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Que: Tell me about yourself?

Ans: Hi this is Bhawna and I have completed my bachelors degree from India in
Computer Science and Engineering. After my graduation, I started working as a
content writer/ technical writer in the software industry in 2009 that encouraged to
me to move to the next level as a Business Analyst. I have worked in various
domains like finance, aviation and law and enforcement orders. It was quite a
beautiful and challenging journey as a technical writer and a Business Analyst. I
used to write use cases, design diagrams and object oriented modeling, training
manuals and user manuals as a technical writer and as a Business Analyst, I started
creating As-Is model by gathering requirements using various different methods.
Having done that, I converted that information collected through those methods into
different slots of requirements like Business Requirements, Functional Requirements
and Non-functional requirements. I also worked on the compilation of documents
such as Business Requirement Document and Functional Requirement document. I
have worked on these documents using different methodologies like Agile and SDLC
including waterfall method, iterative method and spiral method. Besides, this I am a
great communicator since communication is not only limited to documents only but
it is also a tool to certain extent and a part of team building with the developers,
testers and stakeholders. Specially while gathering requirements. I am also a great
team player and I have people skills and analytical skills too where I can look into
the complex problem and understand how the roles are working and how I will take
care of that. I am a person who thrives for a fast paced environment and like to
work in an environment which requires continuous learning new things. Right now, I
am looking for a job opportunity to apply my technology expertise.
Que: What is your requirement gathering process?
Ans: I would start by creating As-is analysis by utilizing the current static sources of
information like the artifacts or going through the application if one exists. I would
make sure that the things can be learned without disturbing others. Once, As-is
analysis is done, I would have enough information about the current situation to
budge that information to the next step i.e. to-be analysis. I would reach a level
where I would have enough questions that I would like to be answered during
brainstorming sessions, interviews and JAD sessions. I would make sure that all the
questions are answered correctly and there is no space for assumptions. Now, I am
ready to make BRD and FRD with that information which could be handled to the
developer for coding after we get sign off from the client.
Que: What is the difference between BRD and FRD?
Ans: Business Requirement Document (BRD): This document covers the business
aspect of the requirements on a broad level. It basically answers the questions,
what does the customer wants.

Functional Requirement Document (FRD): This document states about the


functionality required in the application designed for the business problem and need
that has been mentioned in the BRD.
The main difference between the BRD and FRD is that BRD tells the whole story in
form of requirements and FRD tells the sequence of operations to be performed by a
single process.
Que: Describe your last project?
Ans: My last project was in Wipro which was related to aviation domain in which
Indian Air Force (IAF) wanted to change the paper based legacy system into online
maintenance management system through a web based application. I started here
at the very initial stage of the project by collecting requirements from different
stakeholders, the clients that were of IAF team members like Wing Commanders,
Squadron leaders. I started by creating As-is analysis state of the project, looking
into the current state of the application and moved on to create the gap analysis
between the current state and the to-be state. The gap analysis was done by doing
JAD sessions and other brainstorming sessions for gathering necessary inputs and
getting the clear answers to all the inputs. So by taking care of all the functionalities
I was able to take care of the requirements by collecting information. I created
business req. and functional req. Also, I created the sequential flow of the functional
requirements by creating the use cases. They were all put together into the FRD
which also included visio diagrams and activity diagrams. It also included the wireframes of how the user interface will look like. I helped my colleagues in preparing
some of the test cases. Also, I achieved the Galaxy Best Delivery Award for
excellent contribution as a BA for one of the largest implementation in aviation
domain.
Que: What is Wireframe?
Ans: Wireframe is a basic visual guide used in the interface design to suggest the
structure of the website and relationships between its pages. Wireframes are always
completed before any artwork is developed. In other words, the wireframe is the
blue print of the website. Wireframes are used to get a clear picture of what
information will be needed on each page before design.
Que: What are use-cases?
Ans: Use cases are a list of actions or event of steps that defines the interaction
between the role and the system to achieve a goal. Use cases are made up of two
basic parts i.e. Use case diagrams and Use case scenarios. We use Use Case
diagrams to analyze various systems by visualizing different types of roles in a
system and how those roles interact with the system.

