on how much shear a member can resist. RAM Concept reports a violation when the
shear exceeds the limit.
Status refers to code violations. When a design strip complies with all code rules in a rule set design then its
status is OK. If there are violations then the status is Failed or Exceeded (depending on the rule) and RAM
Concept identifies the code rule.
RAM Concept stores the envelope of status for all rule set designs in the design status layer folder.
1. Choose Layers > Design Status > Status Plan.

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Viewing frequently used results
Note: There is no consideration of deflection limits in the status report.

29.2.3 Viewing deflections


You may be interested in a number of different deflection plans. Usually these are for vertical deflection but RAM
Concept does calculate lateral deflections and hence these are viewable.
All deflection intensity and contour plots use uncracked section (Igross ) results and do not consider cracking
(unless the load factors have been increased for this purpose).
Note: Intensity and contour plots are accessed via the plot Slab tab.
Deflection results that do consider cracking are available via plots that use the Section Analysis tab and L.T.
Deflection plot.
Note: You could change these plans with the plot setting such that the plot is no longer consistent with the plan
name. As such, changing the plot is discouraged.
See Chapter 65, Load History Deflections for more information.
Note: Slab (identified by the plot tab) deflection plots are available for loadings and load combinations.
Section Analysis (identified by the plot tab) deflection plots are available for rule sets.

To view service deflection


1. Choose Layers > Load Combinations > Service LC > Max Deflection Plan.

To view the strip-based long term deflection for ACI318 or BS8110


1. Choose Layers > Rule Set Designs > Service Design > L.T. Deflection Plan.

To view the strip-based long term deflection for AS3600


1. Choose Layers > Rule Set Designs > Max Service Design > L.T. Deflection Plan.

To view the strip-based long term deflection for EC2


1. Choose Layers > Rule Set Designs > Quasi-Permanent Service Design > L.T. Deflection Plan.

29.2.4 Viewing support reactions


Support reaction plans are available by default for most loadings and some load combinations.
Filtering can make trivial reactions invisible.

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To view self-weight reactions


1. Choose Layers > Loadings > Self-Dead Loading > Reactions Plan.

To view live load reactions


1. Choose Layers > Loadings > Live Loading > Std Reactions Plan.

To view dead load reactions


1. Choose Layers > Load Combinations > All Dead LC > Std Reactions Plan.

To view factored load reactions


1. Choose Layers > Load Combinations > Factored LC > Std Reactions Plan.

29.2.5 Viewing post-tensioning precompression (P/A)


Precompression plans can be useful for viewing the level of tendon prestress and the effect of restraining
supports. The default plans are for the x and y directions.
To view the precompression in the x-direction
1. Choose Layers > Loadings > Balance Loading > Fx Precompression Plan.

29.2.6 Viewing balanced load percentages


You can view the percentage of load that is balanced by the post-tensioning within design strips.
To view the balanced load percentages on the latitude design strips plan
1. Choose Layers > Design Strips > Latitude Design Strips Plan
2.
Choose View > Visible Objects (
).
3. Check the Balanced Load Percentages box, and click OK.
Note: See Calculating the balanced load percentages for more information.
Related Links
Calculating the balanced load percentages on page 763

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Viewing frequently used results

29.2.7 Viewing bending moment contours


Bending moment contour plans can be useful for understanding the flexural behavior of complicated floors. The
Bending Moment Distribution tool (

) increases the usefulness of the plan.

To view the factored moments about the x-axis


1. Choose Layers > Load Combinations > Factored LC > Mx Plan.

29.2.8 Viewing section stresses


Some codes have concrete stress limits for post-tensioned floors. You may want to know these stresses for the
Initial Service Design and Service Design. Usually you want to view stresses based upon the design strips rather
than contours, as the design process rarely uses peak stresses derived from contours.

To view the strip-based initial top stresses


1. Choose Layers > Rule Set Designs > Initial Service Design > Top Stress Plan.

To view the strip-based initial bottom stresses


1. Choose Layers > Rule Set Designs > Initial Service Design > Bottom Stress Plan.

To view the strip-based service top stresses


1. Choose Layers > Rule Set Designs > Service Design > Top Stress Plan.

To view the strip-based service bottom stresses


1. Choose Layers > Rule Set Designs > Service Design > Bottom Stress Plan.
Note: If too much information is visible then edit the plot. You could make the capacities invisible, or limit the
range of strip numbers

29.2.9 Viewing punching shear results


RAM Concept checks punching (or two-way) shear for the appropriate code. It calculates the stresses at each
vertex of a potential failure plane and compares the calculated stresses to allowable values.
To view the punching shear status
1. Select Layers > Design Status > Punching Shear Status Plan .

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Note: USR is unreinforced stress ratio
Note: RSR is reinforced stress ratio
Note: CTSR is closed ties stress ratio. This is only available for AS3600. See The AS 3600 Punching Shear
Model of Chapter 66, Punching Shear Design Notes.
Related Links
AS 3600 Punching Shear Design on page 1098

To view the punching shear SSR


1. Choose Layers > Design Status > SSR Plan.

29.2.10 Viewing live load reduction results


You can view live load reduction results for each member (columns, punching checks, design strip segments
and design sections) and some loadings.
To view the column element LLR results
1. Choose Layers > Element > Slab Summary Plan.
2.
).
Choose View > Visible Objects (
3. Check the LLR Parameters box, and click OK.

To view the latitude design strip LLR results


1. Choose Layers > Design Strip > Latitude Design Strip Plan.
2.
Choose View > Visible Objects (
).
3. Check the LLR Parameters box, and click OK.

29.2.11 Viewing soil bearing pressures


Files created with Mat foundation checked in the New File dialog box have bearing pressure plans provided.
To view live loading soil bearing pressure
1. Choose Layers > Loadings > Live Loading > Max Soil Bearing Pressure Plan.

To view service soil bearing pressure


1. Choose Layers > Load Combinations > Service LC > Max Soil Bearing Pressure Plan.
Note: You can add soil bearing pressure plans to files. See Creating new result plans.

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Viewing other results
Related Links
Creating new result plans on page 339

29.3 Viewing other results


There are times when the result you seek is not visible on the default plans. The following describes how to
show such results.

29.3.1 Changing which result objects are visible


In the default new file setup, specific objects are visible by default. You can modify the visible objects to show
less or more results.
1.

Choose View > Visible Objects (


).
2. Choose options in the Visible Objects dialog box and click OK
Note: See Controlling views for more information.
Related Links
Controlling views on page 65

29.3.2 Changing which results plot


The plot settings control which results plot on a plan or a perspective. The default file setup has specific plot
settings for particular plans or perspectives. You may decide to change the settings to suit your requirements, or
to make the plan easier to read.
1.

Choose View > Plot (


).
The Plot dialog box appears.
2. Make changes and click OK.
Note: The way plans and perspectives are named is often a reflection of the plot settings used. If you change the
plot settings, you might make the names inaccurate.
Note: You must first open the plan or perspective before you can use the plot command.

Plotting the strip bending moment on an existing plan


The following example demonstrates plotting the bending moment envelope on the Strength Design:
Reinforcement Plan:

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Viewing other results
Choose Layers > Rule Set Designs > Strength Design > Reinforcement Plan.

Choose View > Plot (


).
On the Strip tab, check Active.
Select Bending
Check Maximum Moment, and Minimum Moment.
Click OK.

29.3.3 Creating new result plans


You can create new plans for results that are not available in the plans in the default new file setup. See Creating
new plans and Creating new perspectives for more information on how to create new plans and perspectives.

Creating a new bending moment plan


The following example demonstrates creating a bending moment plot plan for the Strength Rule Set.

Choose Layers > New Plan.


Enter a name such as Strength BMD.
RAM Concept automatically appends the word plan to the name and prepends the layer name.
Select the Strength Design layer, and click OK.
The Visible Objects dialog box appears.
Click Show Nothing, and click OK.

).
Choose View > Plot (
The Plot dialog box appears.
Select the Section Analysis tab.
Check Active.
Keep the Value as Bending Moment
Uncheck Maximum Capacity and Minimum Capacity.
Click OK.
Note: You can select specific frame numbers in the dialog box. This could be used to show a plot
for, say, a single beam.
Note: You can selectively turn off left, middle and right strips. Left and right are the half
middle strips. Center is the column strip.

Creating a new reactions plan


The following example demonstrates creating a Service LC reactions plan:
Choose Layers > New Plan.
Enter a name such as Reactions.

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Section distribution plots

RAM Concept automatically appends the word plan to the name and prepends the layer name.
Select the Service LC layer, and click OK.
The Visible Objects dialog box appears.
Click OK.
Choose View > Plot (
).
The Plot dialog box appears.
Select the Reaction tab.
Check Active.
Select Standard.
Check the supports (under Value) for which you want to view reactions.

Related Links
Creating new plans on page 64
Creating new perspectives on page 65

29.4 Section distribution plots


RAM Concept s section distribution plots allow you to see the variation of analysis values across any line drawn
on the structure. These distribution plots can be very helpful in understanding the behavior of the structure
(especially for moments and deflections), but they are not intended to be used for quantitative design purposes.

29.4.1 Distribution plot values


Distribution plots are created using the Bending Moment Distribution tool (

), Vertical Shear Distribution

tool (
), Axial Force Distribution tool (
) and Selected Plot Distribution tool ( ). These plots display
predictions of values along the lines drawn across the slab. RAM Concept bases these predictions on the
calculated results of the individual elements.
RAM Concept s calculation method guarantees that the results for design strip segments and design sections are
in equilibrium with the nodal loads. The results for plots across elements are not necessarily exact, however, and
can be much less accurate for coarse meshes or elements with high aspect ratios. Even though RAM Concept 's
calculation method guarantees stored elastic energy of the stresses in each element is equal to the energy of the
loads applied to the element, for some oddly shaped elements (such as pointy triangles), the energy formulation
can result in local fictitious stress spikes. Note that this limitation does not affect design strip segments or design
sections and does not affect RAM Concept s reinforcement calculations.

29.4.2 Moment distribution plots


You can create moment distribution plots using the Bending Moment Distribution tool (
). The plot
displayed along the drawn line shows the distribution of bending moment about the axis of the line. The values

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Section distribution plots

in the main 2D plot (if any) controlled by the Plot (


) dialog box have no effect on the moment distribution
plot. The integrated moment value shown below the moment distribution plot is the sum of the area of the plot,
but does not include the bending moment that is due to axial forces and variations in the centroid elevation of
the slab (such as the bending moment caused by axial forces in the web and flanges of a T-beam). You should use
design strips and design sections to determine design quantities as they capture both components of the
bending moment.
The following figure shows a moment distribution plot for My moments drawn on a contour plot for Mx
moments. The distribution plot shows My moments because the line drawn on the plan is parallel to the y-axis.
The distribution plot has an integrated value of 657 kip-ft and a peak value of 73.9 kips (or -73.9 kip-ft/foot).
The contour plot values have no effect on the distribution plot values. If you used the Selected Plot Distribution
tool ( ) instead of the Bending Moment Distribution tool (
would display the same values.

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Section distribution plots

Figure 162: Moment distribution plot showing My moments on an Mx contour plot.

29.4.3 Shear distribution plots


You can create shear distribution plots using the Vertical Shear Distribution tool (
). The plot displayed
along the drawn line shows the distribution of vertical shear force across the line. The values in the main 2D plot
(if any) controlled by the Plot (
) dialog box have no effect on the shear distribution plot. The integrated
shear value shown below the shear distribution plot is the sum of the area of the plot. Design strips and design
sections provide a more accurate calculation of this integrated value.

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Section distribution plots

29.4.4 Axial force distribution plots


You can create axial force distribution plots using the Axial Force Distribution tool (
). The plot displayed
along the drawn line shows the distribution of axial (horizontal) force across the line. The values in the main 2D
plot (if any) controlled by the Plot (
) dialog box have no effect on the axial force distribution plot. The
integrated axial force value shown below the axial force distribution plot is the sum of the area of the plot.
Design strips and design sections provide a more accurate calculation of this integrated value.

29.4.5 Selected distribution plots


You can create selected distribution plots using the Selected Plot Distribution tool ( ). The plot displayed
along the drawn line shows the distribution of the values shown in the main 2D plot (controlled in the Plot (
) dialog box). The integrated value shown below the distribution plot is the sum of the area of the plot. This
integrated value may or may not be useful depending upon the plotted quantity (for example, the integration of a
top-stress plot is a force/length value, which is largely useless).
You need to take special care when using the Selected Plot Distribution tool (
) with the max and min axis
contour plots (such as a Service LC Max Bottom Stress Plan). The max and min stress plots show the
maximum or minimum principal value at every point in the slab. At each point along a selected plot distribution
of the principal values, the principal axes may be different. The integrated value for the distribution plot has
mathematical meaning, but does not have any structural meaning.
If you want to see the distribution of stresses (or moments, etc.) about a particular axis, you can use the Plot (
) dialog box to set the contour plot axis (using the Value Plotted Axis) to be the axis of the results you want
to view. The Selected Plot Distribution tool ( ) then shows the values for that axis.

29.4.6 Effects of averaging


Distribution plots display the calculated results of the individual elements. At the shared edge of two elements,
RAM Concept uses simple averaging. This produces reasonable results in most cases, but can cause distortions of
the integrated result when RAM Concept averages a small elements result with a large elements result. The
selected distribution plots are additionally affected by the plan averaging that occurs in the 2D plot controlled by
the Plot (

) dialog box.

This distortion caused by averaging is another reason why you should always use design strips and design
sections to determine design quantities.

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Miscellaneous results information

29.4.7 Summary
Section distribution plots allow you to see the variation of analysis values across any line draw on the structure.
These distribution plots are very helpful in understanding the behavior of the structure, but you should not use
them for quantitative design purposes. You should always use design strips and design sections to determine
design quantities.

29.5 Miscellaneous results information


The following sections are for clarification of some results.

29.5.1 Top and bottom longitudinal reinforcement


RAM Concept shows longitudinal reinforcement on plan with the following parameters:

number of bars
bar type (as defined as a design strip property)
length of the bars
bar spacing

The reinforcement shown on the Rule Set Designs and Design Status layers represents what is required in
addition to any specified user reinforcement and does not include development length considerations. For a
complete consideration of all parameters including development length refer to the Reinforcement Layer.
The following two figures show top reinforcement at a column. There are two callouts because the design strips
terminate at the column. The required reinforcement is different on each side, as often happens. You need to
rationalize this information and detail the bars in a logical manner. The left hand reinforcement is nine #5 bars,
each 6.5 ft. long [nine 16 mm bars, each 1.8 m long].

Figure 163: Design Status: Latitude Top Reinforcement Plan (US units)

Figure 164: Design Status: Latitude Top Reinforcement Plan (metric)

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The following two figures show bottom reinforcement. The reinforcement is thirteen #4 bars, each 9.5 ft. long
[fifteen 12 mm bars, each 2.9 m long].

Figure 165: Design Status: Bottom Reinforcement Plan (US units)

Figure 166: Design Status: Bottom Reinforcement Plan (metric)

29.5.2 Reinforcement bar lengths


RAM Concept calculates the reinforcement bar lengths by determining termination points. The termination
points are located at design strip segment cross sections where the bars are no longer required for any rule set
design.
The bar lengths shown on plan do not include development or embedment lengths.

