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Julin Salt L.

Medelln, Colombia, cmvelez@eafit.edu.co

Universidad Politcnica de Valencia. Departamento de Ingeniera de Sistemas y

Automtica. 22012. E-46071. Valencia, Espaa, jsalt@isa.upv.es

are presented. The basis of the tool is a general model that allows the modeling and

analysis of multirate systems with general irregular sampling. The following scenario is

considered: linear time -invariant representation, SISO and MIMO systems, regular and

irregular sampling schemes, arbitrary sampling policy. Copyright IFAC

Keywords: multirate, modeling, simulation, computer simulation, sampled-data systems

1.

INTRODUCTION

diverse techniques have been proposed and used for

the analysis and design of multirate systems (Kranc,

1957; Araki, and Yamamoto, 1986; Araki, and

Hagiwara, 1986; Albertos, 1990; Meyer, 1990;

Apostolakis, and Jordan, 1991). A common feature in

these approaches is the representation by means of a

discrete linear time-invariant equation with a To

sampling period (frame-period), equal to the least

common multiple of all sampling periods in the

system, and contains more inputs and outputs than

the original system. Several authors (Meyer, 1990;

Longhi, 1994) have shown that this representation

preserves many of the properties of the original

multirate system (reachability, controllability,

observability, stability). In this paper, a generalization

of these methods and an implementation by means of

MATLAB/SIMULINK 5.3 (Mathworks, 1997)

functions are presented. The tools are illustrated with

linear time -invariant representation, application to

SISO and MIMO systems, regular (although each

variable can be sampled with an arbitrary period, this

is constant) and irregular (each variable is arbitrarily

sampled in irregular intervals; however, the sequence

is repeated each frame period To) sampling schemes,

arbitrary sampling policy.

An irregular multirate system of order n with m inputs

and p outputs is considered. The system and

sampling scheme is shown in the Fig. 1 and Fig. 2,

respectively.

N = N1 + ... + N p

(7)

{ }

~

~

~

l j = l j , where l j is the length of each sampling

interval of input u j .

T~j T~j , 1

~

~ +1

l j =

, = 1, 2, ..., N

j

T

T~j 0 = 0 , T~j , N~ j +1 = T0 ,

~

N j +1

( 8)

~

lj = N

=1

li = {l i } , where

interval of output yi .

li =

, = 1, 2, ..., N i + 1

Ti 0 = 0 , Ti , Ni +1 = T0 ,

To = NT

Ti Ti, 1

(9)

Ni +1

li = N

=1

(1)

The model for the continuous system is:

j = 1, 2 , 3,..., m

(2)

x& = A px + B pu

y = Cp x + D pu

where,

u = [u1 L u m ] , y = [y1 L yp ]

T

i = 1,2 , 3,..., p

(3)

N

j

period To.

Ni is the number of samples of output i in the frame

period To.

T~ j = {T~j }, where T~ j is the sampling times of input

signal u j .

(4)

period To.

~ + ... + N

~

N =N

1

m

(5)

{ }

yi .

= 1, 2 ,..., N i

(6)

period To.

observable. The discrete model of the plant with base

sampling period T is:

x(( k + 1)T ) = Ax (kT ) + Bu(kT )

A = A (T ) = e

T

~

= 1, 2, ... , N

j

output signal

x = [x1 L xn ]

( 10 )

A pT

B = B(T ) = e

A p

B p d , B = [B1 L B m ],

( 11 )

C1

D1

C= M ,D= M

C p

D p

means of progressive substitutions, it is possible to

obtain the multirate model given in (12) - (18).

~

~

x(( k + 1)To ) = A x( kTo ) + B u D ( kTo )

D

~

~

y ( kTo ) = Cx ( kTo ) + Du D ( kTo )

Where,

( 12 )

1 ~

2 ~

A 1~

~ A

N

A=

, A=A

O

O

mxn

mxm

2 ~

2 ~

2~

A = A j , A j =1 b Dj0

( 13 )

[ ]

1~

~ B ~

B = 2 ~ , 1B =

B

=A

D

j

+1

l j

=1

[ B ],

1

D

j

B Dj = 1 b Dj

X ~l j , +1 B j

= B j

~

B=

b

D

jk

B Dj , 2 B Dj =

dim(x) = (n + m ) 1

( 14 )

[ b ],

2

D

jk

k = 1,2,..., N

~ ~

C , 1C = 1 CiD

D

i

[ ]

