15 views

Uploaded by Oscar Lopez

thermal engineering for the construction of large concrete arch dams

thermal engineering for the construction of large concrete arch dams

© All Rights Reserved

- Creep
- Knoppik Phd Thesis
- Benchmarks in Abaqus
- s4 Ec8-Lisbon m Fardis
- NEW YORK
- tmp61B1
- Footing Biaxial.xls
- Structural Conceptualization1 Revised
- 6 - Review of Stress Analysis
- 97408863 004 Stress Analysis Report
- syllabus
- Analytical Investigation of Flexural Behaviour of SCC Beam Using Eco Sand
- Supercrete Block Wall
- Project Data and Rules of Thumb
- Iris Chapter29
- Compatibility Consierations for Durable Concrete Repairs.pdf
- secccion transformada
- Introduction
- Concepts for Improved Lateral Support Systems-fhwa-April 1976
- 10.1.1.891.4699.pdf

You are on page 1of 10

TED-AJ03-560

LARGE CONCRETE ARCH DAMS

Randy J. James

ANATECH Corp.

5435 Oberlin Dr., San Diego, CA 92121 USA

E-mail: randy@anatech.com

David A. Dollar

U. S. Army Corps of Engineers

400 West Bay Street, Jacksonville FL 32232 USA

E-mail: David.A.Dollar@saj02.usace.army.mil

Keywords: Heat of Hydration, Cooling Coils, Concrete Aging and Creep, Thermal Induced Cracking

ABSTRACT

Concrete arch dams are typically constructed from

individual cantilever blocks, as illustrated in Fig. 1, using

approximately 10 thick mass concrete placements or lifts

to build up each block. During placement and the initial

curing of a lift, water is circulated through embedded

pipes, as illustrated in Fig. 2, to control the peak

temperatures and thermal gradients. Once the individual

blocks are completed to the crest height, water is again

circulated to contract the blocks and open the contraction

joints between the blocks. The open joints are then

pressure grouted to form a monolithic arch dam. This

type of mass concrete construction has two opposing

design considerations for the thermal behavior due to the

heat of hydration. During the placement of the lifts,

excessive temperatures and thermal gradients must be

controlled to prevent thermal induced cracking.

However, during the final cooling period, an adequate

drop in the mean concrete temperature must be available to

allow the contraction joints to open sufficiently for

computer simulations currently used to evaluate the

potential for cracking and the performance of the joints

during the final cooling period for grouting. In particular,

several important modeling features needed to simulate

this type of construction are described and highlighted. A

coupled thermal stress analysis is conducted to simulate

the incremental construction process using nonlinear

concrete material behavior for creep and aging. A

cooling coil model is used to simulate the active removal

of heat through the embedded cooling coils. A method

for addressing the construction process of placing lifts in

the low blocks against the previously placed high blocks

and the effect of the associated compressive load across

the contraction joints for very young concrete is discussed.

To illustrate this methodology for the thermal engineering

of large concrete structures, the results of a study for the

Portugues Arch Dam, which is to be constructed near

Ponce, Puerto Rico, is presented.

and Low Blocks and Shear Keys at Contraction Joints

Placement of Next Lift

BACKGROUND

The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers is designing a

new concrete arch dam for construction on the Portugues

River near Ponce in southern Puerto Rico. The dam is

initially intended for flood control with the possibility of a

height extension to be constructed later for additional

water supply storage. At the maximum section of the

dam, the initial construction will be 220 feet high, 40 feet

thick at the base, and 23 feet thick at the crest. The length

of the arch at the crest is approximately 1300 feet. The

dam will be constructed with individual, cantilever blocks

in 70-foot lengths as measured along the axis of the dam.

Each block is free standing, and abuts its neighbors at a

contraction joint, which has cast-in vertical shear keys in

the plane of the contraction joints to resist movement in

the upstream-downstream direction. Each block is

constructed with a series of 7 to 10 feet thick concrete

placements or lifts with alternating high and low blocks

along the arch. The high blocks precede the low blocks in

height by at least 2 lifts (14 to 20 feet) for the formwork

requirements, and the low blocks are placed against the

sides of the high blocks with forms only on the upstream

and downstream faces. An example of this type of

construction is shown in Fig 1, which illustrates the

alternating high and low blocks, the formwork, and the

shear key at the contraction joints. After constructing

each block to the crest height, the blocks will be cooled

using embedded cooling pipes to open the contraction

joints. The open joints are then pressure grouted to form

a composite structure. The embedded cooling coils will

also be used to limit internal temperatures due to the heat

generation by the concrete hardening process during the

placement of each lift. Figure 2 illustrates cooling coils

that have been installed prior to placing the next lift.