29.5.3 Orientation of reinforcement


RAM Concept draws and plots reinforcement along an axis determined by the first and last cross section of the
design strip.
Top bars appear over the axis and parallel to it. Bottom bars appear under this axis and parallel to it.
Reinforcement plots are perpendicular to the axis.
The following figure shows the axis, line A-B, for a middle strip. Point A is at the midpoint of the first middle strip
cross section, and point B is the midpoint of the last middle strip cross section.
Design and capacity calculations always assume that the reinforcement (other than tendons) is perpendicular to
the cross sections. If the reinforcement is placed away from the perpendicular orientation (such as that shown in
the following figure), the reinforcement quantity may need to be increased.

Figure 167: Reinforcement drawing and plotting relative to local axis

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29.5.4 Shear reinforcement


RAM Concept shows shear reinforcement zones on plan with the following parameters:

number of spaces in the zone


number of legs per shear reinforcement set
spacing of the sets
length of the zone

The following figure shows shear reinforcement.


For US units and bar size, the zone is 2.78 ft. long and has 4 spaces with two #4 legs @ 8.34 centers.
For metric units and bar size, the zone is 0.772 m long and has 4 spaces with two 12 mm legs @ 193 centers.
For both unit systems, there are five shear reinforcement sets (spaces + 1).

Figure 168: Design Status: Shear Reinforcement Plan (US and metric units).

29.5.5 Punching Shear Results


Punching shear design notes appear in Chapter 66, Punching Shear Design Notes.
Non-Standard Sections: ACI 318 and CSA A23.3
Some times the punching shear status is Non-Standard Section. This is a warning, not an error. Non-Standard
Section means that at least one of the critical sections that RAM Concept is investigating for that column does
not perfectly fit one of the three cases: interior, edge and corner.
When you get a Non-Standard Section, you need to inspect the critical sections that RAM Concept has defined,
and use your engineering judgment to determine if you feel they fit the ACI/CSA punching model (you should
always visually inspect the critical sections, even if RAM Concept does not flag them as non-standard). RAM
Concept still calculates a stress ratio for non-standard sections.
Non-Standard Sections: AS3600, BS8110, EC2 and IS 456

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Some times the punching shear status is Non-Standard Section. This is a warning, not an error. Non-Standard
Section means that at least one of the critical sections that RAM Concept is investigating for that column does
not perfectly fit one of the three cases: interior, edge and corner.
When you get a Non-Standard Section, you need to inspect the critical sections that RAM Concept has defined,
and use your engineering judgment to determine if you feel they fit the code punching model (you should always
visually inspect the critical sections, even if RAM Concept does not flag them as non-standard). RAM Concept still
calculates a stress ratio for non-standard sections.
If a punching section can be classified by any of the standard rules, it is considered to be a standard section.
The rules for standard sections are:
1. Interior Rectangular:
must be uniform thickness
must have 4 sides
section centroid must coincide with column centroid
opposite sides must be parallel and have same length
adjacent sides must be perpendicular
must be continuous (no gaps)
2. Edge Rectangular:
must be uniform thickness
must have 3 sides
opposite sides must be parallel and have same length
adjacent sides must be perpendicular
can only have two discontinuous ends (assumed at slab edge)
3. Corner Rectangular:
must be uniform thickness
must have 2 sides
sides must be perpendicular
can only have two discontinuous ends (assumed at slab edge)
4. Interior Round (circular shape idealized into straight line segments):
must be uniform thickness
section centroid must coincide with column centroid
all segment ends must be on same radius from the center of the column
must be continuous (no gaps)
5. Corner or Edge Round (circular shape idealized into straight line segments):

must be uniform thickness


column must be round
can only have two discontinuous ends (assumed at slab edge)
can only have two segment end points that are a different radius from the center of the column than all
other segment end points (assumed at slab edge)
discontinuous segment end points must be the off radius points (at slab edge)

Note: The rules are applied to EC2 sections before the corners are filleted.

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Plotting Results
The plot settings control which results plot on a plan or a perspective. The default file setup has specific plot
settings for particular plans and perspectives. You can customize these settings or create new plans and
perspectives that show your desired plots.
Plot settings are controlled via the Plot dialog which is accessed through the Plot command (

).

30.1 Setting the plotted results


You may decide to change the settings to suit your requirements.
To change a plot setting
1. Open the plan or perspective you want to change.
2.
).
Choose View > Plot (
The Plot dialog box appears.
3. Select a tab and check Active to make that plot active.
4. Make changes and click OK.
Note: The name of a plan or perspective is often indicative of its plot settings. If you change the plot settings, you
may want to rename the plan or perspective.

30.2 Slab
Checking the Active box in the Slab tab allows you to display and control various slab analysis plot quantities
such as moment, shear, axial, torsion, deflections, and area spring reactions. For plotting axial stresses or inplane shear stresses, select the depth at which to plot the value. Other plot values are not dependent upon depth.
We recommend curve smoothing for contour plots. Without curve smoothing, contours will be plotted element
by element, which can make it difficult to observe the results of a larger region (also, for some plotted quantities,
nothing will be shown unless curve smoothing is on). RAM Concept allows you to define a resolution for the
selected plot value. Finer plot resolutions require longer screen regeneration times.
For contour plots, you can control the frequency of the contour lines by unchecking Use default magnitudes
and entering the desired contour value. For color contour plots, you can set the upper and lower limits of the
contour values by entering the minimum and maximum values.

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Slab
Slab plots are available for loading, load combination and rule set layers.

Figure 169: The plot dialog with slab result plotting active.
The Animation Control is described in more detail in the section, Plotting Results.

30.2.1 About slab plotting contexts


There are three possible contexts: Standard, Max and Min. The Max and Min context are used to envelope
the maximum and minimum values for each point in the slab.

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Slab
While the meaning of the Standard, Max and Min contexts is somewhat self-evident, the following table lists how
RAM Concept calculates these values considering load patterns and standard and alternate load factors.

30.2.2 Max and Min context slab plot limitations


RAM Concept stores only a limited number of slab analysis values. For example, standard, maximum and
minimum Mx, My and Mxy values are stored, while moment values about other axes (not x- or y- axis) are
calculated via Mohrs Circle calculations. Similarly, standard, maximum and minimum Px, Py, Vxy, Mx, My and
Mxy values are used to calculate stress values at the top, center and bottom of the slab.
Because minimum and maximum values are not stored for these derived values, the calculation of the minimum
and maximum values is approximate.
Example: if one loading pattern gives an x-deflection of 10 and a y-deflection of 0, while another pattern gives a
x-deflection of 0 and a y-deflection of 10, the Max context deflection will be reported as 14.4, even though the
true maximum deflections never exceeded 10.
The following slab maximum and minimum context plot values should always be considered approximate:

Values for any axis that is not the x- or y- axis.


Stress values for any depth that is not mid-depth.
Lateral deflection values for any depth that is not mid-depth.
Lateral deflection values where the center of the slab is not at elevation zero.

Table 15: Calculation of Standard, Max and Min values


Layer Type

Standard

Loading

Values with full applied


Maximum values that
loads (no pattern loading) occur considering each
pattern loading (complete
with pattern factors) and
the full loading.

Minimum values that


occur considering each
pattern loading (complete
with pattern factors) and
the full loading.

Single

Linear combination of
Loading Standard values
using the Standard load
factors

Values that occur when


combining all loadings,
taking the maximum value
of the following four
values for each loading:

Values that occur when


combining all loadings,
taking the minimum value
of the following four
values for each loading:

Standard Load Factor *


Max
Alt Load Factor * Max
Standard Load Factor *
Min
Alt Load Factor * Min

Standard Load Factor *


Max
Alt Load Factor * Max
Standard Load Factor *
Min
Alt Load Factor * Min

Load Combination

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Layer Type

Standard

Max

Min

Lateral Group

(not available)

Values that occur when


combining all gravity
loadings, taking the
maximum value of the
following four values for
each loading:

Values that occur when


combining all gravity
loadings, taking the
minimum value of the
following four values for
each loading:

Load Combination

Rule Set

(not available)

Std Load Factor * Max


Alt Load Factor * Max
Std Load Factor * Min
Alt Load Factor * Min

Std Load Factor * Max


Alt Load Factor * Max
Std Load Factor * Min
Alt Load Factor * Min

Plus the maximum single


value of all of the lateral
loadings' (of the correct
type) values:

Plus the minimum single


value of all of the lateral
loadings' (of the correct
type) values:

Std Lateral Load Factor


* Max
Alt Lateral Load Factor
* Max
Std Lateral Load Factor
* Min
Alt Lateral Load Factor
* Min

Std Lateral Load Factor


* Max
Alt Lateral Load Factor
* Max
Std Lateral Load Factor
* Min
Alt Lateral Load Factor
* Min

Maximum of all of the


related load combination
values

Minimum of all of the


related load combination
values

30.3 Reaction
Checking the Active box in the Reaction tab allows you to display and control analysis reaction quantities.
Selecting the Standard context button displays reactions corresponding to the standard results (more
information about standard and enveloping results is available in Chapter 50, Analysis Notes). For the
standard results, you can display any number of reactions for column above/below, wall above/below, point
spring/support, line spring/support, and the standard reactions used for the punching checks. If a column above
and below occur at the same location in plan, and both Column Above and Column Below boxes are checked, the
sum of the reactions is shown at that location. The same holds true for walls above and below.
The other buttons in the Context group are for the enveloped results. RAM Concept displays reactions for
columns (above/below) and punching checks for the envelope result of the selected context. Wall reactions will
be enveloped and available for plotting in future versions.
The standard reaction context values are only available for loading and load combination layers, while the six
enveloped contexts are available for loading, load combination and rule set design layers.

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Reaction

Figure 170: Plot dialog reaction tab

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Reaction

Figure 171: Plot dialog reaction tab

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Strip

Figure 172: Plot dialog reaction tab

30.4 Strip
Checking the Active box in the Strip tab allows you to display analysis results for the design strips. Each plot
value represents the variation of the selected value at each design strip segment cross section (along the axis of
each strip selected). Plots related to the maximum and minimum moments and shears can be displayed, enabling
the envelope for a particular plot value to be displayed.

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Strip
The Torsion value is the torsion about the centroid of the design strip segment, in equilibrium with the element
nodal forces.
The Twist value is the component of the torsion due to the slab twisting moment (Mxy for design strips parallel
to the x- or y- axes) calculated from the element stress predictions (and is not necessarily in equilibrium with the
element nodal forces). The Twist value is not recommended for use in torsion design.
Absolute Twist is the sum of the absolute value of the twist along the cross section. This value differs from the
Twist value in that it is always positive, and that in its calculation, twist values of different signs do not cancel
out.
The Absolute Twist value is not used in design unless Wood-Armer torsion design is selected.
Note: The accuracy of the Twist and Absolute Twist values are determined from element stress predictions and
are dependent upon the quality and the refinement of the mesh. Unlike the Torsion value, there is no guarantee
that these values will be in equilibrium with the applied nodal loads.
Definitions of other values can be found in Chapter 50, Analysis Notes.
The standard strip context values are only available for loading and load combination layers, while the four
enveloped contexts are available for loading, load combination and rule set design layers.

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Section Analysis

Figure 173: Plot dialog strip tab.

30.5 Section Analysis


Checking the Active box in the Section Analysis tab allows you to display analysis and design results for the
design strips including moments, shears, stresses, crack width, and effective curvature ratio. The plotted analysis
results are for the envelope results. They can be plotted against the design capacity resulting from RAM
Concept s final design. Note that some quantities may not have capacity values defined.

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Section Design
Section analysis plots are only available for rule set design layers.

Figure 174: Plot dialog section analysis tab.

30.6 Section Design


Checking the Active box in the Section Design tab allows you to plot top, bottom and shear reinforcement
quantities corresponding to RAM Concept s final design or a design for a particular rule set.

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Section Design
The Top Developed and Bottom Developed values represent the amount of fully developed top and bottom
reinforcement that is required at each location.
Section design plots are only available for rule set designs and the design status layers.

Figure 175: Plot dialog section design tab

30.6.1 About section design context plots


The Section Design plot group box, Context allows for three possible contexts:

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Section Design
With Span Detailing
Without Span Detailing, and
User Provided Reinf.
Span detailing is explained in Section 53.1 in Chapter 53, Reinforcement Notes.
The effects of the Span Detailing Contexts on plots are explained in the following two tables.
For the Design Status layer, the context of With Span Detailing includes the effects of the assumed
reinforcement development calculations in the plots of developed reinforcement.

30.6.2 About skyline plots


When you select the With Span Detailing or User Provided Reinf contexts, RAM Concept plots the
reinforcement with a skyline plot.
In a skyline plot, each calculated value is valid for a portion of the span (as shown by a horizontal line) instead of
the values being interpolated between cross sections. While this is primarily just a graphical difference, the
actual detailing of the reinforcement into bar callouts is performed using the skyline plot values.
For rule set designs, the effects of the Span Detailing Context (other than the skyline plotting) are as shown in
the following table.
For the Design Status layer, the effects of the Span Detailing Context (other than the skyline plotting) are as
shown in the second table below.
Table 16: Effects of span detailing context on rule set plots
Value

Without span detailing

With span detailing

User provided
reinforcement

Top

As calculated per section

Values calculated per


section are lengthened
according to the span
detailer rules (see Section
53.1 Span detailing of
Chapter 53,
Reinforcement Notes) .

Vector component of area


of user individual bars
intersected by the cross
sections

As calculated per section

As calculated per section

Vector component of
developed area of user
individual bars
intersected by the cross
sections

As calculated per section

As calculated per section

(none)

Bottom
Top and Bottom

Top Dev
Bottom Dev

Shear
Shear Density
Shear Spacing

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Table 17: Effects of Span Detailing Context on Design Status Plots
Value

Without span detailing

With span detailing

User provided
reinforcement

Top

As calculated per section

Values calculated per


section are lengthened
according to the span
detailer rules (see Section
53.1 Span detailing of
Chapter 53,
Reinforcement Notes) .

Vector component of area


of user individual bars
intersected by the cross
sections

As calculated per section

Plotted values are the


maximum of the
reinforcement calculated
per section and the
amount of developed
reinforcement calculated
from the span-detailed
amounts of nondeveloped reinforcement
(see Section 53.1 Span
detailing of Chapter 53,
Reinforcement Notes) .

Vector component of
developed area of user
individual bars
intersected by the cross
sections

Bottom
Top and Bottom

Top Dev
Bottom Dev

These values are used in


the final capacity check
calculations.
Shear

As calculated per section

As calculated per section

(none)

Shear Density
Shear Spacing

30.7 Punching Analysis


Checking the Active box in the Punching Analysis tab allows you to display information about the punching
analysis including stresses for each critical section for any of the enveloped force sets. The values displayed are
for the selected critical section(s) with the selected force set, and are not necessarily the worst case for the
column. The most critical punching case can always be displayed by selecting the Max Stress Ratio button and
checking Section 1.
Punching analysis plots are only available for rule set design and the design status layers.

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Punching Analysis

Figure 176: Plot dialog punching analysis tab

30.7.1 Punching Shear Results


Punching shear design notes appear in Chapter 66, Punching Shear Design Notes.
There is discussion of Non-Standard Section in Punching Shear sesults.

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Vibration Analysis

30.8 Vibration Analysis


Figure 177:

30.8.1 Vibration Results


Vibration analysis notes appear in Chapter 67, Vibration Analysis Notes.