Use case diagrams are created by identifying the actors, identifying the goals of
those actors, considering the exceptions and finally by creating alternative flows.
Example:
Use Case Name: Parking Ticket Submission
Actor: Violator, System
Description: The system describes how the violator uses the system to submit the
parking ticket.
Pre-condition: Ticket is identified and authenticated
Post-condition: 1. Ticket is submitted 2. Inventory updated 3. Violation Dismissed 4.
Receipt is generated 5. Payment Approval Recorded.
Success Scenario or Basic Flow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Violator comes to pay the violation fee


The system recognizes the violation ticket.
System enters the violators details.
System tells the amount of the ticket.
Violator pays the ticket and the system handles the payment.
System logs the payment and sends information to accounting and makes an
update.
7. System presents receipt.
Exceptions:
1. The system doesnt recognize the violating ticket.
2. The violator doesnt have enough money to pay the ticket.
Alternate Flows:
1. System generates error.
2. System generates successful outcome.
Que: What is UML?
Ans: UML stands for Unified Modeling Language which is a standard language for
designing and documenting a system in object oriented manner. This modeling
language expresses design of the software architect or you can say that it is the
blue print of the source-code. This language makes easy for technical architects to
communicate with the developers.
For Example: The below is just a simple ticket entry screen

User ID:
Ticket No.
Ticket Date
Account No.
Amount:
Submit

This screen is required by the customer or end-user but the actual execution in
terms of a software developer can be constructed in like this

Ac
co
un
ta
nt
Output

Ticket

User
Interface

Data Access
Layer

Temporary
memory

Submit

In the UML diagram, when the user starts the screen. The UI is loaded and the UI
queries the account master component to take the account codes. The account
master sends the message to the data access layer to get the codes from the
database. It returns the value to the UI and UI displays to the user. The first
sequence is complete.
In the second sequence, the accountant enters all the tickets, adds a ticket button.
When ticket button is added then the UI sends the instruction to the ticket
component. The ticket component adds the ticket in the temporary memory and
asks whether we need to add more tickets. If yes then cycle repeats again and if no
then click submit button and calls all the tickets in the loops and adds to the
database.

This diagram has given some detailed technical roadmap by which a developer can
actually code. So A business analyst can design technical doc ire-respective of what
language is going to come later on.
Que: What kind of diagrams you mostly use in Use cases?
Ans: We mostly use Activity diagrams, Flow charts, Visio Diagrams, Class diagrams
like activity diagrams displays activities carried out in the system and vision charts
and flow charts represents the flow of the activities in the sequential manner. Class
diagrams display the static structure of the system.
Que: What kind of challenges did you meet and did you come through any
failure and how did you overcome it?
Ans: There were many challenges like most of the time it was difficult to get in
touch with the stakeholders, to take their valuable time for gathering necessary
inputs. Whenever I feel it difficult to gather the inputs from the stakeholders, I
request by sending friendly reminders for one to one interviews and follow up with
them with the scheduled date and time given by them. Secondly, sometimes the
stakeholders are not clear about the inputs. In last project, the business wanted to
add ten new products into the set of existing products and the business itself did
not have the clarity on what exactly they wanted. Then that was met by showing
them a prototype. By providing them the detail of how the prototype is going to look
like and perform, they were able to use that as a point of context and provide me
information that where they find the problem in that phase and how their vision
could be matched to our perspective. Thirdly, meeting the deadlines was the
biggest challenge since my manager was very strict with the deadlines. In NIIT, I
was working on implementing a new technology solution to speed up the accounts
system of IMES. When I started doing the elicitation, I realized that it includes
updating the invoice scanning with the new software. It will scan the invoice and
automatically update the payees name and amount of payment into the system. I
was very excited about it and I was already ahead of the schedule by two weeks so I
gave the due date of two weeks later taking into account that we have extra time.
But soon after that the project has the set back as the companys operating system
needed to be update to be compatible to the new software which delayed the
project by two weeks and my manager was not very happy about it. However, in the
end, my contribution led to an improved efficiency by 20%. So from that day, I
learned that I should always build some conditional time set if anything goes wrong
and should carefully consider the work that needs to be done before I commit the
due date.
Que: Why should I hire you or
What are your strengths or
What makes you an asset of the company?

