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COMPUTER NETWORK TOPOLOGY

Topology has to do with the way things are connected. The topology of a computer network is the
way the individual computers of devices (called nodes) are connected.
PHYSICAL TOPOLOGY VERSUS LOGICAL TOPOLOGY
The logical topology has to do with the path a packet of data takes through the network.
Physical Topology has to do with the actual physical structure of the network.
fully connected network. This kind of network is the most expensive to build, because every
node must be connected to every other node in the network.

The star network.All nodes connect to a central hub (also called a concentrator). . On the other
hand, if a node on the network fails, the hub will isolate it so that the other nodes are not affected.
Entire groups of nodes (machines) can be isolated at a time by disconnecting their hub. This helps
narrow down the source of a network problem during troubleshooting Note that one node in the
network is a centralized communication points. This makes the star connection inexpensive to
build, since a minimum number of communication links are needed (always one less than the
number of nodes). However, if the center node fails, the entire network shuts down. This does not
happen in the fully connected network.

Advantages:
If one cable fails, other stations are not effected
Consistent performance even when the network is heavilly used
Reliable
No problem of data collision as each station has its own network
New stations may be included with the addition of new cables
Easy to install and wire.
No disruptions to the network then connecting or removing devices.
Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.
Disadvantages:
Generally, costly to install due to the amount of cabling required and hub(s).
If the hub or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled.
The bus network.All nodes in the bus network are connected to the same communication link. All
nodes on the common bus compete with each other for possession, the same time, a collision
occurs, requiring each node to stop and wait before transmitting. All devices share a single cable,
information is transmitted in either direction from any PC to another. Bus topology employs a
popular system called Ethernet that uses CSMA-CD carrier sense multiple access collision
detection. The purpose of this is to prevent two stations transmitting at the same time which may
cause a collision. For example Workstation 1 is about to transmit to Workstation 2 and Work station
4 is about to transmit to Work station 1 the consequences of this action will result in a collision
hence the breakdown of the LAN! CSMA-CD overcomes this problem by checking if the channel
prior to transmitting. If it is found to be busy the station will need to wait. During transmission the
node (workstation) listens for other nodes beginning to make transmission. If in the likely hood
messages do collide, both stations abort and wait for a random period of time before continuing.
This system works well if channels are not heavily used or loaded. Alternatively, if traffic increases
due to many users and hard disk usage, the whole system can come to a stand still.
Advantages

Simple and inexpensive to install, very limited cabling is required.


Easy to include additional stations without disruption of the network.
Disadvantages
The whole network is dependant on a single cable, hence if the cable fails the whole system fails
too
Difficult to locate cable failure.
Network performance is directly related to traffic.
Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large building.
Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable along with T-Connector

A RING NETWORK. The last major network topology is the ring. Each node in a ring is connected
to exactly two other nodes. Data circulates in the ring, travelling through many intermediate nodes
if necessary to get to its destination. Like the star connection, a ring requires only one link per
node. The difference is that there is no central hub concentrating the nodes. Data sent between
nodes will typically require paths of at least two links. If a link fails, the worst-case scenario
requires a message to travel completely around the ring, through every link (except the one that
failed). The increase time required to relay messages around the bad link may be intolerable for
some applications. The star network does not have this problem. If a link fails, only the node on that
link is out of service.
Advantages
No collision is possible due to the token system.
Performance is affected if heavy load is encountered.
Disadvantages
Network is disrupted if additional stations are added (the system must be updated in terms of
new addresses being added).
A break in the network will stop the system.

A Token Ring network is a local area network (LAN) in which all computers are connected in a ring
or star topology and a bit- or token-passing scheme is used in order to prevent the collision of data
between two computers that want to send messages at the same time. The Token Ring protocol is
the second most widely-used protocol on local area networks afterEthernet. The IBM Token Ring
protocol led to a standard version, specified as IEEE 802.5. Both protocols are used and are very
similar. The IEEE 802.5 Token Ring technology provides for data transfer rates of either 4 or 16
megabits per second. Very briefly, here is how it works:
1.

Empty information frames are continuously circulated on the ring.

2.

When a computer has a message to send, it inserts a token in an empty frame (this may
consist of simply changing a 0 to a 1 in the token bit part of the frame) and inserts a message
and a destination identifier in the frame.

3.

The frame is then examined by each successive workstation. If the workstation sees that it is
the destination for the message, it copies the message from the frame and changes the token
back to 0.

4.

