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Terms relating to thermal methods


Thermal methods involve an analysis of temperature variation in items checked to detect
degradations and faults building elements, material particularity irregularities, detecting heat bridges
etc.
In civil engineering, thermography is considered an effective technique for non-destructive
analysis without contact on the structure, which is assessed the performance of the envelope. Any
civil construction can be measured in a very short time, evaluation that aims if there are
discontinuities for insulation, if there are provided the principles of construction. The assessment by
thermography also involves measuring the effects as a result of carrying out repair or rehabilitation
of the envelope.
Thermographic images are recorded by special infrared cameras and then transferred to a
computer to be subjected to images processing.
Pictures presents those areas proposed for control deficiencies in which to the properties of
the materials are presented in the form of variations of temperature, through different colors.
The colors in the images from thermography are: violet, blue, green, orange, red, yellow and
white. Dark colors, such as purple, blue, green colors are specific to low temperatures and the rest of
the light colors, such as orange, red, yellow and white correspond to high temperatures.
The effect of the discontinuity in the material to control heat flow is shown in Figure 7.1.
When the heat flow is directed from inside to outside is created ,,hot spots,, on the image and when
the heat flux is directed from outside to inside is created ,,cold spots,, on the image.

Fig.7.1 The effect of interruption of heat flow ( Carino,1994)


Thermographic method indicates only the area where there are irregularities or heat loss, the
depth couldnt be determined. It should be borne in mind that the results achieved are influenced to
some extent by temperature and humidity.
Specific thermal anomalies for reinforced concrete structures occur if a porous and
segregated concrete or following inadequate performance of the work, air infiltration in the joints,
dampness in construction etc.
Specific thermal anomalies occur due to degradation of masonry structures thermal
insulation damage in a given area of brickwork, masonry separation, inhomogeneity of the masonry
walls, surface condensation building structural elements, etc.
A thermographic image showing a uniform temperature variation on the surface analysis
accentuates the lack of insulation. A diffuse and variegated picture with relatively small temperature
variations in the structure indicates the presence of humidity. Images with high temperature
variations, shapes and irregular edges meet in case of air infiltration.

7.1 Identification and calculation of thermal deck surfaces using thermography and RNA
By applying the thermography and artificial neural networks, it can establish a diagnosis of heat loss,
followed by state building. Higher heat losses occur through the less remote areas of the envelope through
heat bridges lintels encountered, at the columns, floors, beams and reinforced concrete belts, on facades,
patio areas, sockets, roofs, etc.
It is considered as a case study building a protection structure with reinforced concrete frames with
infill masonry. Thermography construction is achieved and there is detected significant temperature
variations on a level with socket, door and window gaps, in the joints between slabs and beams, in the belt,
in the column etc.
For the study will be considered:
areas A and B, from the socket after thermography were recorded significant differences in
temperature (fig.7.2 and fig.7.3)
areas C, D, E and F, in the area of connections between structural elements of the building
(beam, column, slab) (fig. 7.4, fig. 7.5, fig. 7.6 and Fig. 7.7)
- Am notat cu T1, T2, T3, T4, temperaturile nregistrate de camer cu infraro u pentru fiecare
suprafa, cu RT1, RT2, RT3, RT4, procentele de arii specifice pentru fiecare regiune n care se
nregistreaz una din cele 4 temperaturi i cu S suprafa a imaginii termografiate. Valorile
temperaturilor sunt trecute n tabel n ordine cresctoare,
- We denoted by T1, T2, T3, T4, temperatures recorded by infrared camera for each area, with
RT1, RT2, RT3, RT4 the percentages of specific areas for each region where there is one of four
temperatures and S thermographied image area. The temperature values are included in the table
in ascending order, thus T1 <T2 <T3 <T4
Following thermography, infrared images recorded by the camera will be input in
artificial neural network. For this type of problem is adopted feed-forward neural network,
multilayer, supervised and trained with back-propagation algorithm. Activation function used is
a specific function information classification problems, namely with step function (fig.7.9).
Neural network input data sets are color-sized images that training can be made easier.
Color samples will be selected for each region, is building a new digital image of the ideal
regions of interest. Exiting network consists of a matrix which is used to measure the area
occupied by each region.
Each color region is associated a specific temperature, recorded value of the unit that the
thermogrphy is done. In terms of the number of neurons and eras used, it differs from case to
case. There will be more tests with different numbers of neuron or eras untilis observed that the
error is very small, less than 0,1.
It will train the neural network with the 7 areas and the results generated by the network
will be presented in Tab.7.1.

1.2 Conclusions
For A and B areas, following thermography have found the existence of thermal bridges from the socket.
Image segmentation using artificial neural network helps identify the cause thermal bridging, in this case
being the humidity and the determination of the area of influence of thermal bridging.
For C and D areas, by thermography have noted the existence of thermal bridges at the joins horizontal and
vertical structural elements. Following image segmentation was identified surface condensation.
For E and G areas, by thermography were observed the existence of thermal bridges in the gaps. Following
image segmentation, RNA generated images with large temperature variations, shapes and margins, however
indicating air infiltrations.
At the F area, by thermography were identified thermal bridges at the belt. By segmenting the image using
RNA there is a uniform temperature variation on the surface analyzed which highlights the lack of insulation.