Ans: I have attentive and better listening skills when I am in the situation where I
am getting inputs from multiple sources. I could assemble all the information
coming in and create an output based on that input. Coz if I miss that important
piece of information during the meeting which was quite a note then it wont be
easy for me to gather the same input again. Of course I will ask questions to get the
accurate answer to that query but the client wont be happy to repeat it again coz
nothing annoys more than repeating the same thing again.
In case of
documentation skills or verbal skills, it is very important to understand the audience
and create the output. To make sure that I have clear understanding of the
requirements I gathered, I always do some analysis while discussing questions. I
question them until I get a clear answer.
Example:
Client: I want to run a report with the customer contact info
Me: Why would you like to do that?
Client: He says that he wants to send the post cards, thats why he need contact
info
Me: Why you want to send post cards?
Client: I want to notify the customers on quarterly basis if the product changes.
Now by asking three times, I would have a clear answer to my query and hence that
validates it.
Que: What is Business Process Analysis and how do you carry out that
analysis?
Ans: Process Analysis is composed of process that is designed to add value by
transforming inputs to successful outputs. And it should be analyzed to understand
the activities, their relationships and the values of relevant metrics.
To carry out analysis First of all
1. Identify the process e.g. any repeatable steps can be documented as a
business process and looking closely into what is relatively similar.
2. Identify the start and end points e.g. what could be the first activity and what
could be the last activity and what are the signals that identifies that the
process is complete.
3. List a series of steps between the start and end point.
4. Look for exceptions and add those into your visual and textual model.
Que: What are user stories?

Ans: User stories are short, simple descriptions of a feature told from the
perspective of the person who desires a new capability.
Example: As a student, I want to buy a parking pass, so that I can drive to school.
Title: Buying parking pass
User Story: As a student I want to buy a parking pass so that I can drive to school.
Acceptance Criteria:
1. One pass for one month is issued at one time
2. The student with in-sufficient payment will not receive the pass.
3. The student buys the pass cant be an alumni or outsider.
The acceptance criteria are required for the business and product owner to accept
the story.
Definition of Done:
1. Passes all regression tests.
2. Approved by UI team
3. Able to show feature in the companys demo.
This is required by the quality team before sending the review.
Que: What is UAT and how you test the software?
Ans: UAT stands for User Acceptance Test. This test is performed when the project
about to go live and the user checks whether it can be accepted or not.
Foe example the requirement is to make a User id and password page for that we
can make test plans as
Test Case
ID
TC1

Test
Name
If user is
able
to
login
successful
ly

Preconditions
User must
be
registered

Input Test
Data
Correct
username
and
password

Steps
to
be
executed
1. Enter
username
and
password
2. Click
the
Submit
button

Expected Results
User
must
successfully login
to the web page

TC2
The BAs role in UAT is to put himself into the customers shoe to identify the
normal as well as complex, uncertain and abnormal scenarios before it goes live. A
good BA must have people skills and must have good relationships with the users to