For this type of construction, there are two opposing

design considerations for thermal requirements. The

potential for thermal induced cracking will be greatest

when the peak temperatures due to the heat of hydration

are the highest relative to the seasonal low temperatures.

However, the ability to open the contraction joints

sufficiently for grouting will most likely be compromised

when the peak temperatures are minimized. This is

because the mean temperature of the concrete at the time

of grouting is a fixed design parameter, which is based on

sensitivity studies for design basis loads during the design

of the dam. These issues were first formally addressed

during the construction of the Hoover Dam in the 1930s

[1]. General procedures for evaluating the potential for

thermal induced cracking in massive concrete structures

are identified in the Corps of Engineers Engineering

Technical Letter for Nonlinear, Incremental Structural

Analysis (NISA) [2]. This paper summarizes and

identifies recent advances in the computer modeling used

for analytical investigations in the thermal engineering of

large concrete structures.

The objectives of the

analytical studies are to evaluate the potential for cracking

in a typical cantilever block and to assess the contraction

joint opening behavior during final cooling for grouting.

This study is intended to verify the design parameters for

cooling requirements.

MODELING METHODOLOGY

The analysis procedure is intended to simulate the

sequential placement of the concrete and the subsequent

interaction between the heat of hydration, the ambient

conditions, the increasing strength and stiffness as the

concrete cures, and the restraints imposed by the

foundation and contraction joints. The simulation is

accomplished through a coupled thermal-stress analysis

with a changing mesh that activates elements for new lifts

of concrete as the analysis proceeds.

Boundary

conditions for heat convection and pressure loads must

also be activated and deactivated as the construction

process develops. Since the thermal solution does not

depend on the stress response, the thermal analysis is

conducted first for the entire construction sequence. The

stress analysis then proceeds using the temperature

histories computed from the thermal solution. The

concrete is initially placed at a specified placing

temperature, but the reference stress-free temperature

occurs when the concrete hardens during the initial set

time. Thus, the cured concrete will have a spatial

variation of stress-free temperature dependent upon the

temperature distribution that occurs during the initial set

time. The analysis uses the ABAQUS [3] finite element

program coupled with the ANACAP-U [4] concrete

material model, which characterizes the nonlinear and

time dependent properties of creep, aging, shrinkage, and

cracking for the concrete performance. The concrete

material model has an integrated formulation for the

effects of temperature, shrinkage, aging, and creep,

including the time of loading, for interaction with

cracking and is verified with test data. The age

dependent cracking criteria is based on a combined

relation of stress and strain, which can be associated with

fracture energy. Cracks can form in 3 orthogonal

directions at each material point. When a crack initiates,

the stress across the crack reduces to zero, and the shear

modulus reduces as a function of crack opening size for

shear transfer associated with aggregate interlock. Once

a crack forms, it can never heal, but cracks can close to

carry compressive loads as necessary.

Material Properties and Ambient Conditions

The specific material properties are derived from

material characterization tests conducted on test samples

of representative concrete mix designs. The thermal

material properties for specific heat and conductivity for

the concrete and rock foundation are based on test data

and are considered constant in the analysis. Figure 3

illustrates the time dependent characterizations for

material properties and ambient conditions used in the

analysis. The time dependent heat of hydration for the

mass concrete is characterized through adiabatic

temperature rise tests, which is modeled through a user

subroutine for the volumetric heat generation rate

accounting for the time of placement of each concrete

element. Heat convection across a free surface to an

that relates the heat flux across the surface to the change

in temperature between the surface and the ambient

environment. The film coefficient is related empirically

to the wind speed at the site. Both the ambient

temperature and film coefficient are modeled as sinusoidal

functions based on peak seasonal temperatures and wind

speeds. The film coefficient is also adjusted for the

insulating effects of the wood forms until the forms are

removed starting on the 4th day after placement of each lift.

The time dependence of aging, creep, and shrinkage for

the mass concrete is also modeled based on test data.

Creep tests for constant load at 1, 3, 7, and 28 days are

used to characterize the creep behavior in the model.

Slow load beam rupture test data is used to benchmark the

time dependent fracture criteria in the concrete model.