When the frame gets back to the originator, it sees that the token has been changed to 0 and
that the message has been copied and received. It removes the message from the frame.

5.

The frame continues to circulate as an "empty" frame, ready to be taken by a workstation


when it has a message to send.

HYBRID NETWORK. A hybrid network combines the components of two or more network
topologies. This is a common way to implement Ethernet, with coax running between classroom or
laboratories, and hubs in each room to form small sub networks. Putting together a hybrid network
takes careful planning, for there are various roles that dictate how the individual opponents may be
connected and used.

REPRESENTING DIGITAL DATA


The information exchanged between computer in a network is of necessity digital, the only form of
data with which a computer can work.
When an analog medium is used to transmit digital data (such as through the telephone
system with a modem), the digital data maybe represented by various form of a carrier-modulated
signal. Two forms of carrier modulation are amplitude modulation and frequency shift keying. In
amplitude modulation, the digital data controls the presence of a fix frequency carrier signal. In
frequency-shift keying, the 0s and 1s are assigned to different frequencies, resulting in a shift
carrier frequency when the data changes from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0. A third method is called phaseshift keying, where the digital controls the phase shift of the carrier signal.
When a digital medium is used to transmit digital data (between COM1 and two PCs, for
example), some form of digital waveform is used to represent the data. A digital waveform is a
waveform that contains only two different voltages. Inside the computer, these two voltages are
usually 0 volts and 5 volts. Outside the computer, plus and minus 12 volts are often used for digital
waveforms.
Another popular method is Manchester encoding. In this technique, phase transitions are
used to represent the digital data. A one-to-zero transition is used for 0s and a zero-to-one
transition is used for 1s.
ETHERNET
One of the most popular communication networks in use is Ethernet. Ethernet was developed jointly
by Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel, and Xerox in 1980. Ethernet is referred to as a
baseband system, which means that a single digital signal is transmitted. Contrast this with a
broadband system, which uses multiple channels of data. Ethernet transmits data at the rate

of 10 million bits per second (which translate to 2 million bytes per second). This corresponds to a
bit time of 10 ns. Manchester encoding is used for the digital data. New 100Mbit Ethernet is already
being used.
The format in which Ethernet transmits data is called a frame.
NETWORK MEDIA
Various types of physical environments where transmission signal pass
Types:
1. Coaxial cable consist of hollow outer cylindrical conductor that surrounds a single inner
wire conductor.
Parts: outer jacket, braided copper shielding, plastic insulation, copper conductor
Primarily, coaxial cables are used for the transmission of Radio Frequency energy. The system offers
tight control over electrical impedance. This yields excellent performance at high frequencies and
superior EMI control/shielding.

Types:
RG-58 coaxial cable, used for 10base2 operation (also called thinwire)
RG-11 coaxial cable, use for 10base5 operation (also called thickwire)
RG-6 coaxial cable used for Connecting Communication Devices
RG-59 coaxial cable Used for Security Video

RG11

RG6

RG59

RG58

BNC
T CONNECTOR
SPLITTER
RG-58 cable is typically used for wiring laboratories and offices, or other small groups of computers.
RG-11 coaxial cable is used as a backbone cable, distributing Ethernet signals throughout a
building, office complex, or other large installation. RG-11 is thicker and more sturdy than RG-58
coax.
Common Applications for Coaxial Cable Assemblies

Home Entertainment GPS

Security Video

Telecommunications WAN/LAN

Coaxial
cable
assemblies are used
extensively to interconnect
a
wide
variety
of
Home
Entertainment

The transmission of
a video image from
a security camera to
a display monitor is
often the job of a 75
Ohm coaxial cable

The infrastructure of
many
telecommunications
systems
relies
heavily on 50 Ohm
coaxial cable for a

Global
Positioning
Systems utilize 50
Ohm coaxial cable
for
connections
between
receiving
antennas and other

Wide Area Networks


and
Local
Area
Networks
often
utilize
50
Ohm
coaxial cable for
equipment

equipment such as
TV's, DVR's, VCR's
CATV or Satellite
Receivers. Generally
speaking 75 Ohm
coaxial cable such
as RG6 or RG59 is
used to carry Audio
and Video signals.
Connectors
commonly used are
BNC, Type F and
RCA.

related equipment.
RG174, RG188 or
RG316 are often
used with SMA, MCX
or
MMCX
connectors.
In
addition, RG58 with
TNC and Type N
connectors is used
for remote antenna
feeds.