explain his point of view. It is important because sometimes a user may resist or
imply his point which might be ire-relevant and out of scope so if a BA has good
relationship with the user then the things get concluded in the positive direction.
Que: What experience do you have with agile methodologies?
Ans: Agile is multi iterative lifecycle where a project can be broken up into smaller
pieces for example the client want a new website that has app. 20 pages and which
are going to be a part of whole flow and in Agile we wont work on a complete
website in one go and submit it but we will work on one page at one time and that
iteration is supposed to be completed in 3weeks or 4 weeks. Also the end user will
be able to see the functionality of that particular page and give us the feedback too.
So in the end of the whole agile of all the sprints, we will get a product that the
customer is also well versed with it, he had used it and provided the feedback too.
So in the end there wouldnt be any surprises coz we have worked on several
iterations and came up with a product which is more conducive. There are many
versions of agile that could be implemented e.g. scrum. This is one of the most
popular ways to implement agile and in scrum each iteration is called sprint. In the
end of the project, we can represent the piece of that project to the end user. The
breaking of that into pieces is done through user stories. User stories are the ways
through which a simple feature can be described in a simple way from the person
perspective who desires a new capability. There could be many user stories to that
specific feature and the collection of those user stories are called backlogs. E.g
product backlog where all user stories come under one section or it is a logical
grouping of all user stories that are put together.
Other is release backlog which is the collection of sprints and treat it as a release
coz sometimes the product in the end is so minute to show it to the customer so we
put together all the sprints as one release and provide it to the customer.

Que: What is Change Management and how do you deal with it?
Ans: The requirements keep changing from stakeholders or requirements keeps
adding. Initially requirements will be xyz but later the stage clients want some
additional functionality in addition to xyz. However, building additional functionality
is not a problem but problem becomes when client doesnt want to pay for that
additional functionality. In industrial terms we call this as change Management.
Change Management should be always done with respect to scope of work. We
need to consider overall impact of the project when changes or enhancements are
raised from clients. For example: Client wants xyz functionality to be added to the
scope, at that time we need to analyze with Project manager and technical
architect, what will be the impact of additional functionality because while preparing

project execution we will consider Requirement Analysis, Development, testing,


Deployment and project management efforts with respect to overall project cost.
When changes or additional functionality is considered we need to recalculate the
testing, project management effort along with development effort. If client agrees to
pay for the additional changes or enhancements then project will be in good shape.
Very important thing here is not just only additional cost but client should also
agree to the revised deadlines for the project.
Que: Difference between user stories and use cases?
User Stories
Provide a small-scale and easy-to-use
presentation
of
information.
Are
generally formulated in the everyday
language of the user and contain little
detail,
thus
remaining
open
to
interpretation. They should help the
reader understand what the software
should accomplish.

Use Cases
Describe a process and its steps in detail,
and may be worded in terms of a formal
model. A use case is intended to provide
sufficient detail for it to be understood on
its own. A use case has been described as
a generalized description of a set of
interactions between the system and one
or more actors, where an actor is either a
user or another system

Must be accompanied by acceptance


testing procedures (acceptance criteria) May be delivered
for clarification of behavior where stories document.
appear ambiguous.

in

stand-alone

Que: What is sprint planning?


Ans: A sprint is the basic unit of development in Scrum. The sprint is a "time boxed"
effort, i.e. it is restricted to a specific duration. The duration is fixed in advance for
each sprint and is normally between one week and one month.
Que: What is Product Backlog?
Ans: The product backlog is an ordered list of "requirements" that is maintained for
a product. It contains Product Backlog Items that are ordered by the Product Owner
based on considerations like risk, business value, dependencies, date needed, etc.
The features added to the backlog are commonly written in story format.
Que: What is Sprint Backlog?
Ans: The sprint backlog is the list of work the Development Team must address
during the next sprint. The list is derived by selecting stories/features from the top
of the product backlog until the Development Team feels it has enough work to fill
the sprint. This is done by the Development Team asking "Can we also do this?" and

