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# Microsoft Excel 2007 Tutorial

## Lesson 1: Entering Text and Numbers

Microsoft Excel is an electronic spreadsheet that runs on a personal computer. You can use it to organize your data into
rows and columns. You can also use it to perform mathematical calculations quickly. This tutorial teaches Microsoft
Excel basics. Although knowledge of how to navigate in a Windows environment is helpful, this tutorial was created
for the computer novice. This lesson will introduce you to the Excel window. You use the window to interact with
Excel.

## • The Microsoft Excel Window

• The Microsoft Office Button
• The Title Bar
• The Ribbon
• Worksheets
• The Formula Bar
• The Status Bar
• Move Around a Worksheet
• Go To Cells Quickly
• Select Cells
• Enter Data
• Edit a Cell
• Wrap Text
• Delete a Cell Entry
• Save a File
• Close Excel

## Lesson 2: Entering Excel Formulas and Formatting Data

Lesson 1 familiarized you with the Excel 2007 window, taught you how to move around the window, and how to enter
data. A major strength of Excel is that you can perform mathematical calculations and format your data. In this lesson,
you learn how to perform basic mathematical calculations and how to format text and numerical data.

## • Set the Enter Key Direction

• Perform Mathematical Calculations
• AutoSum
• Perform Automatic Calculations
• Align Cell Entries
• Copy, Cut, Paste, and Cell Addressing
• Insert and Delete Columns and Rows
• Create Borders
• Merge and Center
• Change the Font, Font Size, and Font Color
• Move to a New Worksheet
• Bold, Italicize, and Underline
• Work with Long Text
• Change a Column's Width
• Format Numbers

## Lesson 3: Creating Excel Functions, Filling Cells, and Printing

By using functions, you can quickly and easily make many useful calculations, such as finding an average, the highest
number, the lowest number, and a count of the number of items in a list. Microsoft Excel has many functions you can
use. You can also use Microsoft Excel to fill cells automatically with a series. For example, you can have Excel
automatically fill your worksheet with days of the week, months of the year, years, or other types of series.

A header is text that appears at the top of every page of your printed worksheet. A footer is text that appears at the
bottom of every page of your printed worksheet. You can use a header or footer to display among other things titles,
page numbers, or logos. Once you have completed your Excel worksheet, you may want to print it. This lesson teaches
you how to use functions, how to create a series, how to create headers and footers, and how to print.

## • Using Reference Operators

• Understanding Functions
• Fill Cells Automatically
• Set Print Options
• Print

## Lesson 4: Creating Charts

In Microsoft Excel, you can represent numbers in a chart. On the Insert tab, you can choose from a variety of chart
types, including column, line, pie, bar, area, and scatter. The basic procedure for creating a chart is the same no matter
what type of chart you choose. As you change your data, your chart will automatically update. This lesson teaches you
how to create a chart in Excel.

• Create a Chart
• Apply A Chart Layout
• Switch Data
• Change the Style of a Chart
• Change the Size and Position of a Chart
• Move A Chart to a Chart Sheet
• Change the Chart Type
Microsoft Excel is an electronic spreadsheet. As with a paper spreadsheet, you can use Excel to organize your data into
rows and columns and to perform mathematical calculations. The tutorial teaches you how to create an Excel

## Lesson 1: Entering Text and Numbers

The Microsoft Excel Window

Microsoft Excel is an electronic spreadsheet. You can use it to organize your data into rows and columns. You can also
use it to perform mathematical calculations quickly. This tutorial teaches Microsoft Excel basics. Although knowledge
of how to navigate in a Windows environment is helpful, this tutorial was created for the computer novice.

This lesson will introduce you to the Excel window. You use the window to interact with Excel. To begin this lesson,
start Microsoft Excel 2007. The Microsoft Excel window appears and your screen looks similar to the one shown here.

Note: Your screen will probably not look exactly like the screen shown. In Excel 2007, how a window displays
depends on the size of your window, the size of your monitor, and the resolution to which your monitor is set.
Resolution determines how much information your computer monitor can display. If you use a low resolution, less
information fits on your screen, but the size of your text and images are larger. If you use a high resolution, more
information fits on your screen, but the size of the text and images are smaller. Also, settings in Excel 2007, Windows
Vista, and Windows XP allow you to change the color and style of your windows.

## The Microsoft Office Button

In the upper-left corner of the Excel 2007 window is the Microsoft Office button. When you click the button, a menu
appears. You can use the menu to create a new file, open an existing file, save a file, and perform many other tasks.

commands you frequently use. By default, Save, Undo, and Redo appear on the Quick Access toolbar. You can use
Save to save your file, Undo to roll back an action you have taken, and Redo to reapply an action you have rolled back.

## The Title Bar

Next to the Quick Access toolbar is the Title bar. On the Title bar, Microsoft Excel displays the name of the workbook
you are currently using. At the top of the Excel window, you should see "Microsoft Excel - Book1" or a similar name.

The Ribbon

You use commands to tell Microsoft Excel what to do. In Microsoft Excel 2007, you use the Ribbon to issue
commands. The Ribbon is located near the top of the Excel window, below the Quick Access toolbar. At the top of the
Ribbon are several tabs; clicking a tab displays several related command groups. Within each group are related
command buttons. You click buttons to issue commands or to access menus and dialog boxes. You may also find a
dialog box launcher in the bottom-right corner of a group. When you click the dialog box launcher, a dialog box makes
Worksheets

Microsoft Excel consists of worksheets. Each worksheet contains columns and rows. The columns are lettered A to Z
and then continuing with AA, AB, AC and so on; the rows are numbered 1 to 1,048,576. The number of columns and
rows you can have in a worksheet is limited by your computer memory and your system resources.

The combination of a column coordinate and a row coordinate make up a cell address. For example, the cell located in
the upper-left corner of the worksheet is cell A1, meaning column A, row 1. Cell E10 is located under column E on row
10. You enter your data into the cells on the worksheet.

## The Formula Bar

Formula Bar

If the Formula bar is turned on, the cell address of the cell you are in displays in the Name box which is located on the
left side of the Formula bar. Cell entries display on the right side of the Formula bar. If you do not see the Formula bar
in your window, perform the following steps:

## 1. Choose the View tab.

2. Click Formula Bar in the Show/Hide group. The Formula bar appears.

Note: The current cell address displays on the left side of the Formula bar.
The Status Bar

The Status bar appears at the very bottom of the Excel window and provides such information as the sum, average,
minimum, and maximum value of selected numbers. You can change what displays on the Status bar by right-clicking
on the Status bar and selecting the options you want from the Customize Status Bar menu. You click a menu item to
select it. You click it again to deselect it. A check mark next to an item means the item is selected.

## Move Around a Worksheet

By using the arrow keys, you can move around your worksheet. You can use the down arrow key to move downward
one cell at a time. You can use the up arrow key to move upward one cell at a time. You can use the Tab key to move
across the page to the right, one cell at a time. You can hold down the Shift key and then press the Tab key to move to
the left, one cell at a time. You can use the right and left arrow keys to move right or left one cell at a time. The Page
Up and Page Down keys move up and down one page at a time. If you hold down the Ctrl key and then press the Home
key, you move to the beginning of the worksheet.
EXERCISE 1

## The Down Arrow Key

• Press the down arrow key several times. Note that the cursor moves downward one cell at a time.

## The Up Arrow Key

• Press the up arrow key several times. Note that the cursor moves upward one cell at a time.

## 1. Move to cell A1.

2. Press the Tab key several times. Note that the cursor moves to the right one cell at a time.

## The Shift+Tab Keys

• Hold down the Shift key and then press Tab. Note that the cursor moves to the left one cell at a time.

## The Right and Left Arrow Keys

1. Press the right arrow key several times. Note that the cursor moves to the right.
2. Press the left arrow key several times. Note that the cursor moves to the left.

## Page Up and Page Down

1. Press the Page Down key. Note that the cursor moves down one page.
2. Press the Page Up key. Note that the cursor moves up one page.

## 1. Move the cursor to column J.

2. Stay in column J and move the cursor to row 20.
3. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press the Home key. Excel moves to cell A1.

Go To Cells Quickly

The following are shortcuts for moving quickly from one cell in a worksheet to a cell in a different part of the
worksheet.
EXERCISE 2

Go to -- F5

The F5 function key is the "Go To" key. If you press the F5 key, you are prompted for the cell to which you wish to go.
Enter the cell address, and the cursor jumps to that cell.

## 1. Press F5. The Go To dialog box opens.

2. Type J3 in the Reference field.
3. Press Enter. Excel moves to cell J3.

Go to -- Ctrl+G

## You can also use Ctrl+G to go to a specific cell.

1. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "g" (Ctrl+g). The Go To dialog box opens.
2. Type C4 in the Reference field.
3. Press Enter. Excel moves to cell C4.

## The Name Box

You can also use the Name box to go to a specific cell. Just type the cell you want to go to in the Name box and then
press Enter.
1. Type B10 in the Name box.
2. Press Enter. Excel moves to cell B10.

Select Cells

If you wish to perform a function on a group of cells, you must first select those cells by highlighting them. The
exercises that follow teach you how to select.

EXERCISE 3

Select Cells

## To select cells A1 to E1:

1. Go to cell A1.
2. Press the F8 key. This anchors the cursor.
3. Note that "Extend Selection" appears on the Status bar in the lower-left corner of the window. You are in the
Extend mode.
4. Click in cell E7. Excel highlights cells A1 to E7.
5. Press Esc and click anywhere on the worksheet to clear the highlighting.
Alternative Method: Select Cells by Dragging

You can also select an area by holding down the left mouse button and dragging the mouse over the area. In addition,
you can select noncontiguous areas of the worksheet by doing the following:

1. Go to cell A1.
2. Hold down the Ctrl key. You won't release it until step 9. Holding down the Ctrl key enables you to select
noncontiguous areas of the worksheet.
3. Press the left mouse button.
4. While holding down the left mouse button, use the mouse to move from cell A1 to C5.
5. Continue to hold down the Ctrl key, but release the left mouse button.
6. Using the mouse, place the cursor in cell D7.
7. Press the left mouse button.
8. While holding down the left mouse button, move to cell F10. Release the left mouse button.
9. Release the Ctrl key. Cells A1 to C5 and cells D7 to F10 are selected.
10. Press Esc and click anywhere on the worksheet to remove the highlighting.

Enter Data

In this section, you will learn how to enter data into your worksheet. First, place the cursor in the cell in which you
want to start entering data. Type some data, and then press Enter. If you need to delete, press the Backspace key to
delete one character at a time.
EXERCISE 4

Enter Data

## 1. Place the cursor in cell A1.

2. Type John Jordan. Do not press Enter at this time.

Delete Data

## 1. Press the Backspace key until Jordan is erased.

2. Press Enter. The name "John" appears in cell A1.

Edit a Cell

After you enter data into a cell, you can edit the data by pressing F2 while you are in the cell you wish to edit.
EXERCISE 5

Edit a Cell

## 1. Move to cell A1.

2. Press F2.
3. Use the Backspace key to delete the "n" and the "h."
4. Type nes.
5. Press Enter.

## Alternate Method: Editing a Cell by Using the Formula Bar

You can also edit the cell by using the Formula bar. You change "Jones" to "Joker" in the following exercise.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Click in the formula area of the Formula bar.
3. Use the backspace key to erase the "s," "e," and "n."
4. Type ker.
5. Press Enter.

## 1. Move to cell A1.

2. Double-click in cell A1.
3. Press the End key. Your cursor is now at the end of your text.
3. Use the Backspace key to erase "r," "e," and "k."
4. Type hnson.
5. Press Enter.

## Change a Cell Entry

Typing in a cell replaces the old cell entry with the new information you type.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Type Cathy.
3. Press Enter. The name "Cathy" replaces "Johnson."

Wrap Text

When you type text that is too long to fit in the cell, the text overlaps the next cell. If you do not want it to overlap the
next cell, you can wrap the text.
EXERCISE 6

Wrap Text

## 1. Move to cell A2.

2. Type Text too long to fit.
3. Press Enter.

5. Choose the Home tab.
6. Click the Wrap Text button . Excel wraps the text in the cell.
Delete a Cell Entry

To delete an entry in a cell or a group of cells, you place the cursor in the cell or select the group of cells and press
Delete.

EXERCISE 7

## 1. Select cells A1 to A2.

2. Press the Delete key.

Save a File

## 1. Click the Office button. A menu appears.

2. Click Save. The Save As dialog box appears.
3. Go to the directory in which you want to save your file.
4. Type Lesson1 in the File Name field.
5. Click Save. Excel saves your file.

Close Excel

## 1. Click the Office button. A menu appears.

2. Click Close. Excel closes.

## Lesson 2: Entering Excel Formulas and Formatting Data

Lesson 1 familiarized you with the Excel 2007 window, taught you how to move around the window, and how to enter
data. A major strength of Excel is that you can perform mathematical calculations and format your data. In this lesson,
you learn how to perform basic mathematical calculations and how to format text and numerical data. To start this
lesson, open Excel.

## Set the Enter Key Direction

In Microsoft Excel, you can specify the direction the cursor moves when you press the Enter key. In the exercises that
follow, the cursor must move down one cell when you press Enter. You can use the Direction box in the Excel Options
pane to set the cursor to move up, down, left, right, or not at all. Perform the steps that follow to set the cursor to move
down when you press the Enter key.
1. Click the Microsoft Office button. A menu appears.
2. Click Excel Options in the lower-right corner. The Excel Options pane appears.
4. If the check box next to After Pressing Enter Move Selection is not checked, click the box to check it.
5. If Down does not appear in the Direction box, click the down arrow next to the Direction box and then click
Down.
6. Click OK. Excel sets the Enter direction to down.

## Perform Mathematical Calculations

In Microsoft Excel, you can enter numbers and mathematical formulas into cells. Whether you enter a number or a
formula, you can reference the cell when you perform mathematical calculations such as addition, subtraction,
multiplication, or division. When entering a mathematical formula, precede the formula with an equal sign. Use the
following to indicate the type of calculation you wish to perform:

- Subtraction

* Multiplication

/ Division

^ Exponential

In the following exercises, you practice some of the methods you can use to move around a worksheet and you learn
how to perform mathematical calculations. Refer to Lesson 1 to learn more about moving around a worksheet.
EXERCISE 1

## 1. Type Add in cell A1.

2. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
3. Type 1 in cell A2.
4. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
5. Type 1 in cell A3.
6. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
7. Type =A2+A3 in cell A4.
8. Click the check mark on the Formula bar. Excel adds cell A1 to cell A2 and displays the result in cell A4. The
formula displays on the Formula bar.

Note: Clicking the check mark on the Formula bar is similar to pressing Enter. Excel records your entry but does not
move to the next cell.
Subtraction

## 1. Press F5. The Go To dialog box appears.

2. Type B1 in the Reference field.
3. Press Enter. Excel moves to cell B1.

4. Type Subtract.
5. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
6. Type 6 in cell B2.
7. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
8. Type 3 in cell B3.
9. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
10. Type =B2-B3 in cell B4.
11. Click the check mark on the Formula bar. Excel subtracts cell B3 from cell B2 and the result displays in cell B4.
The formula displays on the Formula bar.

Multiplication

1. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "g" (Ctrl+g). The Go To dialog box appears.
2. Type C1 in the Reference field.
3. Press Enter. Excel moves to cell C1
4. Type Multiply.
5. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
6. Type 2 in cell C2.
7. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
8. Type 3 in cell C3.
9. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
10. Type =C2*C3 in cell C4.
11. Click the check mark on the Formula bar. Excel multiplies C1 by cell C2 and displays the result in cell C3. The
formula displays on the Formula bar.

Division

1. Press F5.
2. Type D1 in the Reference field.
3. Press Enter. Excel moves to cell D1.
4. Type Divide.
5. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
6. Type 6 in cell D2.
7. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
8. Type 3 in cell D3.
9. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
10. Type =D2/D3 in cell D4.
11. Click the check mark on the Formula bar. Excel divides cell D2 by cell D3 and displays the result in cell D4.
The formula displays on the Formula bar.

When creating formulas, you can reference cells and include numbers. All of the following formulas are valid:

=A2/B2

=A1+12-B3

=A2*B2+12

=24+53
AutoSum

You can use the AutoSum button on the Home tab to automatically add a column or row of numbers. When you
press the AutoSum button , Excel selects the numbers it thinks you want to add. If you then click the check mark on
the Formula bar or press the Enter key, Excel adds the numbers. If Excel's guess as to which numbers you want to add
is wrong, you can select the cells you want.

EXERCISE 2

AutoSum

## The following illustrates AutoSum:

1. Go to cell F1.
2. Type 3.
3. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
4. Type 3.
5. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
6. Type 3.
7. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell to cell F4.
8. Choose the Home tab.
9. Click the AutoSum button in the Editing group. Excel selects cells F1 through F3 and enters a formula in
cell F4.
10. Press Enter. Excel adds cells F1 through F3 and displays the result in cell F4.

## Perform Automatic Calculations

By default, Microsoft Excel recalculates the worksheet as you change cell entries. This makes it easy for you to correct
mistakes and analyze a variety of scenarios.

EXERCISE 3

Automatic Calculation

Make the changes described below and note how Microsoft Excel automatically recalculates.

## 1. Move to cell A2.

2. Type 2.
3. Press the right arrow key. Excel changes the result in cell A4. Excel adds cell A2 to cell A3 and the new result
appears in cell A4.
4. Move to cell B2.
5. Type 8.
6. Press the right arrow key. Excel subtracts cell B3 from cell B3 and the new result appears in cell B4.
7. Move to cell C2.
8. Type 4.
9. Press the right arrow key. Excel multiplies cell C2 by cell C3 and the new result appears in cell C4.
10. Move to cell D2.
11. Type 12.
12. Press the Enter key. Excel divides cell D2 by cell D3 and the new result appears in cell D4.

## Align Cell Entries

When you type text into a cell, by default your entry aligns with the left side of the cell. When you type numbers into a
cell, by default your entry aligns with the right side of the cell. You can change the cell alignment. You can center, left-
align, or right-align any cell entry. Look at cells A1 to D1. Note that they are aligned with the left side of the cell.

EXERCISE 4

Center

## 1. Select cells A1 to D1.

2. Choose the Home tab.
3. Click the Center button in the Alignment group. Excel centers each cell's content.

Left-Align

## To left-align cells A1 to D1:

1. Select cells A1 to D1.
2. Choose the Home tab.
3. Click the Align Text Left button in the Alignment group. Excel left-aligns each cell's content.

Right-Align

## 1. Select cells A1 to D1. Click in cell A1.

2. Choose the Home tab.
3. Click the Align Text Right button. Excel right-aligns the cell's content.
4. Click anywhere on your worksheet to clear the highlighting.

Note: You can also change the alignment of cells with numbers in them by using the alignment buttons.

When you perform mathematical calculations in Excel, be careful of precedence. Calculations are performed from left
to right, with multiplication and division performed before addition and subtraction.
EXERCISE 5

## 1. Move to cell A7.

2. Type =3+3+12/2*4.
3. Press Enter.

displays in cell A7.

To change the order of calculation, use parentheses. Microsoft Excel calculates the information in parentheses first.

## 1. Double-click in cell A7.

2. Edit the cell to read =(3+3+12)/2*4.
3. Press Enter.

Note: Microsoft Excel adds 3 plus 3 plus 12, divides the answer by 2, and then multiplies the result by 4. The answer,
36, displays in cell A7.

## Copy, Cut, Paste, and Cell Addressing

In Excel, you can copy data from one area of a worksheet and place the data you copied anywhere in the same or
another worksheet. In other words, after you type information into a worksheet, if you want to place the same
information somewhere else, you do not have to retype the information. You simple copy it and then paste it in the new
location.