The rock foundation is considered to behave linearly in

these calculations.

Cooling Coils

Cooling coils are embedded in each block during

construction by laying a continuous run of 1 diameter

thin wall metal tubing, which loops back and forth at a

specified spacing, on the top of each lift before the

placement of the next lift. A cooling coil is also placed

on top of the foundation before placing the first lift of

each block. Water can then be circulated through the

embedded pipes to cool the mass concrete, both for

reducing the peak temperatures during the placements and

initial curing and during the final cooling period to open

the contraction joints for grouting after the blocks are

completed. The primary controls for the amount of heat

removed are the spacing between the coil loops, the

temperature of the inlet water, the flow velocity, and the

length of time that the coils are active with circulating

water. A cooling coil model is used to simulate the effect

of this active heat removal in these analyses. This

cooling coil model uses a user subroutine to set nodal

point temperatures based on an energy balance for the

ability of the cooling water to gain heat with the available

heat flux in the concrete. For each time increment in the

analysis, a new outlet water temperature is calculated by

the model based on an average concrete temperature some

distance away from the cooling coil as a function of the

cooling coil parameters, such as the total length and flow

velocity, and the thermal properties of the concrete and

water. The concrete temperature for all nodes along the

cooling coil is then reset to the average of the new outlet

water temperature and the inlet water temperature. The

average cooling coil temperature along the length is used

since the direction of water flow is typically reversed

daily in the field with the intent to keep relatively uniform

temperatures throughout the length of the cooling coil. A

set of nodal points that represent the location of each of

the cooling coils are grouped together for applying this

user boundary condition.

Contraction Joints

A very important modeling aspect for these analyses is

blocks are placed against the high blocks. When new

lifts are added in the procedure, the new elements are

initialized to be strain free and assume the current position

of the nodes. The nodes of the future lifts that are to be

placed in contact with the surface of a previous lift across

a contraction joint should be constrained to the

corresponding nodes of the previous lift until the elements

of the new lift are added to the model. This will account

for the movement of the surface of the previous lift and

insure that the new lift is placed against the previous lift.

If these pairs of nodes are uncoupled, the nodes for the

new lift will have the original, un-deformed coordinates.

If the previous surface has moved away from the nominal

position, a gap will exist, and the compressive load from

expansion of the new lift due to the heat of hydration may

not develop correctly in the model. If the previous lift

surface has moved into the space of the new lift when the

new lift is placed, then the gap elements at the surface will

immediately try to correct the mismatch, and excessive

compressive load may develop in the new lift. Thus, a

method was developed to link the (future) nodes of the

low blocks along the contraction joint to the nodes of the

high blocks, so that when the low block elements are

placed, the current coordinate of the low block matches

that of the deformed high block. This is done through a

user subroutine to constrain the displacements normal to

the joint of the corresponding nodes together until the gap

elements are added.

Note that the horizontal

displacements parallel to the plane are always constrained

because of the shear key modeling at the contraction joint.

The vertical displacements for the corresponding nodes

across the contraction joint are un-coupled.

This

modeling eliminates the initial compressive stress and the

associated compressive creep strain due to any overlap,

and allows the compressive stress to build as the low

block tries to expand from the heat of hydration.

A related observation is the effect of compressive load

for very young concrete on cracking performance. In

general, compressive load will prevent cracking since

cracks will not form in the direction of compressive stress

(with the crack surface in a plane perpendicular to the

direction of load). However, compressive load for young

concrete will generate compressive creep strain. Since

creep has visco-elastic properties in concrete, this

compressive creep strain dissipates slowly as the

compressive load is removed, and residual compressive

creep strain can remain when the compressive stress is

removed. Compressive creep strain acts similar to

shrinkage and thermal strain during cooling, if the

deformation is restricted, then this strain will contribute to

the strain that causes cracking. The mechanical or

cracking strain is the total strain minus the thermal,

shrinkage, and creep strain. Excessive compressive

creep strain that develops early in life can contribute to

cracking later in life. Thus, the creep modeling for very

young concrete, less than 1 day old, is very important for

the analysis of this type of construction.

ANALYSIS RESULTS

For computer resource considerations, the size of the

3-D model must be limited. Since the foundation

provides constraint to the dam, which affects both the

cracking potential and joint opening performance, the

bottom portion of the dam and a portion of the foundation

are modeled.