adding stories/features to the sprint backlog. The Development Team should keep in
mind the velocity of its previous Sprints (total story points completed from each of
the last sprints stories) when selecting stories/features for the new sprint, and use
this number as a guide line of how much "effort" they can complete.
Que: What is burndown chart?
Ans: The sprint burn down chart is a publicly displayed chart showing remaining
work in the sprint backlog. Updated every day, it gives a simple view of the sprint
progress. It also provides quick visualizations for reference. There are also other
types of burn down, for example the release burn down chart that shows the
amount of work left to complete the target commitment for a Product Release
(normally spanning through multiple iterations) and the alternative release burn
down chart which basically does the same, but clearly shows scope changes to
Release Content, by resetting the baseline. It should not be confused with an earned
value chart
Que: What is a functional specification document? How do you come up with the

functional specification document?


Ans: A Functional Specification document is a blueprint for like how we want a
particular project or application to look and work. It also details what the finished
product will do and how a user will interact with it. The Functional Specification is in
essence a contract between the business customer and the IT project team,
describing from a technical view what the customer expects.
We will translate the business requirements into system functionality in technical
terms. I, personally, worked with tech lead to come up with the high level
architecture. This system architecture can be broken down in functional modules
based on the requirements. These functional modules are component of the system,
which can be clearly distinguished from the other system. In between, initial
recommendation of the technology will also help in designing the functional
specification document. I documented the functional module behavior in use case
diagrams and use case scenarios.
After gathering all the requirements, with the help of tech leads functional specific
documents are prepared, which includes
Product description: Describes briefly why the software (or upgrade) is being
developed, and lists the most important features and capabilities
Product functional capabilities: Presents a list of the functions that the software
will be required to perform. The list of functional capabilities may be an updated
version of the capabilities listed in the Software Requirements Document.
User characteristics: Describes the intended users of the software in terms of job
function, specialized knowledge, or skill levels

Que: How did you make sure that the requirements you gathered from the users are
exactly what they are looking for?
Ans: After every interview, I develop a preliminary draft of the requirements through the use
case document and functional specification document. These documents are then sent to the user
for their review for any disconnects and additional information. After few drafts the final
document is produced and matched with scope and vision documents. The documents is then
signed by the users and managers and put into a formal system
Que: What are the BI, Business Intelligence, reporting tools you use for a
given project. Describe the project, the BI tool/s and the report extracted.
Ans: Business Intelligence is technology driven process for analyzing data and
presenting actionable information to help c corporate executives, business
Managers and other end users.
Que: What is Gap Analysis and when do we conduct it?
Ans: Once the company agrees to the terms and conditions and considers that the
project is worthwhile the project charter is made or officially we call that project is
started.

Que: What is scope creep and how did you manage them? Explain
with examples
Ans: Scope creep refers to the increasing scope of a project after the initial
scope has been defined which may include additional requirements that may
not have been a part of the initial planning of the project, while failing to
adjust for budget and project timelines. Managing scope depends on the
software development methodology followed
In Waterfall
Yes there was such an instance in my previous project at genworth, whereby
I very efficiently managed a scope creep. Managing scope creep in waterfall
methodology is tough as it has to go through a strict change control process.
Following are the things I did to effectively manage the scope creep.
-

Educate the business owners about the triple constraint : project cost,
schedule and resources
Impact of the changing scope on the project
Modify the changed scope to minimize the impact of change
Coordinated with the PM to ensure change control process is followed.
Educate the business owner on the triple constraint.
Followed a format change control process: Defining change request,
documenting, analyzing and submitting for request.

