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Volumes of Earthwork

Done after the horizontal and vertical alignment

have been decided and slope-stake data generated.

Different methods are employed depending on the

nature of the excavation and the data.

Because of the repetitive nature of computations for

earthwork, calculation by electronic computer is

highly desirable.

Volumes of Earthwork

Methods of Volume Computations:

Average End Area Method

Prismoidal Method

- Prismoidal Correction

- Earthwork Curvature Correction

Finite Elements Method

Grid Method

excavation along the line of highways, railroads,

canals.

l

V A1 A2

2

Formula is valid only when A1 = A2 but is

approximate when A1 A2.

As one of the areas approaches 0, as on running

from cut to fill on side-hill work, a maximum error

of 50% would occur if the formulas were followed

literally. In this case, however, the volume is usually

calculated as a pyramid; that is:

Volume

1

area of base length

3

5

Prismoidal Method

V l A1 4 Am A2

6

where

l is the distance between end sections

A1 , A2 are the areas of the end sections

Am is the area halfway between the end sections, determined by

averaging the corresponding linear dimensions of the end sections and

NOTby averaging the end areas A1and A2

Prismoidal Method

Its use is justified only if cross-sections are taken at

short intervals, if small surface deviations are

observed, and if the areas of the cross-sections differ

widely.

It yields smaller values than those computed from

average end areas.

For excavation under contract, the basis of

computation should be understood in advance;

otherwise, the contractor may claim (and obtain) the

benefit of the common method of average end areas.

Prismoidal Correction

The difference between the volume computed by average end areas and that

computed by the prismoidal formula

General Formula: Vc = (l/3)(A1+A2-2Am)

l

c0 c1 d0 d1

12

where cv volume correction

cV

c1 center height at the other end section

d 0 distance between slope stakes at the end section where the center height is c0

d1 distance between slope stakes at the other end section

End Area Method to give the more nearly correct volume as determined by

the Prismoidal formula.

8

Earthwork Curvature

Correction

Pappus Theorem: A plane area revolved about an axis generates a volume

equal to the product of the revolving area and the path generated by the

center of gravity of the revolving area.

Vcorr

V1 V2

l

A

1 2 e

2

2

R e1

V1 A1

l

R

R e2

V2 A2

l

R

e1 , e2 eccentricities of A1 and A2

R radius of curvature

Ce: + if excess area is on the outside of the curve

Ce

l

e1 A1 e2 A2

2R

Earthwork Curvature

Correction

rA r A

To get the centroid

r3 A3 r4 A4

A1 A2 A3 A4

1 1

10

EXAMPLE

Assume that the center line containing stations 115+00 and

116+00 is at 10o circular curve arc definition that turns to

the left. Calculate the curvature correction to the earthwork

volume between these two stations. The roadbed width is

20.00 meters.

Station 115+00

c4.00 c5.00 c6.00 c9.00 c12.00

16.00 3.00 0.00 14.00 28.00

Station 116+00

c2.00 c2.50 c3.00 c5.50 c8.00

13.00 6.50 0.00 11.00 22.00

11

SOLUTION

CL

115+000

12.0

28.0

9.0

14.0

6.0

0.0

5.0

-3.0

4.0

-16.0

a3

a5

a4

a2

a6

a1

0.0

10.0

0.0

-10.0

116+000

5.5

11.0

8.0

22.0

a5

2.0

-13.0

3.0

0.0

2.5

-6.5

a2

a1

0.0

-10.0

a3

a4

a6

0.0

10.0

12

SOLUTION

1. Solve for the centroid of

each cross-section.

13

SOLUTION

1. Solve for the centroid of

each cross-section

14

SOLUTION

2. Solve for the curvature correction

Ce

l

e1 A1 e2 A2

2R

2 (573)

Ce = 144.34 cubic meters

15

SOLUTION

3. Solve for the corrected volume

V = 0.5 (207 + 102.5) (100)

V =15475 cubic meters

V corrected = V + Ce

V corrected = 15,475 + 144.34

V corrected = 15619.34 cubic meters

16

0+020, use AEAM.

For station 0+020 to

0+040, uses AEAM

for fill, pyramid for

cut.