To include the interaction of the

contraction joints, the full length of a cantilever block

with half of the adjacent blocks on either side is used.

The adjacent blocks are included to provide the

constraints and associated contraction joint interaction

with the center block. Section cuts are taken near the

centerlines of the adjacent block and symmetric boundary

conditions are applied to these cuts to limit the extent of

the 3-D model. Prior to the 3-D analyses to evaluate the

potential for cracking and the performance of the

contraction joints, a series of 2-dimensional analyses were

performed.

Preliminary Analyses

The purpose of these studies is to evaluate the cooling

coil performance under different combinations of

parameters within the design envelope to finalize the

cooling coil parameters for use in the 3-D models. Since

the schedule and budget limits the number of 3-D analyses

that can be conducted, the 2-D models are used to evaluate

the thermal behavior under various cooling coil design

combinations. Also, since the 3-D model only considers

the first 6 lifts of each block, the 2-D analysis is used as a

basis for the boundary conditions to be applied on the top

cut surface of the 3-D model. Figure 4 illustrates the 2-D

model and the results extracted for the boundary

conditions on the 3-D model.

In addition, the 2-D

modeling is used to determine the worst-case material

property variation combination for the 3-D verification

analyses in fulfillment of the intent of the NISA ETL.

Finally, 2-D analyses are used to assess the temperatures

that are likely to occur under nominal heat of hydration

and mean monthly temperature variations as best estimate

predictions. Since the study strives to look at worst-case

conditions, 15% variations in the measured heat of

hydration and extreme ambient temperature ranges are

considered in the 3-D analyses. The best-estimate 2-D

analyses are used to develop the more likely temperature

ranges as an aid for field decisions during the construction.

3-D Analyses

Figure 5 illustrates the 3-dimensional model, viewed

from downstream, that is used for the NISA study of the

Portugues Arch Dam. The bottom 6 lifts and a portion of

the foundation are modeled. The model includes the full

center block and half of the adjacent high blocks on either

side. Gap elements connect the corresponding nodes

across the contraction joints for the displacement normal

to the plane of the joint. Until the elements for the low

block are activated to simulate the placement of the lifts,

the normal displacement of the nodes of these future low

block elements are tied to the normal displacement of the

accounts for the movement of the high blocks to insure

that the low block is placed against the surface of the high

block.

The horizontal displacements in the

upstream-downstream direction for the nodes across the

contraction joint are tied together to simulate the cast-in

shear key at the joint. Symmetry boundary conditions

are imposed on the vertical section cuts, both transversely

through the dam and foundation and along the upstream

and downstream faces of the foundation. This symmetry

condition restrains the displacements normal to the cut

and completely insulates the cut surface thermally. The

cut along the bottom of the foundation has roller supports

for the stress solution with the mean annual temperature

imposed on the nodes of the surface for the thermal

boundary condition. The horizontal cut across the dam at

the top of the model requires special attention to simulate

the effects of the subsequent lifts that are not modeled.

The weight of these phantom lifts is simulated by

incrementing a pressure load on the top surface as

additional lifts build up. The pressure distribution

changes in the upstream-downstream direction as

determined from the 2-D analysis to account for the shift

in the center of gravity due to the curvature of the arch

dam. A convection boundary condition is used to

simulate the conduction of heat across this boundary as

subsequent lifts are placed. The temperature history at

the center of the next lift for each block is extracted from

the 2-D analysis and used as the reference temperature for

the convection boundary condition. The film coefficient

is calculated to be equivalent to the rate of heat

conduction through 5 of concrete or of the next lift

thickness.

This convection boundary condition is

removed to provide insulation on the cut surface after the

heating from subsequent lifts has subsided and the cooling

coils on top of the cut are turned off. The final analysis

used 1-day placement increments between lifts in different

blocks and 7-day placements between lifts in each block

with an initial concrete placement temperature of 75 F.

Analyses for a summer and a winter construction start

are performed. The summer start uses a 15% increase in

the measured heat of hydration and includes initial

cooling for 21 days after placement of each lift with 8 coil

spacing and 70 F inlet cooling water. The winter start

uses a 15% decrease in the measured heat of hydration but

no initial cooling during placement of the lifts. These

analyses, based on 2-D thermal studies, are intended to

provide reasonable bounds for the respective conditions of

maximum temperatures that can lead to thermal induced

cracking and for minimum temperatures that restrict the

ability to open the contraction joints sufficiently for

grouting. Figure 6 illustrates the thermal response for the

two analyses.