[ ]

1

[ ]

D

i

~

D = DijD , D Dij = d ijD,

C = c , c = CiA

2 ~

C = 2 C Di , 2 C Di = d ijD, 0

1

D

i

li

=1

dim(u D ) = N 1

dim(y ) = N 1

~

dim(A ) = (n + m ) (n + m )

~

dim(B) = (n + m ) N

~

~

dim(C ) = N (n + m) dim( D ) = N N

D

~

1, if k = N

=

=1

0, in other case

~

~

C = 1C

( 18 )

~

~

~

= A (To T j, +1 ) B j (T j , +1 T j, )

2

x1 (kTo )

x

(

kT

)

n

o

x D (kT0 ) =

~

u

((

k

1

)

T

+

T

~ )

0

1 ,N1

1

u m (( k 1)T0 + Tm ,N~m )

( 15 )

( 19 )

It is possible to model multirate systems with

regular and irregular sampling schemes. See (Salt,

et al., 1993).

It is not necessary that the inputs and outputs

are synchronized for each global period (see Fig.

2).

The mo del is linear time-invariant.

It is able to consider arbitrary number of inputs

and outputs (SISO and MIMO systems).

~ ).

The representation is causal (see the form of D

The system is of minimal dimension.

Particular cases are easily derived.

~

l j , +1 1

d ij, = C i ij, ( q) B j + ij ,

q=0

A r , if r = q + l +1~

i l j 0

ij, (q ) =

=1

=1

0,

in othercase

ij,

3. MULTIRATE TOOLBOX

( 16 )

~

d ij , if 0 l i - l j < l j , +1

=

=

1

=1

0,

in othercase

u ( kT + T~ )

0

j1

j

u D (kT0 ) =

M

u j (kT0 + T j , N~ j )

M

M

y (kT + T )

0

i1

i

y D (kT0 ) =

M

y

(

kT

+

T

)

0

iN i

i

(as SIMULINK S-Functions). Other tools and ideas

have been implemented and presented by different

authors (Meyer, 1988; Thompson, 1988).

Irregular

Multirate

Compensator

Regular

Multirate

Compensator

Irregular

Multirate

Operator

( 17 )

Regular

Multirate

Operator

Kranc

Operator

The results of multirate discretization can be obtained

in MATLAB Workspace. The blocks "Regular

Multirate Operator" and "Irregular Multirate

Operator" correspond to the models described in (12)

- (18). The blocks "Regular Multirate Compensator"

and "Irregular Multirate Compensator" allow for the

the latter blocks it is only necessary to specify the

~ ,B

~ ,C

~ ,~

matrices [A

R

R

R D R ] and the sampling periods

(for regular or irregular cases). The multirate

~ ,B

~ ,C

~ ,D

~ ] is designed by some

compensator [A

R

R

R

R

method (Araki, and Yamamoto, 1986; Araki, and

Hagiwara, 1986; Hagiwara, an Araki, 1988; Albertos,

1990; Meyer, 1990; Godbout, et al, 1990; Apostolakis,

and Jordan, 1991). The blocks above were applied in

the simulation diagrams of Fig. 4 and Fig. 5. The

simulation implementation is easy and logical and

may be used with educational purposes. The

simulation is structured in a hybrid manner, which

allows for the examination of the intersample

behavior.

4. EXAMPLE

Continuous plant:

0

0

2.5

0 x + 10 1.2u

1

5 / 6

1

0

x

1

( 20 )

( 21 )

10 / 13 12 / 65

+

e

0

0

Input 1:

Input 2:

Output 1:

Output 2:

T~2 = [0 0.15]

T1 = [0 0.15 0.2 ]

T2 = [0 0.15

Scope

Plant

1.34

Reference 1

Mux

Regular

Multirate

Operator

x' = Ax+Bu

y = Cx+Du

Demux

Mux

Scope

Plant

3.56

Reference 2

T o = 0 . 3, T = 0 . 05

~

~

l1 = [3 1 2 ] , l2 = [3

l1 = [3

2 ] , l 2 = [3

3]

2

1]

exposed method, is:

Yamamoto, 1986; Apostolakis, and Jordan, 1991):

0

0 0

1 0

xc = 0 0

0 x c + 0 1e

1 0 2.5

0 0

0

20 / 13 6 / 13

u=

x

25

/

26

10

/

13

25

/ 52 c

Mux

1

0.5s2 +1.5s+1

~

~

N 1 = 3, N 2 = 2 , N 1 = 3, N 2 = 3, N = 5, N = 6

inputs and 2 outputs (Araki, and Yamamoto, 1986;

Apostolakis, and Jordan, 1991).

