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Main devtal advances of 33-Hr Chick: Brain & Heart

Brain Regions:
o Prosencephalon forebrain; Telencephalon + Diencephalon
o Mesencephalon midbrain
o Rhombencephalon hindbrain; Metencephalon + Myelencephalon
Heart Regions: (Anterior to posterior)
o Truncus arteriosus
o Ventricle
o Atrium
o Sinus venosus

1) Prosencephalon forebrain
- later divides into telencephalon (most anterior) and diencephalons
- telencephalon and diencephalons later differentiates into: (HOT C)
a. Hypothalamus
b. Optic vesicles
c. Thalamus
d. Cerebral hemispheres
2) Optic Vesicles paired
- lateral evaginations @ sides of Prosencephalon
- have opticoel
3) Infundibulum ventral evagination of diencephalic floor
- forms posterior of pituitary gland
4) Prosocoel cavity of Prosencephalon
- gives rise to Ventricles I to III
5) Mesencephalon midbrain
- cavity: Mesocoel (gives rise to Cerebral Aqueduct / Aqueduct of Sylvius)

6) Rhombencephalon hindbrain
- divided into:
a. Metencephalon (more anterior)
b. Myelencephalon (more posterior)
7) Metencephalon anterior hindbrain subdivision
- cavity: Metacoel (part of IV Ventricle)
8) Myelencephalon posterior hindbrain subdivision
- cavity: Myelocoel (part of IV Ventricle)
9) Spinal / Central Cord part of neural tube posterior to myelencephalon
10) Sinus Rhomboidalis rhomboid-shaped part of caudal region
- where neural folds enclose primitive pit and Hensens node
- later disintegrates

11) Notochord rod-like

- mesodermal
- dorsal to gut
- define anterior/posterior axis
- for skeletal support
12) Nephrotome a.k.a. Intermediate Mesoderm / Mesomere / Nephromere
- stalk-like connection between somites and lateral plate mesoderm
- (Anterior) forms Pronephros
- (Posterior) forms Mesenchyme w/c becomes Mesonephros & Metanephros
13) Somites 11 to 12 pairs
14) Anterior Intestinal Portal (AIP) opening of foregut
- moves posteriorly, becomes part of yolk stalk
15) Heart single, tubular, S-shaped
- bulges to the right

16) Area Pellucida (AP) central part of blastodisc

- where primitive streak forms
- lies directly over subgeminal cavity
- appears transluscent (due to thinness of blastoderm)
- *Blastoderm outer Epiblast (becomes ecto and mesoderm); inner Hypoblast

17) Area Opaca peripheral part of blastodisc

- surrounds area pellucida
- in direct contact w/ yolk (gives opaque appearance)
- 3 Zones:
a. Margin of Growth (MoG) peripheral; cells proliferate w/o adhering to yolk
b. Zone Junction (ZJ) intermediate region; cells cut free from yolk, then
added to AP
c. Germ Wall (GW) inner; cells from ZJ, contains yolk granules; transition
from opaca to pellucida
- develops into 2 regions:
1. Area Opaca Vitellina outer; initially lacks blood islands / blood vessels (BV)
2. Area Opaca Vasculosa
a) Sinus Terminalis vein encircling area vasculosa
- gives rise to terminal BV of vitelline circulation
b) Blood Islands splanchnic mesoderm
- form 1st RBC and BV
- found in gut wall (amphibians) and yolk sac (amniotes)
c) Proamnion anterior to avian embryo, surrounds head
- endoderm + ectoderm (later invaded by mesoderm)
d) Subcephalic Pocket cavity beneath head (as head fold forms)

Transverse Section
(Thru Optic Nerve)

Optic vesicles in this section, are lateral bulges of prosencephalon

- precursors of retina
- close to head ectoderm
- induce ectoderm to invaginate, forming lens vesicle
Extraembryonic germ layers are evident
Mesoderm does NOT extend to the proamnion
Proamnion ectoderm + endoderm
- pale staining in WM due to lack of mesoderm
- disappears

1) Prosencephalon forebrain
- w/ median vesicle and lateral outpocketings
2) Anterior Neuropore median cleft @ anterior tip of neural tube
- indicates unfused neural folds
3) Prosocoel - cavity of Prosencephalon
- gives rise to Ventricles I to III
4) Optic Vesicles - paired
- lateral evaginations @ sides of Prosencephalon
- have opticoel
5) Lens Placode thickening of head ectoderm of optic vesicles
- gives rise to eye lens
6) Infundibulum shallow depression of prosencephalic floor @ posterior of optic vesicles
7) Amniotic Fold fold of somatopleure
- its fusion gives rise to amnion (inner) and chorion (outer)
8) Yolk Sac an extraembryonic membrane
- endoderm + splanchnic mesoderm (splanchnopleure)
9) Head Ectoderm - cuboidal cells (cuboidal in origin also); encloses head
10) Mesenchyme - loosely scattered cells
- fill up spaces between foregut and neural plate