such as RG59A/U,
RG59B/U or RG179,
most often with BNC
connectors. Bundled
assemblies
with
multiple 75 Ohm
cables
are
often
used
to
connect
multi-camera
setups.

multitude
of
interconnection
applications.
Cell
towers
and
communication
equipment in base
station facilities are
a
few
typical
examples. In these
applications RG58,
RG223 and RG213
cable with BNC, TNC
and
Type
N
connectors are often
utilized.

interconnection. In
many
of
the
numerous
interconnection
applications of these
networks you will
find
RG58
and
RG174
are
two
common
cable
types. BNC interface
connectors are the
most
common
connector
types
used
in
these
situations.
In
addition
reverse
polarized connectors
are found on many
wireless
antenna
interfaces.

Frequency Band Data


Coaxial products are generally intended for use in the RF frequency band as illustrated here.

comparing cabling systems


10base5

10base2

10baseT

Cable Type

RG-11

RG-58

UTP

Maximum
Segment
Length
Max Nodes

500m
(1640 feet)
100

185m
(606 feet)
30

100m
(328 feet)
2

Max
Segments

5
(3 with nodes)

1024

2. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP), used for 10baseT operation. Four pair wire used in a
variety of networks.
Easy to install, less expensive
UTP cable, used with hubs and other 10baseT equipment, uses twisted pares of wires to reduce
noise and allow higher-speed data rates (100Mbit/second category 5 UTP for fast Ethernet). The
twist to cause the small magnetic fields generated by currents in the wires to cancel, reducing
noise on the signals. UTP cable length is limited to 100 meters (328 feet) and RJ-45 connectors are
used for termination
UTP cable often is installed using a Registered Jack 45 (RJ-45) connector (see Figure 8-2). The RJ-45 is
an eight-wire connector used commonly to connect computers onto a local-area network (LAN),
especially Ethernets.
Figure 8-2 RJ-45 Connectors.
The following summarizes the features of UTP cable:

Speed and throughput10 to 1000 Mbps


Average cost per nodeLeast expensive
Media and connector sizeSmall
Maximum cable length100 m (short)
Commonly used types of UTP cabling are as follows:
Category 1Used for telephone communications. Not suitable for transmitting data.
Category 2Capable of transmitting data at speeds up to 4 megabits per second (Mbps).
Category 3Used in 10BASE-T networks. Can transmit data at speeds up to 10 Mbps.
Category 4Used in Token Ring networks. Can transmit data at speeds up to 16 Mbps.
Category 5Can transmit data at speeds up to 100 Mbps.
Category 5e Used in networks running at speeds up to 1000 Mbps (1 gigabit per second [Gbps]).
Category 6Typically, Category 6 cable consists of four pairs of 24 American Wire Gauge (AWG)
copper wires. Category 6 cable is currently the fastest standard for UTP.
Table 27.1 shows the wire color combinations used in UTP cabling. Note that only two pairs are
required for 10baseT operation.
Table 27.1 RJ-45 pin assignments
Pin

Color

Function

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

White/Orange
Orange /White
White/Green
Blue/White
White/Blue
Green/White
White/Brown
Brown/White

T2
R2
T3
R1
T1
R3
T4
R4

Used
for
10baseT

UTP cables are wired as straight-through or crossover cables. Straight-through cables


typically connect the computers NIC to a port on the hub. Crossover cables are used for NIC-to-NIC
communication, and for the hub-to hub connections when no crossover port is available.
3. Shielded twisted Pair ( STP ) combines shielding and twisting of wires. It provides
great resistance to both electromagnetic interference and radio frequency interference than
UTP cable. It is more expensive than UTP. It combines the techniques of shielding,
cancellation, and wire twisting. Each pair of wires is wrapped in a metallic foil (see Figure 8-3).
The four pairs of wires then are wrapped in an overall metallic braid or foil, usually 150-ohm
cable. As specified for use in Ethernet network installations, STP reduces electrical noise both
within the cable (pair-to-pair coupling, or crosstalk) and from outside the cable (EMI and RFI).
STP usually is installed with STP data connector, which is created especially for the STP cable
The following summarizes the features of STP cable:
Speed and throughput10 to 100 Mbps
Average cost per nodeModerately expensive
Media and connector sizeMedium to large
Maximum cable length100 m (short)
When comparing UTP and STP, keep the following points in mind:
The speed of both types of cable is usually satisfactory for local-area distances.
These are the least-expensive media for data communication. UTP is less expensive than STP.
Because most buildings are already wired with UTP, many transmission standards are adapted to
use it, to avoid costly rewiring with an alternative cable type.