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Plot Animation Controls

Figure 178: Plot dialog vibration analysis tab

30.9 Plot Animation Controls


Slab and Vibration plot data can be animated in an endless loop. The animation scales most plot values from
their normal values to zero and back. Vibration mode plot values are scaled from +1 to -1 to simulate oscillating
values. You have control over playing the animation, the number of animation frames, and the animation speed.

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Difference Plot Controls

Figure 179: Plot animation setup


To enable animation
1. Check the Enable Animation box.
2. Enter a positive number in # Frames.

30.9.1
When the Plot Settings dialog is confirmed, the first frame of the animation is displayed with the maximum plot
values. When the animation is played, the data will shrink to the minimum values, then grow to the maximum
and repeat.

Figure 180: Plot animation controller


Playing the animation is controlled by buttons in the main tool bar. Press the play/pause button to play or pause
the animation. The slider controls the duration of the animation. When set at the leftmost value (-), the duration
of the animation (from minimum to maximum values) will be approximately 10 seconds. The next slider
positions set the duration to 5 seconds, 2 seconds and 1 second. The rightmost value (+) plays the animation as
fast as possible.
Many Concept functions, such as zooming and panning, will function while the animation is playing, although
some mouse motions will freeze the animation temporarily. The animation speed slider can be changed at any
time.
The geometry for each animation frame is cached the first time the frame is displayed. A small status box is
displayed when the frame is being computed. Each subsequent display of a frame uses the cached geometry for
fast display. Pausing or resuming the animation while the animation frames are being computed does not affect
the cached data. However, the animation geometry cache is discarded when switching to another plan or
perspective view, and must be recomputed when switching back. Any change to the plot settings also invalidates
the cached geometry.
The cached geometry can consume a significant amount of process memory. Memory consumption grows
linearly with the number of frames. Intensity plots generally consume more memory than Color Contour plots,
and Color Contour plots consume much more memory than Contour line plots. The static portions of the scene,
e.g. slabs, walls and columns, do not contribute to the memory consumption.

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Difference Plot Controls

30.10 Difference Plot Controls


The difference between two plot layers can be plotted if the results of the two layers are compatible. Select the
layer to be subtracted from the Diff Layer choice box, or None if no difference is desired.

Figure 181: Plot difference control


Section Analysis, Section Design, Punching Analysis and Vibration results cannot be differenced. Otherwise, a
difference layer is compatible with the plot layer if the difference layer has results available for the data selected
in the plot layer. The dialog cannot be be confirmed if there is a difference incompatibility.
For example, consider Plot Layer set to Self-Dead Loading and Diff Layer set to Code Minimum Design. The Code
Minimum Design layer has results for Slab, Reaction and Strip, therefore any (or all) of these layers can be active.
The Code Minimum Design layer does not have standard context results; selecting the standard context on any of
the tabs will be incompatible. The text next to the Diff Layer choice box will describe the first incompatibility
detected.
Now consider the layers reversed, Plot Layer set to Code Minimum Design and Diff Layer set to Self-Dead
Loading. Any settings can be differenced on the Slab, Reaction and Strip tabs, because the Code Minimum Design
layer contains a subset of the results available in the Self-Dead Loading layer. However, activating any one of the
Section Analysis, Section Design or Punching Analysis tabs will be incompatible.

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Using the Auditor


There will be times when a design result calculated by RAM Concept may be confusing or unexpected. This could
be due to incorrect input, an unusual set of resultants (for example: a negative moment at mid-span), or a code
rule interpretation. The Auditor assists in displaying design information for you to review.

31.1 How the Auditor can assist the design process


The Auditor is a tool that displays input data, parameters, resultants and code specific results for design strip
cross sections, design sections and punching checks.
The Auditor displays information that could be useful for:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Checking input data such as reinforcement bar cover.


Checking calculated data such as the elevation of the center of a reinforcement bar.
Reviewing the rule set designs (service, strength etc.)
Checking the envelope of resultants (moment, shear force, axial force etc.).
Revising the number of strands in a tendon to satisfy code stress limits.

31.2 About the three design steps


RAM Concept performs its design in 3 steps:
Step 1: Each Rule set performs its Pass 1 selection of reinforcement. For most rule sets this is the entire design.
Step 1b: The selected reinforcement of all the rule sets is summarized.
Step 2: Each Rule set performs its Pass 2 selection of reinforcement needed in addition to that summarized in
step 1b. For most rule sets nothing happens in this step, but for some rule sets such as shear design and
ductility design the summarized step 1 reinforcement needs to be known before the design can be performed.
Step 2b: The selected reinforcement of all the rule sets is summarized.
Step 3: Each Rule set performs a final check (no reinforcement is added in this step) and final analysis.
The Auditor reports the three steps as the following:
Pass 1
Pass 2
Final check

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About the information displayed by the Auditor

31.3 About the information displayed by the Auditor


The Auditor display information for a single cross section of one span segment strip, or a design section.
The Auditor displays the following:
1. Design strip and cross-section number, or design section number
2. Concrete components for a cross section

number of concrete blocks


top and bottom elevation of each block
depth and width of each block
initial and final strengths (cylinder and cube)
initial and final Ec (modulus of elasticity) values
density
inclusion or exclusion of block from shear core

See Concrete Core Determination for discussion of shear core.


3. Reinforcement properties for each bar type
elevation
yield stress
Ec (modulus of elasticity) value
bar area
bar diameter
4. Tendon properties for each tendon type

elevation of cgs (center of gravity of strand) above datum


ultimate strength (stress)
yield stress
effective stress
Ec (modulus of elasticity) value
area of strand
bonding
R-component [the component of the tendon parallel to the design strip cross section (perpendicular to the
design strip spine)]
S-component [the component of the tendon perpendicular to the design strip cross-section (parallel to the
design strip spine)]
Z-component [the vertical component of the tendon across the cross-section (only used for hyperstatic
calculations)]
length
initial concrete strain
duct width
number of strands per duct
cross sectional area per strand
number of ducts

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About the information displayed by the Auditor
5. Base design envelopes (for each Rule Set Design):
The envelopes for maxima and minima of moment and shear force are displayed. These are modified, as
appropriate, for torsion and axial force design. The envelopes list the following resultants:
Vr (horizontal shear)
Ps (axial tension)
Vz (vertical shear)
Mr (bending)
Ts (torsion)
Mz (diaphragm bending)
6. Reinforcement (for each Rule Set Design):
Depending upon the rule set, RAM Concept adds reinforcement to the cross section.

As Top
As Bot.
As Shear Density
As Shear Spacing
As Shear (density multiplied by spacing)

Brackets appear after each result showing which code rule governed.
7. Cross Section Forces (Analysis)
Depending upon the rule set, the Auditor displays cross section forces and other information.
Cross Section Strains
curvature
top, centroid and bottom strains
Concrete Forces for each block
top and bottom stress
force
force elevation
Untensioned reinforcement forces for each bar
elevation
strain
stress
bar area
force
Post-tensioning forces for each tendon

elevation
cross-section strain
component cross-section strain (considers tendon angle)
Tendon Force (effective force in cross section plane)

Related Links
Concrete Core Determination on page 779

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Using the Auditor

31.4 Using the Auditor


The Auditor can be used for specific rule set designs, or for the design summary.
Note: A rule set audit has significantly less data than a design summary audit. As such, a rule set audit may be
more useful.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Choose Layers > Rule Set Designs > Selected Design > Selected Plan
Select the Auditor tool ( ).
Click on the plan at the design strip cross-section, or design section, you wish to audit.
Scroll to find the information you require.

Note: You may find it convenient to make the design cross sections visible for the purpose of selecting the
correct one.
Note: The Auditor selects either (i) the nearest cross-section (of a visible span segment strip) to the point you
click, or (ii) nothing, if there is no cross section within 3 feet [1m] of the point you click. The cross-sections
themselves do not need to be visible.
Note: The Auditor will not display results if a Calc All has not been performed.
The Auditors results may not be current if the analysis is not current. (If the Calc All option is grayed-out (
the analysis results are current).

),

31.4.1 To use the Auditor for the design summary


1. Choose Layers > Design Status > Selected Plan.
2. Follow instructions for strength rule set design above.

31.5 Using the Auditor for guidance on post-tensioning


Certain codes limit the service stresses and designers are required to comply with the limits. The Auditor
displays advice on how much additional post-tensioning strand is required in a design strip to satisfy certain
code clauses.
This information is accessible from many plans, but the instructions below are for using the Service Rule Set
Design.
1. Choose Layers > Rule Set Designs > Service Design > Status Plan
2. Select the Auditor tool ( ).

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About the information displayed by the Punching Check Auditor
3. Click on the plan at the design strip cross-section which has failed a stress criterion and for which you
require guidance.
4. Scroll to the text bordered by two lines of asterisks (top and bottom) near the bottom of the audit.
5. Open all items
6. Search for the string "SUGGESTIONS" using the Report Viewer Find tool
If the maximum tensile stress is within code then the search string will not be found. If the calculated concrete
tensile stresses exceed the allowable limit then the Auditor suggests the percentage increase in strand required
to satisfy the stress limit.
SUGGESTIONS:
Top Stress Exceeds Tensile Limits:
Suggest increasing number of tendons by 8.4% or more.
(Due to diversion of prestress into other areas, above percentage may not be exact)
Figure 182: Auditor text indicating percentage increase required to comply with code.
Note: The precompression and balance effects of a tendon are not necessarily limited to the area (and design
strip) where the tendon is located. Due to the diversion of prestress (bleed of P/A) beyond the design strip the
suggested percentage increase may not be exact.
Note: If there are tendons intersecting the cross-section at an angle other than ninety degrees then the suggested
percentage increase may be inaccurate.

31.6 About the information displayed by the Punching Check Auditor


The information displayed by the Punching Check Auditor is for a punching check at a single column.
The Auditor displays the following:
1. Punching check number
2. Location (coordinates)
3. Geometry

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

axis angle
radius
Cover to CGS
Concrete Strength
Precompression
Resultant envelopes
Critical section perimeter properties

number of critical sections


perimeter length
perimeter depth
torsion strip properties (for AS3600)
9. Unreinforced stress ratio
10. Stud shear reinforcement rail properties (if required for design).
11. Summary

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Using the Punching Check Auditor

31.7 Using the Punching Check Auditor


The Auditor can be used for the strength rule set design, or for the design summary.
1. Choose Layers > Rule Set Designs > Strength Design > Selected Plan
2. Select the Punching Check Auditor tool ( ).
3. Click on the plan at the punching check location you wish to audit.
Note: The Auditor will not display results if a Calc All has not been performed.
Note: The Auditors results may not be current if the analysis is not current. (If the Calc All option is grayed-out (
), the analysis results are current).

31.7.1 To use the Auditor for the design summary


1. Choose Layers > Design Status > Selected Plan.
2. Follow instructions for the strength rule set design above.

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Using the Report Viewer


It is sometimes desirable to search, save or print a report for a particular aspect of the design. The report viewer
provides this functionality for auditor or punch check results.

32.1 Using the Report Viewer


The Report Viewer can be invoked for punch checks from the design strip layer, the design summary layer, or for
an individual rule set design layer. The information the report contains will always be the entire design
summary.
1.

Select the Report Viewer tool (


).
2. Draw a rectangle around all the punch checks you wish to generate a report for.
The Report viewer window opens.
3. A report for each punch check will be contained on an individual tab. Select the tab for the desired punch
check.
Note: No report will be displayed if a Calc All has not been performed.
Note: The generated reports results may not be current if the analysis is not current. (If the Calc All option is
grayed-out (

), the analysis results are current).

32.2 Collapsing Sections


Cross Section Audit reports are displayed with collapsible sections to assist in managing the lengthy reports.
Clicking on the triangle next to a section heading opens or closes that section. All sections in the report can be
opened (or closed) by clicking on the Open/Close All Items button at the bottom of the window.

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Saving Reports

32.3 Searching for Text


The report viewer has a Find Text feature to assist in locating the desired information. The search text entry area
is located at the bottom of the screen, next to the word Find. The page is repositioned at the next occurrence of
the text entered. The Next/Prev buttons position the page down/up to the next/previous occurrence of the
search string. The Match Case button controls whether the upper or lower case of the text is considered. The
Highlight All button causes all matching text to be highlighted.
Note: Only displayed text is searched. You may want to open all items before searching.

32.4 Saving Reports


It will sometimes be desirable to save generated reports. Reports can be saved individually as an HTML5 file or
as a zipped bundle of HTML5 files.

32.4.1 Saving One Report


To save the report displayed in the current tab of the Report Viewer
1. Select File > Save Tab from the Report Viewer menu.
2. Enter a filename and save the file.
The file will be saved as an HTML5 file, which may be opened by any web browser.
Note: As of this writing, not all web browsers available are capable of displaying the collapsible sections.

32.4.2 Saving All Reports


To save all reports in a zipped bundle of files
1. Select File > Save All from the Report Viewer menu.
2. Enter a filename and save the file.
The file created is a zip file of each tab's HTML5 output. The default file extension is .crvz.

32.5 Opening Previously Saved Reports


1. Select File > Open from the Report Viewer menu or the RAM Concept menu. Select HTML under Files of
type: to open a single report file or RAM Concept Reports to select a zipped bundle of reports.
2. Type or select the name of the file to be opened.

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Printing Reports
The file will be opened in a new tab. If a bundle is selected, each file in the bundle will be opened in a new tab.

32.6 Printing Reports


1. Select File > Print from the Report Viewer menu.
The current tab will be opened in the print preview window.
2. Configure the desired print settings and select the print icon from the toolbar.
Note: The resolution of the printed report can be controlled by using the zoom controls on the View menu of the
Report Viewer.

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Using the estimate


When preparing a design, it can be useful to know the amount and cost of the materials used in the model. The
estimate window serves this purpose.
The estimate is particularly useful for comparing preliminary schemes. You can also use it to compare changes
made to a design.
RAM Concept automatically calculates material quantities. Specified unit costs allow supply and installation
costs to be calculated

33.1 Viewing the estimate


The Estimate window lists the different material quantities and their unit costs for supply and installation
(labor).
1. Choose Report > Estimate .

33.2 What the estimate calculates


The material quantities calculated are:
Concrete

The volume of the concrete floor excluding supports.

Formwork

The area of horizontal soffit formwork.

Post-Tensioning

The weight of strand based upon tendon plan length. This does not include stressing
tails or allowance for drape.

Mild Steel
Reinforcing

The weight of reinforcement based upon the detailed reinforcement in the


Reinforcement layer. This does include bar hooks, but does not include laps. The
quantities do not include bars not shown in the Reinforcement layer such as detailing
or tendon support bars.

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About unit costs

33.3 Editing the unit costs


You can only edit unit costs. The estimate separates unit costs into materials and installation (labor).
1. Choose Report > Estimate .
2. Enter the costs for each material.
Note: The costs update when you press <Enter> or <Tab>.

33.4 About unit costs


Unit costs can vary for many reasons, including the following:

Region (labor availability and skill).


Size of the floor and the project.
Formwork system (usually flat slabs are more economical to form than beams).
Post-tensioning costs are not the same for different systems. Unbonded systems are often less expensive in
some countries, but this may not be true if large bonded tendons are used in beams.
Large diameter reinforcing bar is generally less expensive than small diameter bar for materials and labor.

