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Geography 415 Hydrology


LAB 5 (March 6, 2003)
TA: Drew Lejbak
Office: ES 310, 220-5590, atlejbak@ucalgary.ca
Hours: Friday 10:00am 12:00pm, or by appointment
Drop Box: Outside ES 313
1. Infiltration test
Table 1 lists the data collected during an infiltration test using a single ring infiltrometer.
The first column is time and the second column is the amount of water added to the
ring. The diameter of the ring was 40 cm.
1. Estimate infiltration capacity (mm/hr) corresponding to each time interval. The
infiltration capacity is given by:
Infiltration capacity = volume of water / (area of the ring time interval)
For the first time interval,
Volume = 617 cm3 10 10 10 = 617,000 mm3
Area = r2 = 3.141 (20 cm 10)2 = 125,660 mm2
Time interval = 2 min / 60 = 0.03333 hr
Infiltration capacity = 617,000 / (125,660 x 0.03333) = 147.3 mm/hr
2. Plot a graph of infiltration capacity against time.

Table 1

t
V
(min) (cm3)
2
617
4
505
6
446
10
734
15
690
20
542
25
502
30
450
35
425
40
439
50
825
60
840

Inf cap.
(mm/hr)
147.3
120.6
106.5
87.6
65.9
51.8
47.9
43.0
40.6
41.9
39.4
40.1

infiltration rate (mm/hr)

3. The final infiltration capacity is approximately equal to the hydraulic conductivity of


the saturated soil. Estimate hydraulic conductivity and report it in m s-1.
Infiltration rate vs. Time

150
100
50
0
0

10

20

30
40
time (min)

50

Hydraulic conductivity
40.1 mm/hr / (10 100 60 60) = 1.1 10-5 m/s

60

2. Groundwater flow
The diagram on the next page shows a plan view and a schematic cross section of a
confined aquifer. Solid circles on the plan view indicate the location of piezometers,
which have screens in the aquifer. Table 2 lists hydraulic head (h) at piezometers.
1. Draw contour lines of hydraulic head in the western part of the aquifer (to the left of
line AB).
2. The map you just constructed is called "piezometric surface map" and the contour
lines are called "equipotentials". Draw some flow lines on the piezometric surface
map following the rules listed below.
(1) Flow lines are normal to equipotentials.
(2) Distance between flow lines (w) is approximately equal to the distance between
equipotentials (l). See Fig. 2.
(3) Flow lines originate at line AB and end at the river.
3. The region between two flow lines is called "flow tube". As shown in Fig. 3, the cross
sectional area of the flow tube is given by the product of aquifer thickness (y) and
tube width (w). Specific discharge (u) in a flow tube is given by Darcy's law as:
h
u=K
l
Therefore, the flow rate (q) in each flow tube is given by:
h
q = Kyw
l
Because you have constructed flow lines so that w = l, it follows that
q = Kyh
If hydraulic conductivity is equal to 2 10-3 m s-1 and aquifer thickness is 10 m, what
is the flow rate in each flow tube?

q = 2 10-3 m/s 10 m 10 m = 0.2 m3/s


4. What is the total rate of groundwater discharge at the river?
= 0.2 m3/s 4 tubes = 0.8 m3/s

river

N
0

Table 1
Piezo. h (m)
1
920
2
920
3
930
4
930
5
940
6
940
7
950
8
950
9
950

10 km

7
3
5

8
4
2
9

extent of aquifer

schematic cross section

aquifer
Fig. 1 Plan view and cross section of an aquifer.

l
w

w
Fig. 2 Flow in each tube.

Fig. 3 Equipotentials and flow lines.