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Subject: GEO133P, Application of Quantitative Analysis in Geological Engineering

pg. 1

Subject: GEO133P, Application of Quantitative Analysis in Geological Engineering

Plate No. 1
A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH OF LIQUEFACTION
ANALYSIS

Submitted by: Tampus, Robert Michael


Student No.: 2013140129
Course: B.S. GSE
Year: 3
Faculty/Instructor: Engr. Celestino Avis

Plate Exercises of C. C. Avis

Rating:
Date Submitted:

Mapua Institute of Technology, 2016

Subject: GEO133P, Application of Quantitative Analysis in Geological Engineering

pg. 2

1.

Description
Ground shaking during an earthquake may cause water-saturated sandy soils to undergo liquefaction. The
soil is said to liquefy, when it loses its shear strength and behaves as a viscous liquid under the application of
seismic load. If conditions are favorable, liquefaction is considered as a major seismic hazard (Sana,
2016). Earthquake waves cause water pressures to increase in the sediment and the sand grains to lose contact
with each other, leading the sediment to lose strength and behave like a liquid. The soil can lose its ability to
support structures, flow down even very gentle slopes, and erupt to the ground surface to form sand boils. Many
of these phenomena are accompanied by settlement of the ground surface usually in uneven patterns that
damage buildings, roads and pipelines.
Three factors are required for liquefaction to occur:
a) loose, granular sediment typically "made" land and beach and stream deposits that are young
enough (late Holocene) to be loose.
b) saturation of the sediment by ground water (water fills the spaces between sand and silt grains)
c) strong shaking
2.

Objectives/Purpose
The main objective of this plate is to perform a quantitative approach of liquefaction analysis. Specifically, it
aims to:
a. Calculate the peak ground acceleration using the Fukushima and Tanaka Attenuation Equation,
b. Interpret given borehole information,
c. Compute the factor of safety (F.S.), and
d. Determine whether the area is liquefiable or non-liquefiable.
3.

Formula

Fukushima and Tanaka Attenuation Equation


where:
A = peak ground acceleration (cm/sec2)
M = surface wave magnitude
R = distance to epicenter (km)
Cyclic Stress Ratio (CSR)
where:
CSS = equivalent uniform cyclic shear stress
g = acceleration due to gravity = 981 cm/s2
= total vertical stress (kPa)
= effective vertical stress (kPa)
rd = stress reduction factor = 1 0.008d
d = depth from the ground surface to the point of analysis (m)
Correction for the SPT Value
where:
N60 = SPT N-value corrected for field procedures
Em = hammer efficiency = 0.45
CB = borehole diameter correction = 1.0
CS = sampler correction factor = 1.0
CR = rod length correction factor = 0.75
N = SPT N value recorded in the field

Since the graph (Appendix 1) is normalized for M = 7.5, if the design magnitude is not equal to 7.5, convert
the CSR to:
where:
=3
=2
= 1.5
= 1.25
Plate Exercises of C. C. Avis

for M = 5.5
for M = 6.0
for M = 6.5
for M = 7.0
Mapua Institute of Technology, 2016

Subject: GEO133P, Application of Quantitative Analysis in Geological Engineering

= 1.0
= 0.65

pg. 3

for M = 7.5
for M = 8.0
Factor of Safety (FS)

4.

Application to Geological Engineering Course:


As future geological engineers, some companies or the government would require the assistance in
determining the potential for liquefaction for their properties or communities, respectively. The assessment of
liquefaction hazards requires thorough geotechnical site characterization and credible estimates of the ground
motions predicted for the exposure interval of interest. Practical problems were given in this plate, where the
formulas are used by practitioners and professionals.
5.

Problem Exercise:
1. The following borehole information was taken from a subsurface investigation at a site near the
Proposed Bacolod Airport where liquefaction is suspected. Summarized below indicates the results of
SPT and sieve analysis.
Depth (m)
Nfield (blows/ft)
Soil Classification (USCS)
Percent fines (%)
1.5
23
Silty Sand (SM)
30
3.0
20
Fine to medium sand (SW)
5
4.5
16
Fine to medium sand (SW)
3
6.0
20
Fine to medium sand (SW)
6
7.5
18
Fine to medium sand (SW)
3
9
32
Silty Sand (SM)
20
10.5
40
Silty Sand (SM)
22
The design earthquake will occur in the Philippine Fault Zone. The causative fault is 20 km from the site
and the design MCE is 6. The site is underlain by deep cohesionless soils. Using a unit weight of 16.50
kN/m3 and the ground water table was 1.75 meters below the ground surface; evaluate the liquefaction
potential at this site using the simplified method by Seed and Idriss.
Solution:
1) Compute the peak ground acceleration using Fukushima and Tanaka Attenuation Equation:

2)

Correct the SPT N using

3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

Compute the total stress: = unit weight of soil x depth


Compute the pore pressure: u = unit weight of water x depth
Compute the effective stress: = u
Compute the stress reduction factor: rd = 1-0.008d
Determine the Cyclic Stress Ratio to Cause Liquefaction (CSRL) from the graph (Appendix 1).
Compute the Cyclic Stress Ratio (CSRE) induced in the soil by the design earthquake from the
formula.