You can use Excel's Cut feature to remove information from a worksheet. Then you can use the Paste feature to place
the information you cut anywhere in the same or another worksheet. In other words, you can move information from
one place in a worksheet to another place in the same or different worksheet by using the Cut and Paste features.

Microsoft Excel records cell addresses in formulas in three different ways, called absolute, relative, and mixed. The
way a formula is recorded is important when you copy it. With relative cell addressing, when you copy a formula from
one area of the worksheet to another, Excel records the position of the cell relative to the cell that originally contained
the formula. With absolute cell addressing, when you copy a formula from one area of the worksheet to another, Excel
references the same cells, no matter where you copy the formula. You can use mixed cell addressing to keep the row
constant while the column changes, or vice versa. The following exercises demonstrate.

EXERCISE 6

## 1. Move to cell A9.

2. Type 1. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
3. Type 1. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
4. Type 1. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
5. Move to cell B9.
6. Type 2. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
7. Type 2. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.
8. Type 2. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.

In addition to typing a formula as you did in Lesson 1, you can also enter formulas by using Point mode. When you are
in Point mode, you can enter a formula either by clicking on a cell or by using the arrow keys.

## 1. Move to cell A12.

2. Type =.
3. Use the up arrow key to move to cell A9.
4. Type +.
5. Use the up arrow key to move to cell A10.
6. Type +.
7. Use the up arrow key to move to cell A11.
8. Click the check mark on the Formula bar. Look at the Formula bar. Note that the formula you entered is
displayed there.

## To copy the formula you just entered, follow these steps:

1. You should be in cell A12.
2. Choose the Home tab.
3. Click the Copy button in the Clipboard group. Excel copies the formula in cell A12.

## 4. Press the right arrow key once to move to cell B12.

5. Click the Paste button in the Clipboard group. Excel pastes the formula in cell A12 into cell B12.
6. Press the Esc key to exit the Copy mode.
Compare the formula in cell A12 with the formula in cell B12 (while in the respective cell, look at the Formula bar).
The formulas are the same except that the formula in cell A12 sums the entries in column A and the formula in cell B12
sums the entries in column B. The formula was copied in a relative fashion.

Before proceeding with the next part of the exercise, you must copy the information in cells A7 to B9 to cells C7 to D9.
This time you will copy by using the Mini toolbar.

## Copy with the Mini Toolbar

1. Select cells A9 to B11. Move to cell A9. Press the Shift key. While holding down the Shift key, press the down
arrow key twice. Press the right arrow key once. Excel highlights A9 to B11.
2. Right-click. A context menu and a Mini toolbar appear.
3. Click Copy, which is located on the context menu. Excel copies the information in cells A9 to B11.

## 4. Move to cell C9.

5. Right-click. A context menu appears.
6. Click Paste. Excel copies the contents of cells A9 to B11 to cells C9 to C11.
7. Press Esc to exit Copy mode.

You can do this automatically by using the F4 key. To illustrate:

## 1. Move to cell C12.

2. Type =.
3. Click cell C9.
4. Press F4. Dollar signs appear before the C and the 9.
5. Type +.
6. Click cell C10.
7. Press F4. Dollar signs appear before the C and the 10.
8. Type +.
9. Click cell C11.
10. Press F4. Dollar signs appear before the C and the 11.
11. Click the check mark on the formula bar. Excel records the formula in cell C12.

## Copy and Paste with Keyboard Shortcuts

Keyboard shortcuts are key combinations that enable you to perform tasks by using the keyboard. Generally, you press
and hold down a key while pressing a letter. For example, Ctrl+c means you should press and hold down the Ctrl key
while pressing "c." This tutorial notates key combinations as follows:

Press Ctrl+c.
Now copy the formula from C12 to D12. This time, copy by using keyboard shortcuts.

## 1. Move to cell C12.

2. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "c" (Ctrl+c). Excel copies the contents of cell C12.
3. Press the right arrow once. Excel moves to D12.
4. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "v" (Ctrl+v). Excel pastes the contents of cell C12 into cell D12.
5. Press Esc to exit the Copy mode.

Compare the formula in cell C12 with the formula in cell D12 (while in the respective cell, look at the Formula bar).
The formulas are exactly the same. Excel copied the formula from cell C12 to cell D12. Excel copied the formula in an
absolute fashion. Both formulas sum column C.

You use mixed cell addressing to reference a cell when you want to copy part of it absolute and part relative. For
example, the row can be absolute and the column relative. You can use the F4 key to create a mixed cell reference.

## 1. Move to cell E1.

2. Type =.
3. Press the up arrow key once.
4. Press F4.
5. Press F4 again. Note that the column is relative and the row is absolute.
6. Press F4 again. Note that the column is absolute and the row is relative.
7. Press Esc.

## You can move data from one area of a worksheet to another.

1. Select cells D9 to D12
2. Choose the Home tab.
3. Click the Cut button.
4. Move to cell G1.
5. Click the Paste button . Excel moves the contents of cells D9 to D12 to cells G1 to G4.

The keyboard shortcut for Cut is Ctrl+x. The steps for cutting and pasting with a keyboard shortcut are:

## 1. Select the cells you want to cut and paste.

2. Press Ctrl+x.
3. Move to the upper-left corner of the block of cells into which you want to paste.
4. Press Ctrl+v. Excel cuts and pastes the cells you selected.

## Insert and Delete Columns and Rows

You can insert and delete columns and rows. When you delete a column, you delete everything in the column from the
top of the worksheet to the bottom of the worksheet. When you delete a row, you delete the entire row from left to
right. Inserting a column or row inserts a completely new column or row.

EXERCISE 7

## 1. Click the column F indicator and drag to column G.

2. Click the down arrow next to Delete in the Cells group. A menu appears.
3. Click Delete Sheet Columns. Excel deletes the columns you selected.
4. Click anywhere on the worksheet to remove your selection.
To delete rows 7 through 12:

## 1. Click the row 7 indicator and drag to row 12.

2. Click the down arrow next to Delete in the Cells group. A menu appears.
3. Click Delete Sheet Rows. Excel deletes the rows you selected.
4. Click anywhere on the worksheet to remove your selection.

To insert a column:

## 1. Click on A to select column A.

2. Click the down arrow next to Insert in the Cells group. A menu appears.
3. Click Insert Sheet Columns. Excel inserts a new column.
4. Click anywhere on the worksheet to remove your selection.

To insert rows:

## 1. Click on 1 and then drag down to 2 to select rows 1 and 2.

2. Click the down arrow next to Insert in the Cells group. A menu appears.
3. Click Insert Sheet Rows. Excel inserts two new rows.
4. Click anywhere on the worksheet to remove your selection.

## Your worksheet should look like the one shown here.

Create Borders

You can use borders to make entries in your Excel worksheet stand out. You can choose from several types of borders.
When you press the down arrow next to the Border button , a menu appears. By making the proper selection from
the menu, you can place a border on the top, bottom, left, or right side of the selected cells; on all sides; or around the
outside border. You can have a thick outside border or a border with a single-line top and a double-line bottom.
Accountants usually place a single underline above a final number and a double underline below. The following
illustrates:

EXERCISE 8

Create Borders

## 1. Select cells B6 to E6.

2. Choose the Home tab.
3. Click the down arrow next to the Borders button . A menu appears.
4. Click Top and Double Bottom Border. Excel adds the border you chose to the selected cells.
Merge and Center

Sometimes, particularly when you give a title to a section of your worksheet, you will want to center a piece of text
over several columns or rows. The following example shows you how.

EXERCISE 9

## Merge and Center

1. Go to cell B2.
2. Type Sample Worksheet.
3. Click the check mark on the Formula bar.
4. Select cells B2 to E2.
5. Choose the Home tab.
6. Click the Merge and Center button in the Alignment group. Excel merges cells B2, C2, D2, and E2 and
then centers the content.
Note: To unmerge cells:

## 1. Select the cell you want to unmerge.

2. Choose the Home tab.
3. Click the down arrow next to the Merge and Center button. A menu appears.
4. Click Unmerge Cells. Excel unmerges the cells.

To make a section of your worksheet stand out, you can add background color to a cell or group of cells.

EXERCISE 10

## 1. Select cells B2 to E3.

2. Choose the Home tab.
3. Click the down arrow next to the Fill Color button .
4. Click the color dark blue. Excel places a dark blue background in the cells you selected.

## Change the Font, Font Size, and Font Color

A font is a set of characters represented in a single typeface. Each character within a font is created by using the same
basic style. Excel provides many different fonts from which you can choose. The size of a font is measured in points.
There are 72 points to an inch. The number of points assigned to a font is based on the distance from the top to the
bottom of its longest character. You can change the Font, Font Size, and Font Color of the data you enter into Excel.

EXERCISE 11

## 1. Select cells B2 to E3.

2. Choose the Home tab.
3. Click the down arrow next to the Font box. A list of fonts appears. As you scroll down the list of fonts, Excel
provides a preview of the font in the cell you selected.
4. Find and click Times New Roman in the Font box. Note: If Times New Roman is your default font, click
another font. Excel changes the font in the selected cells.
Change the Font Size

## 1. Select cell B2.

2. Choose the Home tab.
3. Click the down arrow next to the Font Size box. A list of font sizes appears. As you scroll up or down the list of
font sizes, Excel provides a preview of the font size in the cell you selected.
4. Click 26. Excel changes the font size in cell B2 to 26.
Change the Font Color

## 1. Select cells B2 to E3.

2. Choose the Home tab.
3. Click the down arrow next to the Font Color button .
4. Click on the color white. Your font color changes to white.

## Move to a New Worksheet

In Microsoft Excel, each workbook is made up of several worksheets. Each worksheet has a tab. By default, a
workbook has three sheets and they are named sequentially, starting with Sheet1. The name of the worksheet appears
on the tab. Before moving to the next topic, move to a new worksheet. The exercise that follows shows you how.
EXERCISE 12

## Move to a New Worksheet

• Click Sheet2 in the lower-left corner of the screen. Excel moves to Sheet2.

## Bold, Italicize, and Underline

When creating an Excel worksheet, you may want to emphasize the contents of cells by bolding, italicizing, and/or
underlining. You can easily bold, italicize, or underline text with Microsoft Excel. You can also combine these features
—in other words, you can bold, italicize, and underline a single piece of text.

In the exercises that follow, you will learn different methods you can use to bold, italicize, and underline.

EXERCISE 13

## 1. Type Bold in cell A1.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Choose the Home tab.
4. Click the Bold button . Excel bolds the contents of the cell.
5. Click the Bold button again if you wish to remove the bold.
Italicize with the Ribbon

## 1. Type Italic in cell B1.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Choose the Home tab.
4. Click the Italic button . Excel italicizes the contents of the cell.
5. Click the Italic button again if you wish to remove the italic.

## Underline with the Ribbon

Microsoft Excel provides two types of underlines. The exercises that follow illustrate them.

Single Underline:

## 1. Type Underline in cell C1.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Choose the Home tab.
4. Click the Underline button . Excel underlines the contents of the cell.
5. Click the Underline button again if you wish to remove the underline.

Double Underline

## 1. Type Underline in cell D1.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Choose the Home tab.
4. Click the down arrow next to the Underline button and then click Double Underline. Excel double-
underlines the contents of the cell. Note that the Underline button changes to the button shown here ,aD
with a double underline under it. Then next time you click the Underline button, you will get a double
underline. If you want a single underline, click the down arrow next to the Double Underline button and
then choose Underline.
5. Click the double underline button again if you wish to remove the double underline.

## 1. Type All three in cell E1.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Choose the Home tab.
4. Click the Bold button . Excel bolds the cell contents.
5. Click the Italic button . Excel italicizes the cell contents.
6. Click the Underline button . Excel underlines the cell contents.

## 1. Type Bold in cell A2.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "b" (Ctrl+b). Excel bolds the contents of the cell.
4. Press Ctrl+b again if you wish to remove the bolding.

## Alternate Method: Italicize with Shortcut Keys

1. Type Italic in cell B2. Note: Because you previously entered the word Italic in column B, Excel may enter the
word in the cell automatically after you type the letter I. Excel does this to speed up your data entry.
2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "i" (Ctrl+i). Excel italicizes the contents of the cell.
4. Press Ctrl+i again if you wish to remove the italic formatting.

## 1. Type Underline in cell C2.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "u" (Ctrl+u). Excel applies a single underline to the cell contents.
4. Press Ctrl+u again if you wish to remove the underline.

## 1. Type All three in cell D2.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "b" (Ctrl+b). Excel bolds the cell contents.
4. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "i" (Ctrl+i). Excel italicizes the cell contents.
5. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "u" (Ctrl+u). Excel applies a single underline to the cell contents.

## Work with Long Text

Whenever you type text that is too long to fit into a cell, Microsoft Excel attempts to display all the text. It left-aligns
the text regardless of the alignment you have assigned to it, and it borrows space from the blank cells to the right.
However, a long text entry will never write over cells that already contain entries—instead, the cells that contain entries
cut off the long text. The following exercise illustrates this.

EXERCISE 14

## 1. Move to cell A6.

2. Type Now is the time for all good men to go to the aid of their army.
3. Press Enter. Everything that does not fit into cell A6 spills over into the adjacent cell.

## 4. Move to cell B6.

5. Type Test.
6. Press Enter. Excel cuts off the entry in cell A6.

## 7. Move to cell A6.

8. Look at the Formula bar. The text is still in the cell.

## Change A Column's Width

You can increase column widths. Increasing the column width enables you to see the long text.
EXERCISE 15

## 1. Make sure you are in any cell under column A.

2. Choose the Home tab.
3. Click the down arrow next to Format in the Cells group.
4. Click Column Width. The Column Width dialog box appears.
5. Type 55 in the Column Width field.
6. Click OK. Column A is set to a width of 55. You should now be able to see all of the text.

## Change a Column Width by Dragging

You can also change the column width with the cursor.

1. Place the mouse pointer on the line between the B and C column headings. The mouse pointer should look like
the one displayed here , with two arrows.
2. Move your mouse to the right while holding down the left mouse button. The width indicator
appears on the screen.
3. Release the left mouse button when the width indicator shows approximately 20. Excel increases the column
width to 20.

Format Numbers

You can format the numbers you enter into Microsoft Excel. For example, you can add commas to separate thousands,
specify the number of decimal places, place a dollar sign in front of a number, or display a number as a percent.

EXERCISE 16

Format Numbers

## 1. Move to cell B8.

2. Type 1234567.
3. Click the check mark on the Formula bar.

## 4. Choose the Home tab.

5. Click the down arrow next to the Number Format box. A menu appears.
6. Click Number. Excel adds two decimal places to the number you typed.

7. Click the Comma Style button . Excel separates thousands with a comma.
8. Click the Accounting Number Format button . Excel adds a dollar sign to your number.
9. Click twice on the Increase Decimal button to change the number format to four decimal places.
10. Click the Decrease Decimal button if you wish to decrease the number of decimal places.

## 1. Move to cell B9.

2. Type .35 (note the decimal point).
3. Click the check mark on the formula bar.
4. Choose the Home tab.
5. Click the Percent Style button . Excel turns the decimal to a percent.

This is the end of Lesson 2. You can save and close your file. See Lesson 1 to learn how to save and close a file.

## Lesson 3: Creating Excel Functions, Filling Cells, and Printing

By using functions, you can quickly and easily make many useful calculations, such as finding an average, the highest
number, the lowest number, and a count of the number of items in a list. Microsoft Excel has many functions that you
can use.

## Using Reference Operators

To use functions, you need to understand reference operators. Reference operators refer to a cell or a group of cells.
There are two types of reference operators: range and union.

A range reference refers to all the cells between and including the reference. A range reference consists of two cell
addresses separated by a colon. The reference A1:A3 includes cells A1, A2, and A3. The reference A1:C3 includes
cells A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3, C1, C2, and C3.

A union reference includes two or more references. A union reference consists of two or more numbers, range
referneces, or cell addresses separated by a comma. The reference A7,B8:B10,C9,10 refers to cells A7, B8 to B10, C9
and the number 10.
Understanding Functions

Functions are prewritten formulas. Functions differ from regular formulas in that you supply the value but not the
operators, such as +, -, *, or /. For example, you can use the SUM function to add. When using a function, remember
the following:

## Specify the function name.

Enclose arguments within parentheses. Arguments are values on which you want to perform the calculation. For
example, arguments specify the numbers or cells you want to add.

## Here is an example of a function:

=SUM(2,13,A1,B2:C7)

In this function:

## Commas separate the arguments.

After you type the first letter of a function name, the AutoComplete list appears. You can double-click on an item in the
AutoComplete list to complete your entry quickly. Excel will complete the function name and enter the first
parenthesis.

EXERCISE 1

Functions

## The SUM function adds argument values.

1. Open Microsoft Excel.
2. Type 12 in cell B1.
3. Press Enter.
4. Type 27 in cell B2.
5. Press Enter.
6. Type 24 in cell B3.
7. Press Enter.
8. Type =SUM(B1:B3) in cell A4.
9. Press Enter. The sum of cells B1 to B3, which is 63, appears.

## 1. Type 150 in cell C1.

2. Press Enter.
3. Type 85 in cell C2.
4. Press Enter.
5. Type 65 in cell C3.
6. Choose the Formulas tab.
7. Click the Insert Function button. The Insert Function dialog box appears.
8. Choose Math & Trig in the Or Select A Category box.
9. Click Sum in the Select A Function box.
10. Click OK. The Function Arguments dialog box appears.

12. Type C1:C3 in the Number1 field, if it does not automatically appear.
13. Click OK. The sum of cells C1 to C3, which is 300, appears.

Format worksheet

## 1. Move to cell A4.

2. Type the word Sum.
3. Select cells B4 to C4.
4. Choose the Home tab.
5. Click the down arrow next to the Borders button .
6. Click Top and Double Bottom Border.

As you learned in Lesson 2, you can also calculate a sum by using the AutoSum button .

Calculate an Average

You can use the AVERAGE function to calculate the average of a series of numbers.
1. Move to cell A6.
2. Type Average. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B6.
3. Type =AVERAGE(B1:B3).
4. Press Enter. The average of cells B1 to B3, which is 21, appears.

## Calculate an Average with the AutoSum Button

In Microsoft Excel, you can use the AutoSum button to calculate an average.

## 1. Move to cell C6.

2. Choose the Home tab.
3. Click the down arrow next to the AutoSum button .
4. Click Average.
5. Select cells C1 to C3.
6. Press Enter. The average of cells C1 to C3, which is 100, appears.

## Find the Lowest Number

You can use the MIN function to find the lowest number in a series of numbers.

## 1. Move to cell A7.

2. Type Min.
3. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B7.
4. Type = MIN(B1:B3).
5. Press Enter. The lowest number in the series, which is 12, appears.

Note: You can also use the drop-down button next to the AutoSum button to calculate minimums, maximums, and
counts.

## Find the Highest Number

You can use the MAX function to find the highest number in a series of numbers.
.

## 1. Move to cell A8.

2. Type Max.
3. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B8.
4. Type = MAX(B1:B3).
5. Press Enter. The highest number in the series, which is 27, appears.

## Count the Numbers in a Series of Numbers

You can use the count function to count the number of numbers in a series.

## 1. Move to cell A9.

2. Type Count.
3. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B9.
4. Choose the Home tab.
5. Click the down arrow next to the AutoSum button .
6. Click Count Numbers. Excel places the count function in cell C9 and takes a guess at which cells you want to
count. The guess is incorrect, so you must select the proper cells.
7. Select B1 to B3.
8. Press Enter. The number of items in the series, which is 3, appears.

## Fill Cells Automatically

You can use Microsoft Excel to fill cells automatically with a series. For example, you can have Excel automatically
fill your worksheet with days of the week, months of the year, years, or other types of series.