4. Fiber Optic Cable (10 baseFL) is capable of conducting modulated light transmissions.
Not susceptible to electromagnetic interference
Higher data transfer rate
SPEED: Fiber optic networks operate at high speeds - up into the gigabits
BANDWIDTH: large carrying capacity
DISTANCE: Signals can be transmitted further without needing to be "refreshed" or strengthened.
RESISTANCE: Greater resistance to electromagnetic noise such as radios, motors or other nearby
cables.
MAINTENANCE: Fiber optic cables costs much less to maintain.

Parts : outer jacket, Kevlar reinforcing material. Plastic shield, cladding, fiber glass
(core)
Types: 1. Single mode -Single-mode fiber allows for a higher capacity to transmit information because it can retain
the fidelity of each light pulse over longer distances, and it exhibits no dispersion caused by multiple modes. Single mode
fiber generally is usable up to about 100KM (62 miles) without a repeater. Laser light transmitters normally are used to
send information over singlemode fiber, because high light power is needed to reach long distances
2. Multimode fiber is optical fiber that is designed to carry multiple light rays or modes concurrently, each at a slightly
different reflection angle within the optical fiber core. Multimode fiber transmission is used for relatively short distances
because the modes tend to disperse over longer lengths (this is called modal dispersion). Multimode fiber has a larger
core than single mode.Multimode fiber generally is usable up to about 2KM (1.25 miles) without a repeater (sometimes
farther, depending on the required bandwidth).

INDOOR

Media Type Comparison

OUTDOOR

Medi
a
Type

Maximum
Segment
Length

Speed

Cost

Advantages

UTP

100 m

10 Mbps to Least
1000 Mbps expensive

Easy to install; widely Susceptible


to
available
and
widely interference; can cover
used
only a limited distance

STP

100 m

10 Mbps to More
100 Mbps
expensive
than UTP

Reduced crosstalk; more Difficult to work with;


resistant to EMI than can cover only a limited
Thinnet or UTP
distance

Coaxi 500
m 10 Mbps to Relatively
Less susceptible to EMI
al
(Thicknet)
100 Mbps
inexpensive, interference than other
185
m
but
more types of copper media
(Thinnet)
costly
than
UTP

FiberOptic

10 km and
farther
(singlemode)
2 km and
farther
(multimode
)

100 Mbps to Expensive


100
Gbps
(single
mode)
100 Mbps to
9.92
Gbps
(multimode)

Disadvantages

Difficult to work with


(Thicknet);
limited
bandwidth;
limited
application
(Thinnet);
damage to cable can
bring
down
entire
network

Cannot be tapped, so Difficult to terminate


security is better; can be
used
over
great
distances;
is
not
susceptible to EMI; has a
higher data rate than
coaxial and twisted-pair
cable

Wireless Communication
Wireless communication uses radio frequencies (RF) or infrared (IR) waves to transmit
data between devices on a LAN. For wireless LANs, a key component is the wireless hub, or
access point, used for signal distribution (see Figure 8-8).
Figure 8-8 Wireless Network
To receive the signals from the access point, a PC or laptop must install a wireless
adapter card (wireless NIC). Wireless signals are electromagnetic waves that
can travel through the vacuum of outer space and through a medium such
as air. Therefore, no physical medium is necessary for wireless signals,
making them a very versatile way to build a network. Wireless signals use portions of
the RF spectrum to transmit voice, video, and data. Wireless frequencies range from 3
kilohertz (kHz) to 300 gigahertz (GHz). The data-transmission rates range from 9 kilobits
per second (kbps) to as high as 54 Mbps.
The primary difference between electromagnetic waves is their frequency. Low-frequency
electromagnetic waves have a long wavelength (the distance from one peak to the next on the sine
wave), while high-frequency electromagnetic waves have a short wavelength.
Some common applications of wireless data communication include the following:
Accessing the Internet using a cellular phone
Establishing a home or business Internet connection over satellite
Beaming data between two hand-held computing devices
Using a wireless keyboard and mouse for the PC
Another common application of wireless data communication is the wireless LAN (WLAN), which is
built in accordance with Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 standards.
WLANs typically use radio waves (for example, 902 megahertz [MHz]), microwaves (for example,
2.4 GHz), and IR waves (for example, 820 nanometers [nm]) for communication.