11) Neural Crest - @ edges of neural plate

- lies above neural tube
- form ganglia, pigment cells, part of gill arches, etc. (by migration thru the embryo)
12) Subcephalic Pocket - cavity beneath head as head fold develops
13) Area Pellucida - center of blastodisc
- where primitive streak forms
- lies over subgerminal cavity
- appears transluscent (due to thinness of blastoderm)
Blastoderm consist of:
Epiblast outer; differentiates into ectoderm and mesoderm
Hypoblast inner
14) Coelom - cavity formed when somatic mesoderm and mesoderm separates
15) Area Opaca Vasculosa inner part of area opaca
- where splanchnic mesoderm thicken into blood islands
16) Proamnion - anterior to avian embryo
- surrounds head
- contains endoderm and ectoderm
- later involved with mesoderm, then with amnion
- amnion is the membrane around the fetus
17) Foregut - 1st part of digestive tract
- w/ definite floor
- endodermal
- dome-shaped
- lies inside the head

(Thru Oral Plate)

Notochord ventral to mesencephalon/midbrain

Foregut ventral to notochord; smile-shaped cavity delimited by endodermal walls
Oral Plate thickened ectoderm below foregut (specifically @ pharynx); forms mouth

1) Mesencephalon oval; posterior to prosencephalon

2) Anterior Cardinal Veins (ACV) paired BV @ lateral sides of mesencephalon
3) Pharynx region of foregut at this level
4) Dorsal Aorta large, paired BV
- dorsal to pharynx
5) Stomodeum shallow, midventral depression in ectoderm
- becomes buccal cavity
6) Oral Plate thickened area
- formed by ventral head ectoderm + pharynx endodermal evagination
7) Ventral Aorta small, paired BV
- lies below pharynx, on sides of a median depression in the foregut floor
8) 1st Aortic Arches BV connecting dorsal to ventral aorta

(Heart Level Anterior)

1) Ventral Aortae median, unpaired BV
- formed by fusion of paired ventral aortae (See #7 of Thru Oral Plate)
2) Bulbus Arteriosus a.k.a. Bulbus cordis / Conus arteriosus / Truncus arteriosus
- anterior heart chamber; connects ventricle to ventral aorta

3) Epimyocardium outer, thicker of heart rudiment

- from splanchnic mesoderm
- fuses w/ endocardium to form heart wall
- gives rise to epicardium (outer heart covering) and myocardium (heart muscle)
4) Isthmus / Dorsal Mesocardium connect heart and foregut

(Thru Future Ventricle)

1) Ventricle heart region bending to 1 side of coelom
- isthmus is narrower here
2) Rhombencephalon hindbrain
- characterized by thick wall
3) Auditory Pits / Auditory Placodes paired ectodermal thickenings @ hindbrain
- become inner ears
4) Neural Crest - @ edges of neural plate
- lie above neural tube
- form ganglia, pigment cells, parts of gill arches
5) Thyroid Gland endocrine gland @ throat region
- control metabolism and growth
- formed from ventral sac of endoderm of pharynx
- thickened, shallow depression of foregut @ region of isthmus

(Heart Level Posterior)

1) Atrium posterior level of heart @ middle part of pericardial cavity
- future auricles
2) Sinus Venosus caudal continuation of atrium
- dorsoventrally flattened tube @ midline
3) Anterior Intestinal Portal (AIP) opening of gut into yolk
- floorless gut (midgut)
4) Vitelline Veins paired, large vessels
- enter atrium via sinus venosus
- arise laterally onto blastoderm
5) Anterior Cardinal Veins (ACV) pair of small BV
- above dorsal aortae, adjacent to rhombencephalon

(Thru Somites)
1) Spinal Cord cavity of neural tube @ level of somites
- elliptical
2) Notochord - longitudinal band of cells
- extends from neural folds to Hensens node
3) Somites - segmented mesodermal blocks
- @ sides of spinal cord
- arise from dorsal mesoderm

4) Nephrotome / Intermediate Mesoderm / Mesomere / Nephromere

- stalk-like connection between somites and L
- anteriorly forms pronephros
- posteriorly forms mesenchyme w/c develops into mesonephros and metanephros
5) Hypomere - part of mesoderm distal to nephrotome
- 2 layers: somatic and splanchnic mesoderm
6) Dorsal Aortae pair of large vessels
- between endoderm and somites
- continue laterally to become Omphalomesenteric Arteries (network of interwoven vessels)

(Thru Sinus Rhomboidalis)

1) Neural Tube - @ this level, neural groove is open
2) Hensens Node large, compact mass of cells
- displace notochordal tissue
3) Unsegmented Mesoderm undivided somites
4) Primitive Streak (PS) neural groove has flattened and disappeared (remains of PS)
5) Omphalomesenteric Vein far out in the splanchnopleure