EXERCISE 2

## The following demonstrates filling the days of the week:

1. Click the Sheet2 tab. Excel moves to Sheet2.
2. Move to cell A1.
3. Type Sun.
4. Move to cell B1.
5. Type Sunday.
6. Select cells A1 to B1.
7. Choose the Home tab.
8. Click the Bold button . Excel bolds cells A1 to B1.
9. Find the small black square in the lower-right corner of the selected area. The small black square is called the
fill handle.
10. Grab the fill handle and drag with your mouse to fill cells A1 to B14. Note how the days of the week fill the
cells in a series. Also, note that the Auto Fill Options button appears.
Copy Cells

1. Click the Auto Fill Options button. The Auto Fill Options menu appears.
2. Choose the Copy Cells radio button. The entry in cells A1 and B1 are copied to all the highlighted cells.
3. Click the Auto Fill Options button again.
4. Choose the Fill Series radio button. The cells fill as a series from Sunday to Saturday again.
5. Click the Auto Fill Options button again.
6. Choose the Fill Without Formatting radio button. The cells fill as a series from Sunday to Saturday, but the
entries are not bolded.
7. Click the Auto Fill Options button again.
8. Choose the Fill Weekdays radio button. The cells fill as a series from Monday to Friday.

Some of the entries in column B are too long to fit in the column. You can quickly adjust the column width to fit the
longest entry.

1. Move your mouse pointer over the line that separates column B and C. The Width Indicator appears.

## 2. Double-click. The Column adjusts to fit the longest entry.

After you complete the remainder of the exercise, your worksheet will look like the one shown here.

Fill Times

## 1. Type 1:00 into cell C1.

2. Grab the fill handle and drag with your mouse to highlight cells C1 to C14. Note that each cell fills, using
military time.
3. Press Esc and then click anywhere on the worksheet to remove the highlighting.

## 1. Select cells C1 to C14.

2. Choose the Home tab.
3. Click the down arrow next to the number format box . A menu appears.
4. Click Time. Excel changes the format of the time.

Fill Numbers

## Type a 1 in cell D1.

1. Grab the fill handle and drag with your mouse to highlight cells D1 to D14. The number 1 fills each cell.
2. Click the Auto Fill Options button.
3. Choose the Fill Series radio button. The cells fill as a series, starting with 1, 2, 3.

## Here is another interesting fill feature.

1. Go to cell E1.
2. Type Lesson 1.
3. Grab the fill handle and drag with your mouse to highlight cells E1 to E14. The cells fill in as a series: Lesson 1,
Lesson 2, Lesson 3, and so on.

You can use the Header & Footer button on the Insert tab to create headers and footers. A header is text that appears at
the top of every page of your printed worksheet. A footer is text that appears at the bottom of every page of your
printed worksheet. When you click the Header & Footer button, the Design context tab appears and Excel changes to
Page Layout view. A context tab is a tab that only appears when you need it. Page Layout view structures your
worksheet so that you can easily change the format of your document. You usually work in Normal view.

footers, click the Header or Footer button or use the Header & Footer Elements group's buttons. When you choose a
header or footer by clicking the Header or Footer button, Excel centers your choice. The table shown here describes
each of the Header & Footer Elements group button options.

Button Purpose
Page Number Inserts the page number.
Number of Pages Inserts the number of pages in the document.
Current Time Inserts the current time.
File Path Inserts the path to the document.
File Name Inserts the file name.
Sheet Name Inserts the name of the worksheet.
Picture Enables you to insert a picture.

Both the header and footer areas are divided into three sections: left, right, and center. When you choose a Header or
Footer from the Header & Footer Elements group, where you place your information determines whether it appears on
the left, right, or center of the printed page. You use the Go To Header and Go To Footer buttons on the Design tab to

EXERCISE 3

## 1. Choose the Insert tab.

2. Click the Header & Footer button in the Text group. Your worksheet changes to Page Layout view and the
Design context tab appears. Note that your cursor is located in the center section of the header area.

## 3. Click the right side of the header area.

4. Click Page Number in the Header & Footer Elements group. When you print your document, Excel will place
the page number in the upper-right corner.
5. Click the left side of the Header area.
6. Type your name. When you print your document, Excel will place your name in the upper-left corner.
7. Click the Go To Footer button. Excel moves to the footer area.

## 8. Click the Footer button. A menu appears.

9. Click the path to your document. Excel will place the path to your document at the bottom of every printed
page.

## 1. Choose the View tab.

2. Click the Normal button in the Workbook Views group.

## Set Print Options

There are many print options. You set print options on the Page Layout tab. Among other things, you can set your

Margins define the amount of white space that appears on the top, bottom, left, and right edges of your document. The
Margin option on the Page Layout tab provides several standard margin sizes from which you can choose.

There are two page orientations: portrait and landscape. Paper, such as paper sized 8 1/2 by 11, is longer on one edge
than it is on the other. If you print in Portrait, the shortest edge of the paper becomes the top of the page. Portrait is the
default option. If you print in Landscape, the longest edge of the paper becomes the top of the page.
Portrait

Landscape

Paper comes in a variety of sizes. Most business correspondence uses 8 1/2 by 11 paper, which is the default page size
in Excel. If you are not using 8 1/2 by 11 paper, you can use the Size option on the Page Layout tab to change the Size
setting.

EXERCISE 4

## 1. Choose the Page Layout tab.

2. Click Margins in the Page Setup group. A menu appears.
3. Click Wide. Word sets your margins to the Wide settings.
Set the Page Orientation

## 1. Choose the Page Layout tab.

2. Click Orientation in the Page Setup group. A menu appears.
3. Click Landscape. Excel sets your page orientation to landscape.

## 1. Choose the Page Layout tab.

2. Click Size in the Page Setup group. A menu appears.
3. Click the paper size you are using. Excel sets your page size.

Print

The simplest way to print is to click the Office button, highlight Print on the menu that appears, and then click Quick
Print in the Preview and Print the Document pane. Dotted lines appear on your screen, and your document prints. The
dotted lines indicate the right, left, top, and bottom edges of your printed pages.

You can also use the Print Preview option to print. When using Print Preview, you can see onscreen how your printed
document will look when you print it. If you click the Page Setup button while in Print Preview mode, you can set page
settings such as centering your data on the page.

If your document is several pages long, you can use the Next Page and Previous Page buttons to move forward and
backward through your document. If you check the Show Margins check box, you will see margin lines on your
document. You can click and drag the margin markers to increase or decrease the size of your margins. To return to
Excel, click the Close Print Preview button.

You click the Print button when you are ready to print. The Print dialog box appears. You can choose to print the entire
worksheet or specific pages. If you want to print specific pages, enter the page numbers in the From and To fields. You
can enter the number of copies you want to print in the Number of Copies field.
EXERCISE 5

## 1. Click the Office button. A menu appears.

2. Highlight Print. The Preview and Print The Document pane appears.
3. Click Print Preview. The Print Preview window appears, with your document in the center.

1. Click the Page Setup button in the Print group. The Page Setup dialog box appears.
2. Choose the Margins tab.
3. Click the Horizontally check box. Excel centers your data horizontally.
4. Click the Vertically check box. Excel centers your data vertically.
5. Click OK. The Page Setup dialog box closes.

Print
1. Click the Print button. The Print dialog box appears.
2. Click the down arrow next to the name field and select the printer to which you want to print.
3. Click OK. Excel sends your worksheet to the printer.

This is the end of Lesson 3. You can save and close your file.

## Lesson 4: Creating Charts

In Microsoft Excel, you can represent numbers in a chart. On the Insert tab, you can choose from a variety of chart
types, including column, line, pie, bar, area, and scatter. The basic procedure for creating a chart is the same no matter
what type of chart you choose. As you change your data, your chart will automatically update.

Create a Chart

You select a chart type by choosing an option from the Insert tab's Chart group. After you choose a chart type, such as
column, line, or bar, you choose a chart sub-type. For example, after you choose Column Chart, you can choose to have
your chart represented as a two-dimensional chart, a three-dimensional chart, a cylinder chart, a cone chart, or a
pyramid chart. There are further sub-types within each of these categories. As you roll your mouse pointer over each
option, Excel supplies a brief description of each chart sub-type.

To create the column chart shown above, start by creating the worksheet below exactly as shown.
After you have created the worksheet, you are ready to create your chart.

EXERCISE 1

## Create a Column Chart

1. Select cells A3 to D6. You must select all the cells containing the data you want in your chart. You should also
include the data labels.
2. Choose the Insert tab.
3. Click the Column button in the Charts group. A list of column chart sub-types types appears.
4. Click the Clustered Column chart sub-type. Excel creates a Clustered Column chart and the Chart Tools context
tabs appear.

## Apply a Chart Layout

Context tabs are tabs that only appear when you need them. Called Chart Tools, there are three chart context tabs:
Design, Layout, and Format. The tabs become available when you create a new chart or when you click on a chart. You
can use these tabs to customize your chart.
You can determine what your chart displays by choosing a layout. For example, the layout you choose determines
whether your chart displays a title, where the title displays, whether your chart has a legend, where the legend displays,
whether the chart has axis labels and so on. Excel provides several layouts from which you can choose.

EXERCISE 2

## 1. Click your chart. The Chart Tools become available.

2. Choose the Design tab.
3. Click the Quick Layout button in the Chart Layout group. A list of chart layouts appears.
4. Click Layout 5. Excel applies the layout to your chart.

When you apply a layout, Excel may create areas where you can insert labels. You use labels to give your chart a title
or to label your axes. When you applied layout 5, Excel created label areas for a title and for the vertical axis.

EXERCISE 3

Before After

1. Select Chart Title. Click on Chart Title and then place your cursor before the C in Chart and hold down the Shift
key while you use the right arrow key to highlight the words Chart Title.
3. Select Axis Title. Click on Axis Title. Place your cursor before the A in Axis. Hold down the Shift key while
you use the right arrow key to highlight the words Axis Title.
4. Type Sales. Excel labels the axis.
5. Click anywhere on the chart to end your entry.

Switch Data

If you want to change what displays in your chart, you can switch from row data to column data and vice versa.

EXERCISE 4

Switch Data

Before After

## 1. Click your chart. The Chart Tools become available.

2. Choose the Design tab.
3. Click the Switch Row/Column button in the Data group. Excel changes the data in your chart.

## Change the Style of a Chart

A style is a set of formatting options. You can use a style to change the color and format of your chart. Excel 2007 has
several predefined styles that you can use. They are numbered from left to right, starting with 1, which is located in the
upper-left corner.
EXERCISE 5

## 1. Click your chart. The Chart Tools become available.

2. Choose the Design tab.
3. Click the More button in the Chart Styles group. The chart styles appear.

## 4. Click Style 42. Excel applies the style to your chart.

Change the Size and Position of a Chart

When you click a chart, handles appear on the right and left sides, the top and bottom, and the corners of the chart. You
can drag the handles on the top and bottom of the chart to increase or decrease the height of the chart. You can drag the
handles on the left and right sides to increase or decrease the width of the chart. You can drag the handles on the
corners to increase or decrease the size of the chart proportionally. You can change the position of a chart by clicking
on an unused area of the chart and dragging.

EXERCISE 6

## 1. Use the handles to adjust the size of your chart.

2. Click an unused portion of the chart and drag to position the chart beside the data.

## Move a Chart to a Chart Sheet

By default, when you create a chart, Excel embeds the chart in the active worksheet. However, you can move a chart to
another worksheet or to a chart sheet. A chart sheet is a sheet dedicated to a particular chart. By default Excel names
each chart sheet sequentially, starting with Chart1. You can change the name.
EXERCISE 7

## 1. Click your chart. The Chart Tools become available.

2. Choose the Design tab.
3. Click the Move Chart button in the Location group. The Move Chart dialog box appears.

## 4. Click the New Sheet radio button.

5. Type Toy Sales to name the chart sheet. Excel creates a chart sheet named Toy Sales and places your chart on
it.

## Change the Chart Type

Any change you can make to a chart that is embedded in a worksheet, you can also make to a chart sheet. For example,
you can change the chart type from a column chart to a bar chart.
EXERCISE 8

## 1. Click your chart. The Chart Tools become available.

2. Choose the Design tab.
3. Click Change Chart Type in the Type group. The Chart Type dialog box appears.
4. Click Bar.
5. Click Clustered Horizontal Cylinder.
6. Click OK. Excel changes your chart type.
You have reached the end of Lesson 4. You can save and close your file.
Microsoft Excel Tutorial 2003/2002
Lesson 1: Entering Text and Numbers

Microsoft Excel is an electronic spreadsheet that runs on a personal computer. You can use it to organize your data into
rows and columns. You can also use it to perform mathematical calculations quickly. This tutorial teaches Microsoft
Excel basics. Although knowledge of how to navigate in a Windows environment is helpful, this tutorial was created
for the computer novice. This lesson will introduce you to the Excel window. You use the window to interact with
Excel.

## • The Microsoft Excel Window

• Moving Quickly Around the Microsoft Excel Worksheet
• Selecting Cells
• Entering Data
• Editing a Cell
• Changing a Cell Entry
• Wrapping Text
• Deleting a Cell Entry
• Entering Numbers as Labels or Values
• Smart Tags
• Saving a File
• Closing Microsoft Excel

## Lesson 2: Formatting Text and Performing Mathematical Calculations

Lesson 1 familiarized you with the Excel 2007 window. A major strength of Excel is that you can perform
mathematical calculations and format your data. In this lesson, you learn how to perform basic mathematical
calculations and how to format text and numerical data.

## • Choosing a Default Font

• Adjusting the Standard Column Width
• Cell Alignment
• Adding Bold, Underline, and Italic
• Changing the Font, Font Size, and Font Color
• Working with Long Text
• Changing a Single Column Width
• Moving to a New Worksheet
• Setting the Enter Key Direction
• Making Numeric Entries
• Performing Mathematical Calculations
• The AutoSum Icon
• Automatic Calculation
• Formatting Numbers
• Deleting Columns
• Deleting Rows
• Inserting Columns
• Inserting Rows
• Creating Borders
• Merge and Center
• Using Auto Format
• Closing Microsoft Excel

## Lesson 3: Numbers and Mathematical Calculations

By using functions, you can quickly and easily make many useful calculations, such as finding an average, the highest
number, the lowest number, and a count of the number of items in a list. Microsoft Excel has many functions you can
use. This lesson teaches you how to use functions and how to print.

• Reference Operators
• Functions
• Typing a Function
• Calculating an Average
• Calculating Min
• Calculating Max
• Calculating Count
• Filling Cells Automatically
• Printing
• Print Preview
• Closing Microsoft Excel

## Lesson 4: Creating Charts

In Microsoft Excel, you can represent numbers in a chart. This lesson teaches you how to create a chart in Excel.

## • Creating a Column Chart

• Changing the Size and Position of a Chart
• Closing Microsoft Excel
Lesson 1: Entering Text and Numbers
The Microsoft Excel Window

This tutorial teaches Microsoft Excel basics. Although knowledge of how to navigate in a Windows environment is
helpful, this tutorial was created for the computer novice. To begin, open Microsoft Excel. Then, if necessary, click the
in the upper right corner of the task pane to close the task pane.

## The screen shown here will appear.

The Title Bar

This lesson will familiarize you with the Microsoft Excel screen. You will start with the Title bar, which is located at
the very top of the screen. On the Title bar, Microsoft Excel displays the name of the workbook you are currently using.
At the top of your screen, you should see "Microsoft Excel - Book1" or a similar name.

The Menu bar is directly below the Title bar. The menu begins with the word File and continues with Edit, View,
Insert, Format, Tools, Data, Window, and Help. You use a menu to give instructions to the software. Point with your
mouse to a menu option and click the left mouse button. A drop-down menu opens. You can now use the left and right
arrow keys on your keyboard to move left and right across the Menu bar. You can use the up and down arrow keys to
move up and down the drop-down menu. To choose an option, highlight the item on the drop-down menu and press
Enter. An ellipse after a menu item signifies additional options; if you choose that option, a dialog box opens.

Do the following exercise, which demonstrates using the Microsoft Excel menu bar.

## 1. Point to the word File, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Click your left mouse button.
3. Press the right arrow key until Help is highlighted.
4. Press the left arrow key until Format is highlighted.
5. Press the down arrow key until Style is highlighted. Press the up arrow key until Cells is highlighted.
6. Press Enter to choose the Cells menu option.
7. Point to Cancel and click the left mouse button to close the dialog box.

When using Microsoft Excel, you can set an option to tell Microsoft Excel to always show full menus or to show only
the most frequently and recently used options. All the lessons in this tutorial assume you have your menus set to

## 1. Point to the word Tools, which is located on the menu bar.

2. Click your left mouse button.
3. Press the down arrow until customize is highlighted.
4. Press Enter.
5. Choose the Options Tab by clicking on it.
6. If Always Show Full Menus does not have a check mark in it, click in the Always Show Full Menus box.
7. Click Close to close the dialog box.

Toolbars

## The Standard Toolbar

The Formatting Toolbar

Toolbars provide shortcuts to menu commands. Toolbars are generally located just below the Menu bar. Before
proceeding with this lesson, make sure the toolbars you will use -- Standard and Formatting -- are available. Follow the
steps outlined here:

## 1. Point to View, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Click the left mouse button.
3. Press the down arrow key until Toolbars is highlighted.
4. Press the right arrow key.
5. Both Standard and Formatting should have a check mark next to them. If both have a check mark next to them,
press Esc two times to close the menu. If either does not have a check mark, press the down arrow key until
Customize is highlighted.
6. Press Enter. The Customize dialog box opens.
7. Choose the Toolbars tab.
8. Point to the box or boxes next to the unchecked word or words, Standard and/or Formatting, and click the left
mouse button. A check mark should appear. Note: You turn the check mark on and off by clicking the left
mouse button.
9. Point to Close and click the left mouse button to close the dialog box.

Worksheets
Microsoft Excel consists of worksheets. Each worksheet contains columns and rows. The columns are lettered A to IV;
the rows are numbered 1 to 65536. The combination of a column coordinate and a row coordinate make up a cell
address. For example, the cell located in the upper left corner of the worksheet is cell A1, meaning column A, row 1.
Cell E10 is located under column E on row 10. You enter your data into the cells on the worksheet.

## The Formula Bar

Formula Bar

If the Formula bar is turned on, the cell address displays in the Name box on the left side of the Formula bar. Cell
entries display on the right side of the Formula bar. Before proceeding, make sure the Formula bar is turned on.

## 1. Point to View, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Click the left mouse button. A drop-down menu opens. On the drop-down menu, if Formula Bar has a check
mark next to it, the Formula bar is turned on. Press the Esc key to close the drop-down menu.
3. If Formula Bar does not have a check mark next to it, press the down arrow key until Formula Bar is
highlighted; then press Enter. The Formula bar should now appear below the toolbars.
4. Note that the current cell address displays on the left side of the Formula bar.

## The Status Bar

Status Bar

If the Status bar is turned on, it appears at the very bottom of the screen. Before proceeding, make sure the Status bar is
turned on.

## 1. Point to View, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Click the left mouse button. A drop-down menu opens.
3. On the drop-down menu, if Status Bar has a check mark next to it, it is turned on. Press the Esc key to close the
4. If Status Bar does not have a check mark next to it, press the down arrow key until Status Bar is highlighted;
then press Enter. The Status bar should now appear at the bottom of the screen.

Notice the word "Ready" on the Status bar at the lower left side of the screen. The word "Ready" tells you that Excel is
in the Ready mode and awaiting your next command. Other indicators appear on the Status bar in the lower right corner
of the screen. Here are some examples:

The Num Lock key is a toggle key. Pressing it turns the numeric keypad on and off. You can use the numeric keypad to
enter numbers as if you were using a calculator. The letters "NUM" on the Status bar in the lower right corner of the
screen indicate that the numeric keypad is on.

• Press the Num Lock key several times and note how the indicator located on the Status bar changes.
The Caps Lock key is also a toggle key. Pressing it turns the caps function on and off. When the caps function is on,
your entry appears in capital letters.