The summer start shows peak

temperatures near 124 F in the middle of the lifts while

the winter start scenario shows peak temperatures of 112

F.

Without initial cooling, the summer peak

temperatures would reach 130 F. The winter peak

temperatures occur later in time, relative to the summer

analysis, as heat conduction develops for subsequent lifts.

distributions and thermal gradients are also illustrated in

the figure with the thermal contours plotted on day 36.

Figure 7 summarizes the results of the study with

cracking pattern plots and joint opening displacements for

the summer and winter construction start analyses. Some

cracking develops at the dam-foundation interface along

the downstream face and along the contraction joints.

This cracking develops after the initial cooling period as

the ambient temperatures cool and the residual heat is

dissipated through conduction. The resulting contraction

demands are resisted by the foundation. Because of the

higher temperatures in the summer start relative to the

winter ambient temperature, more cracking develops for

the summer start scenario. This cracking does not pose

any structural concerns and is considered conservative

since some relief to thermal demands will occur at the

bond interface and perhaps in the fissures at the top of the

foundation. These effects are not considered in the

modeling. Some vertical cracking is indicated in the

summer start analysis on the downstream face of the left

high block as viewed in Figure 5. This cracking is

discounted because of the imposed symmetry condition at

the cut surface, which causes a discontinuity in the model

geometry. The modeling of the low block, which does

not show any of this type of vertical cracking, is

considered more representative of the performance of a

cantilever block. The figure also shows representative

joint opening displacements as measured near the middle

of each lift. The effect of activating the cooling coils

during the final cooling period is evident. The ability to

open the joints for competent grouting is also found to be

satisfactory for the design and construction parameters.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

A coupled thermal stress analysis methodology using

incremental construction modeling with nonlinear

material behavior and moving boundary conditions is

presented for evaluating the thermal engineering

requirements of large concrete structures. Analytical

studies for a new concrete arch dam are presented. From

the results of the 3D analyses, it is concluded that the

parameters for the block construction for the dam are well

sufficient contraction joint opening during final cooling.

Based on the extreme ambient temperatures used, some

cracking is anticipated near the dam-foundation interface,

especially on the downstream side, due to thermal

gradients that develop during the cooler winter months

while the inner core is still at elevated temperatures.

However, this type of cracking does not pose any

structural or performance concerns. It is also anticipated

that some of this cracking will be relieved by

micro-cracking at the dam-foundation interface and in the

fissures of the rock foundation. The differences in the

summer and winter start analyses indicate that this

cracking can be further mitigated by reducing the peak

temperatures and the gradients near the foundation during

periods of extended cooler ambient temperatures. This

can be accomplished through lower placement

temperatures for the bottom few lifts or continuing the

initial cooling longer in time. However, the tradeoff in

increased construction cost may not warrant such action

given that the cracking does not have very severe

consequences. The performance of the design during the

final cooling period is also shown capable of providing

adequate joint openings for grouting, even for the extreme

conditions of the winter start analysis that minimize the

mean concrete temperatures.

REFERENCES

[1.] Cooling of Concrete Dams, Part VII Cement and

Concrete Investigations, Boulder Canyon Project

Final Reports, U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver,

CO, 1949

[2.] Nonlinear Incremental Structural Analysis of

Massive Concrete Structures, Engineering

Technical Letter, ETL-1110-2-365, U. S. Army

Corps of Engineers, Washington D.C., August 1994.

[3.] ABAQUS/Standard, Version 5.8, User Manual,

Hibbitt, Karlsson, and Sorensen, Inc., Pawtucket,

Rhode Island, 1998.

[4.] ANACAP-U Version 2.5, Users Guide, ANATECH

Corp., San Diego, CA, 1998.

