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Prof. Davis

2. (10 points) Explain in 2-3 sentences the primary DIFFERENCES between liquid-liquid

extraction and leaching. Note that I do not care what the definitions of those two things are,

only the most important or relevant characteristics that set them apart from each other.

The primary difference between LLE and leaching is the phase of the feed; leaching extracts a

solute from a solid, while LLE extracts a solute from a liquid. Other than that, they are very

similar; they are both separations by phase addition, both involve a liquid MSA, and both have

very severe mass transfer limitations to their efficient operation.

3. (10 points) Describe the primary difference between a discretely fed batch process and a fedbatch or continuously fed-batch (semi-batch) process in your own words (2-3 sentences).

A discretely fed batch process and a semi-batch process differ in the presence of a continuous

inlet/outlet; a semi-batch process can have a continuous feed or a continuous product stream

(but typically not both), but by definition a batch process cannot. Separation processes can be

batch, semi-batch, or continuous but we tend to focus on the continuous ones. Adsorption is an

example of a separation system which is almost always semi-batch/semi-continuous.

4. (35 points) Write two to three sentences describing how operations 2, 3, 6, 7, 11, 13, and 17

in Table 1.1 from Seader and Henley (p. 8-10) work (what are the phases present, what is the

MSA / ESA, how separation is achieved, etc.) IN YOUR OWN WORDS. Draw a picture of

each operation.

A description of how Flash, Distillation, Absorption, Stripping, Liquid-Liquid Extraction,

Drying, and Leaching units work is on p. 7 and 11 of the book. You got full credit if your

descriptions are 2-3 sentences and I can tell whats going on in your pictures.

5. (30 points) Youll recall from your thermodynamics course that the change in Gibbs Energy

for a process (moving a system from one state to another) is a measure of the minimum

amount of work which must be done on the system to make the process occur. As an

example, consider a mixture of equal parts of two ideal gases (helium and neon, lets say) in

a closed vessel with two equally sized compartments separated by a barrier. Initially, the

gases are mixed together in both compartments. After selectively pumping the gases through

the barrier for a long time, you get the system to a state where both gases are pure, one on

one side of the barrier and one on the other.

A. (20 points) Prove using a diagram and thermodynamic equations that this process

requires a non-zero, positive amount of energy (work) to carry out.

50/50

He/Ne

50/50

He/Ne

100% He 100%Ne

Initial state

Final state

From Smith and Van Ness 1, the partial molar Gibbs Energy (i.e. the chemical potential, ) of an

ideal gas can be expressed as:

=

G

# species

y G + RT

# species

IG

k k

k 1=

k 1

=

yk ln ( yk )

The total Gibbs energy of the mixture in the left box initially (assume 1 mole basis) is therefore:

GLeft =

=

k 1=

k 1

= ( 0.5 ) GHe + ( 0.5 ) GNe + RT ( 0.5 ) ln ( 0.5 ) + ( 0.5 ) ln ( 0.5 ) = 0.5GHe + 0.5GNe + RT ln ( 0.5 ) = GRight

because each side has the same mixture in it. This gives:

Ginitial = GLeft + GRight = 2 ( 0.5GHe + 0.5GNe + RT ln ( 0.5 ) ) = GHe + GNe 2 RT ln ( 2 )

By definition, the Gibbs energy of the helium in the left box and the neon in the right box in the

final state (assume 1 mole each without loss of generality) are:

G final

= GHe + GNe

So the change in energy for this process, which is equal to the minimum work of separation of

those two boxes of gas, is:

=

T [ ] J / mol (T in K )

2 RT=

ln ( 2 ) 11.5

G= G final Ginitial=

=

G

B. (10 points) Is this process possible? Can you get pure gases on both sides of a

(permeable) barrier in this vessel? Why or why not? (2-3 sentences).

Yes, it is possible (or nearly so), though very unlikely and difficult. It would require a low

temperature to insure that the gas molecules stayed put, a very selective barrier that let one gas

1

Smith, J. and Van Ness, H. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, McGraw Hill

through but not the other, a lot of pumping/work/energy, and a long time to get all the molecules

in/out.

6. (15 points) A single-stage flash unit is being used to crudely separate a saturated liquid

mixture of butane and pentane. The feed is 50% by mole of each component and the

pressure in the flash tank is maintained at 25 psia. You should use the DIPPR database to

find the K-values for the mixture; assume that the gases and the solution are ideal. The

measured T in the flash is 100 oF. Find:

A. (10 points) The mole fractions in the vapor product and liquid product. Call butane

component 1 and pentane component 2, so find y1, y2, x1, and x2. Two SFs is plenty.

K=

1

y1 51.64 psi

=

= 2.0656

x1

25 psi

( DIPPR )

K=

2

y2 15.58 psi

=

= 0.6232

x2

25 psi

( DIPPR )

y1 + y=

1, x1 + x=

1

2

2

The pressure in the tank (at 100 oF) must be between the bubble point pressure and the dew point

pressure. See p. 149 of the book for their definitions. In this case it must be between 33.61 and

23.94 psia. Solving the system of four equations in four unknowns gives:

2.0656 x1 + 0.6232 x2 = 1, x1 + x2 = 1

x1= 0.26, x2= 0.74

y1= 0.54,

y2= 0.46

B. (5 points) The percent of the feed which comes off the tank as vapor.

Steady-state molar flow balances give:

F =+

L V

L

V

=

1

F

F

z1 F = x1 L + y1V

z1 = x1

L

V

V

V

+ y1 = x1 1 + y1

F

F

F

F

Moles are conserved since theres no reaction occurring. Plugging in and solving for V/F:

=

0.5

( 0.26 ) 1

V

V

+ ( 0.54 )

F

F

V

= 86%

F

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