• Press the Cap Lock key several times and note how the indicator located on the Status bar changes.

Other functions that appear on the Status bar are Scroll Lock and End. Scroll Lock and End are also toggle keys.
Pressing the key toggles the function between on and off. Scroll Lock causes the movement keys to move the window
without moving the cell pointer. End lets you jump around the screen. We will discuss both of these later in more
detail.

Make sure the Scroll Lock and End indicators are off and complete the following exercises.

## The Down Arrow Key

You can use the down arrow key to move downward one cell at a time.

## 1. Press the down arrow key several times.

2. Note that the cursor moves downward one cell at a time.

## The Up Arrow Key

You can use the Up Arrow key to move upward one cell at a time.

## 1. Press the up arrow key several times.

2. Note that the cursor moves upward one cell at a time.

## The Tab Key

You can use the Tab key to move across the page to the right, one cell at a time.

## 1. Move to cell A1.

2. Press the Tab key several times.
3. Note that the cursor moves to the right one cell at a time.

## The Shift+Tab Keys

You can hold down the Shift key and then press the Tab key to move to the left, one cell at a time.

## 1. Hold down the Shift-key and then press Tab.

2. Note that the cursor moves to the left one cell at a time.

## The Right and Left Arrow Keys

You can use the right and left arrow keys to move right or left one cell at a time.
1. Press the right arrow key several times.
2. Note that the cursor moves to the right.
3. Press the left arrow key several times.
4. Note that the cursor moves to the left.

## Page Up and Page Down

The Page Up and Page Down keys move the cursor up and down one page at a time.

## 1. Press the Page Down key.

2. Note that the cursor moves down one page.
3. Press the Page Up key.
4. Note that the cursor moves up one page.

## The Status Bar

The End key, used in conjunction with the arrow keys, causes the cursor to move to the far end of the spreadsheet in the
direction of the arrow.

## 1. Press the End key.

2. Note that "END" appears on the Status bar in the lower right corner of the screen.
3. Press the right arrow key.
4. Note that the cursor moves to the farthest right area of the screen.
5. Press the END key again.
6. Press the down arrow key. Note that the cursor moves to the bottom of the screen.
7. Press the End key again.
8. Press the left arrow key. Note that the cursor moves to the farthest left area of the screen.
9. Press the End key again.
10. Press the up arrow key. Note that the cursor moves to the top of the screen.

Note: If you have entered data into the worksheet, the End key moves you to the end of the data area.

## The Home Key

The Home key, used in conjunction with the End key, moves you to cell A1 -- or to the beginning of the data area if
you have entered data.

## 1. Move the cursor to column J.

2. Stay in column J and move the cursor to row 20.
3. Press the End key.
4. Press Home.
5. You should now be in cell A1.
Moving Quickly Around the Worksheet

The following are shortcuts for moving quickly from one cell to a cell in a different part of the worksheet.

Go to -- F5

The F5 function key is the "Go To" key. If you press the F5 key while in the Ready mode, you are prompted for the cell
to which you wish to go. Enter the cell address, and the cursor jumps to that cell.

## 1. Press F5. The Go To dialog box opens.

2. Type J3.
3. Press Enter. The cursor should move to cell J3.

Go to -- Ctrl-G

## You can also use Ctrl-G to go to a specific cell.

1. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "g" (Ctrl-g). The Go To dialog box opens.
2. Type C4.
3. Press Enter. You should now be in cell C4.

Name Box

## You can also use the Name box to go to a specific cell.

1. Type B10 in the Name box
2. Press Enter. Excel moves to cell D10.

Selecting Cells

If you wish to perform a function on a group of cells, you must first select those cells by highlighting them. To
highlight cells A1 to E1:

## 1. Place the cursor in cell A1.

2. Press the F8 key. This anchors the cursor.
3. Note that "EXT" appears on the Status bar in the lower right corner of the screen. You are in the Extend mode.
4. Click in cell E7. Cells A1 to E7 should now be highlighted.
5. Press Esc and click anywhere on the worksheet to clear the highlighting.

## Alternative Method: Selecting Cells by Dragging

You can also highlight an area by holding down the left mouse button and dragging the mouse over the area. In
addition, you can select noncontiguous areas of the worksheet by doing the following:

## 1. Place the cursor in cell A1.

2. Hold down the Ctrl key. Do not release it until you are told. Holding down the Ctrl key enables you to select
noncontiguous areas of the worksheet.
3. Press the left mouse button.
4. While holding down the left mouse button, use the mouse to move from cell A1 to E7.
5. Continue to hold down the Ctrl key, but release the left mouse button.
6. Using the mouse, place the cursor in cell G8.
7. Press the left mouse button.
8. While holding down the left mouse button, move to cell I17. Release the left mouse button.
9. Release the Ctrl key. Cells A1 to E7 and cells G8 to I17 are highlighted.
10. Press Esc and click anywhere on the worksheet to remove the highlighting.

Entering Data

In this lesson, you are going to learn how to enter data into your worksheet. First, you place the cursor in the cell in
which you would like to enter data. Then you type the data and press Enter.

## 1. Place the cursor in cell A1.

2. Type John Jordan.
3. The Backspace key erases one character at a time. Erase "Jordan" by pressing the backspace key until Jordan is
erased.
4. Press Enter. The name "John" should appear in cell A1.

Editing a Cell

After you enter data into a cell, you can edit it by pressing F2 while you are in the cell you wish to edit.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Press F2.
3. Change "John" to "Jones."
4. Use the backspace key to delete the "n" and the "h."
5. Type nes.
6. Press Enter.
Alternate Method: Editing a Cell by Using the Formula Bar

You can also edit the cell by using the Formula bar. You can change "Jones" to "Joker" as follows:

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Click in the formula area of the Formula bar.

3. Use the backspace key to erase the "s," "e," and "n."
4. Type ker.
5. Press Enter.

## You can change "Joker" to "Johnson" as follows:

1. Move the cursor to cell A1.
2. Double-click in cell A1.
3. Press the End key. Your cursor is now at the end of your text.
4. Use the backspace to erase "r," "e," and "k."
5. Type hnson.
6. Press Enter.

## Changing a Cell Entry

Typing in a cell while you are in the Ready mode replaces the old cell entry with the new information you type.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Type Cathy.
3. Press Enter. The name "Cathy" should replace "Johnson."

Wrapping Text

When you enter text that is too long to fit in a cell into a cell, it overlaps the next cell. If you do not want it to overlap
the next cell you can wrap the text.

## 1. Move to cell A2.

2. Type Text too long to fit.
3. Press Enter.
5. Choose Format > Cells from the menu.
6. Choose the Alignment tab.
7. Click Wrap Text.
8. Click OK. The text wraps.

## Deleting a Cell Entry

To delete an entry in a cell or a group of cells, you place the cursor in the cell or highlight the group of cells and press
Delete.

## 1. Place the cursor in cell A2.

2. Press the Delete key.

## Entering Numbers as Labels or Values

In Microsoft Excel, you can enter numbers as labels or as values. Labels are alphabetic, alphanumeric, or numeric text
on which you do not perform mathematical calculations. Values are numeric text on which you perform mathematical
calculations. If you have a numeric entry, such as an employee number, on which you do not perform mathematical
calculations, enter it as a label by typing a single quotation mark first.

Enter a number:

## 1. Move the cursor to cell B1.

2. Type 100.
3. Press Enter.

The number 100 appears in cell B1 as a numeric value. You can perform mathematical calculations using this cell
entry. Note that by default the number is right-aligned.

Enter a value:

## 1. Move the cursor to cell C1.

2. Type '100.
3. Press Enter.

The number 100 appears in cell C1 as a label. Note that by default the cell entry is left-aligned and a green triangle
appears in the upper left corner of the cell.

Smart Tags

When you make an entry that Microsoft Excel believes you may want to change, a smart tag appears. Smart tags give
you the opportunity to make changes easily. Cells with smart tag in them appear with a green triangle in the upper left
corner. When you place your cursor in the cell, the Trace Error icon appears. Click the Trace Error icon and options
appear. When you made your entry in cell C1 in the previous section, a smart tag should have appeared.

## 1. Move to cell C1.

2. Click the Trace Error icon. An options list appears. You can convert the label to a number, obtain help, ignore
the error etc.

Saving a File

## 1. Choose File > Save from the menu.

2. Go to the directory in which you want to save your file.
3. Type lesson1 in the File Name field.
4. Click Save.

## Lesson 2: Formatting Text and Performing Mathematical Calculations

In this lesson, you are going to learn how to format text and perform basic mathematical calculations. To start, open a
blank Microsoft Excel workbook.

## Choosing a Default Font

Microsoft Excel enables you to choose a default font. The default font is the style of typeface that Excel will use unless
you specify a different style. For the exercises in this lesson, you want your font to be set to Arial, Regular, and Size
10. To set your font to Arial, Regular, and Size 10:

## 1. Choose Format > Cells from the menu.

2. Choose the Font tab.
3. In the Font box, choose Arial.
4. In the Font Style box, choose Regular.
5. In the Size box, choose 10.
6. If there is no check mark in the Normal Font box, click to place a check mark there. Your selections are now the
default.
7. Click OK.

When you open Microsoft Excel, the width of each cell is set to a default width. This width is called the standard
column width. You need to change the standard column width to complete your exercises. To make the change, follow
these steps:

1. Choose Format > Column > Standard Width from the menu. The Standard Width dialog box opens.
2. Type 25 in the Standard Column Width field. Click OK. The width of every cell on the worksheet should now
be set to 25.
3. Move to cell A1.
4. Type Cathy.
5. Press Enter.

Cell Alignment

The name "Cathy" is aligned with the left side of the cell. You can change the cell alignment.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
3. Choose the Alignment tab.
4. Click to open the drop-down box associated with the Horizontal field. After the drop-down box is opened, click
Center.
5. Click OK to close the dialog box. The name "Cathy" is centered.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
3. Choose the Alignment tab.
4. Click to open the drop-down box associated with the Horizontal field. After the drop-down box opens, click
Right (Indent).
5. Click OK to close the dialog box. The name "Cathy" is right-aligned.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
3. Choose the Alignment tab.
4. Click to open the drop-down box associated with the Horizontal field. After the drop-down box opens, click
Left (Indent).
5. Click OK to close the dialog box. The name "Cathy" is left-aligned.

## Alternate Method: Alignment by Using the Formatting Toolbar

Using the Formatting toolbar, you can quickly perform tasks. You can use the Formatting toolbar to change alignment.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Click the Center icon, which is located on the Formatting toolbar.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Click the Align Right icon, which is located on the Formatting toolbar.

## You can left-align the name "Cathy" by following these steps:

1. Move the cursor to cell A1.
2. Click the Align Left icon, which is located on the Formatting toolbar.

## Adding Bold, Underline, and Italic

You can bold, underline, or italicize text in Microsoft Excel. You can also combine these features -- in other words, you
can bold, underline, and italicize a single piece of text.

In the exercises that follow, you will learn three different methods for bolding, italicizing, or underlining text in
Microsoft Excel. You will learn to bold, italicize, and underline by using the menu, the icons, and the shortcut keys.

## 1. Type Bold in cell A2.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar. Clicking on the check mark is similar to pressing Enter.

3. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
4. Choose the Font tab.

## 5. Click Bold in the Font Style box.

6. Click OK. The word "Bold" should now be bolded.

## 1. Type Italic in cell B2.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar. Clicking on the check mark is similar to pressing Enter.
3. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
4. Click Italic in the Font style box.
5. Click OK. The word "Italic" is italicized.

Microsoft Excel provides several types on underlines. The exercise that follows illustrates some of them.

Single Underline

## 1. Type Underline in cell C2.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar. Clicking on the check mark is similar to pressing Enter.
3. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
4. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline box.
5. Click Single.
6. Click OK. The cell entry now has a single underline.

Double Underline

## 1. Type Underline in cell D2.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
4. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field.
5. Click Double.
6. Click OK. The cell entry now has a double underline.

Single Accounting

## 1. Type Underline in cell E2.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box will open.
4. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field.
5. Click Single Accounting.
6. Click OK. The cell entry now has a single accounting underline.

Double Accounting

## 1. Type Underline in cell F2.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box will open.
4. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field.
5. Click Double Accounting.
6. Click OK. The cell entry now has a double accounting underline.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell G3.

2. Type All three.
3. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.
4. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
5. Choose the Font tab.
6. Click Bold Italic in the Font Style box.
7. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field. Then click Single.
8. Click OK. The words "All three" are now bolded, italicized, and underlined.

## Removing Bolding and Italics by Using the Menu

1. Highlight cells A2 to B2. Place your cursor in cell B2. Press the F8 key. Press the right arrow key once.
2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
3. Click Regular in the Font style box.
4. Click OK. Cell A2 is no longer be bolded. Cell B2 is no longer italized.

## 1. Move to cell C2.

2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
3. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field. Then click None.
4. Click OK. The underdelined is removed.

## 1. Type Bold in cell A3.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.

## 3. Click the Bold icon, which is on the Formatting toolbar.

4. Click again on the Bold icon if you wish to remove the bolding.

## 1. Type Italic in cell B3.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.

## 3. Click the Italic icon, which is on the Formatting toolbar.

4. Click again on the Italic icon if you wish to remove the italics.

## 1. Type Underline in cell C3.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.

## 3. Click the Underline icon, which is on the Formatting toolbar.

4. Click again on the Underline icon if you wish to remove the underline.

## 1. Type All Three in cell D3.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Click the Bold icon.
4. Click the Italic icon.
5. Click the Underline icon.
Alternate Method: Adding Bold by Using Shortcut Keys

## 1. Type Bold in cell A4.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "b" (Ctrl-b).
4. Press Ctrl-b again if you wish to remove the bolding.

## 1. Type Italic in cell B4.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "i" (Ctrl-i).
4. Press Ctrl-i again if you wish to remove the italic formatting.

## 1. Type Underline in cell C4.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "u" (Ctrl-u).
4. Press Ctrl-u again, if you wish to remove the underline.

Alternate Method: Adding Bold, Underline, and Italic by Using Shortcut Keys

## 1. Type All three in cell D4.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "b" (Ctrl-b).
4. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "i" (Ctrl-i).
5. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "u" (Ctrl-u).

## Changing the Font, Font Size, and Font Color

You can change the Font, Font Size, and Font Color of the data you enter.

## 1. Type Times New Roman in cell A5.

2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
4. Choose the Font tab. All of the Fonts listed in the Font box are available to you.
5. Find and click Times New Roman in the Font box.
6. Click OK. The font changes from Arial to Times New Roman.

## 1. Place the cursor in cell A5.

2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
3. Choose the Font tab.
4. Click 16 in the Size box.
5. Click OK. The font size changes to 16.

## 1. Place the cursor in cell A5.

2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
3. Choose the Font tab.

4. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the color field.
5. Click Blue.
6. Click OK. The font color changes to blue.

## 1. Place the cursor in cell A5.

2. Click the down arrow next to the Font Color icon.
3. Click on Red. Your font clolor changes to red.

## Working with Long Text

Whenever you type text that is too long to fit into a cell, Microsoft Excel attempts to display all the text. It left-aligns
the text regardless of the alignment that has been assigned to it, and it borrows space from the blank cells to the right.
However, a long text entry will never write over cells that already contain entries -- instead, the cells that contain
entries cuts off the long text. Do the following exercise to see how this works.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A6.

2. Type Now is the time for all good men to go to the aid of their army.
3. Press Enter. Everything that does not fit into cell A6 spills over into the adjacent cell.
4. Move the cursor to cell B6.
5. Type TEST.
6. Press Enter. The entry in cell A6 is cut off.
7. Move the cursor to cell A6.
8. Look at the Formula bar. The text is still in the cell.

## Changing a Single Column Width

Earlier you increased the column width of every column on the worksheet. You can also increase individual column
widths. If you increase the column width, you will be able to see the long text.

## 1. Make sure the cursor is anywhere under column A.

2. Choose Format > Column > Width from the menu. The column width dialog box opens.
3. Type 55 in the Column Width field.
4. Click OK.

Column A is set to a width of 55. You should now be able to see all of the text.

## Alternate Method: Changing a Single Column Width by Dragging

You can also change the column width with the cursor.
1. Place the cursor on the line between the B and C column headings. The cursor should look like the one
displayed here, with two arrows.

2. Move your mouse to the right while holding down the left mouse button. The width indicator appears on the
screen.

3. Release the left mouse button when the width indicator shows approximately 40.

## Moving to a New Worksheet

In Microsoft Excel, each workbook is made up of several worksheets. Before moving to the next topic, move to a new
worksheet.

## Setting the Enter Key Direction

In Microsoft Excel, you can specify which direction the cursor moves when you press the Enter key. You can have the
cursor move up, down, left, right, or not at all. You will now make sure the cursor is set to move down when you press
the Enter key.

1. Choose Tools > Options from the menu. The Options dialog box opens.
2. Choose the Edit tab.
3. Make sure there is a check mark in the "Move Selection after Enter" box.
4. If Down is not selected, click to open the Direction drop-down box. Click Down.
5. Click OK.

## Making Numeric Entries

In Microsoft Excel, you can enter numbers and mathematical formulas into cells. When a number is entered into a cell,
you can perform mathematical calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. When entering a
mathematical formula, precede the formula with an equal sign. Use the following to indicate the type of calculation you
wish to perform:

- Subtraction

* Multiplication

/ Division

^ Exponential

## 1. Move your cursor to cell A1.

2. Type 1.
3. Press Enter.
4. Type 1 in cell A2.
5. Press Enter.
6. Type =A1+A2 in cell A3.
7. Press Enter. Cell A1 has been added to cell A2, and the result is shown in cell A3.

Subtraction

## 1. Press F5. The Go To dialog box opens.

2. Type B1 in the Reference field.
3. Press Enter. The cursor should move to cell B1.
4. Type 5 in cell B1.
5. Press Enter.
6. Type 3 in cell B2.
7. Press Enter.
8. Type =+B1- B2 in cell B3.
9. Press Enter. Cell B1 has been subtracted from B2, and the result is shown in cell B3.

## Place the cursor in cell B3 and look at the Formula bar.

Multiplication

1. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "g" (Ctrl-g). The Go To dialog box opens.
2. Type C1 in the Reference field.
3. Press Enter. You should now be in cell C1.
4. Type 2 in cell C1.
5. Press Enter.
6. Type 3 in cell C2.
7. Press Enter.
8. Type =C1*C2 in cell C3.
9. Press Enter. Cell C1 is multiplied by cell C2 and the result is displayed in cell C3.
Place the cursor in cell C3 and look at the Formula bar.

Division

1. Press F5.
2. Type D1 in the Reference field.
3. Press Enter. You should now be in cell D1.
4. Type 6 in cell D1.
5. Press Enter.
6. Type 3 in cell D2.
7. Press Enter.
8. Type =D1/D2 in cell D3.
9. Press Enter. Cell D1 is divided by cell D2 and the result is displayed in cell D3.

## The AutoSum Icon

The AutoSum icon on the Standard toolbar automatically adds a column of numbers. The following illustrates the SUM
function:

1. Go to cell F1.
2. Type 3. Press Enter.
3. Type 3. Press Enter.
4. Type 3. Press Enter.
5. Click the AutoSum button, which is located on the Standard toolbar.

## 6. F1 to F3 should now be highlighted.

7. Press Enter. Cells F1 through F3 are added.

Automatic Calculation

If you have automatic calculation turned on, Microsoft Excel recalculates the worksheet as you change cell entries. You
can check to make sure automatic calculation is turned on.

## 1. Choose Tools > Options from the menu.

2. Choose the Calculation tab.
3. Select Automatic if it is not already selected.
4. Click OK.

## Trying Automatic Calculation

Make the changes outlined below and note how Microsoft Excel automatically recalculates.