March 16-20, 2003

Figure 4. 2-D Analysis for Thermal Studies and to Define Boundary Conditions on 3-D Model

Figure 6. Illustration of Thermal Response for Summer and Winter Construction Start Analyses

- CreepUploaded bynithink100
- Knoppik Phd ThesisUploaded byRodrigo Lameiras
- Benchmarks in AbaqusUploaded byAnonymous LcR6ykPBT
- s4 Ec8-Lisbon m FardisUploaded byfreeloadtailieu2017
- NEW YORKUploaded byEdwin Okoampa Boadu
- tmp61B1Uploaded byFrontiers
- Footing Biaxial.xlsUploaded bypsconsultants
- Structural Conceptualization1 RevisedUploaded byLəonardo Sasing
- 6 - Review of Stress AnalysisUploaded bythrowawayscribd1234
- 97408863 004 Stress Analysis ReportUploaded byAnonymous mFaiUJFcT
- syllabusUploaded byHema Prakash Vs
- Analytical Investigation of Flexural Behaviour of SCC Beam Using Eco SandUploaded byIRJET Journal
- Supercrete Block WallUploaded byTuroy
- Project Data and Rules of ThumbUploaded byMikeChan
- Iris Chapter29Uploaded bySakis
- Compatibility Consierations for Durable Concrete Repairs.pdfUploaded bychutton681
- secccion transformadaUploaded byRonald Senzano
- IntroductionUploaded byRA Cruz
- Concepts for Improved Lateral Support Systems-fhwa-April 1976Uploaded byelbinclusol
- 10.1.1.891.4699.pdfUploaded bysandy
- HW6Uploaded bywinter_snow714
- Assignment 2 ME399Uploaded byVivek Singh
- ME 345Uploaded byBhat Aamir
- mtech structuresUploaded byapi-293374101
- 2018PARK e YEO - SecondOrder Effects on WindInduced Structural Behaviour of High Rise Steel Buildings.pdfUploaded byfabio
- A Parametric Study on Flow of Groundwater in Fractured-porous Media 3d SimulationUploaded byrobbyon
- Interfacial Mechanics in Fiber-Reinforced Composites_ Mechanics of Single and Multiple Cracks in CMCsUploaded byNagaraj Muniyandi
- Des of Tun Conv Wat_4880_5Uploaded bybarad1
- 001Uploaded byAkshay Kumar
- splitting & bond.pdfUploaded byAsuno Epahut

- SFD-AISC-360-05Uploaded byAnacarina Mago
- Ansys user guideUploaded byveljko
- Arcgis 10 Exportar a Autocad MapUploaded byOscar Lopez
- 978-1-58503-725-4-2Uploaded bysfddfd
- EP 415-1-261 Vol 5 Quality Assurance Representatives GuideUploaded byOscar Lopez
- Instrumentation for Concrete StructuresUploaded byVinci Valcu Parne

- Business value of IT investments.pdfUploaded byPankaj B. Pinjarkar
- Adrin Gharakhani- A Survey of Grid-Free Methods for the Simulation of 3-D Incompressible Flows in Bounded DomainsUploaded byVing666789
- Rotary Actuators-Sept 05Uploaded byEng-Mohammed Salem
- Drawing Lecture 1Uploaded byMat Harzick
- Lectura3 - Interpretación de variogramasUploaded byBeatriz Ramos
- Traffic EngineeringUploaded byFeras
- ParabolaUploaded bySayantan Chatterjee
- ANSYS CFX Reference GuideUploaded byBhaskar Nandi
- AgitationUploaded byroxette
- first presentation.pdfUploaded byzainebfarooq
- gasousstateUploaded byxanshah
- En Fsca-01-PR a ScreenUploaded byNabil Live
- quantum 3Uploaded bytensai no tenshi
- gui_helpUploaded byart101988
- NinjaTrader Webinar - MarketExitSuiteUploaded byseyramto
- Forces in Space).pdfUploaded byJagdish Dhanuskar
- Gloria Stillman Applications and Modelling Research in Secondary Classrooms.pdfUploaded bykaskarait
- Soal Olimpiade Matematika Grade 4Uploaded bywakids
- Geosteering Glossary _ Chinook Consulting ServicesUploaded bysendarnab
- Heat and Mass Transfer Guia ARTICULOSUploaded byCarlos Martínez
- CPT-AUploaded byklnp
- Flow Field of an ImpellerUploaded byKudzie Craig Kelvin Mutasa
- Bridge CircuitsUploaded bykrish
- Surds and Indices, Simplification by Gagan SirUploaded byRomil Gupta
- sol2Uploaded byrookieanalytics
- PSCAD Introduction (1)Uploaded byMartial Romeo
- TeX_Reference_card.pdfUploaded byMRLV
- CitectSCADA Cicode ReferenceUploaded bySebestyén Béla
- MR Fluids-Chapter 2Uploaded byEmir Acevedo
- Notes 4.3 and 4.4Uploaded byAntoni Xu