In Agile
Had an instance working with TD Bank
In agile project management the time and cost is set and then the scope is
delivered in small iterations according the priority the business sets. This
allows the most important work to be delivered to market quickly and once
the budget and time run out, the project is funded for additional work, or its
completed. It also means you dont spend all your time as a project manager
trying to keep a handle on all the change requests that inevitably comes in.
You will spend less time managing scope change on an agile project because
the methodology has a foundation that allows constant change. Its
inevitable; the business will change their mind. So to answer the question,
the best way to prevent scope change is to adopt a process or methodology
that allows change. If you have a choice, give agile project management a
try!
Que: What is prototyping?
Ans: Prototype is an early sample or model built to test a concept or process.
It is designed to test and trial a new design. It serves to provide
specifications for a real time and working system. It simulates a few aspects
of, and maybe completely different from the final product
Process of Prototyping
1. Identifying the basic requirements ie the input and the output of the
information
2. Develop the initial prototype which includes only user interface
3. The stakeholders including end-users review the prototype and provide
feedback on additions or changes
4. Revise and Enhance the Prototype depending on the feedback and
within the scope of the project.
Advantages of Prototyping
1. Reduces time and costs: Prototyping is a early determination of the
user interface hence it reduces the cost that may arise due the
changes in the later stage of developed. Prototype also improve the
quality of requirements and specifications provided to developers
2. Improved and increased involvement of the user as time and again
feedback from the users is required. It allows them to view and interact
with the prototype.

Disadvantages of Prototyping
1. The focus on a limited prototype can distract developers from properly
analyzing the complete project
2. Users can begin to think that a prototype, intended to be thrown away,
is actually a final system that merely needs to be finished or polished.
3. Developers can also become attached to prototypes they have spent a
great deal of effort producing; this can lead to problems like
attempting to convert a limited prototype into a final system when it
does not have an appropriate underlying architecture
4. A key property to prototyping is the fact that it is supposed to be done
quickly. If the developers lose sight of this fact, they very well may try
to develop a prototype that is too complex.
5. The start up costs for building a development team focused on
prototyping may be high
Tools used for Prototyping: Mocking bird, Balsamic Mock ups.
Que: How did you work with project managers?
Worked closely with the project manager to decide on the effective approach
to execute the project. Helped him create communication plan template.
Communication is an important task of business analyst and he/she needs to
communicate with stakeholders, business users, IT, QA team and many
more. It is important to lay down a template and note down effective means
of communication with each member in order to avoid confusion and run the
project more efficiently. Also worked with project manager to prepare WBS
and other project related templates.
Que: How did you prepare wireframe diagrams? What tools?
Ans: On the basis of information gathered from the business users and
stakeholders and with the help of UI team, created wireframe diagrams using
Balsamic tool. Wireframe is a skeletal of the website to be designed.
Que: What is Business Process Modeling and what are the tools
used?
Business Process Modeling (BPM) in systems engineering is the activity of
representing processes of an enterprise, so that the current process may be
analyzed and improved. BPM is typically performed by business analysts and
managers who are seeking to improve process efficiency and quality. The
process improvements identified by BPM may or may not require information

technology involvement, although that is a common driver for the need to


model a business process, by creating a process master.
Change management programs are typically involved to put the improved
business processes into practice. With advances in technology from large
platform vendors, the vision of BPM models becoming fully executable (and
capable of simulations and round-trip engineering) is coming closer to reality.
Que: What methodology did you use for the software development?
RUP or Rational Unified Process is a standard developmental process, which
help in describing the Business Model. It is a software package which helps in
the various phases of the business model. It can also be termed as a
Software Development Life Cycle. It is an iterative process which means a
repetitive process. RUP is generally structured along two dimensions, both of
which are very important for a successful completion of a project. Time
division of the life cycle into phases and iterations. Process Component
production of a specific set of artifacts with well defined
Activities. On the time dimension, The RUP can be divided into four major
phases:
1. Inception.
2. Elaboration.
3. Construction.
4. Transition.
In the first or Inception phase, the project is visualized. The broad picture of
the project is drawn. A rough list of the various activities of the project is
noted along with their prime objectives. What kind of software, database or
other technical details which needs to be implemented are chalked out. How
much budget should be allocated and what time span will the project take is
also broadly decided in this phase. What are the iterative considerations that
should be implemented is also decided in this phase. Whatever is listed in
this phase may not be finally implemented as well. In one word this is the
basic foundation of the project. At the end of the inception phase is the first
major project milestone.
Highest level solution design should briefly describe all platforms, systems,
products, services and processes that it depends upon and include any
important changes that need to be made to them. A document that contains

HLD will usually include a high-level architecture diagram depicting the


components, interfaces and networks that need to be further specified or
developed.