## 1. Move to cell A1.

2. Type 2. Press the Enter key. The results shown in cell A3 have changed. The number in cell A1 has been added
to the number in cell A2 and the results display in cell A3.
3. Move to cell B1.
4. Type 6.
5. Press the Enter key. The results shown in cell B3 have changed. The number in cell B1 has been subtracted
from the number in cell B2 and the results display in cell B3.
6. Move to cell C1.
7. Type 4. Press the Enter key. The results shown in cell C3 have changed. The number in cell C1 has been
multiplied by the number in cell C2 and the results display in cell C3.
8. Move to cell D1.
9. Type 12. Press the Enter key. The results shown in cell D3 have changed. The number in cell D1 has been
divided by the number in cell D2 and the results display in cell D3.
Formatting Numbers

You can format the numbers you enter into Microsoft Excel. You can add commas to separate thousands, specify the
number of decimal places, place a dollar sign in front of the number, or display the number as a percent in addition to
several other options.

Before formatting

After formatting

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A5.

2. Type 1234567.
3. Press Enter.
4. Move the cursor back to cell A5.
5. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box will open.
6. Choose the Number tab.
7. Click Number in the Category box.
8. Type 2 in the Decimal Places box.
9. Place a check mark in the Use 1000 Separator box.
10. Click OK. The number should now display with two decimal places. The thousands should now be separated by
commas.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A5.

2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
3. Choose the Number tab.
4. Click Currency in the Category box.
5. Make sure there is a "\$" in the Symbol box.
6. Click OK. The number displays with a dollar sign.
Alternate Method: Formatting Numbers by Using the Toolbar

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A6.

2. Type 1234567.
3. Press Enter.
4. Move the cursor back to cell A6.
5. Click twice on the Increase Decimal icon to change the number format to two decimal places. Clicking on the
Decrease Decimal icon decreases the decimal places.
6. Click once on the Comma Style icon to add commas to the number.
7. To change the number to a currency format, click Currency Style format.
8. Move the cursor to cell A7.
9. Type .35 (note the decimal point).

## 10. Press Enter.

11. Move the cursor back to cell A7.
12. Click the Percent Style icon to turn .35 to a percent.

When you perform mathematical calculations in Microsoft Excel, be careful of precedence. Calculations are performed
from left to right, with multiplication and division performed before addition and subtraction.

1. Move to a new worksheet by clicking on Sheet3 in the lower left corner of the screen.
2. Go to cell A1.
3. Type =3+3+12/2*4.
4. Press Enter.

displays in cell A1.

To change the order of calculation, use parentheses. Microsoft Excel calculates the information in parentheses first.

## 1. Double-click in cell A1.

2. Edit the cell to read =(3+3+12)/2*4.
3. Press Enter.
Note: Microsoft Excel added 3 plus 3 plus 12, divided the answer by 2, and multiplied the result by 4. The answer, 36,
displays in cell A1.

Microsoft Excel records cell addresses in formulas in three different ways, called absolute, relative, and mixed. The
way a formula is recorded is important when you copy it.

With relative cell addressing, when you copy a formula from one area of the worksheet to another, Microsoft Excel
records the position of the cell relative to the cell that originally contained the formula. The following exercises
demonstrate:

1. Go to cell A7.
2. Type 1. Press Enter.
3. Type 1. Press Enter.
4. Type 1. Press Enter.
5. Go to cell B7.
6. Type 2. Press Enter.
7. Type 2. Press Enter.
8. Type 2. Press Enter.
9. Go to cell A10.

In addition to typing a formula, as you did in Lesson 1, you can also enter formulas by using Point mode. When you are
in Point mode, you can enter a formula either by clicking on a cell with your mouse or by using the arrow keys.

## 1. You should be in cell A10.

2. Type =.
3. Use the up arrow key to move to cell A7.
4. Type +.
5. Use the up arrow key to move to cell A8.
6. Type +.
7. Use the up arrow key to move to cell A9.
8. Press Enter.
9. Look at the Formula bar while in cell A10. Note that the formula you entered is recorded in cell A10.

## Copying by Using the Menu

You can copy entries from one cell to another cell. To copy the formula you just entered, follow these steps:

## 1. You should be in cell A10.

2. Choose Edit > Copy from the menu. Moving dotted lines appear around cell A10, indicating the cells to be
copied.
3. Press the Right Arrow key once to move to cell B10.
4. Choose Edit > Paste from the menu. The formula in cell A10 is copied to cell B10.
5. Press Esc to exit the Copy mode.
Compare the formula in cell A10 with the formula in cell B10 (while in the respective cell, look at the Formula bar).
The formulas are the same except that the formula in cell A10 sums the entries in column A and the formula in cell B10
sums the entries in column B. The formula was copied in a relative fashion.

Before proceeding with the next exercise, you must copy the information in cells A7 to B9 to cells C7 to D9. This time
you will copy by using the Formatting toolbar.

## Copying by Using the Formatting Toolbar

1. Highlight cells A7 to B9. Place the cursor in cell A7. Press F8. Press the down arrow key twice. Press the right
arrow key once. A7 to B9 should be highlighted.

## 2. Click the Copy icon , which is located on the Formatting toolbar.

3. Use the arrow key to move the cursor to cell C7.

## 4. Click the Paste icon , which is located on the Formatting toolbar.

5. Press Esc to exit Copy mode.

An absolute cell address refers to the same cell, no matter where you copy the formula. You make a cell address an
absolute cell address by placing a dollar sign in front of both the row and column identifiers. You can do this
automatically by using the F4 key. To illustrate:

## 1. Move the cursor to cell C10.

2. Type =.
3. Use the up arrow key to move to cell C7.
4. Press F4. Dollar signs should appear before the C and before the 7.
5. Type +.
6. Use the up arrow key to move to cell C8.
7. Press F4.
8. Type +.
9. Use the up arrow key to move to cell C9.
10. Press F4.
11. Press Enter. The formula is recorded in cell C10.

## Copying by Using the Keyboard Shortcut

Now copy the formula from C10 to D10. This time, you will copy by using the keyboard shortcut.

## 1. Your cursor should be in cell C10.

2. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "c" (Ctrl-c). This copies the contents of cell C10.
3. Press the right arrow once.
4. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "v" (Ctrl-v). This pastes the contents of cell C10 in cell D10.
5. Press Esc to exit the Copy mode.
Compare the formula in cell C10 with the formula in cell D10. They are the same. The formula was copied in an
absolute fashion. Both formulas sum column C.

You use mixed cell addressing to reference a cell that is part absolute and part relative. You can use the F4 key.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell E1.

2. Type =.
3. Press the up arrow key once.
4. Press F4.
5. Press F4 again. Note that the column is relative and the row is absolute.
6. Press F4 again. Note that the column is absolute and the row is relative.
7. Press Esc.

Deleting Columns

You can delete columns from your spreadsheet. To delete columns C and D:

## 2. Choose Edit > Delete from the menu. Column D is deleted.

Deleting Rows

You can delete rows from your spreadsheet. To delete rows 1 through 4:

## 1. Click the row 1 and drag to row 4.

1. Choose Edit > Delete from the menu. Rows 1 through 4 are deleted.

Inserting Columns

There will be times when you will need to insert a column or columns into your spreadsheet. To insert a column:

## 1. Click on A to select column A.

2. Choose Insert > Columns from the menu. A column is inserted to the right of column A.

Inserting Rows

## 1. Click on 2 to select row 2.

2. Choose Insert > Rows from the menu. A row is inserted above row 2.
Creating Borders

You can use borders to make entries on your spreadsheet stand out. Accountants usually place a single underline above
a final number and a double underline below. The following illustrates:

1. Go to cell B7.
2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu.
3. Choose the Border tab.

## 5. Click the top of the Border box.

6. In the Style box, click on the double underline.
7. Click the bottom of the Border box.
8. Click OK. Cell B7 now has a border.

## Alternate Method: Creating Borders by Using the Icon

1. Go to cell C7. Click the down arrow beside the Borders icon.
2. Select the Top and Double Bottom Border. Cell C7 now has borders.

## Merge and Center

You will sometimes want to center a piece of text over several columns. The following example shows you how.

1. Go to cell B1.
3. Click the check mark on the Formula bar.
4. Select columns B1 to D1.
5. Click the Merge and Center icon on the formatting toolbar. Cells B1, C1, and D1 are merged and centered.

## You can add background color to a cell or group of cells:

1. Go to cell B1.
2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu.
3. Choose the Patterns tab.
4. Choose Sky Blue.
5. Click OK. The background of cell B1 is now Sky Blue.

## Using Auto Format

You can format your data manually or you can use one of Microsoft Excel's many AutoFormats.
1. Select cells B1 to D7.
2. Choose Format > Auto Format from the menu. Several formats are listed from which you can choose.
3. Choose the Accounting 2 format.
4. Click OK. Your data is formatted in the Accounting 2 style.

## 1. Choose File>Save from the menu.

2. Go to the directory in which you want to save your file.
3. Type lesson2 in the File Name field.
4. Click Save.

## Lesson 3: Numbers and Mathematical Calculations

Microsoft Excel has many functions that you can use. Functions allow you to quickly and easily find an average, the
highest number, the lowest number, a count of the number of items in a list, and make many other useful calculations.

Reference Operators

Reference operators refer to a cell or a group of cells. There are two types of reference operators, range and union.

A range reference refers to all the cells between and including the reference. A range reference consists of two cell
addresses separated by a colon. The reference A1:A3 includes cells A1, A2, and A3. The reference A1:C3 includes A1,
A2, A3, B1, B2, B3, C1, C2, and C3.

A union reference includes two or more references. A union reference consists of two or more cell addresses separated
by a comma. The reference A7,B8,C9 refers to cells A7, B8, and C9.

Functions

Microsoft Excel has a set of prewritten formulas called functions. Functions differ from regular formulas in that you
supply the value but not the operators, such as +, -, *, or /. For example, you can use the SUM function to add. When
using a function, remember the following:

## Use an equal sign to begin a formula.

Specify the function name.

## Here is an example of a function:

=SUM(2,13,A1,B27)

In this function:

## A comma separates the arguments.

The SUM function adds the arguments together. In the exercises that follow, we will look at various functions.

Typing a Function

## 1. Open Microsoft Excel.

2. Type 12 in cell B1.
3. Press Enter.
4. Type 27 in cell B2.
5. Press Enter.
6. Type 24 in cell B3.
7. Press Enter.
8. Type =SUM(B1:B3) in cell A4.
9. Press Enter. Microsoft Excel sums cells B1 to B3.

## 1. Type 150 in cell C1.

2. Press Enter.
3. Type 85 in cell C2.
4. Press Enter.
5. Type 65 in cell C3.
6. Press Enter. Your cursor should be in cell C4.
7. Choose Insert > Function from the menu.
8. Choose Math & Trig in the Or Select A Category box.
9. Click Sum in the Select A Function box.
10. Click OK. The Functions Arguments dialog box opens.
11. Type C1:C3 in the Number1 field, if it does not automatically appear.
12. Click OK. Microsoft Excel sums cells C1 to C3.
13. Move to cell A4.
14. Type the word Sum.
15. Press Enter.

As you learned in Lesson 2, you can also calculate a sum by using the Sum icon.

Calculating an Average

You can use the AVERAGE function to calculate the average of a series of numbers.

## 1. Move your cursor to cell A6.

2. Type Average.Press the right arrow key to move to cell B6.
3. Type =AVERAGE(B1:B3).
4. Press Enter. The average of cells B1 to B3, which is 21, will appear.

## Calculating an Average by Using the Sum Icon

In Microsoft Excel XP, you can use the Sum icon to calculate an average.

## 1. Move your cursor to cell C6.

2. Click the drop-down arrow next to the Sum icon.
3. Click Average.
4. Highlight C1 to C3.
5. Press Enter. The average of cells C1 to C3, which is 100, appears.

Calculating Min

You can use the MIN function to find the lowest number in a series of numbers.

## 1. Move your cursor to cell A7.

2. Type Min.
3. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B7.
4. Type = MIN(B1:B3).
5. Press Enter. The lowest number in the series, which is 12 appears.

Calculating Max

You can use the MAX function to find the highest number in a series of numbers.

## 1. Move your cursor to cell A8.

2. Type Max.
3. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B8.
4. Type = MAX(B1:B3).
5. Press Enter. The highest number in the series, which is 27, appears.

Note: You can also use the drop-down menu next to the Sum icon to calculate minimums and maximums.

Calculating Count

You can use the count function to count the number of items in a series.

## 1. Move your cursor to cell A9.

2. Type Count
3. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B9.
4. Click the down arrow next to the Sum icon.
5. Click Count.
6. Highlight B1 to B3.
7. Press Enter. The number of items in the series, which is 3 appears.

## Filling Cells Automatically

You can use Microsoft Excel to fill cells automatically with a series. For example, you can have Excel automatically
fill in times, the days of the week or months of the year, years, and other types of series. Days of the week and months
of the year fill in a similar fashion. The following demonstrates filling the days of the week:

1. Move to Sheet2.
2. Move to cell A1.
3. Type Sun.
4. Move to cell B1.
5. Type Sunday.
6. Highlight cells A1 to B1.
7. Bold cells A1 to B1.
8. Find the small black square in the lower right corner of the highlighted area. This is called the Fill Handle.
9. Grab the Fill Handle and drag with your mouse to fill cell A1 to B24. Note how the days of the week fill the
cells in a series. Also, note that the Auto Fill Options icon appears.

## 10. Click the Auto Fill Options icon.

11. Choose the Copy Cells radio button. The entry in cells A1 and B1 are copied to all the cells highlighted.
12. Click the Auto Fill Options icon again.
13. Choose the Fill Series radio button. The cells fill as a series from Sunday to Saturday again.
14. Click the Auto Fill Options icon again.
15. Choose the Fill Without Formatting radio button. The cells fill as a series from Sunday to Saturday, but the
entries are not bolded.
16. Click the Auto Fill Options icon again.
17. Choose the Fill Weekdays radio button. The cells fill as a series from Monday to Friday.

Some of the entries in column B are too long to fit in the column. You can quickly adjust the column width to fit the
longest entry.

1. Move your cursor over the line that separates column B and C. The Width Indicator appears.

## 1. Type 1:00 into cell C1.

2. Grab the Fill Handle and drag with your mouse to highlight cells A1 to A24. Note that each cell fills using
military time.
3. Press Esc and then click anywhere on the worksheet to remove the highlighting.

## 1. Select cells C1 to C24.

2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu.
3. Choose the Number tab.
4. In the Category box, choose Time.
5. In the Type box, choose 1:30 PM.
6. Click OK. The time is no longer in military time.

## Type a 1 in cell D1.

1. Grab the Fill Handle and drag with your mouse to highlight cells D1 to D24. The number 1 fills each cell.
2. Click the Auto Fill Options icon.
3. Choose the Fill Series radio button. The cells fill as a series starting with 1, 2, 3.

## Here is another interesting fill feature.

1. Go to cell E1.
2. Type Lesson 1.
3. Grab the Fill Handle and drag with your mouse to highlight cells E1 to E24.
4. The cells fill in as a series: Lesson 1, Lesson 2, Lesson 3, and so on.

Printing

The simplest way to print is to click the Print icon located on the Standard toolbar. Dotted lines will appear on your
screen after you click the print icon. The dotted lines indicate the right, left, top, and bottom edges of your printed
pages.

Print Preview

There are many print options. You can select print options options in Page Setup or in Print Preview. In Print Preview,
you can see the results of your selections onscreen. You can use print options to:

• Determine whether to print landscape or portrait. If you print portrait on an 8 1/2 by 11 sheet of paper, the
length across the top of your page will be 8 1/2 inches. If you print landscape on an 8 1/2 by 11 sheet of paper,
the length across the top of your page will be 11 inches.
• Scale your document. If your data is small in comparison to the page, you may want to scale upward so the data
fills the entire page. If your data is too large to fit on the page, you may want to scale downward.
• Specify how many pages wide and how many pages long you want your printed document to be.
• Select the paper size and print quality.
• Set the first page number.

## If you choose the Margins tab, you can:

If you choose the Header/Footer tab, you can select headers and footers. A header is text that appears at the top of every
page. A footer is text that appears at the bottom of every page. You can use headers and footers to insert page numbers,
dates, and other information.

## 1. Choose the Header/Footer tab.

2. Click the down arrow next to the Header field to open the drop-down box for the header field.
3. Choose a Header from the list.

To choose a footer:

## 1. Choose the Header/Footer tab.

2. Click the down arrow next to the Footer field to open the drop-down box for the Footer field.
3. Choose a Footer from the list.

Use the Left Section to place your options on the left side of the page, the Center Section to place your options in the
center of the page, and the Right Section to place your optionds 9on the right side of the page.

The Sheet tab has options that allow you to choose which rows and columns will repeat at the left and the top of the
page. It also has options that allows you to determine whether gridlines and/or row column headings print

## 1. Choose File > Preview from the menu.

2. Click Setup.
3. Choose the Page tab.
4. Choose Portrait.
5. In the Adjust To field, type 110% to set the size to 110%,.
6. Choose the Margin tab.
7. Check the Horizontally box in the Center On Page frame to center your spreadsheet horizontally.
8. Click OK.
9. Click Print. The Print dialog box opens.
10. Click OK to print the file.

## 1. Choose File>Save from the menu.

2. Go to the directory in which you want to save your file.
3. Type lesson3 in the File Name field.
4. Click Save.

## 1. Choose File > Exit from the menu.

Lesson 4: Creating Charts

Using Microsoft Excel, you can represent numbers in a chart. You can choose from a variety of chart types. And, as
you change your data, your chart will automatically update. You can use Microsoft Excel's Chart Wizard to take you
through the process step-by-step.

## Creating a Column Chart

To create the column chart shown above, start by creating the spreadsheet below exactly as shown.

1. Highlight cells A3 to D6. You must highlight all the cells containing the data you want in your chart. You
should also include the data labels.
2. Choose Insert > Chart from the menu.
3. Click Column to select the type of chart you want to create.
4. In the Chart Sub-type box, choose the Clustered Column icon to select the chart sub-type.
5. Click Next.
6. To place the product names on the x-axis, select the Columns radio button.
7. Click Next.
8. Type Toy Sales in the Chart Title field. Toy Sales will appear as the title of your chart.
9. Type Products in the Category (X) Axis field. Products will appear as your x-axis title.
10. Type Units Sold in the Value (Y) Axis field. Units Sold will appear as your y-axis title.
11. Choose the Data Labels tab.
12. Select Value in the Labels Contain Frame to display the data labels as values.
13. Choose the Data Table tab.
14. Select Show Data Table. The data table will appear below your chart.
15. Click Next.
16. Choose As Object In Sheet1 to make your chart an embedded object and part of the worksheet.
17. Click Finish

## Changing the Size and Position of a Chart

When you select a chart, handles appear on the right and left sides, the top and bottom, and the corners of the chart.
You can drag the handles on the top and bottom of the chart to increase or decrease the height of the chart. You can
drag the handles on the left and right sides of the chart to increase or decrease the width of the chart. You can drag the
handles on the corners of the chart to increase or decrease the size of the chart proportionally.
You can change the position of a chart by clicking on the chart and dragging

## 1. Use the handles to adjust the size of your chart.

2. Click the chart and drag to position the chart under the data.

You can modify your chart by using the Chart toolbar. If the Chart toolbar is not already available, choose View >
Toolbars > Chart from the menu.

Chart Toolbar

## To change the data area font size:

1. Click the down arrow on the Chart toolbar. A drop-down menu opens.
2. Choose Data Table from the drop-down menu.
3. Click the Options icon . Choose the Font tab.
4. In the Size box, type 8.
5. Click OK. Your font size is now 8.