2.5 0

x& = 0

2

0

0

4 1

y=

1 / 3 0

Regular

Multirate

Compensator

1

Reference

0.25]

referred to the compensator.

0

0

1

~

AR = 0

1

0

0.2111 0 0 .4724

0 .05

0 .1

0

0.15

~

BR = 0

0

0

0.15

0

1 .5385 0 .4615

1 .5385 0 .4615

0

1 .5385 0 .4615

0

~

CR =

0 .9014 0.7692 0 .3304

0

0

0.7692

0.2308

0 .7692

0

0

.

2308

0

.

0769

0

.

7692

~

DR =

0

0

0

0.1394

0

0

0

0 .15

0 .1846

0

0 .0692 0 .1846

0 .0692 0 .2077

0

0

0 .1154

0

0 .1154 0 .0769

of simulation are presented in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 (see

the irregular sampling).

CONCLUSIONS

Useful functions for MATLAB/SIMULINK to analyze

multirate control systems were presented. A general

irregular multirate model was used to make

implementation and generalization easier. A detailed

work. This model allows for the simulation of general

multirate systems. The good results of simulation

validate all functions. The designed blocks form a

nice and intuitive tool for the teaching and studying

of multirate systems. It is easy to implement other

possible modeling methodologies.

The authors work in the development of tools for

MATLAB/SIMULINK to make the design of multirate

compensators easier.

Proc. of the 2nd IEEE Conference in Control

Applications, 631-635.

Thompson, P. M. (1986). Gain and phase margin of

multirate sampled-data feedback systems . Int. J. of

Control, 44, 833-846.

Thompson, P.M. (1988). In: Program CC Version 4:

Reference Manual, 566-585. Systems Technology

Inc, Hawthorne.

SYSTEM OUTPUTS

5

REFERENCES

4.5

Model for Sampled-Data Control Systems . IEEE

Trans. on Autom. Control, 35, 1085-1088.

Apostolakis , I.S. and D. Jordan (1991). A time

invariant approach to multirate optimal regulator

design. Int. J. of Control, 53, 1233-1254.

Araki, M and K. Yamamoto (1986). Multivariable

multirate sampled-data s ystems: state-space

description, transfer characteristics, and Nyquist

criterion. IEEE Trans. on Control, 31, 145-154.

Araki, M. and T. Hagiwara (1986). Pole assigment by

multirate sampled-data output feedback. Int. J. of

Control, 44, 1661-1673.

Araki, M. (1993). Recent development in digital

control theory. Proc. 12th IFAC World Congr, 9,

951-960.

Glasson, D.P.(1983). Development and Applications

of Multirate Digital Control. Control System

Magazine , 6, 2-8.

Godbout, L.F., D. Jordan and I. S. Apostolakis (1990).

Closed-loop model for general multirate digital

control systems . IEE Proceedings, 137, 326-336.

Hagiwara, T. and M. Araki (1988). Design of a stable

feedback controller based on the multirate

sampling of the plant output. IEEE Trans. on Aut.

Control, 33, 812-819.

Kranc G. M. (1957). Input-output analisys of multirate

feedback systems. IRE Trans. on Aut. Control, 3,

21-28.

Longhi, S. (1994). Structural Properties of Multirate

Sampled-Data Systems. IEEE Trans. on Aut.

Control, 39, 692-696.

Mathworks (1997). In: Using SIMULINK Version 2.

Mathworks Inc, Natick.

Mathworks (1997). In: Using MATLAB Version 5.

Mathworks Inc, Natick.

Meyer, D. G.. (1988). Toward a new CAD method for

MIMO multirate digital controllers. Proc. of 27 th

Conf. on Dec. and Cont., 889-1891.

Meyer, D. G. (1990). A new class of shift-varying

operators, the shift -invariant equivalents and

multirate digital systems . IEEE Trans. on Aut.

Control, 35, 429-433.

Salt, J., P. Albertos. and J. Tornero (1993). Modeling

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

5

6

Time (second)

10

1.6

1.8

CONTROL SIGNALS

4

3.5

2.5

1.5

1

0.5

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

Time (second)

1.4

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