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Printing

RAM Concept provides a range of printing customization options to help you create professional printouts and
reports. You control the information included on a page and in a report. Every window in RAM Concept can be
printed individually or as part of a report. This chapter describes the printing features you can use to achieve the
result you want and offers techniques for printing efficiently.
Note: See Determining the fit of plans for more information on setting the print scale of plan windows.

34.1 Basic printing instructions


You can selectively print windows, or the entire report.
To print a window
1.
2.
3.
4.

Make the window you want to print the active window.


Choose Report > Print Window.
Select the printing options you want. See General printing options for more information.
Click Print.

Related Links
General printing options on page 378

34.1.1 To print the report


1. Choose Report > Print Report
2. Select the printing options you want. See General printing options for more information.
3. Click Print.
Note: To make sure you get the desired printing results, preview the print job before you print. See Previewing
the print job for more information.
Related Links
General printing options on page 378

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General printing options

34.2 General printing options


The Print dialog tells RAM Concept what printer to use, which pages to print, and how many copies you need.
Review these settings every time you print a window or report.

34.2.1 Printer selection


Specify the printer you want RAM Concept to print via the Select and Configure Printers menu item. The printer
can also be selected in the Select Printer section of the Print dialog, but the per printer stored settings will not be
used. With the latest compatible drivers installed, RAM Concept can print on any Windows printer or plotter
connected directly to your computer or connected via a network.
Consult your printer documentation for information on setting up your printer and selecting the appropriate
printer driver.

34.2.2 Page range


In the Page Range section of the Print dialog box, select which pages to print:
Use the All option to print all the pages in the report, or all the pages that are required to print the active
window.
Specify the range of pages you want to print. Type a hyphen between two numbers to print the pages in that
range (inclusive). You must type the numbers separated by hyphens in ascending order (4-7, not 7-4).

34.2.3 Number of copies


In the Print dialog box, the Number of copies option indicates the number of printed copies of the print job you
want. Enter a value from 1 to 9999.

34.2.4 Printing to PDF


RAM Concept has the ability to print directly to the .pdf file format. Desired paper size, orientation, and margins
can be set up by choosing the Report > Setup PDF Export dialog.

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34.3 Select and Configure Printer options


In the Select and Configure Printer dialog box, you can set the printer, page size and source, default orientation,
and margin size for your printed pages. These per-printer settings are stored on your system and are used as the
default settings every time you print.

34.3.1 To change the print setup options


1.
2.
3.
4.

Choose Report > Select and Configure Printers.


Select the printer that is of interest.
Click on the Page Setup button and select the options that you want in the dialog that opens.
Click OK.

34.3.2 Printer selection


The last printer selected in the Select and Configure Printers dialog is the default printer for RAM Concept . RAM
Concept can print on any printer with the appropriate printer drivers installed.

34.3.3 Paper size and source


Select the paper size and paper source the printer uses from the Paper section of the Page Setup portion of the
Select and Configure Printer dialog. The printer selection dictates the options for the size and source.

34.3.4 Default orientation


In the Orientation section of the Page Setup portion of the Select and Configure Printers dialog, select the default
page orientation:
Use Portrait for a vertical page orientation.
Specify Landscape for a horizontal page orientation.
Page orientation is also customizable for each individual printed window in the Report Contents window. See
Printing optimizations for more information.

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Determining the fit of plans

34.3.5 Margin size


Set the page margins in the Margins section of the Page Setup portion of the Select and Configure Printers dialog.
If the left, right, top, or bottom margin sizes you select overlap, or they are off the paper, an alert message
appears.

34.4 Determining the fit of plans


Plans print according to their Print Area and Print Scale settings. Everything within the printing area boundary
prints using as many pages as necessary to print at the desired scale.

34.4.1 To specify the print scale


1. Select the Print Scale tool ( ).
2. Enter the scale in the Print Scale dialog and click OK.
Note: Typically, you want to check Set for all plans in the Print Scale dialog if you are printing a report.

34.4.2 To specify the printed area on the plan


1. Select the Print Area tool ( ).
2. Click at two opposite corners to identify the rectangular boundary.

34.4.3 To specify the printed area with coordinates


1. Choose View > Print Area or double click on the Print Area tool ( ).
2. Uncheck the option to Automatically calculate printing area and enter the left, right, top, and bottom
coordinates in the Printing Area Setup dialog. Check Set for all plans if you want this printing area to be
used by all plans.
3. Click OK.

34.5 Printing the desired perspective viewpoint


The saved print viewpoint determines how a perspective window prints. Sometimes a viewpoint that looks good
on screen may not appear as desired in print due to the dimensions of the page. Remember to examine the print

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preview carefully after setting the print viewpoint to verify that the scale and orientation of the model fit on the
page as intended.
Use the Set Print Viewpoint tool ( ) to save the print viewpoint to what is visible on screen. This viewpoint
does not change unless you reset it. You can manipulate the model on screen without affecting the saved print
viewpoint. To display the saved print viewpoint, use the Show Print Viewpoint tool ( ).
To set the print viewpoint
1. Adjust the on screen viewpoint by:
a.
).
Setting the relative scales of the coordinate axes using the Scale tool (
b.
) and the Rotate about z-axis tool (
Rotating the model with the Rotate about x- and y-axes tool (
).
c. Zooming to show the desired portion of the model.
d. Setting the projection to Parallel Projection ( ) or Perspective Projection (
Solid Modeling ( ) or Wire Modeling (
2. Click Set Print Viewpoint ( ).

) and the modeling to

).

34.5.1 To show the set print viewpoint on screen


1. Click Show Print Viewpoint (

).

34.6 Previewing the print job


Preview the print job before you send it to the printer to ensure the images and text fit as desired on the chosen
paper with the specified margin, and orientation settings. See Select and Configure Printer options for more
information on how to change the page setup.

34.6.1 To preview the active window print job


1. Choose Report > Window Preview.
2. Examine the preview as described in the following sections and click Close.

34.6.2 To preview the report print job


1. Choose Report > Report Preview.
2. Examine the preview as described in the following sections and click Close.

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34.6.3 Zooming
Scale the print preview by setting the zoom percentage in the print preview window. You can choose a zoom
factor of 500%, 200%, 150%, 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, 10%, Fit Page or Fit Width, or you can type a numeric
percentage of your choice (between 5% and 500%).

34.6.4 Viewing multiple pages at once


You can view the print preview one, two, or four pages at a time. Use One Page (
print job at a time. Click Multi Page (
at once.

) to view one page of the

) and select 2-up to view two pages at a time or 4-up to view four pages

34.6.5 Paging through the print job


The print preview automatically opens to the first page in the print job. Use Next (
the print job and Previous (

) to page forward through

) to page back.

34.7 Printing optimizations


To achieve the best possible results when printing, you may need to customize the page orientation and
appearance settings for the individual report items (or windows).

34.7.1 Customizing page orientation


You can print each window or report item in RAM Concept in Portrait or Landscape orientation. The default page
orientation is set in the Select and Configure Printer dialog box. See Select and Configure Printer options for
more information on setting the default orientation. You may want some items in a report or a specific window
to print in a different orientation than the rest. Use the Orientation column of the Report Contents window to
specify the orientation of an item. Choose Default to use the Page Setup settings, or Portrait or Landscape to
override the Page Setup orientation.
To set the orientation of a particular window or item
1. Make sure the Orientation column is visible in the Report Contents window. You may need to widen the
window or scroll horizontally.

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2. Click on the Orientation column value for the item to toggle between Default, Portrait and Landscape. A value
of Default in the Orientation column sets the orientation to the default orientation set in the Page Setup
dialog box.

34.7.2 Customizing the printed appearance of plans and perspectives


In the same way that you change the colors, font, and line type of plan and perspective windows on the screen,
you can customize their appearance in print.
Use the Print tab for schemes in the Appearance dialog to set the appearance settings for a plan or perspective
you wish to print. See Changing colors, font, and line type for more information about appearance schemes and
changing appearance settings.
If you want the printed plan or perspective to have the same appearance settings as what you see in the
respective window, click Set Same As Screen on the Print tab. In most cases, you want:
background color in printing to be white (no printed background)
print font size to be smaller then the screen font
print line scale to be larger then on screen
To change the printed appearance of a plan or perspective
1. Make the Plan or Perspective the active window.
2. Choose View > Appearance.
3. Specify options on the Print tab of the Appearance Settings dialog box and click OK.
Related Links
Changing colors, font, and line type on page 69

34.8 Changing the report contents


The contents of the report are customizable to suit your specific needs. You have control over what plans,
perspectives and text items are included in a report and their order and orientation. You change the report
contents through the Report Contents window.

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Figure 183: In the Report Contents Window, you can change the order of report items, set whether an item is
included in the report, and change the printed orientation or an item.

34.8.1 Including items in the report


Any window can be included as an item in the report. Modify the selection of plans, perspectives and tables to be
included in the report via the Report Contents window. Toggle the Include column value to specify whether an
item is included in the report or not.
For something to print in the report, it requires that its Include value is Yes and every item above it in the
report hierarchy is also Yes. For example, if you want the Standard Plan on the Latitude Tendon Layer to be
included in the report, the plan itself should have an Include value of Yes, the Latitude Tendon layer should be
Yes and the Layers folder should be Yes. Likewise, with an Include value of No for the Criteria folder, RAM
Concept does not include anything in that folder in the report.

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This functionality is especially useful if you want to omit everything on a particular layer from the report. You
can do so with one click, rather then changing the Include value of every plan, perspective, and text table on that
layer to No.
1. Make sure the Include column is visible in the Report Contents window. You may need to widen the window
or scroll horizontally.
2. Click on the Include column value for the item you wish to include or exclude to toggle between Yes and No.
A value of Yes in the Include column includes the item in the report printout while a value of No excludes the
item.
Note: If you want to include an item in the report, make sure every item in the hierarchy above it is also
included.

Example
The following is an example list of windows you might include in a report for an elevated PT slab
using the ACI 318 design approach:

RAM Concept

Report Cover
Units
Signs
Materials
Loadings
Load Combinations
Design Rules
Estimate
Element: Standard Plan
Element: Slab Summary Plan
Element: Structure Summary Perspective
Latitude Tendon: Standard Plan
Longitude Tendon: Standard Plan
Temporary Construction (at Stressing) Loading: All Loads Plan (if used)
Other Dead Loading: All Loads Plan
Live (Reducible) Loading: All Loads Plan
Live (Unreducible) Loading: All Loads Plan
[other live loadings (Storage, Roof) if used]
Service LC: Deflection Plan
Factored LC: Mx Plan
Factored LC: My Plan
Factored LC: Reactions Plan
Reinforcement: Latitude Bars Plan
Reinforcement: Longitude Bars Plan
Reinforcement: SSR Plan
Design Status: Status Plan
Design Status: Punching Shear Status Plan
Load History Deflection Plans

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34.8.2 Reordering report items


The order of report items in the Report Contents window is the order they print in the report. You can reorder
items that are within the same folder or layer by dragging them to a new position. You cannot move items
outside their folder or layer. For example, you can move the Units item to a new location inside the Criteria
folder but you cannot move it into the Layers folder.
To change the location of a report item
1. In the Report Contents Window, press down on the left mouse button over the report item you want to move.
2. Drag the report item to its new location and release the left mouse button. (RAM Concept does not allow you
to move a report item outside of its folder or layer)

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Exporting Plans and Tables


You can export any plan or text table in RAM Concept . RAM Concept supports export of plans as .dwg or .dxf
files in AutoCAD R12 through AutoCAD 2004 format. Tables export as text files, which you can open with most
spreadsheet software.

35.1 Exporting a plan


RAM Concept exports a plan with whatever information is visible at the time. You need to open a plan and make
it the active window before exporting. You make a plan the active window by clicking on it.
To export the active plan
1. Choose File > Export Drawing.
The Export Drawing dialog box appears.
2. Choose a name and type for the AutoCAD file and click Save.
The File Units dialog box appears.
3. Select the units for the AutoCAD file and click OK.

35.1.1 Selecting the text size


The exported text size depends on the visible text size on the screen. You can change the text size to suit the
export.
1. Choose View > Appearance .
2. In the Font section of the Appearance dialog box, click AaBbZz to select a font.
The point size of text is 72 times the actual size. Thus, 9 points is one-eighth of an inch.
3. In the Select Font dialog box, choose the font size and click OK.
4. Set the font scale to zero and click OK.
Note: Do not use Enlarge Fonts (

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Exporting a table

35.2 Exporting a table


Text tables export to tab-delimited text files that you can open with most spreadsheet software.
1. Open the text table you wish to export.
2. Click Export (at the top of the window).
3. Enter a name for the text file and click Save.

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Exporting a Database to the RAM Structural System


Note: In many places in this chapter the RAM Structural System is referred to as RSS.
RAM Concept has functions that can export reactions and geometry to the RAM Structural System.

36.1 About the export of reactions


RAM Concept has a function that exports wall and column reactions to the RAM Structural System.This export
capability allows RSS to use RAM Concept 's accurate load distribution to calculate wall, column and foundation
gravity forces. The export capability also allows RSS to consider the effects of floor tendons on columns and
walls for post-tensioned structures.
This export capability only applies to elevated slab models created in RAM Concept by importing from the RAM
Structural System.
Note: The RAM Structural System requires RAM Concrete to consider the exported Concept reactions.
The RAM Concept force export function transfers column and wall reactions to the RAM Structural System
database.
The export only sets the wall and column reactions for the end of the columns and/or walls that are touching the
elevated slab. Exporting of reactions does not affect the support axial force of walls and columns above the slab.
The structure above the column or wall determines the axial force.
RAM Concept only exports reactions from gravity loadings imported from RSS back to RSS. For example, if you
add Swimming Pool Loading to a RAM Concept file, the export function will not transfer reactions from that
loading to RSS.
Note: RAM Concept does not export Construction Dead Loading reactions, as they would have no further use in
RSS.
Note: RAM Concept never exports lateral loadings (imported from RSS or otherwise) to RSS.
Note: Loadings in RAM Concept are analogous to load cases in RSS.

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About the export of reactions

36.1.1 Special handling of the Self-Dead Loading and the Balance Loading during
export
RAM Concept adds the Self-Dead Loading reactions to the Dead Load reactions during export. This ensures
that the RAM Concrete Analysis of the structure considers the self-weight of the slab.
Note: The RAM Structural System provides the option to have beam and slab self-weights calculated
automatically, or input manually as part of the dead load case. Conversely, RAM Concept always automatically
includes beam and slab self-weights in its analysis. We recommend that, when using RSS in combination with
Concept, you have RSS automatically calculate the beam and slab self-weight loads. That will eliminate any
confusion regarding whether self-weight loads are included in the analysis or need to be manually specified as
part of the dead load case, even when some levels are designed with RSS and some levels are designed with
Concept.
RAM Concept does not currently export Transfer loading reactions to RSS. When analyzing a building with a
transfer slab, RSS uses its own internal distribution of the transfer forces in the slab rather than forces from RAM
Concept 's floor analysis. RAM Concept s exported Direct loading reactions will be used by RSS, if you so direct.
See Using RAM Concept reactions in RAM Concrete for further information.
RAM Concept exports the balance loading reactions to a hyperstatic load case that is only visible in RAM
Concrete. Generally, balance forces and hyperstatic forces are not the same, but for a support that contains no
tendons, however, the balance forces are equal to the hyperstatic forces.
Note: See Post-tensioning loadings for a discussion of balance and hyperstatic loadings.
Related Links
Using RAM Concept reactions in RAM Concrete on page 392

36.1.2 Special handling of the Partition Loading during export


RAM Concept adds the Partition Load reactions to the Live Load Unreducible reactions during export.