## To change the angle of the data labels:

1. Click the down arrow on the Chart toolbar. A drop-down menu opens.
2. Choose "Region 1" Data Labels from the drop-down menu.

3. Click the Angle Counter Clockwise icon . The Region 1 Data Labels are angled counter-clockwise.
4. Repeat this process for Regions 2 and 3.

## To change the font size of the Region data labels:

1. Click the down arrow on the Chart toolbar. A drop-down menu opens.
2. Choose "Region 1" Data Labels from the drop-down menu.
3. Click the Options icon. Choose the Font tab.
4. In the Size box, type 6.
5. Click OK. Your font size is now 6.
6. Repeat this process for Region 2 and 3.

You can also make changes by double-clicking on the item you want to change.

## 1. Double-click on the scale. The Format Axis dialog box opens.

2. Choose the Scale tab.
3. Type 400 in the Major Unit field.
4. Click OK. Your chart is now scaled in units of 400.

## 1. Choose File>Save from the menu.

2. Go to the directory in which you want to save your file.
3. Type lesson4 in the File Name field.
4. Click Save.

## 1. Choose File > Exit from the menu.

Excel 97 Tutorial
Lesson 1: Getting Familiar with Microsoft Excel

Microsoft Excel is an electronic spreadsheet that runs on a personal computer. You can use it to organize your data into
rows and columns. You can also use it to perform mathematical calculations quickly. This tutorial teaches Microsoft
Excel basics. Although knowledge of how to navigate in a Windows environment is helpful, this tutorial was created
for the computer novice. This lesson will introduce you to the Excel window. You use the window to interact with
Excel.

## • The Title Bar

• Toolbars
• Worksheets
• The Formula Bar
• The Status Bar
• The Down Arrow Key
• The Up Arrow Key
• The Right and Left Arrow Keys
• Page Up and Page Down
• The End Key
• The Home Key
• Scroll Lock
• Selecting Cells
• Closing Microsoft Excel

## Lesson 2: Entering Text

A major strength of Excel is that you can perform mathematical calculations and format your data. In this lesson, you
learn how to perform basic mathematical calculations and how to format text and numerical data.

• Editing a Cell
• Adjusting the Standard Column Width
• Cell Alignment
• Adding Bold, Underline, and Italic
• Changing the Font and Font Size
• Deleting a Cell Entry
• Working with Long Text
• Changing a Single Column Width
• Moving to a New Worksheet
• Filling Cells Automatically
• Saving Your File and Closing Microsoft Excel
Lesson 3: Numbers and Mathematical Calculations

By using functions, you can quickly and easily make many useful calculations, such as finding an average, the highest
number, the lowest number, and a count of the number of items in a list. Microsoft Excel has many functions you can
use. This lesson teaches you how to use functions.

## • Setting the Enter Key Direction

• Making Numeric Entries
• Moving Quickly Around the Worksheet
• Performing Mathematical Calculations
• Automatic Calculation
• Formatting Numbers
• Functions
• Saving Your File and Closing Microsoft Excel

## Lesson 4: Creating Your First Worksheet

In previous lessons, you learned the fundamentals of Excel. This lesson teaches you how to put it all together.

• Creating a Series
• Entering Numbers
• Inserting Rows
• Aligning Cells
• Entering Text
• The AutoSum Icon
• Using Copy and Paste
• The Paste Function Icon
• Centering Across Cells
• Changing the Font and the Font Size
• Inserting Columns
• Aligning Text Sideways
• Bolding
• Formatting Numbers
• Creating a Border
• Formatting as a Percent
• Printing a Worksheet
• Saving Your File and Closing Microsoft Excel

## Lesson 1: Getting Familiar with Microsoft Excel

This course teaches Microsoft Excel basics. Although knowledge of how to navigate in a Windows environment is
helpful, this course was created for the computer novice. To begin, open Microsoft Excel. The screen shown here will
appear.

## The Title Bar

This lesson will familiarize you with the Microsoft Excel screen. We will start with the Title bar, which is located at the
very top of the screen. On the Title bar, Microsoft Excel displays the name of the workbook you are currently using. At
the top of your screen, you should see "Microsoft Excel - Book1" or a similar name.

The Menu bar is directly below the Title bar and displays the menu. The menu begins with the word File and continues
with the following: Edit, View, Insert, Format, Tools, Data, Window, and Help. You use the menu to give instructions
to the software. Point with your mouse to a menu option and click the left mouse button. A drop-down menu will
appear. You can now use the left and right arrow keys on your keyboard to move left and right across the Menu bar
options. You can use the up and down arrow keys to move up and down the drop-down menu. To select an option,
highlight the item on the drop-down menu and press Enter. An ellipse after a menu item signifies additional options; if
you select that option, a dialog box will appear.
Do the following exercise, which demonstrates using the Microsoft Excel menu.

## 1. Point to the word File, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Click your left mouse button.
3. Press the right arrow key until Help is highlighted.
4. Press the left arrow key until Format is highlighted.
5. Press the down arrow key until Style is highlighted.
6. Press the up arrow key until Cells is highlighted.
7. Press Enter to select the Cells menu option.
8. Point to Cancel and click the left mouse button to close the dialog box.

Toolbars

## The Formatting Toolbar

Toolbars provide shortcuts to menu commands. Toolbars are generally located just below the Menu bar. Before
proceeding with the lesson, make sure the toolbars we will use -- Standard and Formatting -- are available. Follow the
steps outlined here:

## 1. Point to View, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Click the left mouse button.
3. Press the down arrow key until Toolbars is highlighted.
4. Press Enter. Both Standard and Formatting should have a checkmark next to them. If both have a checkmark
next to them, press Esc three times to close the menu. If either does not have a checkmark, press the down
arrow key until Customize is highlighted.
5. Press Enter.
6. Point to the box or boxes next to the unchecked word or words, Standard and/or Formatting, and click the left
mouse button. A checkmark should appear.
7. Note: You turn the checkmark on and off by clicking the left mouse button.
8. Point to Close and click the left mouse button to close the dialog box.

Worksheets
Microsoft Excel consists of worksheets. Each worksheet contains columns and rows. The columns are lettered A to IV;
the rows are numbered 1 to 65536. The combination of column and row coordinates make up a cell address. For
example, the cell located in the upper left corner of the worksheet is cell A1, meaning column A, row 1. Cell E10 is
located under column E on row 10. You enter your data into the cells on the worksheet.

## The Formula Bar

If the Formula bar is turned on, the cell address displays on the left side of the Formula bar. Cell entries display on the
right side of the Formula bar. Before proceeding, make sure the Formula bar is turned on.

## 1. Point to View, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Click the left mouse button. A drop-down menu will appear.
3. On the drop-down menu, if Formula Bar has a checkmark next to it, the Formula bar is turned on. Press the Esc
key twice to close the drop-down menu.
4. If Formula Bar does not have a checkmark next to it, press the down arrow key until Formula Bar is highlighted
and press Enter. The Formula bar should appear below the toolbars.
5. Note that the current cell address displays on the left side of the Formula bar.

## The Status Bar

If the Status bar is turned on, it appears at the very bottom of the screen. Before proceeding, make sure the Status bar is
turned on.

## 1. Point to View, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Click the left mouse button. A drop-down menu will appear.
3. On the drop-down menu, if Status Bar has a checkmark next to it, it is turned on. Press the Esc key twice to
4. If Status Bar does not have a checkmark next to it, press the down arrow key until Status Bar is highlighted and
press Enter. The Status bar should appear at the bottom of the screen.

Notice the word "Ready" on the Status bar at the lower left side of the screen. The word "Ready" tells you that Excel is
in the Ready mode and awaiting your next command. Other indicators appear on the Status bar in the lower right corner
of the screen. Here are some examples:

The Num Lock key is a toggle key. Pressing it turns the numeric keypad on and off. You can use the numeric keypad to
enter numbers as if you were using a calculator. The letters "NUM" on the Status bar in the lower right corner of the
screen indicate that the numeric keypad is on.

1. Press the Num Lock key several times and note how the indicator on the Status bar changes.
2. The Caps Lock key is also a toggle key. Pressing it turns the caps function on and off. When the caps function is
on, your entry will appear in capital letters.
3. Press the Cap Lock key several times and note how the indicator on the Status bar changes.

Other functions that appear on the Status bar are Scroll Lock and End. Scroll Lock and End are also toggle keys.
Pressing the key toggles the function between on and off. Scroll Lock causes the pointer movement key to move the
window but not the cell pointer. End allows you to jump around the screen. We will discuss both of these later in more
detail.

Make sure the Scroll Lock and End indicators are off and complete the following exercises.

## The Down Arrow Key

You can use the down arrow key to move downward on the screen one cell at a time.

## 1. Press the down arrow key several times.

2. Note that the cursor moves downward one cell at a time.

## The Up Arrow Key

You can use the Up Arrow key to move upward on the screen one cell at a time.

## 1. Press the up arrow key several times.

2. Note that the cursor moves upward one cell at a time.

## The Right and Left Arrow Keys

You can use the right and left arrow keys to move right or left one cell at a time.

## 1. Press the right arrow key several times.

2. Note that the cursor moves to the right.
3. Press the left arrow key several times.
4. Note that the cursor moves to the left.

## Page Up and Page Down

The Page Up and Page Down keys move the cursor up and down one page at a time.

## 1. Press the Page Down key.

2. Note that the cursor moves down one page.
3. Press the Page Up key.
4. Note that the cursor moves up one page.

## The Status Bar

The End key, used in conjunction with the arrow keys, causes the cursor to move to the far end of the spreadsheet in the
direction of the arrow.

## 1. Press the End key.

2. Note that "END" appears on the Status bar in the lower right corner of the screen.
3. Press the right arrow key.
4. Note that the cursor moves to the farthest right area of the screen.
5. Press the END key again.
6. Press the down arrow key. Note that the cursor moves to the bottom of the screen.
7. Press the End key again.
8. Press the left arrow key. Note that the cursor moves to the farthest left area of the screen.
9. Press the End key again.
10. Press the up arrow key. Note that the cursor moves to the top of the screen.

Note: If you have entered data into the worksheet, the End key moves you to the end of the data area.

## The Home Key

The Home key, used in conjunction with the End key, moves you to cell A1 -- or to the beginning of the data area if
you have entered data.

## 1. Move the cursor to column J.

2. Stay in column J and move the cursor to row 20.
3. Press the End key.
4. Press Home.
5. You should now be in cell A1.

Scroll Lock

## The Status Bar

Scroll Lock moves the window, but not the cell pointer.

## 1. Press the Page Down key.

2. Press Scroll Lock. Note "SCRL" appears on the Status bar in the lower right corner of the screen.
3. Press the up arrow key several times. Note that the cursor stays in the same position and the window moves
upward.
4. Press the down arrow key several times. Note that the cursor stays in the same position and the window moves
downward.
5. Press Scroll Lock to turn the scroll lock function off.
6. Press End.
7. Press Home. You should be in cell A1.

Selecting Cells

If you wish to perform a function on a group of cells, you must first select those cells by highlighting them. To
highlight cells A1 to E1:
1. Place the cursor in cell A1.
2. Press the F8 key. This anchors the cursor.
3. Note that EXT appears on the Status bar in the lower right corner of the screen. You are in the Extend mode.
4. Click in cell E7. Cells A1 to E7 should now be highlighted.
5. Press Esc and click anywhere on the worksheet to clear the highlighting.

## Alternative Method - Selecting Cells by Dragging

You can also highlight an area by holding down the left mouse button and dragging the mouse over the area. In
addition, you can select noncontiguous areas of the worksheet by doing the following:

## 1. Place the cursor in cell A1.

2. Hold down the Ctrl key. Do not release it until you are told. Holding down the Ctrl key enables you to select
noncontiguous areas of the worksheet.
3. Press the left mouse button.
4. While holding down the left mouse button, use the mouse to move from cell A1 to E7.
5. Continue to hold down the Ctrl key, but release the left mouse button.
6. Using the mouse, place the cursor in cell G8.
7. Press the left mouse button.
8. While holding down the left mouse button, move to cell I17. Release the left mouse button.
9. Release the Ctrl key.
10. Press Esc and click anywhere on the worksheet to remove the highlighting.

## 1. Click on File, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Press the down arrow key until Exit is highlighted.
3. Press Enter.
4. Click on No, if you are prompted, "Do you want to save the changes you made to Book1?"

## Lesson 1: Getting Familiar with Microsoft Excel

This course teaches Microsoft Excel basics. Although knowledge of how to navigate in a Windows environment is
helpful, this course was created for the computer novice. To begin, open Microsoft Excel. The screen shown here will
appear.
The Title Bar

This lesson will familiarize you with the Microsoft Excel screen. We will start with the Title bar, which is located at the
very top of the screen. On the Title bar, Microsoft Excel displays the name of the workbook you are currently using. At
the top of your screen, you should see "Microsoft Excel - Book1" or a similar name.

The Menu bar is directly below the Title bar and displays the menu. The menu begins with the word File and continues
with the following: Edit, View, Insert, Format, Tools, Data, Window, and Help. You use the menu to give instructions
to the software. Point with your mouse to a menu option and click the left mouse button. A drop-down menu will
appear. You can now use the left and right arrow keys on your keyboard to move left and right across the Menu bar
options. You can use the up and down arrow keys to move up and down the drop-down menu. To select an option,
highlight the item on the drop-down menu and press Enter. An ellipse after a menu item signifies additional options; if
you select that option, a dialog box will appear.

Do the following exercise, which demonstrates using the Microsoft Excel menu.

## 1. Point to the word File, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Click your left mouse button.
3. Press the right arrow key until Help is highlighted.
4. Press the left arrow key until Format is highlighted.
5. Press the down arrow key until Style is highlighted.
6. Press the up arrow key until Cells is highlighted.
7. Press Enter to select the Cells menu option.
8. Point to Cancel and click the left mouse button to close the dialog box.

Toolbars

## The Formatting Toolbar

Toolbars provide shortcuts to menu commands. Toolbars are generally located just below the Menu bar. Before
proceeding with the lesson, make sure the toolbars we will use -- Standard and Formatting -- are available. Follow the
steps outlined here:

## 1. Point to View, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Click the left mouse button.
3. Press the down arrow key until Toolbars is highlighted.
4. Press Enter. Both Standard and Formatting should have a checkmark next to them. If both have a checkmark
next to them, press Esc three times to close the menu. If either does not have a checkmark, press the down
arrow key until Customize is highlighted.
5. Press Enter.
6. Point to the box or boxes next to the unchecked word or words, Standard and/or Formatting, and click the left
mouse button. A checkmark should appear.
7. Note: You turn the checkmark on and off by clicking the left mouse button.
8. Point to Close and click the left mouse button to close the dialog box.

Worksheets
Microsoft Excel consists of worksheets. Each worksheet contains columns and rows. The columns are lettered A to IV;
the rows are numbered 1 to 65536. The combination of column and row coordinates make up a cell address. For
example, the cell located in the upper left corner of the worksheet is cell A1, meaning column A, row 1. Cell E10 is
located under column E on row 10. You enter your data into the cells on the worksheet.

## The Formula Bar

If the Formula bar is turned on, the cell address displays on the left side of the Formula bar. Cell entries display on the
right side of the Formula bar. Before proceeding, make sure the Formula bar is turned on.

## 1. Point to View, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Click the left mouse button. A drop-down menu will appear.
3. On the drop-down menu, if Formula Bar has a checkmark next to it, the Formula bar is turned on. Press the Esc
key twice to close the drop-down menu.
4. If Formula Bar does not have a checkmark next to it, press the down arrow key until Formula Bar is highlighted
and press Enter. The Formula bar should appear below the toolbars.
5. Note that the current cell address displays on the left side of the Formula bar.

## The Status Bar

If the Status bar is turned on, it appears at the very bottom of the screen. Before proceeding, make sure the Status bar is
turned on.

## 1. Point to View, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Click the left mouse button. A drop-down menu will appear.
3. On the drop-down menu, if Status Bar has a checkmark next to it, it is turned on. Press the Esc key twice to
4. If Status Bar does not have a checkmark next to it, press the down arrow key until Status Bar is highlighted and
press Enter. The Status bar should appear at the bottom of the screen.

Notice the word "Ready" on the Status bar at the lower left side of the screen. The word "Ready" tells you that Excel is
in the Ready mode and awaiting your next command. Other indicators appear on the Status bar in the lower right corner
of the screen. Here are some examples:

The Num Lock key is a toggle key. Pressing it turns the numeric keypad on and off. You can use the numeric keypad to
enter numbers as if you were using a calculator. The letters "NUM" on the Status bar in the lower right corner of the
screen indicate that the numeric keypad is on.

1. Press the Num Lock key several times and note how the indicator on the Status bar changes.
2. The Caps Lock key is also a toggle key. Pressing it turns the caps function on and off. When the caps function is
on, your entry will appear in capital letters.
3. Press the Cap Lock key several times and note how the indicator on the Status bar changes.

Other functions that appear on the Status bar are Scroll Lock and End. Scroll Lock and End are also toggle keys.
Pressing the key toggles the function between on and off. Scroll Lock causes the pointer movement key to move the
window but not the cell pointer. End allows you to jump around the screen. We will discuss both of these later in more
detail.

Make sure the Scroll Lock and End indicators are off and complete the following exercises.

## The Down Arrow Key

You can use the down arrow key to move downward on the screen one cell at a time.

## 1. Press the down arrow key several times.

2. Note that the cursor moves downward one cell at a time.

## The Up Arrow Key

You can use the Up Arrow key to move upward on the screen one cell at a time.

## 1. Press the up arrow key several times.

2. Note that the cursor moves upward one cell at a time.

## The Right and Left Arrow Keys

You can use the right and left arrow keys to move right or left one cell at a time.

## 1. Press the right arrow key several times.

2. Note that the cursor moves to the right.
3. Press the left arrow key several times.
4. Note that the cursor moves to the left.

## Page Up and Page Down

The Page Up and Page Down keys move the cursor up and down one page at a time.

## 1. Press the Page Down key.

2. Note that the cursor moves down one page.
3. Press the Page Up key.
4. Note that the cursor moves up one page.

## The Status Bar

The End key, used in conjunction with the arrow keys, causes the cursor to move to the far end of the spreadsheet in the
direction of the arrow.

## 1. Press the End key.

2. Note that "END" appears on the Status bar in the lower right corner of the screen.
3. Press the right arrow key.
4. Note that the cursor moves to the farthest right area of the screen.
5. Press the END key again.
6. Press the down arrow key. Note that the cursor moves to the bottom of the screen.
7. Press the End key again.
8. Press the left arrow key. Note that the cursor moves to the farthest left area of the screen.
9. Press the End key again.
10. Press the up arrow key. Note that the cursor moves to the top of the screen.

Note: If you have entered data into the worksheet, the End key moves you to the end of the data area.

## The Home Key

The Home key, used in conjunction with the End key, moves you to cell A1 -- or to the beginning of the data area if
you have entered data.

## 1. Move the cursor to column J.

2. Stay in column J and move the cursor to row 20.
3. Press the End key.
4. Press Home.
5. You should now be in cell A1.

Scroll Lock

## The Status Bar

Scroll Lock moves the window, but not the cell pointer.

## 1. Press the Page Down key.

2. Press Scroll Lock. Note "SCRL" appears on the Status bar in the lower right corner of the screen.
3. Press the up arrow key several times. Note that the cursor stays in the same position and the window moves
upward.
4. Press the down arrow key several times. Note that the cursor stays in the same position and the window moves
downward.
5. Press Scroll Lock to turn the scroll lock function off.
6. Press End.
7. Press Home. You should be in cell A1.

Selecting Cells

If you wish to perform a function on a group of cells, you must first select those cells by highlighting them. To
highlight cells A1 to E1:
1. Place the cursor in cell A1.
2. Press the F8 key. This anchors the cursor.
3. Note that EXT appears on the Status bar in the lower right corner of the screen. You are in the Extend mode.
4. Click in cell E7. Cells A1 to E7 should now be highlighted.
5. Press Esc and click anywhere on the worksheet to clear the highlighting.