9)

Compute the Factor of Safety:

(
(

)
)

Sample Computations at 1.5 m depth:

Plate Exercises of C. C. Avis

Mapua Institute of Technology, 2016

Subject: GEO133P, Application of Quantitative Analysis in Geological Engineering

) (

pg. 4

Liquefaction Analysis Tabulation:


Depth (m)

Thick

Node

Nfield

Ncor60

'

rd

CSRL
(graph)

CSRE
F.S.

Conclusion

0.11

4.15

NL

0.13

2.06

NL

0.22

0.16

1.39

NL

0.14

0.28

0.18

1.58

NL

0.95

0.12

0.24

0.19

1.27

NL

72.36

0.93

0.29

0.58

0.20

2.96

NL

82.40

0.92

1.00

2.00

0.20

9.96

NL

Fro
m

To

z,m

b/ft

kN/
m3

b/ft

kPa

kPa

kPa

7.5

6.0

Formula

0.0

1.5

1.5

0.75

23.00

16.50

12.94

12.38

0.00

12.38

0.99

0.23

0.46

1.5

3.0

1.5

2.25

20.00

16.50

11.25

37.13

4.91

32.22

0.98

0.13

0.26

3.0

4.5

1.5

3.75

16.00

16.50

9.00

61.88

19.62

42.26

0.97

0.11

4.5

6.0

1.5

5.25

20.00

16.50

11.25

86.63

34.34

52.29

0.96

6.0

7.5

1.5

6.75

18.00

16.50

10.13

111.38

49.05

62.33

7.5

9.0

1.5

8.25

32.00

16.50

18.00

136.13

63.77

9.0

10.5

1.5

9.75

40.00

16.50

22.50

160.88

78.48

where:
NL = No Liquefaction
L = Liquefaction

Conclusion: Given these parameters,


the soil layers are non-liquefiable
since their factors of safety are
greater than 1.

Plate Exercises of C. C. Avis

Mapua Institute of Technology, 2016

Subject: GEO133P, Application of Quantitative Analysis in Geological Engineering

2.

pg. 5

The following borehole information was taken from a subsurface investigation at a site near the
proposed hypothetical airport X where liquefaction is suspected. Summarized below indicates the results
of SPT and sieve analysis.
Depth (m)
Nfield (blows/ft)
Soil Classification (USCS)
Percent fines (%)
1.5
20
Silty Sand (SM)
30
3.0
17
Fine to medium sand (SW)
5
4.5
13
Fine to medium sand (SW)
3
6.0
17
Fine to medium sand (SW)
6
7.5
15
Fine to medium sand (SW)
3
9
29
Silty Sand (SM)
20
10.5
37
Silty Sand (SM)
22
The design earthquake will occur in a nearby hypothetical fault zone Y. The causative fault is 15 km from
the site and the design MCE is 7. The site is underlain by deep cohesionless soils. Using a unit weight of
16.0 kN/m3 and the ground water table was 1.50 meters below the ground surface; evaluate the
liquefaction potential at this site using the simplified method by Seed and Idriss.
Solution:
10) Compute the peak ground acceleration using Fukushima and Tanaka Attenuation Equation:

11) Correct the SPT N using


12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)

Compute the total stress: = unit weight of soil x depth


Compute the pore pressure: u = unit weight of water x depth
Compute the effective stress: = u
Compute the stress reduction factor: rd = 1-0.008d
Determine the Cyclic Stress Ratio to Cause Liquefaction (CSRL) from the graph (Appendix 1).
Compute the Cyclic Stress Ratio (CSRE) induced in the soil by the design earthquake from the formula.
(

18) Compute the Factor of Safety:

)
)

Sample Computations at 1.5 m depth:

Plate Exercises of C. C. Avis

) (

Mapua Institute of Technology, 2016

Subject: GEO133P, Application of Quantitative Analysis in Geological Engineering

pg. 6

Liquefaction Analysis Tabulation:


Depth (m)

Thick

Node

Nfield

Ncor60

'

rd

CSRL
(graph)

CSRE
F.S.

Conclusion

0.22

1.29

NL

0.16

0.28

0.59

0.11

0.14

0.35

0.40

0.96

0.14

0.18

0.38

0.46

56.50

0.95

0.12

0.15

0.41

0.37

66.22

65.78

0.93

0.29

0.36

0.42

0.86

80.93

75.07

0.92

1.00

1.25

0.43

2.90

NL

From

To

z,m

b/ft

kN/
m3

b/ft

kPa

kPa

kPa

7.5

7.0

Formula

0.0

1.5

1.5

0.75

20.00

16.00

11.25

12.00

0.00

12.00

0.99

0.23

0.29

1.5

3.0

1.5

2.25

17.00

16.00

9.56

36.00

7.36

28.64

0.98

0.13

3.0

4.5

1.5

3.75

13.00

16.00

7.31

60.00

22.07

37.93

0.97

4.5

6.0

1.5

5.25

17.00

16.00

9.56

84.00

36.79

47.21

6.0

7.5

1.5

6.75

15.00

16.00

8.44

108.00

51.50

7.5

9.0

1.5

8.25

29.00

16.00

16.31

132.00

9.0

10.5

1.5

9.75

37.00

16.00

20.81

156.00

where:
NL = No Liquefaction
L = Liquefaction

Conclusion:

The

zones

between 1.5 to 9.0 meters


depth

are

judged

to

liquefy. Below this depth,


the increased density as
represented

by

high

value and the presence of


fines

makes

liquefaction

less likely.