36.1.3 The export of reactions process


You can export reactions to RSS at any time after you perform a Calc All operation and you save the file.
To export to the RAM Structural System
Choose File > Export Reactions to RAM Structural System.
A dialog box, as shown in the following figure, opens with a list of RSS story names to which you can export
reactions. RAM Concept labels one story name as Source Story. This is the RSS story previously imported to
create this RAM Concept file. RAM Concept lists other stories in the RSS file with the same floor type, and labels
them Identical Story or Compatible Story. A story is compatible with, but not identical to, the source story if it
has a different story height, member sizes, or (for the top story of the type) any columns above it have different
orientations.

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About the export of reactions
Select any combination of stories, and click OK. RAM Concept displays a log detailing the results of the export
operation when the export is completed.

Figure 184: Export Reactions to RAM Structural System dialog box

36.1.4 About export reactions access and consistency checking


RAM Concept performs consistency checking before the actual export operation to ensure that it can export
reactions correctly. RAM Concept performs the checks before and after choosing the export stories.

36.1.5 Checks performed before choosing export stories


The first check performed is your access to the RSS file from which the RAM Concept floor was imported. The
export operation can proceed only if the RSS file exists, it is not currently open in RSS and you are able to access
and modify it.
RAM Concept also checks the RSS file for changes made to the source story since importation into the RAM
Concept file. If someone has made a major change to the source story, you must reimport from RSS and
recalculate results before exporting. If someone has made a minor change to the source story, RAM Concept
gives you the option of reimporting. Major changes include adding or deleting columns or walls. Changing a
column size is a minor change.

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About the export of reactions
RAM Concept cannot export the file if someone has added columns or walls after importing from RSS, or if any
springs or rigid supports are present in the RAM Concept model.

36.1.6 Checks performed after choosing export stories


RAM Concept checks each story you choose to export against the RSS file in detail. If RAM Concept detects any
errors, you may cancel the export operation or return to the story selection window to deselect the stories with
errors. If RAM Concept issues only warnings, you may continue with the export or return to the story selection
window.
RAM Concept generates warnings for any columns or walls above the RAM Concept slab that do not have
matching columns or walls above the export story selected. This typically only happens at the highest story of
the floor type, where it transitions to a different floor type or the roof.
RAM Concept also generates warnings if a selected story's height is different from the source story height.

36.1.7 Using RAM Concept reactions in RAM Concrete


Once you export the column and wall reactions to RSS, they become available to RAM Concrete for analysis and
design purposes, but only if you inform RSS that you want to use them.
To set RAM Concrete to use RAM Concepts reactions
1. Start RAM Concrete
2. Choose Criteria > Column Forces
Select the button at the top to Use RAM Concept Analysis Forces at selected levels. Select the levels by checking
the box in the Use column.
You can use this dialog to review the RSS levels that have RAM Concept forces and the RAM Concept file name
from which you exported the forces. The Read column displays the date you imported each level from RSS into
RAM Concept . The Saved column displays the date you exported member reactions from RAM Concept to that
level. The Source Story column indicates the source story of the RSS file used to import data into the RAM
Concept file. If the Source Story, Saved and RAM Concept File entries are empty, then you have not exported
member forces to that level. If the Read entry is empty, then you have never imported that level to RAM
Concept .
Note: RSS uses Concept wall reactions on all levels where Concept column reactions are used.
Note: After exporting Concept reactions to RSS, you will need to perform a RAM Concrete reanalysis of the
structure before designing any members or importing any member forces from RSS to Concept (such as for a
mat foundation).

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About the export of geometry

36.1.8 How the RAM Structural System - RAM Concept link works
The key to the export of RAM Concept 's reactions to RSS are the imported walls and columns and the imported
direct gravity loadings.
Walls and columns that you import from RSS have special RSS identifiers tagged to them. These identifiers
allow RAM Concept to match its column and wall elements to the corresponding members in RSS. RAM Concept
will even allow you to move the walls and columns slightly (up to 50mm or 2").
RAM Concept will not allow you to export if you add, delete, or significantly move imported columns or walls (or
do not import walls and columns). RAM Concept does this to ensure transfer of the full equilibrium gravity load
between RAM Concept and RSS.
Note: If you accidentally delete an imported support, or the supports change in RSS, you can always reimport the
walls and columns.
RSS tracks a fixed set of gravity loadings through the structures. These loadings are Dead Load, Live Load
Reducible, Live Load Unreducible, Live Load Storage and Live Load Roof (when RAM Concept and RAM Concrete
are used the Hyperstatic loading is tracked as well). To ensure compatibility with RSS, RAM Concept will not
allow you to delete these imported gravity loadings.
RAM Concept does allow you to modify the imported RSS gravity loading and to add more gravity loadings. RAM
Concept assumes that you are fully aware that it considers only the loads that appear in the imported RSS
loadings in the reactions it exports back to RSS.

36.2 About the export of geometry


Column and wall geometry can be exported to a new or existing RAM Structural System database file. This
geometry can only be exported to a new RSS floor type.
To export geometry to the RAM Structural System
1. Choose File > Export Geometry to RAM Structural System .
Note: The menu item is disabled if there is no model currently open.
A file browser appears which allows the selection of an RSS file.
2. Select a RSS file or enter a new filename.
If a new RSS filename is entered, a new RSS database is created with the current RAM Concept models units.
If the RAM Concept model design code is ACI 318-99, ACI 318-02, ACI 318-05 or BS8110, the design code of
the RSS database is set accordingly. Otherwise the database design code of the new RSS database will be the
user's default design code.
After a file is selected, the Export Geometry to RAM Structural System dialog appears, as shown in the
following figure.

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About the export of geometry

Figure 185: Export Geometry to RAM Structural System dialog box


The dialog lists the floor types present in the RSS file.
3. Enter the new floor type name in the New Floor Type Name text field.
A popup notifies you if the floor type name entered is already defined.
The General snapping distance is the maximum distance structural features could be moved in order to
merge closely spaced objects together.
If the Snap slab/deck edges to wall centerlines box is checked, RAM Concept will attempt to move slab and
deck edges that are close to wall centerlines to be coincident in the exported data. The originating RAM
Concept data will not be modified. This will potentially eliminate small elements in the RSS mesh and thus
improve run times.
If the Export uniform thickness deck box is checked, RAM Concept will export a single deck to RSS of a
uniform thickness designated. The concrete properties from the largest slab area in Concept are used if this
option is selected.
The Columns (below), Walls (below), Beams, and Slabs check boxes select whether columns, walls,
beams, and slabs are exported. RAM Concept exports only the columns and walls below the floor, because it is
those elements that are associated with a floor type in RSS.
If you check Start RSS after Export, then RSS starts on the file after the geometry is exported. This has no
effect if RSS is already running.
4. Click Create New Floor Type to export the selected members to the new floor type.
Note: Column, wall, beam, and slab geometry can only be exported to a new RSS floor type.

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About the export of geometry

36.2.1 About errors and ambiguities


Errors and ambiguities in a RAM Concept model are normally detected and corrected when the model is meshed.
RAM Concept allows models to be exported before they are meshed, so some errors are detected and arbitrarily
corrected when the geometry is exported.
If two or more walls overlap, completely or partially, only one of the overlapping segments will be exported. If
two or more columns have the same location, only one column at that location will be exported. In either case, a
pop-up dialog describes the columns and wall segments that were not exported.
If any columns or wall segments are not exported, the user should check the material properties of the elements
that were exported to RSS. If the overlapping columns or walls had different properties, the user may have to
reassign the desired values in RSS. The user can also mesh the model and resolve such errors within RAM
Concept before exporting.
Walls defined in RSS may not intersect other walls or span columns or the ends of other walls. Each RAM
Concept wall is split into segments at each of these locations before being exported. The splitting of walls is not
reported, but the effect will be seen as individual walls in RSS.

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Using Strip Wizard


Strip Wizard is a dialog that automates the initial steps in the process of creating a model in RAM Concept . When
modeling a straightforward slab or beam, you can efficiently use Strip Wizard to enter the structural data
without having to draw in a plan window. With the wizard, you can enter the spans, tributaries, loads and posttensioning in the same way you would with a conventional two-dimensional program. Since entering the
structural data in Strip Wizard is so quick and easy, it is particularly useful for preliminary design of slabs,
beams, and joists.
Strip Wizard uses the structural information you provide to build a model in a new RAM Concept file. You can
then modify the file by drawing openings, surface steps, point loads, and such using plan windows. Strip Wizard
is deliberately simple, so use it to create the basic structure, and then modify the structure in plans if necessary.
The authors intend that Strip Wizard be largely for assessment of two-dimensional behavior. The (automatic)
design results are only for one direction (the x-axis). Since RAM Concept is a three-dimensional program, line
supports are automatically included along the edges of the model that allow deflection but no rotation. This
closely simulates two-dimensional behavior.

37.1 Starting Strip Wizard


When you start Strip Wizard, it prompts you to create a new RAM Concept file. This file is where the wizard
generates your model once you enter all the structural data. Strip Wizard uses all the generic settings defined in
the new file (such as units, materials, loadings, etc). If you want Strip Wizard to use your custom settings, create
the new file from a template. For example, if you want certain concrete mixes to be available when specifying
general design parameters, you should create the new file from a RAM Concept template with these concrete
mixes.
After you have chosen options in the New File dialog, the Strip Wizard dialog appears. At this point, you can load
previously saved Strip Wizard settings if you want (see Loading and saving Strip Wizard settings for more
information). To start defining your strip, proceed to the next page in the wizard by clicking Next.
1. Choose File > Strip Wizard.
2. Specify options in the New File dialog box and then click OK. The Strip Wizard dialog appears.
3. Click Next to proceed or you can load Strip Wizard Settings (see Loading and saving Strip Wizard settings
for more information).

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Entering span data

37.2 Specifying general parameters


Specify the structure type, spans and concrete mixes on the General Parameters page of the Wizard.
Structure
Type

Decide what type of structure you want Strip Wizard to create and whether to use posttensioning. The floor can be set up as post-tensioned or reinforced and can be one of the
following systems:

Two-way slab
One-way slab
Beam
Joist

Spans

Enter the number of spans for the strip (not including cantilevers). Decide if you are using
start or end cantilevers. Check Asymmetric to allow the model to have different tributaries
on either side of the columns.

Concrete
Mixes

Choose a concrete mix for the slabs and beams and one for the supports.

Note: The concrete mixes available are the mixes in the new file created when you started Strip Wizard. If you
want to use specific mixes, use a template when creating the new file.

37.3 Entering span data


The table you see on the Span Data page depends on the information you entered on the General Parameters
page. The cantilevers and spans appear as rows in the table. The table columns depend on whether you are
modeling a one-way or two-way system, beam system, or joist system.
For this table and subsequent pages, the top data rows name is Typical. Data entered here automatically
copies to the rows below. You can overwrite the copied data.

37.3.1 One-way and two-way systems


Span length, slab thickness and tributary width define these systems. They can vary span by span.
Length

The span length from center to center of supports.

Thickness

The span length from center to center of supports.

Start Width The slab width at the beginning (or left hand end) of the span. For asymmetric strips, L Start
Width is the left start width, and R Start Width is the right start width.
End Width

RAM Concept

The slab width at the end of the span. For asymmetric strips, L End Width is the left end width,
and R End Width is the right end width.

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Entering support data

37.3.2 Beam systems


Span length, beam depth, beam width, slab thickness and tributary width define these systems. They can vary
span by span.
Length

The span length from center to center of supports.

W Depth

The beam web structural depth (including the flange depth).

W Width

The beam web width.

F Depth

The flange (slab) depth (thickness).

Start Trib Width The tributary (and hence slab) width at the beginning (or left hand end) of the span. For
asymmetric strips, L Trib Start Width is the left tributary start width, and R Trib Start Width
is the right tributary start width.
End Trib Width

The tributary (and hence slab) width at the end of the span. For asymmetric strips, L Trib
End Width is the left tributary end width, and R End Width is the right tributary end width.

37.3.3 Joist systems


Span length, web properties (depth, width, spacing and number), slab thickness and tributary width define these
systems. They can vary span by span. This system does not allow asymmetry.
Length

The span length from center to center of supports.

W Depth

The joist web structural depth (including the flange depth).

W Width

The joist web width.

F Depth

The flange (slab) depth (thickness).

Pan Start Offset

The distance from the beginning (or left hand end) of the span to the pan (or void
former).

Pan End Offset

The distance from the end of the pan (or void former) to the end of the span.

Additional Web
Properties

The following properties determine the tributary width for the whole model. The
width cannot vary span by span.

Spacing

The center-to-center spacing of the webs.

Number

The total number of webs

37.4 Entering support data


The Support Data page is for entering supports above and below. You must specify supports below but they are
optional above.

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Adding drop caps and drop panels

37.4.1 Support (above and below) properties


Depth, width, height, bottom fixity and top fixity define the supports. They can vary span by span.
Strip Wizard interprets a support with a width four or more times the depth as a wall. Otherwise, it is a column.
Depth

The support dimension parallel to the span.

Width

The support dimension perpendicular to the span (enter zero for round columns).

Height

The supports height from its base to mid-depth of the floor.

Bottom Fixity

The moment connection at the base of the support.

Top Fixity

The moment connection between the support and the floor.

37.5 Adding drop caps and drop panels


The Drop Caps and Drop Panels page is for entering drop caps and drop panels for two-way slabs. The page is
not available for one-way slabs, beams or joists.
Strip Wizard uses drop caps for punching shear only; it ignores them for flexural design. Some codes provide
guidance on what dimensions are required to consider a thickening as a drop panel. Strip Wizard does not check
such rules.

37.5.1 Drop cap and drop panel properties


Thickness, width, before length and after length define the drops. They can vary span by span.
It is possible to have drop caps and drop panels at the same support. The drop cap should be the thicker of the
two.
Thickness

The total thickness (structural depth) of the drop. This is not the incremental increase in
thickness.

Width

The drop dimension perpendicular to the span.

Before Length The dimension parallel to the span from the beginning of the drop to the support center.
After Length

The dimension parallel to the span from the support center to the end of the drop.

37.6 Entering the loads


The Loads page is for entering area and line loads in the z-direction for two standard loadings.

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Specifying the post-tensioning

37.6.1 Load properties


Area and line loads can be input for two different loadings on each span.
Dead Area Load The area load over the entire span.
Dead Line Load The line load from the first support center to the second support center for each span.
Live Area Load

The live load over the entire span.

Live Line Load

The live load from the first support center to the second support center for each span.

Loadings to use The Dead and Live are just names. You can specify the loads as belonging to any of the
Standard loadings in the RAM Concept file.
Dead

This can be any one of the standard loadings in the RAM Concept file.

Live

This can be any one of the standard loadings in the RAM Concept file (except for that used for
Dead).

37.7 Specifying the post-tensioning


The Post-Tensioning page is only available if you checked Post-Tensioned in the Structure Type section of the
General Parameters page.
Most of the data entered on this page relates to minimum precompression, load balancing and tendon cover.
Strip Wizard uses this data in conjunction with data for spans, depths and loads to generate a single profiled
tendon.