## Alternative Method - Selecting Cells by Dragging

You can also highlight an area by holding down the left mouse button and dragging the mouse over the area. In
addition, you can select noncontiguous areas of the worksheet by doing the following:

## 1. Place the cursor in cell A1.

2. Hold down the Ctrl key. Do not release it until you are told. Holding down the Ctrl key enables you to select
noncontiguous areas of the worksheet.
3. Press the left mouse button.
4. While holding down the left mouse button, use the mouse to move from cell A1 to E7.
5. Continue to hold down the Ctrl key, but release the left mouse button.
6. Using the mouse, place the cursor in cell G8.
7. Press the left mouse button.
8. While holding down the left mouse button, move to cell I17. Release the left mouse button.
9. Release the Ctrl key.
10. Press Esc and click anywhere on the worksheet to remove the highlighting.

## 1. Click on File, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Press the down arrow key until Exit is highlighted.
3. Press Enter.
4. Click on No, if you are prompted, "Do you want to save the changes you made to Book1?"

## Lesson 2: Entering Text

In this lesson you are going to learn how to enter text. To begin, open Microsoft Excel. For this lesson, your default
font should be set to Arial. Let�s check to make sure it is.

## 1. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Press the down arrow key until Style is highlighted.
3. Press Enter. A dialog box will appear.
4. Click on Modify.
5. Click on the Font tab, if it is not in the front.
6. Click on Arial in the Font box, if Arial is not already selected.
7. Click on OK.
8. Click again on OK.

This lesson will teach you how to enter data into your worksheet. First you place the cursor in the cell in which you
would like to enter data, type the data, and then press Enter.

## 1. Place the cursor in cell A1.

2. Type John Jordan. Note that the word Ready on the Status bar changes to Enter.
3. The Backspace key erases one character at a time. Erase "Jordan" by pressing the backspace key until Jordan is
erased.
4. Press Enter. The name "John" should appear in cell A1.

Editing a Cell

After you enter data into a cell, you can edit it by pressing F2 while you are in the cell you wish to edit.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Press F2. Note that the word Ready on the Status bar changes to Edit.
3. Change "John" to "Jones."
4. Use the backspace key to delete the "n" and the "h."
5. Type nes.
6. Press Enter.
Alternate Method � Editing a Cell by Using the Formula Bar

You can also edit the cell by using the Formula bar. You can change "Jones" to "Joker" as follows:

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Click in the formula area of the Formula bar.

3. Use the backspace key to erase the "s," "e," and "n."
4. Type ker.
5. Press Enter.
Alternate Method � Editing a Cell by Double-Clicking in the Cell

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Double-click in cell A1.
3. Press the End key. That will place the cursor at the end of your text.
4. Use the backspace to erase "r," "e," and "k."
5. Type hnson.
6. Press Enter.

## Changing a Cell Entry

Typing in a cell while you are in the Ready mode will replace the old cell entry with the new information you type.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Type Cathy.
3. Press Enter. The name "Cathy" should replace "Johnson."

When you enter Microsoft Excel, the width of each cell is set to a default width. This width is called the standard
column width. We need to change the standard column width to complete our exercises. To make the change, follow
these steps:

## 1. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Press the down arrow key until Column is highlighted.
3. Press Enter.
4. Press the down arrow key until Standard Width is highlighted.
5. Press Enter.
6. Type 25 in the Standard Column Width field.
7. Click on OK. The width of every cell on the worksheet should now be set to 25.

Cell Alignment

Look at cell A1. The name "Cathy" is aligned with the left side of the cell. You can change the cell alignment.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.
3. Press the down arrow key until Cells is highlighted.
4. Press Enter.
5. Click on the Alignment tab, if it is not in the front.
6. Click to open the drop-down box associated with the Horizontal field. After the drop-down box is opened, click
on Center.
7. Click on OK to close the dialog box. The name "Cathy" should now be centered.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.
3. Press the down arrow key until Cells is highlighted.
4. Press Enter.
5. Click on the Alignment tab, if it is not in the front.
6. Click to open the drop-down box associated with the Horizontal field. After the drop-down box is opened, click
on Right.
7. Click on OK to close the dialog box. The name "Cathy" should now be right-aligned.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.
3. Press the down arrow key until Cells is highlighted.
4. Press Enter.
5. Click on the alignment tab, if it is not in the front.
6. Click to open the drop-down box associated with the Horizontal field. After the drop-down box is opened, click
on Left (Indent).
7. Click on OK to close the dialog box. The name "Cathy" should now be left-aligned.

## Alternate Method -- Alignment by Using the Formatting Toolbar

Using the Formatting toolbar, you can quickly perform functions. You can use the Formatting toolbar to change
alignment.

## To center the name "Cathy," follow these steps:

1. Move the cursor to cell A1.
2. Click on the Center icon, which is located on the Formatting toolbar.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Click on the Align Right icon, which is located on the Formatting toolbar.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Click on the Align Left icon, which is located on the Formatting toolbar.

## Adding Bold, Underline, and Italic

You can bold, underline, or italicize text in Microsoft Excel. You can also combine these features -- in other words, you
can bold, underline, and italicize a single piece of text.

In the exercises that follow, you will learn three different methods for bolding, italicizing, or underlining text in
Microsoft Excel. You will learn to bold, italicize, and underline by using the menu, the icons, and the shortcut keys.

## 1. Type Bold in cell A2.

2. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar. Clicking on the checkmark is similar to pressing Enter.

## 3. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.

4. Press the down arrow key until Cells is highlighted.
5. Press Enter.
6. Click on the Font tab, if it is not in the front.
7. Click on Bold in the Font Style box.
8. Click on OK. The word "Bold" should now be bolded.

## 1. Type Italic in cell B2.

2. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar. Clicking on the checkmark is similar to pressing Enter.
3. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.
4. Press the down arrow key until Cells is highlighted.
5. Press Enter.
6. Click on Italic in the Font style box.
7. Click on OK. The word "Italic" should now be italicized.

In Microsoft Excel there are several types on underlines. The exercise that follows illustrates several of them.

## 1. Type Underline in cell C2.

2. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar. Clicking on the checkmark is similar to pressing Enter.
3. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.
4. Press the down arrow key until Cells is highlighted.
5. Press Enter.
6. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline box.
7. Click on Single.
8. Click on OK.
9. Note: The cell entry should now have a single underline.
10. Type Underline in cell D2.
11. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar.
12. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.
13. Press the down arrow key until Cells is highlighted.
14. Press Enter.
15. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field.
16. Click on Double.
17. Click on OK. The cell entry should now have a double underline.
18. Type Underline in cell E2.
19. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar.
20. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.
21. Press the down arrow key until Cells is highlighted.
22. Press Enter.
23. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field.
24. Click on Single Accounting.
25. Click on OK. The cell entry should now have a single accounting underline.
26. Type Underline in cell F2.
27. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar.
28. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.
29. Press the down arrow key until Cells is highlighted.
30. Press Enter.
31. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field.
32. Click on Double Accounting.
33. Click on OK. The cell entry should now have a double accounting underline.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell G3.

2. Type All three.
3. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar.
4. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.
5. Press the down arrow key until Cells is highlighted.
6. Press Enter. The Font dialog box will open.
7. Click on the Font tab, if it is not in the front.
8. Click on Bold Italic in the Font Style box.
9. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field. Then click on Single.
10. Click on OK.
11. Note: The words "All three" should now be bolded, italicized, and underlined.

## Removing Bolding and Italics � Using the Menu

1. Highlight cells A2 to B2. Place the cursor in cell A2. Press the F8 key. Press the right arrow key once.
2. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.
3. Press the down arrow key until Cells is highlighted.
4. Press Enter.
5. Click on Regular in the Font style box.
6. Click on OK.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell C2.

2. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.
3. Press the down arrow key until Cells is highlighted.
4. Press Enter.
5. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field. Then click on None.
6. Click on OK.

## 1. Type Bold in cell A3.

2. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar.
3. Click on the Bold icon, which is on the Formatting toolbar.
4. Click again on the Bold icon if you wish to remove the bolding.

## Alternate Method � Adding Italic by Using the Icon

1. Type Italic in cell B3.
2. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar.
3. Click on the Italic icon, which is on the Formatting toolbar.
4. Click again on the Italic icon if you wish to remove the italics.

## 1. Type Underline in cell C3.

2. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar.
3. Click on the Underline icon, which is on the Formatting toolbar.
4. Click again on the Underline icon if you wish to remove the underline.

## 1. Type All Three in cell D3.

2. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar.
3. Click on the Bold icon.
4. Click on the Italic icon.
5. Click on the Underline icon.

## 1. Type Bold in cell A4.

2. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar.
3. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "b" (Ctrl-b).
4. Press Ctrl-b again if you wish to remove the bolding.

## 1. Type Italic in cell B4.

2. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar.
3. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "i" (Ctrl-i).
4. Press Ctrl-i again if you wish to remove the italic formatting.

## 1. Type Underline in cell C4.

2. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar.
3. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "u" (Ctrl-u).
4. Press Ctrl-u again, if you wish to remove the underline.

## 1. Type All three in cell D4.

2. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar.
3. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "b" (Ctrl-b).
4. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "i" (Ctrl-i).
5. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "u" (Ctrl-u).

## Changing the Font and Font Size

You can change the Font and Font Size of the data you enter.

## 1. Type Times New Roman in cell A5.

2. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar.
3. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.
4. Press the down arrow and highlight Cells. Press Enter.
5. Click on the Font tab, if it is not in the front. All of the Fonts listed in the Font box are available to you.
6. Find and click on Times New Roman in the Font box.
7. Click on OK.
8. Note: The font changes from Arial to Times New Roman.

## 1. Place the cursor in cell A5.

2. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.
3. Press the down arrow and highlight Cells.
4. Press Enter.
5. Click on the Font tab, if it is not in the front.
6. Click on 16 in the Size box.
7. Click on OK.

## Deleting a Cell Entry

To delete an entry in a cell or a group of cells, you place the cursor in the cell or highlight the group of cells and press
Delete.

## 1. Place the cursor in cell A5.

2. Press the Delete key.

## Working with Long Text

Whenever you type text that is too long to fit into a cell, Microsoft Excel attempts to display all of the text. It will left-
align the text regardless of the alignment that has been assigned to it, and it will borrow space from the blank cells to
the right. However, a long text entry will never write over cells that already contain entries� instead, the cells that
contain entries will cut off the long text. Do the following exercise to see how this works.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A6.

2. Type Now is the time for all good men to go to the aid of their army.
3. Press Enter.
4. Note that everything that does not fit into cell A6 spills over into the adjacent cell.
5. Move the cursor to cell B6.
6. Type TEST.
7. Press Enter.
8. Note: The entry in cell A6 is cut off.
9. Move the cursor to cell A6.
10. Look at the Formula bar. The text is still in the cell.

## Changing a Single Column Width

Earlier we increased the column width of every column on the worksheet. You can also increase individual column
widths. If you increase the column width, you will be able to see the long text.

## 1. Make sure the cursor is anywhere under column A.

2. Point to Format, which is located on the Menu bar.
3. Click the left mouse button.
4. Press the down arrow key until Column is highlighted.
5. Press Enter. Width is highlighted.
6. Press Enter.
7. Type 55 in the column width field.
8. Click on OK.

Column A is now set to a width of 55. You should now be able to see all of the text.

## Alternate Method � Changing a Single Column Width

You can also change the column width using the cursor.

1. Place the cursor on the line between the B and C column headings. The cursor should look like the one
displayed here, with two arrows.

2. Move your mouse to the right while holding down the left mouse button. The width indicator will appear on the
screen.
3. Release the left mouse button when the width indicator shows approximately 40.

## Moving to a New Worksheet

In Microsoft Excel, each workbook is made up of several worksheets. Before moving to the next topic, move to a new
worksheet.

1. Click on Sheet2, which is located in the lower left corner of the screen.

## Filling Cells Automatically

You can use Microsoft Excel to automatically fill cells with information that occur in a series. For example, you can
have word automatically fill in times, the days of the week or months of the year, years, and other types of series. The
following demonstrates:

## 1. Type the following into the worksheet as shown.

A B C D E F G
1 1:00 Sun Sunday Jan January 2000 Type 1
2. Place the cursor in cell A1.
3. Press F8. This will anchor the cursor.
4. Press the right arrow key six times to highlight cells A1 through G1.
5. Find the small black square in the lower right corner of the highlighted area. This is called the Fill Handle.
6. Grab the Fill Handle and drag with your mouse to highlight cells A1 to G24.
7. Note how each cell fills.

2. Press Esc and then click anywhere on the worksheet to remove the highlighting.

## Saving Your File and Closing Microsoft Excel

This is the end of Lesson Two. Save your file and close Microsoft Excel.

## 1. Click on File, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Press the down arrow key until Save is highlighted.
3. Press Enter.
4. Type lesson2.xls in the filename field.
5. Click on Save.
6. Click on File, which is located on the Menu bar.
7. Press the down arrow key until Exit is highlighted.
8. Press Enter.

## Lesson 3: Numbers and Mathematical Calculations

In this lesson you will learn how to work with numbers and how to perform mathematical calculations. To begin, open
Microsoft Excel.

## Setting the Enter Key Direction

In Microsoft Excel, you can specify which direction the cursor moves when you press the Enter key. You can have the
cursor move up, down, left, right, or not at all. Let’s make sure the cursor is set to move down when you press the Enter
key.

## 1. Click on Tools, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Press the down arrow key until Options is highlighted.
3. Press Enter.
4. Click on the Edit tab, if it is not in the front.
5. Make sure there is a checkmark in the "Move Selection after Enter" box.
6. If Down is not selected, click to open the Direction drop-down box. Click on Down.
7. Click on OK.

## Making Numeric Entries

In Microsoft Excel, you can enter numbers and mathematical formulas into cells. When a number is entered into a cell,
you can perform mathematical calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. When entering a
mathematical formula, precede the formula with an equals sign. Use the following to indicate the type of calculation
you wish to perform:

- Subtraction

* Multiplication

/ Division

^ Exponential

## Moving Quickly Around the Worksheet

The following are shortcuts for moving quickly from one cell to a cell in a different part of the worksheet.

Go to –F5

The F5 function key is the "Go To" key. If you press the F5 key while in the Ready mode, you will be prompted for the
cell you wish to go to. Enter the cell address, and the cursor will jump to that cell.

## 1. Press F5. The Go To dialog box will appear.

2. Type J3.
3. Press Enter. The cursor should move to cell J3.

Go to – Ctrl-G

## You can also use Ctrl-G to go to a specific cell.

1. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "g" (Ctrl-g). The Go To dialog box will appear.
2. Type C4.
3. Press Enter. You should now be in cell C4.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Type 1.
3. Press Enter.
4. Type 1 in cell A2.
5. Press Enter.
6. Type =A1+A2 in cell A3.
7. Press Enter.
8. Note that cell A1 has been added to cell A2 and the result is shown in cell A3.

Subtraction

## 1. Press F5. The Go To dialog box will appear.

2. Type B1.
3. Press Enter.
4. The cursor should move to cell B1.
5. Type 5 in cell B1.
6. Press Enter.
7. Type 3 in cell B2.
8. Press Enter.
9. Type =+B1-B2 in cell B3.
10. Press Enter.
11. Note that cell B1 has been subtracted from B2 and the result is shown in cell B3.

## Place the cursor in cell B3 and look at the Formula bar.

Multiplication

1. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "g" (Ctrl-g). The Go To dialog box will appear.
2. Type C1.
3. Press Enter. You should now be in cell C1.
4. Type 2 in cell C1.
5. Press Enter.
6. Type 3 in cell C2.
7. Press Enter.
8. Type =C1*C2 in cell C3.
9. Press Enter.
10. Note that C1 is multiplied by C2 and the answer is displayed in C3.

## Place the cursor in cell C3 and look at the Formula bar.

Division

1. Press F5.
2. Type D1.
3. Press Enter. You should now be in cell D1.
4. Type 6 in cell D1.
5. Press Enter.
6. Type 3 in cell D2.
7. Press Enter.
8. Type =D1/D2 in cell D3.
9. Press Enter.
10. Note that D1 is divided by D2 and the answer is displayed in cell D3.

## Place the cursor in cell D3 and look at the Formula bar.

Automatic Calculation

If you have automatic calculation turned on, Microsoft Excel recalculates the worksheet as you change cell entries.
Let’s check to make sure automatic calculation is turned on.

## 1. Click on Tools, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Press the down arrow key until Options is highlighted.
3. Press Enter.
4. Click on the Calculation tab if it is not in the front.
5. Select Automatic, if it is not already selected.
6. Click on OK.

## Trying Automatic Calculation

Make the changes outlined below and note how Microsoft Excel automatically recalculates.

1. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing Home (Ctrl-Home). This will move you to cell A1.
2. Type 2. Press the Tab key.
3. Note that the results shown in cell A3 have changed. The number in cell A1 has been added to the number in
cell A2 and the results display in cell A3.
4. You should now be in cell B1.
5. Type 6. Press the Tab key.
6. Note that the results shown in cell B3 have changed. The number in cell B1 has been subtracted from the
number in cell B2 and the results display in cell B3.
7. You should now be in cell C1.
8. Type 4. Press the Tab key.
9. Note that the results shown in cell C3 have changed. The number in cell C1 has been multiplied by the number
in cell C2 and the results display in cell C3.
10. You should now be in cell D1.
11. Type 12. Press the Tab key.
12. Note that the results shown in cell D3 have changed. The number in cell D1 has been divided by the number in
cell D2 and the results display in cell D3.

Formatting Numbers

You can format the numbers you enter into Microsoft Excel. You can add commas to separate thousands, specify the
number of decimal places, place a dollar sign in front of the number, or display the number as a percent in addition to
several other options.

Before formatting.

After formatting.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A5.

2. Type 1234567.
3. Press Enter.
4. Move the cursor back to cell A5.
5. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.
6. Press the down arrow key until Cells is highlighted.
7. Press Enter.
8. Click on the Number tab, if it is not in the front.
9. Click on Number in the Category box.
10. Type 2 in the Decimal Places box. This will cause the number to display with two decimal places.
11. Place a checkmark in the Use 1000 Separator box. This will cause thousands to be separated with commas.
12. Click on OK.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A5.

2. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.
3. Press the down arrow key until Cells is highlighted.
4. Press Enter.
5. Click on the Number tab, if it is not in the front.
6. Click on Currency in the Category box.
7. Make sure there is a "\$" in the Symbol box.
8. Click OK.
Alternate Method – Formatting Numbers by Using the Toolbar

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A6.

2. Type 1234567.
3. Press Enter.
4. Move the cursor back to cell A6.
5. Click twice on the Increase Decimal icon to change the number format to two decimal places. Clicking on the
Decrease Decimal icon decreases the decimal places.
6. Click once on the Comma Style icon to add commas to the number.
7. To change the number to a currency format, click on the Currency Style format.
8. Move the cursor to cell A7.
9. Type .35 (note the decimal point).

## 10. Press Enter.

11. Move the cursor back to cell A7.
12. Click on the Percent Style icon to turn .35 to a percent.

When you perform mathematical calculations in Microsoft Excel be careful of precedence. Calculations are performed
from left to right, with multiplication and division performed before addition and subtraction.

1. Move to a new worksheet by clicking on Sheet2, which is located in the lower left corner of the screen.
2. Go to cell A1.
3. Type =3+3+12/2*4.
4. Press Enter.

displays in cell A1.

To change the order of calculation, use parentheses. Microsoft Excel will calculate the information in parentheses first.