Plate Exercises of C. C. Avis

Mapua Institute of Technology, 2016

Subject: GEO133P, Application of Quantitative Analysis in Geological Engineering

3.

pg. 7

The following borehole information was taken from a subsurface investigation at a site near the
proposed hypothetical airport A where liquefaction is suspected. Summarized below indicates the
results of SPT and sieve analysis.
Depth (m)
Nfield (blows/ft)
Soil Classification (USCS)
Percent fines (%)
1.5
21
Silty Sand (SM)
30
3.0
18
Fine to medium sand (SW)
5
4.5
14
Fine to medium sand (SW)
3
6.0
18
Fine to medium sand (SW)
6
7.5
16
Fine to medium sand (SW)
3
9
30
Silty Sand (SM)
20
10.5
38
Silty Sand (SM)
22
The design earthquake will occur in a nearby hypothetical fault zone B. The causative fault is 35 km from
the site and the design MCE is 8. The site is underlain by deep cohesionless soils. Using a unit weight of
16.75 kN/m3 and the ground water table was 2.0 meters below the ground surface; evaluate the
liquefaction potential at this site using the simplified method by Seed and Idriss.
Solution:
19) Compute the peak ground acceleration using Fukushima and Tanaka Attenuation Equation:

20) Correct the SPT N using


21)
22)
23)
24)
25)
26)

Compute the total stress: = unit weight of soil x depth


Compute the pore pressure: u = unit weight of water x depth
Compute the effective stress: = u
Compute the stress reduction factor: rd = 1-0.008d
Determine the Cyclic Stress Ratio to Cause Liquefaction (CSRL) from the graph (Appendix 1).
Compute the Cyclic Stress Ratio (CSRE) induced in the soil by the design earthquake from the formula.
(

27) Compute the Factor of Safety:

)
)

Sample Computations at 1.5 m depth:

Plate Exercises of C. C. Avis

) (

Mapua Institute of Technology, 2016

Subject: GEO133P, Application of Quantitative Analysis in Geological Engineering

pg. 8

Liquefaction Analysis Tabulation:


Depth (m)

Thick

Node

Nfield

Ncor60

'

rd

CSRL
(graph)

CSRE
F.S.

Conclusion

0.20

0.75

0.08

0.21

0.40

0.11

0.07

0.27

0.27

0.96

0.14

0.09

0.30

0.30

66.47

0.95

0.12

0.08

0.32

0.24

61.31

76.88

0.93

0.29

0.19

0.34

0.56

76.03

87.29

0.92

1.00

0.65

0.34

1.89

NL

The

zones

From

To

z,m

b/ft

kN/
m3

b/ft

kPa

kPa

kPa

7.5

8.0

Formula

0.0

1.5

1.5

0.75

21.00

16.75

11.81

12.56

0.00

12.56

0.99

0.23

0.15

1.5

3.0

1.5

2.25

18.00

16.75

10.13

37.69

2.45

35.24

0.98

0.13

3.0

4.5

1.5

3.75

14.00

16.75

7.88

62.81

17.17

45.65

0.97

4.5

6.0

1.5

5.25

18.00

16.75

10.13

87.94

31.88

56.06

6.0

7.5

1.5

6.75

16.00

16.75

9.00

113.06

46.60

7.5

9.0

1.5

8.25

30.00

16.75

16.88

138.19

9.0

10.5

1.5

9.75

38.00

16.75

21.38

163.31

where:
NL = No Liquefaction
L = Liquefaction

Conclusion:

between 0 to 9.0 meters


depth

are

judged

to

liquefy. Below this depth,


the increased density as
represented

by

high

value and the presence of


fines

makes

liquefaction

less likely.

Plate Exercises of C. C. Avis

Mapua Institute of Technology, 2016

Subject: GEO133P, Application of Quantitative Analysis in Geological Engineering

pg. 9

APPENDIX 1 (CSRL GRAPH)

Plate Exercises of C. C. Avis

Mapua Institute of Technology, 2016

Subject: GEO133P, Application of Quantitative Analysis in Geological Engineering


10

pg.

APPENDIX 2 (REFERENCES)
Sana, H. and Nath, S. K. (2016). Liquefaction potential analysis of the Kashmir
valley alluvium, NW Himalaya. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering Vol.85
June 2016. pp. 11-18
http://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/sfgeo/liquefaction/aboutliq.html

Plate Exercises of C. C. Avis

Mapua Institute of Technology, 2016