37.7.1 General PT information


You specify the type of tendon and information that helps to determine the number of strands.
PT System Specifies the size and type of strands for the tendon (as defined in the Materials Specification of
the RAM Concept file).
Stressing

Specifies the stressing (jack) locations. RAM Concept calculates tendon friction and other losses if
jacks are located at one or both ends.

Min P/A

The minimum average precompression required for the concrete. Following the code minimum
does not usually result in the most economical design.

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Specifying reinforcement

37.7.2 Balance load


Balance load refers to the amount of uplift provided by the tendons. The industry has traditionally expressed
this as a percentage of gravity loads.
Min Balance Load
Percentage:

The percentage of the specified load balanced by tendons.

Balance Load Considers:

Specifies the loadings that the balance loading is based upon. The choices are
self-weight of concrete, self-weight plus dead, or total load.

37.7.3 Profiling
These selections vary the tendon profile shape.
Straight Profile
Distance at Supports

The length of tendon that is horizontal at a support. The dimension is the total flat
distance, not the distance each side of the support.

Round Profiles to
Nearest

The profile distance increment. This allows rounding of tendon high and low points to
convenient values. If this value is too large it may cause cover violations.

37.8 Specifying reinforcement


The Reinforcement page is for specifying reinforcement bars and general covers.

37.8.1 Reinforcing bar


You specify the bars from those available in the RAM Concept file.
Top

Name of reinforcement bar used in the top face for flexural design.

Bottom

Name of reinforcement bar used in the bottom face for flexural design.

Shear

Name of reinforcement bar used for one-way shear design.

37.8.2 Reinforcement clear cover


The covers are for bars and tendons. Rounding of tendon profiles could override the tendon covers.
Top

Clear cover to the top longitudinal bars and tendons.

Bottom

Clear cover to the bottom longitudinal bars and tendons.

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Completing Strip Wizard

37.8.3 Punching shear checks


You decide if RAM Concept performs punching shear calculations.
Perform punching Checking this box instructs RAM Concept to draw punching shear checks at each column.
shear checks
Cover to CGS

The distance from the top of the slab to the centroid of the top reinforcement. Usually this
is the distance from the top of the slab to the bottom of the top bar. RAM Concept
subtracts this distance from the slab thickness to determine the d distance.

37.9 Completing Strip Wizard


The Completing Strip Wizard page is the final page in the wizard dialog. At this point, you can choose to save the
information you have just entered so that you may load it into the wizard later. See Loading and saving Strip
Wizard settings for more information.
When you click Finish on the Completing Strip Wizard page, Strip Wizard draws your model in the RAM Concept
file based on the data you have provided. The leftmost support of your model is located at the origin (0,0).
Open plans on the Mesh Input, Latitude Tendon, and Design Strip layers to view your model. You cannot view
the finite element mesh, however, until you generate the mesh.
1. Click Finish on the Completing Strip Wizard page.

37.10 Generating the mesh and calculating results


After completing Strip Wizard, you are ready to generate the mesh and run an analysis calculation on your
model.
To get the best finite element mesh you need to regenerate twice: once before, and once after, calculating.This is
because calculating generates the design strips, which in turn can be used to improve the mesh the second time
you generate.
See Chapter 18, Generating the Mesh and Chapter 28, Calculating Results for further information.

37.11 Loading and saving Strip Wizard settings


The data you entered into the Strip Wizard can be saved as a Strip Wizard Settings file (with a filename
extension of .cptstrip) and reloaded into the wizard later. The Strip Wizard Settings file contains only the

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Loading and saving Strip Wizard settings
information you entered into the wizard pages. Save your Strip Wizard Settings before you click Finish on the
final page of the dialog.
Loading Strip Wizard Settings just sets the values in the Strip Wizard dialog to the values stored in the Settings
file. After you load your Strip Wizard Settings, you then page through the dialog as usual by clicking Next. You
can change the data in the wizard to create a different strip. This does not affect the Settings file you loaded. You
must save a new Strip Wizard Settings file if you want your changes to be stored for later use.

37.11.1 To load strip wizard settings


1. Click Load on the Welcome to Strip Wizard page.
2. Select the Strip Wizard Settings file (with a filename extension of .cptstrip) and click Open.

37.11.2 To save Strip Wizard settings


1. Click Save on the Completing the Strip Wizard page (before you click Finish).
2. Enter the name of your Strip Wizard Settings file and click Save.

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General Tips
This chapter provides advice on learning RAM Concept and tips that are not explained elsewhere.
Note: It is strongly suggested that you refer to Learning RAM Concept in Chapter 1, Introduction before
reading this chapter.

38.1 Beams
You should be careful when modeling beams. If you use standard finite elements then the beams torsional
stiffness could be overestimated, which could erroneously reduce the deflection in the adjacent slabs.
In RAM Concept , there is no difference between standard slab and beam elements, and standard elements have
a torsional stiffness that is proportional to their depth cubed.
The actual torsional stiffness of a beam is proportional to the cube of the lesser value of depth and width.
Standard elements thus overestimate the torsional stiffness of beams that are deeper than they are wide.
For this reason, you should consider using the No-torsion behavior for beams, especially deep edge beams. See
Beam properties for more information.

Figure 186: No-torsion beam setting

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Walls

38.2 Walls
38.2.1 Drawing connecting walls
It is recommended that intersecting walls are drawn such that one wall terminates at the centerline of the other,
as shown in the following figure.

Figure 187: Connecting walls

38.2.2 Walls above


Walls above behave similarly to beams: they stiffen the floor. This is especially relevant in transfer floors. The
floor moments DO NOT include the bending moments in the actual walls.
We recommend that if you are in doubt as to the effect of walls above, do not model them.

Figure 188: Comparison of two floors identical in all respects except that one has a wall above (Two images with
slab shown, two with no slab shown).

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Restraint

Figure 189: Effect of wall modeled above: no wall (left) vs. wall above (right) - plot of slab moment about x-axis.

38.2.3 The difference between walls above and upstand beams of similar
proportions
RAM Concept treats walls above the slab similarly to beams. Using wall-beams instead of just thickened slab
elements has both advantages and disadvantages; overall it is not recommended to model walls above the slab
as beams.
Slab elements have two major advantages over wall elements (wall-beams):
RAM Concept design strip cross sections automatically integrate the forces across slab elements. Wall-beam
elements are ignored in these integrations. Also, RAM Concept provides you many controls over how slab
element results can be displayed; wall-beam elements (like wall elements) can only plot their reactions to the
slab.
However, as discussed in Beams, RAM Concept s standard slab elements have a torsional stiffness that is
proportional to their depth cubed. This can cause a large over-estimation of the torsional stiffness for a very
thick slab element if it is adjacent to relatively thin elements. Wall-beam elements do not have this problem.
As such, walls above that are modeled as upstand beams should use the No-torsion beam setting discussed in
Beams.
When modeling wall-beams, RAM Concept interprets some of the wall element parameters differently. If the
wall-beam is not rotationally fixed to the slab then the wall-beam will have zero torsional stiffness. If the wallbeam is not a shear wall then it will have zero axial stiffness. The vertically compressible and rotationally fixed at
far end parameters are ignored.
Wall-beam elements have one advantage over slab elements. Slab elements of drastically differing thicknesses in
the same structure can cause the automatic plotting controls to show (correctly) huge force variations in and
adjacent to thick slab elements and almost no variation within the thin slab element areas. This does not
generally happen if walls above are modeled as wall-beams.

38.3 Restraint
Columns and walls restrain the floor against (post-tensioning induced) axial deformations unless you model
columns with rollers and walls as slip walls (shear wall property unchecked).
It is unlikely that columns above restrain the floor so a roller above will generally be appropriate
Restraint generally reduces the precompression and hence increases the service reinforcement. It usually
increases strength reinforcement too.

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Miscellaneous

38.4 Miscellaneous
There are many tools and capabilities described in the preceding chapters that are useful but often overlooked.

38.4.1 Templates
We have created a template (for the purpose of starting a file) that may or may not suit your needs. You can
create your own template with additional plans, materials and settings that you can use when you start a new
file. See About templates.

38.4.2 Adding plans


You can add plans. See Creating new plans and Creating new result plans.

38.4.3 Copying and moving objects


Many users do not appreciate that selected objects can be copied and moved through a combination of holding
down the shift key and using the move command (or similar). See Moving, rotating, stretching, and mirroring
objects.
You should also familiarize yourself with using the relative coordinates command. See Using relative
coordinates.
To copy and move an object using relative coordinates
1.

With the Selection tool (


), select the object.
2. Choose the Move tool ( ).
3. Hold down the <Shift> key and click anywhere on the workspace.
4. Type the letter r followed by the x- and y-coordinates separated by a comma (e.g. r10, 5), and press
<Return>.
This moves a copy of the selection x units to the right and y units upward.

Related Links
Moving, rotating, stretching, and mirroring objects on page 78

38.4.4 Expanding tool buttons


You can expand many tools to reveal additional capabilities. See Expanding tool buttons.

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Miscellaneous

38.4.5 The Utility tool


The Utility tool can save you a lot of time when you need to move and stretch many objects or control points. See
Using the Utility tool to move and stretch.
Related Links
Using the Utility tool to move and stretch on page 79

38.4.6 Left Wall and Right Wall tools


The Left Wall and Right Wall tools can be very useful. See Drawing walls.

38.4.7 Changing multiple tendon profile points


You can seek and change profile points that have the same value in one operation. See Change profiles tool.
Related Links
Change profiles tool on page 313

38.4.8 Plotting Results


Many users are unaware of the power of the plot capabilities. You can plot many results including (strip based)
moments (actual and demand), crack widths and reinforcement, to name just a few.
Some clients prefer to plot the reinforcement on new plans rather than use the template plans that show bar
call-outs.

38.4.9 Reducing the information shown on plans


You can remove trivial results such as small reactions in two different ways. See Specifying report as zero,
Reaction, and Figure.
Related Links
Specifying report as zero on page 89

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Miscellaneous

38.4.10 Load balancing


You can view the percentage of load that is balanced by the post-tensioning within design strips. See Viewing
balanced load percentages.
Related Links
Viewing balanced load percentages on page 335

38.4.11 The Auditor


This can be invaluable in unlocking the black-box of calculations. See Chapter 31, Using the Auditor.
Note: Many users complain that there is too much information revealed by the auditor. You can reduce the
information by auditing a rule set rather than the design summary.

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Frequently Asked Questions


This chapter addresses many of the questions that we are frequently asked.
It should be read in conjunction with:
Learning RAM Concept: Section 1.5 of Chapter 1
Chapter 38, General Tips, and
Chapter 40, Errors and Warnings

39.1 Capabilities and Modeling


What can Concept design?
Elevated (suspended) concrete floors and mat foundations (rafts). They can be reinforced concrete, posttensioned concrete or hybrid. See Structural systems for more information.
Is there a limit on the size of structure modeled?
The only limit is the performance of the computer hardware. The analysis run time is approximately
proportional to the square of the number of nodes in the model, so large structures may take a significant
amount of time to analyze. Design time is approximately proportional to the number of span segment strip cross
sections. See Decreasing calculation time for more information. The file size can also be limited by the amount
of RAM the computer has available.
Is there any restriction to the maximum thickness of slab that can be modeled?
RAM Concept 's analysis of slab elements considers shear deformation as well as bending deformation. This
ensures that RAM Concept gives reasonable results for both thin slabs and thick slabs.
In general, RAM Concept 's design provisions apply the code requirements that are appropriate for slabs with
typical span-to-depth ratios. If the geometry of your slab is outside the usual ranges, you may need to consider if
any special design considerations are necessary.
Can Concept design more than one story at a time?
Not by itself. You can use the RAM Structural System to integrate numerous floors into one large model.
Can I use Concept to design slab-on-ground?
The expression slab-on-ground is often used to described residential house slabs. The designer has to use
engineering judgment to determine if mat analysis and design techniques are suitable for such structures. See
the FAQ for Mats (rafts).

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Files
Is Concept capable of running a single design strip for quick preliminary runs without modeling the
whole building?
Yes. See Chapter 37, Using Strip Wizard and Chapter 49, Strip Wizard Tutorial.
Can I model a pour strip?
Yes, although there are limitations.
1. Use the orthotropic properties for the pour strip area such that the axial stiffness perpendicular to the strip is
significantly reduced.
2. Terminate tendons either side of the pour strip.
Note: Modeling a pour strip in this manner does not consider the temporary situation before the strip is poured
back. This could affect deflections and resultants.
How can I model curved edges or walls?
Use a series of straight lines. The approximation should have negligible effect.
Can Concept be used to design retaining walls by drawing the wall as a slab?
While RAM Concept is not optimized for this use, it can perform most of the analysis and design tasks if you are
very careful.
Care must be used as RAM Concept assumes that gravity loads are in the downward Z direction. You need to set
all of the self-dead loading load factors to zero and create your own self-weight loadings. You probably want to
apply these loads at the mid-slab depth; otherwise the eccentricity will add a self-weight moment to the slab.
While RAM Concept 's design cross sections reports all of the moments and forces on the design cross section,
RAM Concept does not perform design considering all of the forces and moments. Specifically, RAM Concept does
not consider the Mz value in design, because RAM Concept does not specify the positioning of reinforcement that
is important for Mz design.
RAM Concept does not consider P-delta effects.
What does hybrid mean?
A hybrid floor is one that contains both PT and RC areas. Most post-tensioned floors have some RC elements
such as pour strips and elevator core slabs. By selecting the appropriate design rules these regions can be
designed at the same time as the PT elements.

39.2 Files
What is the difference between creating a mat (raft) file and an elevated slab file?
There is really no difference; all files give you the same capabilities. The default files are setup differently
because there are usually additional load cases and plans for a mat (lateral load cases, soil bearing plans, etc.).
With some work, you could turn any elevated slab file into a mat file and vice versa.
Can I save the data file with results?
This cannot be done with the current version - you need to open the file and recalculate. We expect to add this
feature in a future version (but the save with results files will be huge).
Can I work from CAD drawings?

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Plans and perspectives
Yes. See Chapter 13, Using a CAD Drawing.
Is it necessary to start a model with a DWG or DXF file?
No. For straightforward geometry it may be quicker to draw from scratch. It can be useful to specify a grid and
then use snap to grid to locate columns and walls.
I deleted the imported drawing can it be brought back?
Yes. It is sometimes a good idea to delete the imported drawing as it affects the extent that RAM Concept
displays and prints. Any DWG or DXF file can be re-imported if necessary.
If you moved the imported drawing or structure after the first import then the new import will not match. You
can move the new drawing if necessary.
Can Concept export to a drawing file to aid in drafting?
Yes. See Exporting a plan in Chapter 35.
Can I export results?
Yes. See Exporting a table in Chapter 35.
Can I change the default new file settings?
Yes. See About templates.
Can I set the default file for an RC design?
Yes. You could create a template that is suited to RC design, such as eliminating the Initial Service Load
Combination and Initial Service Rule Set, and unchecking the Consider as Post-Tensioned option in the span
segment properties. See About templates.
Related Links
Exporting a plan on page 387

39.3 Plans and perspectives


What's the difference between a plan and a layer?
A layer is an organizational concept. A layer is a collection of related objects and results and each object and
result resides on one and only one layer. For example, all slab elements are on the Element layer.
Plans, on the other hand, are a display and editing concept. Each plan is a filtered view of all of RAM Concept s
layers. A plan can be set up to edit a particular layer, but the plan does not own the layer. All changes that are
made to the layer using the plan will be visible in all other plans, because all plans are viewing the same set of
layers.
See Chapter 3, Understanding Layers and Chapter 4, Using Plans and Perspectives for more information.