## 1. Double-click in cell A1.

2. Edit the cell to read =(3+3+12)/2*4.
3. Press Enter.

Note: Microsoft Excel added 3 plus 3 plus 12, divided the answer by 2, and multiplied the result by 4. The answer 36
appears in cell A1.

Microsoft Excel records cell addresses in formulas in three different ways, called absolute, relative, and mixed. The
way a formula is recorded is important when you copy it.

With relative cell addressing, when you copy a formula from one area of the worksheet to another, Microsoft Excel
records the position of the cell relative to the cell that originally contained the formula. The following exercises
demonstrate:

## Creating the Formula

1. Press F5.
2. Type A7. Press Enter.
3. Type 1. Press Enter.
4. Type 1. Press Enter.
5. Type 1. Press Enter.
6. Press F5.
7. Type B7. Press Enter.
8. Type 2. Press Enter.
9. Type 2. Press Enter.
10. Type 2. Press Enter.
11. Press F5.
12. Type A10.
13. Press Enter.

In addition to typing a formula as we did in Lesson 2, we can also enter formulas using the Point mode. When you are
in the Point mode you can enter a formula either by clicking on a cell with your mouse or by using the arrow keys.

## 1. You should be in cell A10.

2. Type =.
3. Use the up arrow key to move to cell A7. Note that the word "Ready" in the lower right corner of the screen
changes to "Point."
4. Type +.
5. Use the up arrow key to move to cell A8.
6. Type +.
7. Use the up arrow key to move to cell A9.
8. Press Enter.
9. Look at the formula bar while in cell A10. Note that the formula you entered is recorded in cell A10.

## Copying by Using the Menu

You can copy entries from one cell to another cell. To copy the formula you just entered, follow the steps outlined
below:

## 1. You should be in cell A10.

2. Click on Edit, which is located on the Menu bar.
3. Press the down arrow key until Copy is highlighted.
4. Press Enter. Moving dotting lines will appear around cell A10. These dotted lines indicate the cells to be copied.
5. Press the Tab key once. This should move you to cell B10.
6. Click on Edit, which is located on the Menu bar.
7. Press the down arrow key until Paste is highlighted.
8. Press Enter. The formula in cell A10 should be copied to cell B10.
9. Press Esc to exit the Copy mode.

Compare the formula in cell A10 with the formula in cell B10 (while in the respective cell look at the formula bar).
They are the same except the formula in cell A10 sums the entries in column A and the formula in cell B10 sums the
entries in column B. The formula was copied in a relative fashion.

Before proceeding with the next exercise, we must copy the information in cells A7 to B9 to cells C7 to D9. This time
we will copy by using the Formatting toolbar.

## Copying by Using the Formatting Toolbar

1. Highlight cells A7 to B9. Place the cursor in cell A7. Press F8. Press the down arrow key twice. Press the right
arrow key once. A7 to B9 should be highlighted.
2. Click on the Copy icon , which is located on the Formatting toolbar.
3. Use the arrow key to move the cursor to cell C7.
4. Click on the Paste icon , which is located on the Formatting toolbar.
5. Press Esc to exit the Copy mode.

An absolute cell address refers to the same cell, no matter where you copy the formula. You make a cell address an
absolute cell address by placing a dollar sign in front of both the row and column identifiers. You can do this
automatically by using the F4 key. To illustrate:

## 1. Move the cursor to cell C10.

2. Type =.
3. Use the up arrow key to move to cell C7.
4. Press F4. Dollar signs should appear before the C and before the 7.
5. Type +.
6. Use the up arrow key to move to cell C8.
7. Press F4.
8. Type +.
9. Use the up arrow key to move to cell C9.
10. Press F4.
11. Press Enter.
12. The formula is recorded in cell C10.

## Copying by Using the Keyboard Shortcut

Now copy the formula from C10 to D10. This time, copy by using the keyboard shortcut.

## 1. Your cursor should be in cell C10.

2. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "c" (Ctrl-c). This copies the contents of cell C10.
3. Press the Tab key once.
4. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "v" (Ctrl-v). This will paste the contents of cell C10 in cell D10.

Compare the formula in cell C10 with the formula in cell D10. They are exactly the same. The formula was copied in
an absolute fashion. Both formulas should add up column C.

You use mixed cell addressing to reference a cell that is part absolute and part relative. You can use the F4 key.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell E1.

2. Type =.
3. Press the up arrow key once.
4. Press F4.
5. Press F4 again. Note that the column is relative and the row is absolute.
6. Press F4 again. Note that the column is absolute and the row is relative.
7. Press Esc.

Reference Operators

Reference operators are helpful when referring to a cell or group of cells. Two types of reference operator are range
and union.

A range reference refers to all the cells between and including the reference. A range reference consists of two cell
addresses separated by a colon. The reference A1:A3 includes cells A1, A2, and A3. The reference A1:C3 includes A1,
A2, A3, B1, B2, B3, C1, C2, and C3.

A union reference includes two or more references. A union reference consists of two or more cell addresses separated
by a comma. The reference A7,B8,C9 refers to cells A7, B8, and C9.

Functions

Microsoft Excel has a set of prewritten formulas called functions. Functions differ from regular formulas in that you
supply the value but not the operators, such as +, -, *, or /. The SUM function is used to calculate sums. When using a
function, remember the following:

## Use an equals sign to begin a formula

Specify the function name

## Here is an example of a function:

=SUM(2,13,10,67)
In this function:
The equals sign begins the function

## A comma separates each of the arguments

The SUM function adds the arguments together. In the exercises that follow, we will look at various functions.

Typing a Function

1. Click on Sheet3 located at the bottom of your window to move to a new worksheet:
2. Type 12 in cell B1.
3. Press Enter.
4. Type 27 in cell B2.
5. Press Enter.
6. Type 24 in cell B3.
7. Press Enter.
8. Type =SUM(B1:B3) in cell A4. Microsoft Excel sums cells B1 to B3.

## 1. Type 20 in cell C1.

2. Press Enter.
3. Type 30 in cell C2.
4. Press Enter.
5. Type 50 in cell C3.
6. Press Enter. Your cursor should be in cell C4.
7. Click on Insert, which is located on the Menu bar.
8. Press the down arrow key until Function is highlighted.
9. Press Enter.
10. Click on Math & Trig in the Function Category box.
11. Click on Sum in the Function Name box.
12. Click on OK.
13. Type C1:C3 in the Number1 entry field, if it does not automatically appear.
14. Click on OK.
15. Move to cell A4.
16. Type the word Sum.
17. Press Enter.

Calculating an Average

You can use the AVERAGE function to calculate an average from a series of numbers.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A5.

2. Type Average.
3. Press the right arrow key.
4. Type =AVERAGE(B1:B3).
5. Press Enter. The average should appear.

Calculating Min

You can use the MIN function to find the lowest number in a series of numbers.

## 1. Move the cursor the cell A6.

2. Type Min.
3. Press the right arrow key.
4. Type = MIN(B1:B3).
5. Press Enter. The lowest number in the series, which is 12, should appear.

Calculating Max

You can use the MAX function to find the highest number in a series of numbers.

## 1. Move the cursor the cell A7.

2. Type Max.
3. Press the right arrow key.
4. Type = MAX(B1:B3).
5. Press Enter. The highest number in the series, which is 27, should appear.

## Saving Your File and Closing Microsoft Excel

This is the end of Lesson Three. Save your file and close Microsoft Excel.

## 1. Click on File, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Press the down arrow key until Save is highlighted.
3. Press Enter.
4. Type lesson3.xls in the filename field.
5. Click on Save.
6. Click on File, which is located on the Menu bar.
7. Press the down arrow key until Exit is highlighted.
8. Press Enter.

## Lesson 4: Creating Your First Worksheet

To begin this lesson, open Microsoft Excel. You are now ready to start building your first worksheet. During this lesson
you will review some things you have already learned and learn a few new things. The order in which you will
complete the worksheet is not the most efficient. The exercises have been ordered to provide an opportunity to learn
new skills and practice skills already learned. The lesson must be completed in the sequence presented. When you have
completed all of the exercises, your worksheet will look like the one shown here.

Creating a Series

Let�s start by entering the months of the year. You will use the Series function, which allows you to enter the first
value in the series and have the computer enter the rest.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A1.

2. Type January.
3. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar. This will enter January into the cell. Clicking on the
checkmark is similar to pressing Enter.
4. Drag the Fill Handle (the small square located in the lower right corner of the cell) to cell A12. Point to the Fill
Handle and hold down the left mouse button while you move the cursor down to cell A12. The months February
through December should fill the cells.

Entering Numbers

Pressing the Num Lock key can make data entry easier. If you have a numeric keypad, Num Lock enables you to enter
numbers as if you were using a calculator. You can also use the Enter key located on the numeric keypad. If you
highlight the rows and columns into which you are going to enter data, the cursor will automatically move up and down
those columns.

## Enter the following values:

A B C D
1 January 789 460 574
2 February 736 1230 1265
3 March 785 564 652
4 April 799 952 954
5 May 723 851 854
6 June 2086 965 1122
7 July 1744 2147 1955
8 August 1143 1120 1235
9 September 854 1230 1256
10 October 753 654 654
11 November 1747 751 852
12 December 1760 1789 1622

1. Highlight the area B1 to D12. Move the cursor to cell B1. Press F8. Press the down arrow key until you are in
cell B12. Press the right arrow key until B1 to D12 are highlighted.
2. Make sure Num Lock is on.
3. Do NOT remove the highlighting.
4. Type 789. Press Enter. You can use the Enter key located on the numeric keypad.
5. Type 736. Press Enter.
6. Type 785. Press Enter.
7. Type 799. Press Enter.
8. Type 723. Press Enter.
9. Type 2086. Press Enter.
10. Type 1744. Press Enter.
11. Type 1143. Press Enter.
12. Type 854. Press Enter.
13. Type 753. Press Enter
14. Type 1747. Press Enter.
15. Type 1760. Press Enter. If the data area is still highlighted, the cursor will automatically move to cell C1.
16. Type 460. Press Enter.
17. Type 1230. Press Enter.
18. Continue entering the data until you have entered it all.
19. Press Esc when you have completed entering your data. Then click anywhere on the worksheet to remove the
highlighting.

Inserting Rows

You can use Microsoft Excel to insert or delete rows on the worksheet. You need to insert three rows so you can add

1. Highlight cells A1 to A3. Move the cursor to cell A1. Press F8. Press the down arrow key twice.

## 2. Click on Insert, which is located on the Menu bar.

3. Press the down arrow key until Rows is highlighted.
4. Press Enter. Three new rows should be inserted.

Your worksheet should now look similar to the one shown here.

Creating a Series

You need to put headings on our columns of data. Use the Series function.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell B3.

2. Type Region 1.
3. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar.
4. Grab the Fill Handle and move the cursor right to cell D3. "Region 2" and "Region 3" should appear in cells C3
and D3, respectively.

Aligning Cells

## 1. Highlight cells B3 to D3.

2. Click on the Align Right icon on the Formatting toolbar.

## 3. Note the change in the text alignment

Entering Text
1. Move the cursor to cell A16.
2. Type Total.
3. Press Enter.

## The AutoSum Icon

The AutoSum icon on the Standard toolbar automatically creates a SUM function. The following illustrates using the
SUM function to total the Region 1 sales:

1. Press F5.
2. Type B16.
3. Press Enter.
4. Click on the AutoSum button, which is located on the Standard toolbar.

5. Press Enter.

## Using Copy and Paste

In Lesson Three you learned that you can copy and paste information. To copy the formula in cell B16 and paste it in
cells C16 to D16, follow these steps:
Copy and Paste Icons

## 1. Move to cell B16.

2. Click on the Copy icon. Rotating dotted lines will appear around the cell. The rotating dotted lines designate the
area to be copied.
3. Highlight cells C16 to D16.
4. Click on the Paste icon, which is located on the Standard toolbar. The formula in cell B16 is copied to cells C16
and D16.
5. Press Esc.

Entering Text

## 1. Move to cell E3.

2. Type Total.
3. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar.
4. Click on the Align Right icon on the Formatting toolbar.

## The Paste Function Icon

There is a Paste Function icon located on the Standard toolbar. You can use this icon to add a function to your
worksheet. To sum the January sales figures:

## 1. Move to cell E4.

2. Click on the Paste Function icon on the Standard toolbar. The Paste Function dialog box opens.

## 3. Click on Math & Trig in the Function Category box.

4. Click on Sum in the Function Name box.
5. Click on OK. The Function dialog box will open.
6. Make sure that "B4:D4" displays in the Number 1 field. These are the fields that will be summed.
7. Click on OK.

## Copy the formula you just entered in cell E4 to cells E5 to E16.

1. With your cursor in cell E4, click on the Copy icon on the Standard toolbar.
2. Highlight cells E5 to E16.
3. Click on the Paste icon.
4. Press Esc and click anywhere on the worksheet to remove the highlighting.

## Centering Across Cells

Previously you learned how to center data within a cell. You can also center the data across several cells. The following
illustrates:

## 1. Move to cell A1.

2. Type General Widgets Sales Figures.
3. Press the Tab key.
4. Highlight cells A1 to E1.
5. Click on the Merge and Center icon.

## Changing the Font and the Font Size

You can change the font and the font size of individual cells.
1. Make sure the cursor is in A1. The title "General Widgets Sales Figures" is in cell A1.
2. Click to open the Font drop down menu on the Formatting toolbar.
3. Select Times New Roman.
4. Move to the Font Size box, which is also located on the Formatting toolbar.
5. Type 16.
6. Press Enter.

Inserting Columns

You can use Microsoft Excel to insert or delete columns on the worksheet. You need to insert a column.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell A4.

2. Click on Insert, which is located on the Menu bar.
3. Press the down arrow key until Columns is highlighted.
4. Press Enter.
5. A new column is inserted.

## Aligning Text Sideways

You can also align text sideways. After doing the following exercise, your worksheet should look like the illustration at
the end of this exercise.

## 1. Type Year 2000 in cell A4.

2. Press Enter.
3. Highlight A4 to A15.
4. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.
5. Press the down arrow key until Cells is highlighted.
6. Press Enter.
7. Click on the Alignment tab, if it is not in the front.
8. Select Center in the Horizontal field. This will center the text in the cell horizontally.
9. Select Center in the Vertical field. This will center the text in the cell vertically.
10. Click on the word "Text" in the Orientation frame. Set the orientation to 90 degrees. This will turn the text
sideways.
11. Select Merge Cells.

12. Click on OK. The text now appears sideways as shown here.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell B18.

2. Type Average.
3. Press Enter.
4. Type % of Total in cell B19.
5. Press Enter.

## Using the Paste Function

Earlier in this lesson you learned about the Paste Function icon and how to use it to add a function to the worksheet.
You can also use the Paste Function icon in the Point mode. When you are in the Point mode you can use your arrow
keys or your mouse to select cells.

## The following illustrates:

1. Move the cursor to cell C18. You are going to enter a formula to calculate average regional sales for Region 1
in cell C18.
2. Click on the Paste Function icon on the Standard toolbar. The paste function dialog box will open.

## 3. Click on All in the Function Category box.

4. Click on Average in the Function Name box.
5. Click on OK.
6. Move the Paste Function dialog box to the lower right corner of the screen so you can see the cells on the
worksheet you will be working with.
7. Highlight C4 to C15. Note that the lower right corner of the status bar reads "Point." This indicates that you are
now in the point mode.
8. Click on OK, in the Paste Function dialog box. The average sales for Region 1 should now appear in cell C18.

## Using Copy and Paste

Copy the formula you just entered in cell C18 to cells D18 to F18. This will calculate the average sales for regions two
and three and it will also calculate the average total sales.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell C18.

2. Press Ctrl-C. Pressing Ctrl-C selects the field to be copied.
3. Press the right arrow key. You should be in cell D18.
4. Highlight D18 to F18. Press F8. Press the right arrow key twice.
5. Press Ctrl-V. This will paste the formula in cells D18 to F18.
6. Press Esc.
7. Click anywhere on the worksheet to clear the highlighting.

## Inserting and Copying a Formula

In this exercise you are going to enter a formula to calculate the regional sales as a percent of total sales and copy the
resulting formula to cells D19 to E19. You will use the Point mode.

## 1. Move the cursor to cell C19.

2. Click on the Edit Formula icon (the equals sign) on the Formula bar. A dialog box will appear.

3. Move the dialog box so that you can see your column headings. While holding down the left mouse button, drag
the dialog box out of the way.
4. Click in cell C16. C16, the numerator, will appear in cell C19.
5. Press the slash.
6. Click in cell F16. F16, the denominator, will appear in cell C19.
7. Press F4 to make the cell address absolute.
8. Click on the checkmark located on the Formula bar.
9. Press Ctrl-C to copy the formula you just entered.
10. Highlight D19 to E19. Move to cell D19. Press F8 anchor the cursor. Press the right arrow key.
11. Press Ctrl-V to paste the formula in cells D19 and E19.
12. Press Esc. You have finished copying.
Bolding

## 1. Move the cursor to cell C3.

2. Highlight cells C3 to F3.
3. Click on the Bold icon, which is located on the Formatting toolbar.

## 4. Highlight cells F4 to F16.

5. Click on the Bold icon, which is located on the Formatting toolbar.
6. Move the cursor to cell B16.
7. Highlight cells B16 to F16.
8. Click on the Bold icon again.

Formatting Numbers

## 1. Move the cursor to cell C4.

2. Highlight cells C4 to F18.
3. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.
4. Press the down arrow key until Cells is highlighted.
5. Press Enter.
6. Click on the Number tab, if it is not in the front.
7. Click on Number in the Category box.
8. Type 2 in the Decimal Places field. This will cause the number to display with two decimal places.
9. Place a checkmark in the Use 1000 Separator box. This will cause thousands to be separated with a comma.
10. Click on OK to close the dialog box.
Your worksheet should look similar to the one shown here.

Creating a Border

You can use the Border icon to place borders around a cell. You have several options on the type of border to use and
where to place the borders. Borders can be placed above, below, and/or on the sides of cells. The following illustrates
using borders:

## 1. Place the cursor in cell C16.

2. Highlight cells C16 to F16.
3. Click on the down arrow next to the Borders icon to open the Borders palette.

4. Click on Top and Double Bottom Border (farthest right in the middle row).
Formatting as a Percent

In Lesson Three you learned how to format a number as a percent by using the icon on the toolbar. You can also format
a number as a percent by using the menu. The following illustrates:

## 1. Highlight cells C19 to E19.

2. Click on Format, which is located on the Menu bar.
3. Press the down arrow until Cells is highlighted.
4. Press Enter.
5. Click on the Number tab, if it is not in the front.
6. Click on Percent in the Category box.
7. Type 0 in the Decimal Places field. This will cause the number to display with no decimal places.
8. Click on OK.

Your worksheet is complete. It should look similar to the one shown here.

Printing a Worksheet

You have completed your first worksheet. You are now ready to print it. First, look at the worksheet in the Print
Preview screen.

## 1. Click on File, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Press the down arrow key until Print Preview is highlighted.
3. Press Enter. The worksheet as it will appear when printed should display.
4. Click on Setup.
5. Select Portrait on the Page tab.
6. Click on the Margin tab.
7. Place a checkmark in the Center on Page Horizontally box.
8. Click on OK.
9. Click on Print. A dialog box will appear.
10. Check the setting in the dialog box.
11. Click on OK.

## Saving Your File and Closing Microsoft Excel

This is the end of Lesson Four. Save your file and close Microsoft Excel.

## 1. Click on File, which is located on the Menu bar.

2. Press the down arrow key until Save is highlighted.
3. Press Enter.
4. Type lesson4.xls in the filename field.
5. Click on Save.
6. Click on File, which is located on the Menu bar.
7. Press the down arrow key until Exit is highlighted.
8. Press Enter.