For station 0+040 to

0+060, use AEAM for

cut, pyramid for fill.

For station 0+060 to

0+080, use AEAM.

17

Determine x using similar triangles and calculate the volume of cut and fill

using the formula for the pyramid.

18

EXAMPLE

Table below contains cross-section data. Compute the

volumes of cut and fill in this transitional area from 30+00

to 30+40 by the end area method and then using the

prismoidal correction. The units are meters. The roadbed

width is 21.00 meters in cut and 18 meters in fill with 1:2

side slopes. Station Surface Grade

Left

CL

Right

Elevation Elevation

30+00

149.56

154.57

30+09.75

152.87

155.07

30+21.50

155.69

155.69

30+28.45

158.20

156.05

30+40

164.10

156.65

-9.10

27.20

0.00

9.00

2.64

15.78

4.10

18.70

4.15

18.80

-5.00

0.00

- 2.20

0.00

0.00

0.00

2.15

2.15

0.00

0.00

2.15

7.45

0.00

-3.60

16.20

-2.28

13.56

-2.35

13.70

0.00

10.50

3.84

18.18

19

SOLUTION

30+40

30+28.45

30+21.50

30+09.75

30+00

20

SOLUTION

21

SOLUTION

22

SOLUTION

23

of elements, the volume of each element is

calculated by multiplying the area of a longitudinal

section in the direction of the centerline by the

width of the element.

24

25

L0 = the corresponding length of a line at an offset e

A = cross-sectional area

R = centerline radius of curvature

w = width of an element in plan

H = height of such elements

e = the plan distance from the center line to an offset line in plan

26

For straight lines: L0 L

L0 L 1

R

segments:

Volume of an element:

1

Al L0 H1 H 2

2

V Al w

27

The sum of all positive element volumes is the

required fill, and that of all negative element

volumes is the cut quantity.

The smaller w is, the more accurate is the

computed volume.

Implemented on computer programs.

28

Grid Method

The Grid method calculates

volumes using a grid

overlaid on the two surfaces

that comprise the current

stratum. The size of the grid

cells is dependent on the M

and N size that you specify

when you set up the site.

This method calculates the

volumes by using the

Prismoidal volume of all

grids and summarizing.

29

Computation

Recall: Propagated errors errors in a computed

quantity are propagated from errors in the basic

measured quantities; garbage in, garbage out

If y=f(x1,x2,,xn) then:

y 2

y 2 y 2

x1

xn

x2 ...

x1

x2

xn

2

y

30

Computation

For a three-level section A 1 c d L d R w cL cR

2

4

in cut:

Estimated variance in the area A:

2

A 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A 2

2

A c

dL

dR

cL

cR

c

L

R

L

R

assuming that c2 c2L c2R and d2L d2R d2

2

1

w

A c d L d R cL cR

2

4

d d

c

c

w

w

A2 L R c2 d2 d2 c2 c2

2

2

4

4

2

2

d

w2 2 c 2 2

2

L

R

A

c d

8

2

2

31

Computation

l

V A1 A2

2

Volume by AEAM:

2

2 2V V2 V 2 2 V 2

A2

l

l A A1

A

ll A1 A1 2A2 A2 2

2

Propagated error in computed

2

2

2

2

volume

22 A

2

2

2

A

l

2

2

2

1

2

V2A

A2

A21 A2 l 22 Al AA1 2

2

A l l A1 A1 A

2A2

2 2

2 2

A1 A2 2 l

2

2

2

A

A1

A2

l

2

2

22

VV

32

Area

A2

A/A

(%)

c0.90

7.80

8.6

0.016

0.12

1.4

c1.20

8.4

17.5

Left

slope

stake

CL

Right

slope

stake

c0.30

6.55

c0.70

0.00

c0.60

7.20

c1.55

0.00

c1.50

9.10

c.3.54

0.00

c2.74

11.6

c.183

9.80

c4.24

0.00

c2.74

11.4

49.4

58.7

0.018

0.030

0.030

0.13

0.17

0.17

V/V

(%)

261

1.85

0.7

669

2.25

0.30

1081

2.58

0.2

0.7

0.3

0.3

33

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