39.3.1 How do I delete unwanted plans?


1. Choose Layers > Delete .
A dialog box appears.

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Units
2. Click OK to confirm the deletion.

39.3.2 Can I view all information on one plan?


Yes, but it is generally not advised. You can turn on all objects from one layer in one operation, and then repeat
for the next layer.
1. Make the plan or perspective the active window.
2.
Choose View > Visible Objects (
).
3. Click on the tab for the objects layer.
The plan or perspectives layer is the one initially selected.
4. Check the Show All box, and click OK.
Note: You can also right click to see a popup menu that includes the Visible Objects command.

39.3.3
How can I tell if there is an object on a layer?
See Determining which plans contain objects in Chapter 3, Understanding Layers.
I have two items at the same location, how do I select just one of them?
Double click at the location and you should select just one object. Hold down <Shift> and double click again and
you select the other object.
Why do I see nothing in a perspective display?
The perspective camera may be looking in the wrong direction. Click Zoom Extent (
Viewpoint ( ).

) or Show Print

Why can I not see the area springs in a perspective?


Area springs can take a long time to generate in a perspective and so are not turned on in the default files. You
need to turn them on with the Visible Objects dialog.
What does conflicting mean in a Selected Items field?
This means that more than one object has been selected and they have different values for that property. For
example, if you select two slab objects that have different thicknesses then the thickness field displays
conflicting.
Note: In versions prior to 3.0 the field would be blank in such instances.

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Codes

39.4 Units
What units can I use?
See Chapter 7, Choosing Units.
Can I switch units after creating a file?
See Changing the units.
Related Links
Changing the units on page 86

39.5 Codes
Can I change codes after creating a file?
Yes. See Code options.

39.6 Sign Conventions


What is the sign convention for moments shears and reactions?
See Selecting sign convention and About plot sign convention.
Can I change the sign convention?
Yes. See Changing the sign convention.

39.7 Structure
39.7.1 Mesh Input layer
Why is it necessary to have priorities?
Without the priority system the modeling of floors would require one of two methods:
Objects for slabs of different thicknesses, beams, openings etc. could not overlap - this would be very
tiresome for all but very simple floors, or
Depths would have to additive. For example, you would have to deduct slab depth from beam depth. If you
had to change the slab depth then a change would be required for the beam, unless its depth changed by the
same amount.

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Structure

Can I copy columns or walls below to the same above?


Yes.
1. Select all of the columns or walls you wish to copy.
2. Choose Edit > Copy (or right-click and choose Copy from the popup menu that appears).
3. Choose Edit > Paste (or right-click and choose Paste from the popup menu that appears).
The pasted objects are the current selection.
4. Choose Edit > Selection Properties, or right-click and choose Selection Properties.
5. Change Support Set from Below to Above, and click OK.
Note: It is important that you do not abandon the process after pasting. Otherwise, you will have two supports
below at various locations, which causes calculation errors.

The meshing operation produces a very irregular mesh. Is this satisfactory?


This depends upon a number of factors. See Deciding what mesh element size to use and Improving the
mesh.
Can I vary the mesh intensity at different locations?
Indirectly. See Selectively refining the mesh.
What value should I use for the area springs Z force constant?
The geotechnical engineer commonly provides a value called the subgrade modulus or modulus of subgrade
reaction.
As a guide only: realistic values vary from 100 pci (approx. 25 MN/m3) for soft clay to 750 pci (approx. 200
MN/m3) for very dense gravel.

39.7.2 Element layer


How can I view the slab without the mesh?
Choose Layers > Element > Slab Summary Plan
What is the difference between beam and slab elements?
There is no difference unless you modify their behavior. See discussion of behavior in Slab area properties and
Beam properties.
How many nodes or elements are allowed?
There is no limit, other than the limitations of your computer.
How many elements should I use per span or panel?
This cannot be answered directly as it depends upon the structure and loads. See Deciding what mesh element
size to us.

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39.7.3 Columns
Do columns restrain the slab?
Depending upon the defined fixity, columns can provide rotational and lateral restraint.
If the far end of a column is defined as a roller support (or both ends of the column are pinned) then the
column does not provide any lateral restraint to the slab.
Do columns above the slab support the slab vertically?
No. Columns only restrain the slab rotationally and laterally.

39.7.4 Walls
Do walls restrain the slab laterally?
Yes, if you select Shear Wall as a property. If the Shear Wall is unchecked then the slab is allowed to slip freely
over the top of the wall. The walls rotational stiffness is independent of the Shear Wall setting; use the fixity
settings to control the walls rotational stiffness about its longitudinal axis.
What is the effect of specifying walls above?
Wall elements can be used to model the stiffness and spanning ability of walls connected to the slab. You should
exercise caution when using them. See Walls above.
Do walls above the slab support the slab vertically?
No, they act like beams. See Walls above.
Do walls above the slab provide rotational restraint?
There is no restraint at the far end of a wall above. (Even if Rotationally Fixed at Far End is checked, it is
ignored).

39.7.5 Mats (rafts)


How do I design a mat foundation?
The Chapter 48, Mat Foundation Tutorial introduces the concepts for mat design.
Does Concept ignore soil tension?
You can reduce the tension by iteration. The tension gets closer to zero with an increase in the number of
iterations.
See Zero tension iteration options for more information.
Does Concept design for soil heave?
Not directly. You could draw spring supports that approximate varying soil support.

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Tendons
Do I need to draw the columns above in a mat foundation model?
No, but it is a good idea. It ensures a node is placed at that location where there is likely to be a heavy point load.
Can Concept design for pile supports?
Yes. Use either (flexible) columns under, or point springs. Skin friction is not considered.
Can Concept design for pile and mat (raft) action together?
Yes, but the results could be very susceptible to variations in geotechnical parameters. For example, if the soils
stiffness is overestimated, the actual pile reactions could be significantly underestimated. Use caution.
Does the area spring support have to match the mesh?
No.
Can the soil stiffness vary?
Yes. You can vary the stiffness in two directions. See Area spring properties.
Where do I select the allowable soil bearing pressure?
This is not an input parameter. You need to look at soil bearing pressure plans (which have a maxima / minima
legend) to assess the maximum pressures. Also, see the FAQ on Soil bearing (in the results section).
Does Concept iterate to remove tension in a point or line spring?
No, only for area springs.

39.8 Tendons
Why are some tendons shown at the wrong elevation in the tendon perspective?
The soffit elevation at each profile point is determined during the Analyze All and Calculate All commands. If one
of these commands is not performed since the drawing (or moving, etc.) of a tendon, or since a change in the
mesh, the tendon elevations in perspectives are not accurate.
The same is true for elevations optionally shown as text on the plans.
It is quicker to analyze (but not using Calculate All) with Process > Analyze All . This avoids processing the
design calculations.
What do Latitude and Longitude Tendons mean?
In the USA, Britain and other countries it is typical practice to place all the tendons in one direction in a
concentrated band over column lines. If the designer is using another practice then we recommend that you still
use the Latitude and Longitude tendon layers because it makes editing the PT easier. i.e. Put the tendons in the X
direction on one layer and the Y tendons on the other. Latitude and Longitude are just layer names.
Do I have to draw the tendons for a post-tensioned slab?
Yes. It is not difficult, and encourages you to address detailing issues before they become field problems.
How do I draw tendons?
See About drawing individual tendons, Drawing single tendons and Drawing multiple tendons.
You double click the tendon tool to change default tendon properties and then draw tendons span by span, or
panel by panel.

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Tendons
You can select a specific tendon segment and right-click to change that segments properties.
You can seek and change profile points that have the same value in one operation. See Change profiles tool.
Can I harp tendons?
Yes. Any tendon segment can be declared to be harped. The half-span tendon tool is useful for any harp point
(or any low point) that is not at mid-span. Multiple harp points can be located in any span by using multiple
tendon segments.
Does it matter how I draw half tendons?
Yes. The inflection point is measured from the first point clicked and the profiles are specified in the order of the
points clicked. To be compatible with the tendons created using the Full Span Tendon tool, we strongly
recommend that you always start at the high point.
Can I terminate some strands past a column?
This can be done with one of two methods.
1. The tendon can be forked such that the number of strands decreases. As shown in the following figure, if
the transition is from 15S (15 strands) to 10S (because an adjacent span does not require that many strands)
then terminate 5S using a half span tendon. It is common to terminate strands at quarter span and at the slab
centroid.
Note: You should only use this method for tendons with no jacks attached. This is because a jack attached to
tendons of different lengths has inaccurate seating (wedge draw-in) loss calculations.

Figure 190: Termination of strands (no jacks)


2. The second method can be used when jacks are modeled. If the total number of strands is 15S then one
tendon with 10S needs to be continuous with an additional tendon with 5S alongside. It is common to
terminate tendons at quarter span and at the slab centroid.

Figure 191: Termination of strands / tendons (jacked). Plan alignment of tendons is subjective.
Does Concept check to make sure the number of strands in connected tendon segments is consistent?
Yes. See section 40.3.3 of Chapter 40, Errors and Warnings.
How does Concept calculate friction losses?
RAM Concept only calculates friction losses if jacks are specified.
RAM Concept performs friction loss calculations considering the (elevation view) curvature of the tendons, the
(plan view) horizontal kinks in the tendon and the jacking and friction parameters. The stress in the tendon is
assumed to vary linearly along each tendon segment.
Along each tendon the following formula used is:
P2 = P1 * exp-(mu * theta + k * L)
where

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P1 is the known stress at one end of a tendon segment


P2 is the unknown stress at the other end of a tendon segment
mu is the angular friction coefficient (in units of 1/radians)
theta is the total angular change along the tendon segment
k is the wobble coefficient (in units of 1/length)
L is the tendon segment length

Note: Some engineering communities (Australia in particular) use a definition of wobble coefficient that is the
accidental angular change per unit length. These communities can calculate the wobble coefficient that Concept
uses, k, with the following relationship: k = AngularWobbleCoefficient * mu.
At the joints between tendon segments Concept uses the following formula:
P4 = P3 * exp-(mu * angle)
where

P4 is the unknown stress in the next tendon segment


P3 is the known stress in the previous tendon segment (or the jack stress)
mu is the same angular friction coefficient as above
angle is the total angle change at the tendon profile point (includes both horizontal and vertical kinks)

RAM Concept incorporates seating loss (wedge draw-in loss) into the losses using the standard strain
integration formulation. The equations above are still used, but the known and unknown values are swapped.
RAM Concept adjusts the tendon stresses iteratively until the integration of the strain change in the tendon
equals the specified anchorage seat loss.
Long term losses are input by the user as a jack parameter.
See About jacks and Jack properties for more information.
Do I have to specify jacks?
No. RAM Concept uses the relevant value of fse (specified in the Materials criteria page) as the effective stress for
any tendon without a jack.
Does Concept calculate elongations (extensions)?
Yes, if jacks are specified. Use the Visible Objects dialog to view Jack Elongation on a plan.
Do the elongations (extensions) include the effect of the seating distance (wedge draw-in)?
Yes. The elongation reported includes the deduction of the seating distance.
Where are tendon profiles measured from?
See discussion on Profile in Drawing banded tendon polylines.
It's much easier to take all the strands and put them into one tendon bundle instead of having to lay
them all out. Is there much difference to the model whether you distribute tendons over the tributary or
not?
This is a matter of engineering judgment. There is certainly no need to lay out individual strands and it is usually
satisfactory to group strands in larger tendon groups than that installed in the field. Keep in mind that design
strip cross sections consider only the tendons that they cut through to calculate strength etc. There could be
instances where you want to model banded tendons in multiple groups (if the band is very wide).

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Loadings
I have laid out the longitude tendons but want to change the number of strands per group. Do I have to
lay them out again?
No. The number of strands in a tendon does not have to be an integer, so you can change it by any increment.
Can I determine the force in a tendon?
Yes. Use the Visible Objects dialog to view the Tendon Forces on a plan.
Does Concept check for tendons being outside of the concrete?
Yes. See discussion in sections 40.3.4 and 40.3.5 of Chapter 40, Errors and Warnings.
Do I need to do a load balancing calculation with all the tendons?
No. The load balance tool is available to help you calculate low points, but is not mandatory.
The load balancing percentage shown on the design strips plan does not make sense. How is this
calculated?
RAM Concept s balanced load percentage calculation assumes that what you define as a span, actually behaves
like a span. Sometimes this is not the case.
To calculate the effective dead load applied, RAM Concept uses:
D = 8 Md / L2
Where:
D is the dead load to be calculated
Md is the total dead load span moment (calculated from the moments at the first, middle and last cross sections
of the span)
L is the span length (as determined from the span segments, support conditions, etc.)
The calculation for the effective balance load is similar:
B = 8 Mb / L2
The percentage balanced is 100 . (-B/D)
If, for example, the dead load moments at the start, middle and end cross sections are not negative, positive and
negative then percentage balance calculation will not be useful.
This does not mean your strips are wrong, but it might mean that your tendon layout is not doing what you think
it is doing. Look at the DL (or DL + LL) deflections (without balance loading) and try to get a better feeling for
how the structure is working and from there determine where to add and remove tendons.

39.9 Loadings
Is pattern loading possible?
Yes. See Chapter 21, Creating Pattern Loading.
For an irregular structure it is very time consuming to draw the area loads to match the structure. Is
there a faster way?
It is not necessary for area loads to match the structure. Area loads can overlap each other and they can
overhang the floor. This is shown in the PT tutorial.

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Loadings
Are area loads additive or does the maximum govern?
Loads are additive.
How do Lateral Self Equilibrium loadings work?
Refer to Self-equilibrium analysis of Chapter 50, Analysis Notes.
However, the best way to understand Lateral SE could be this simple example:

39.9.1

Lateral SE

Consider the structure with two elevated floors shown in Figure 39-3. Each level is 3m high and the
structure is 10m wide.

Figure 192: Example with two elevated floors


Assume the following:
a frame analysis has been performed on the building for this 100kN loading and the column forces
are known
a very simple distribution of forces (reasonable for beams much stiffer than columns)
The forces on the top level slab (including column reactions) are:

Figure 193: Forces on top level slab


Fx0 = 100kN
Fx1 = -50kN

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Fz1 = -15kN

Fz2 = 15kN

My1 = 75kN-m

My2 = 75kN-m

These forces are in equilibrium and are applied directly to the slab in a lateral SE loading. RAM
Concept then calculates the correct forces in the slab, design strips and punching checks.
For the intermediate level there are more forces to consider (all of these are from the frame analysis).
The forces that the columns apply to the slab are:

Figure 194: Forces on intermediate level slab


Fx3 = 50kN

Fx4 = -50kN

Fx5 = 50kN

Fx6 = -50kN

Fz3 = 15kN

Fz4 = -45kN

Fz5 = -15kN

Fz6 = 45kN

My3 = 75kN-m

My4 = 75kN-m

My5 = 75kN-m

My6 = 75kN-m

These forces are in equilibrium and are applied directly to the slab in a lateral SE loading.
Since the 3 and 4 forces occur at the same location, they can be added together and applied as a
single load (same for 5 and 6).
RAM Concept then calculates the correct forces in the slab, design strips and punching checks.
Note: There is one simplification - if you do not care about diaphragm forces, then you can
ignore all the Fx and Fy forces. This assumes that the Fx and Fy forces act at the center of your
slab and that the centroid elevation of your slab is constant. When these two assumptions are
not true, the effects of these forces are typically still not large, but you may need to use some
judgment before you ignore them.
Can I input thermal loads into Concept?
Rationally considering thermal loads and stresses is difficult. RAM Concept does not make it
significantly easier.
The most important thing to remember is that thermal loads cause deformations, not forces. It is the
restraint of the deformations that induce forces into the slab.

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If there is no temperature gradient through the slab (and the slab is flat), then the thermal
expansion/contraction will not cause any out-of-plane deformation, but will cause in plane stresses if
the temperature changes are not uniform across the slab, or if the supports restrain the slab from
lateral movement.
This situation is very much like shrinkage/swelling. Expansion / swelling generally causes
compressive stresses in the slab which enhance its strength (they act similar to prestressing) and can
usually be ignored.
Shrinkage/contraction generally causes tension stresses which are more troublesome. Many
designers take the approach that shrinkage is primarily a deformation compatibility problem and as
soon as cracks form in the slab (or supports), most of the shrinkage forces are relieved. These
designers ensure that there is enough reinforcement to control cracking and take measures to reduce
the shrinkage, but generally do not design for the shrinkage forces.
For temperature gradients across the slab, transverse deformations (like slab curling) happen.
Cracking will also partially relieve these stresses, but the situation is not as simple as in-plane
temperature changes.
RAM Concept does offer a means to model the thermal forces, but it takes some work, and does not
consider the reduction in stresses that happens after cracking. Here is the approach:
Add a Thermal loading, set its Analysis type to Lateral SE (the loading will be a self-equilibrium
loading, but wont be lateral). Leave the loading type as Other.
Set the load combo load factors for the Thermal Loading.
Apply the thermal restraint reactions to the Thermal Loading, but dont apply any load that
simulate the thermal deformations themselves. This set of reactions is in self-equilibrium (more
on how to calculate these below).
This approach will appropriately design for the thermal (restraint) forces in the slab, but will not
appropriately consider the thermal deformations in the deflection predictions.
There are two methods to calculate the thermal restraint reactions: get them from another analysis
or iteratively determine them in RAM Concept .
You may be able to model the thermal loads in SAP. If so, you can just apply the reactions to the slab
from the walls and columns as the thermal loads. The reactions will be a self-equilibrium set of
forces.
To determine the reactions loads iteratively in RAM Concept :
Apply loads to the Thermal Loading that create the thermal strains assuming the slab is free to
deform. These loads should be a self-equilibrium set of forces.
Analyze the slab (and see that the loads cause the slab to separate from the walls and columns).
Change the Thermal Loading analysis type to Normal (temporarily)
Analyze the slab (and see that the reactions keep the slab attached to the supports).
Apply the support reactions as loads (they will be a self-equilibrium set). Ensure that the load
elevations are set correctly.
Change the Thermal Loading analysis type back to Lateral SE.
Analyze the slab (and see that the reaction loads keep that slab attached to the supports).
Remove the original loads that caused the thermal strains. The remaining loads are still a selfequilibrium set - and are the loads for which to design.

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Analysis

39.10 Analysis
Should I use Auto-stabilize structure in X and Y directions in the Calc Options?
This is only necessary if your structure has no lateral stability, such as an elevated floor with columns on rollers,
or a mat (raft) with no X or Y direction springs. Auto-stabilize does not work if there are lateral loads.

39.11 Design Issues


What support width is used for round columns?
RAM Concept calculates the support width for an equivalent (in area) square column.
What is the relevance of the Include Detailed Section Analysis box in Criteria > Design Rules?
That box instructs RAM Concept to do a cracked section analysis even if one is not required for the code criteria.
The only reason to check the box is if you want to see cracked section stresses even when they are not used for
code checking / design.
The only reason not to check the box is that cracked section analyses can be slow. See Detailed Section Analysis
of Chapter 28, Calculating Results.

39.12 Results
39.12.1 Reactions
Does Concept include the weight of columns and walls in self weight calculations?
RAM Concept never includes the weight of supports below.
You decide if the weight of supports above is included. This is a choice you can make in the Calculation Options.
Can I choose which column and wall reactions are shown?
Yes - you can change what RAM Concept plots. See Reaction.
If there are columns (and or walls) above and below an elevated slab you can select (through the Plot dialog)
which reactions are shown. The choices are
the total reaction on the slab (below and above)
the reaction below
the reaction above

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Results
The reaction plans show many small values for Fx and Fy which makes the plan difficult to read. Can I
look at just Fz?
You can control this in two ways. The simplest way is to turn off Fx and Fy with the plot settings. See Changing
which results plot.
Alternatively, you can filter out small reactions and moments through the Units window. See Specifying report
as zero.
The wall reactions are shown per straight section of wall. Can I see the reaction per wall element?
No. This is not available because there would be too much information shown.
I have modeled columns at the end of walls. The column reactions are huge and the wall reaction is
negative. Is this realistic?
The huge result is mathematically correct but may not be realistic. Try modeling the column and walls in
question as vertically compressible. This may reduce the column reaction to a more realistic value.
How can I determine the reaction at the end of a wall?
Reactions are reported for continuous walls, so if you need discrete reactions leave a gap in the wall or specify a
column at the end of a wall.

39.12.2 Plots
Why is there moment shown at a free edge about an axis parallel to the edge?

Figure 195: Plan of moment about Y-Y axis at opening. The circled moment is displayed as non-zero.
The plotted moments are smoothed curves of the element center moments.
A slab element at a free edge may have a small moment at it center. The values shown between element centers
are interpolated, but since there is no element outside the edge, there is no way for that value to ever reach zero.
For better visual results (values closer to zero at the edge), you should use smaller elements at the edge. The
distance from the edge to the edge element center is the most important parameter.
I have a pinned column at the edge of the slab. Why is there moment shown at the edge about an axis
parallel to the edge?

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Results

The explanation is the same as the preceding question.


Why are there two lines for deflection in the strip plots?
The two plots for maximum and minimum differ if you have one of the following conditions:
Alternate envelope factors that are not the same as the load factors (see About alternate envelope factors in
Chapter 11, Specifying Load Combinations).
For example, for the service load combination, the load factor on live load could be 1.0 and the alternate
envelope factor could be 0.0. This would produce differing maximum and minimum values.
Pattern loadings
More than one load combination using the same rule set.
The default plot shows the maximum and minimum deflections. You could choose to show just the maximum
values via the plot dialog, but remember that the absolute of minimum could be more than the maximum. It
would be possible that minimum governs if you have upward deflection.
Note: This also applies for plots of demand for resultants such as moment or shear.

39.12.3 Torsion
I have set the Behavior of a beam to No-torsion. Why is there still torsion in the beam?
When you set your beams to have no torsion, you are really setting them to have no twist (Mxy).
Twist is only one component of torsion. Torsion is a moment that in RAM Concept is measured about the
centroid point of the cross section. The z-coordinate of this centroid is the mathematical centroid elevation of
the cross section, the x- and y- coordinates of the centroid are the centre of the core portion of the centroid.
The vertical shear in the cross section will create torsion unless it is centred upon the centroid. In an edge beam,
the vertical shear at the ends must be centered on the column, or there MUST be torsion to maintain equilibrium.

39.12.4 Envelopes
What is the significance of Envelopes in the Audit?
An envelope is a resultant (set of forces) in which one of the force values is a maximum or minimum for an item
(such as a cross section) under consideration. All of the force values within a single envelope occur
simultaneously.

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Results
Audit envelopes are created by the following process:
for each rule set, 6 envelopes are added to a list (Max M, Min M, Max V, Min V, Max P, Min P)
duplicates are removed (if Max M and Max V are identical, one of them will be removed)
torsion conversion is performed (this can modify the torsion values, it can also create additional envelopes)
The result is a list of envelopes (possibly just one, but also possibly up to 12).
Note: Some torsion conversions (such as modifying the bending moment due to the torsion) can double the
number of envelopes in effect.

39.12.5 Reinforcement
Can I determine the reinforcement spacing?
Yes.
1. Choose the appropriate reinforcement plan.
2.
Choose View > Visible Objects (
).
3. Check Bar Spacings under the Span Designs or Section Designs columns.
Note: Plotted reinforcement quantities cannot show bar spacing.
Related Links
Span segment properties on page 207

Why is the Minimum Reinforcing required placed on the wrong slab face?
This sometimes happens for an ACI318 or BS8110 / TR43 design.
RAM Concept locates the minimum reinforcing required by certain design criteria on the tension face of the slab
(or the face with the least amount of compression); this normally works well for both elevated slabs and mat
foundations.
However, in certain cases the moment at a design strip cross section is of the opposite sign of what would be
expected given the location. For an elevated slab this can lead to reinforcing at columns being at the bottom of
the slab and reinforcing at mid-span being at the top of the slab.
For example, for ACI318 or TR43 if there is no tension at a slab location under service conditions, then RAM
Concept places the minimum support rebar on the face with the least amount of compression. This could be the
bottom face at a column.
You can overrule this by choosing Elevated Slab for the design strip property CS Min. Reinforcement Location.
See Span segment properties.
I am getting more reinforcement than expected. Why is this?
This can be for a number of reasons. The common ones are:
1. The floor is post-tensioned and yet you have not checked the Consider as Post-Tensioned option. RAM Concept
is ignoring the tendons. See the description in Span segment properties.

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2. The depth of the span segment strip cross section contributes to a large amount of minimum reinforcement.
This may be because the cross section depth is based upon a thickened area.
3. The bonded tendons are not in the tensile zone.
Why are the reinforcement results on the Design Status layer in different colors?
The default Appearance scheme uses different colors for Failed Span Design and OK Span Design.

39.12.6 AS3600 specific reinforcement questions


I am getting more reinforcement than expected. Why is this?
The default setting for design strip Environment is Normal. Changing to Protected can reduce the amount of
reinforcement. See Section 9.4.3.2 Shrinkage and Temperature for further clarification.

39.12.7 BS8110 / TR43 specific reinforcement questions


Why is there bottom steel at the column?
There are a couple of possibilities:
1. See Why is the Minimum Reinforcing required placed on the wrong slab face? on page 427 .
2. TR43 (1st Edition) clause 6.10.5 states that additional un-tensioned reinforcement shall be designed to cater
for the full tension force generated by the assumed flexural tensile stresses in the concrete for Support
zones in all flat slabs.
The note under TR43 table 2 states that the support zone shall be considered as any part of the span under
consideration within 0.2 x L of the support, where L is the effective span.
This often means that there is tension on the bottom face near the edge of the support zone, beyond
contraflexure.
Per 6.10.5, RAM Concept adds reinforcement to the bottom face in such instances.
Note:
Concept might draw reinforcement bars to the column, but a plot could reveal that is only required over a
limited zone.
Using column and middle strips for a TR43 PT flat plate tends to increase the likelihood of this situation.

Why is there mild service reinforcement near midspan of a bonded post-tensioned flat plate?
When designing to TR43 (BS8110) with bonded tendons, many designers are surprised to see bottom service
reinforcement.
TR43 (1st Edition) clause 6.10.5 states that additional un-tensioned reinforcement shall be designed to cater
for the full tension force generated by the assumed flexural tensile stresses in the concrete for span zones in
flat slabs using unbonded tendons where the tensile stress exceeds 0.15 f cu .

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Results
Many designers consider that they do not have to provide un-tensioned reinforcement if they use bonded
tendons. However, what they miss is that the reinforcement shall be placed in the tensile zone, as near as
practicable to the outer fibre.
RAM Concept examines the location of the bonded tendons and determines if it is effective. See Calculation of
Supplemental Reinforcement Per TR 43, 6.10.5 on page 996 for further explanation.
The following figures show where bonded tendons would not provide serviceability crack control.

Figure 196: Assumed stress distribution

Figure 197: Example 1: tendons in compression zone (not effective)

Figure 198: Example 2: ineffective tendons in tension zone: (i) small number of strands (ii) near neutral axis

39.12.8 Punching Shear


How does Concept check punching shear?
See Chapter 66, Punching Shear Design Notes.
Does Concept check punching shear at the ends of the walls?
No.
What is the stress ratio?
The ratio of maximum stress to allowable stress.
Does Concept use redistributed moments in punching shear checks?
No. The biaxial moments are factored elastic moments.

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Results
Is the design insufficient if the stress ratio exceeds 1.0?
The punching shear at such a column is either:
1. sufficient if provided with design punching shear reinforcement, or
2. insufficient (reinforcement cannot solve the problem and the concrete form needs revision).
Why is there a punching failure at a beam? I thought that punching shear failures occur only in flat slabs.
The code provides formula for calculating punching shear. This does not apply any logic as to whether a
punching failure can occur.
RAM Concept is only doing a punching check at a column supporting a beam because the user drew a punching
check there. You should decide the nature of the potential failure mechanism and thus whether punching check
is appropriate.
Shallow beams could certainly have punching failure. Deep beams are less likely to have punching failure, and
one-way shear failure would be the likely failure mechanism.
For example, column A in the following two figures is satisfactory for one-way shear (with reinforcement in the
beam) but the code equation determines that there is a punching failure. You need to decide if this is
appropriate.
It would be possible, but very rare, for a punching failure at column B since it is satisfactory for one-way shear in
the beam (with reinforcement).

Figure 199: Mixed form: flat slab with column capitals and beams

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Figure 200: Shear results

39.12.9 Shear reinforcement (one-way)


Why does my flat slab (or flat plate) model have one-way shear reinforcement results? I would expect
punching shear to govern, not one-way shear.
[Similarly: Why does my flat slab (or flat plate) model have one-way shear failures?]
When engineers design flat slabs by hand, they often IGNORE the one-way checks. They decide that punching is
all that is appropriate. (This is often decided without much consideration it just seems right).
RAM Concept does not make this decision, as nowhere does the code advise to ignore one-way shear checks in a
flat slab or flat plate. Nonetheless - you should decide what the possible failure mechanism is and so what is
appropriate. It may, or may not, be appropriate to ignore the one-way shear results. For example, columns C in
the previous two figures are satisfactory for punching shear (without reinforcement) but the mathematics of the
code requires one-way shear reinforcement. It is up to you to decide if this is appropriate.
Note: In fact, ACI 318-02 rule 11.12.1.1 specifically requires a one-way shear check in flat plates.
The results have a lot more shear reinforcement than expected.
This is likely to be a shear core issue. Refer to About shear core and Shear core in slabs in Chapter 22,
Defining Design Strips.
For a post-tensioned beam, the reason could be that RAM Concept is deducting a fraction of the (bonded) duct
from the web width per the appropriate code rules.
RAM Concept calculates the number of duct by dividing the Strands per tendon by the Max strands per duct (as
specified in the Materials) and rounding up to the next integer.

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Performance
Refer to the following sections for an explanation of RAM Concept s shear web calculation:

For AS 3600, Section 8.2 Shear Design


For BS 8110, Section 3.4.5 Des