Que: What is include, extend and generalization in use case?

Include Relationship
Include relationships are used to depict similar behavior that are shared by
multiple use cases without replicating the common behavior in each of those
use cases.
Example
For example, consider an email application. A user can send a new mail,
reply to an email he has received, or forward an email. However, in each of
these three cases, the user must be logged in to perform those actions.
Thus, we could have a login use case, which is included by compose mail,
reply, and forward email use cases. The relationship is shown in figure - 02.

Figure - 02: Include relationship between use cases


Include relationship is analogues to functions in terms of programming
languages. There we define functions to contain the tasks that have to
execute repeatedly. Such a function would be called from different points
within the program.

Extend Relationship
A use case extends a base use case to obtain the properties and behaviour
of the base use case as well as add some new features. This is often the case
when the extended use case could not be modified to accommodate
additional functionalities, or there are multiple use cases having behavior
and properties similar to the base use case.
Example
Let's consider the online banking facility provided by XYZ Bank. To use the
online banking facilities, customer has to login to the website. He can then
check his balance, pay bills and so on. However, for doing third party transfer
(transferring funds to another account), he must authenticate himself for
"third party transfer services" by providing his login password (again) and
another security code. Thus, authenticate for third party transfer use case
derives the behavior of authenticate user use case, and adds a new
functionality. Figure - 03 depicts such relationship.

Generalization Relationship
Generalization relationship exists between a base use case and a derived use
case when the derived use case specializes in some functionality it has
inherited from the base use case.
Que: What is data modeling?
Ans: Data Modeling is generally the first step in the database design and
object oriented programming as the designers first create the conceptual

model of how data items will relate to each other. It involves the progression
from conceptual model to logical model to physical schema.
Que: Tell me your experience about UML?
Ans: UML stands for Unified Modeling Language. UML is a standard language
for documenting and designing the system into object oriented modeling.
This modeling language acts a blue print of a source code and helps the
technical architect to communicate with the developers.
As a BA, I am of course most familiar with use case diagrams and activity
diagrams because these two diagrams document the functionality and the
behavior of the system. However, I have been closely involved in creating
class diagrams (that captures the internal design if the system), state
diagrams (that shows the various phases of an entity in a software that goes
through the system), and sequence diagrams (that shows various method
calls between various classes). I like to draw my UML diagrams in either
rational rose or MS Visio. And I think it is a fantastic idea to draw UML models
before the coding since the developing team would have a clear picture of
what we are going to implement.
What is RTM?
Ans: RTM is a kind of excel document that consist of all the requirements
Say R1 and against each requirement how many test scenarios are there say
TS1, TS2 and against each test scenario how many test cases are there say
TS11, TS22 and so on. SO basically, it is a matrix to map between
requirements and test cases and test scenarios.
Que: Report generating tool
Ans: It all depends on what your client needs. Most often, I designed reports
that extract information from a database, and can be run on demand. But
I've done everything from static reports to an excel spreadsheet that
assemble all of the data into different tabs, and had three tabs of charts and
graphs.
Most of the tools are simple, like BusinessObjects. Crystal reports, and
Cognos will definitely take some learning and it's very good to have in your
background.
Que: How would you transform business requirements to functional
requirements?

Ans: While preparing Business requirements documents you mention why


you need to built a system,i.e. problem statement. What you need to do
while creating functional requirements is you haveto specify is, solution of
the problem. Specify thoroughly business problem and explain solutionfor the
same.Business requirement documents does not necessarily contains
solution part, functionalrequirement may contain it how end user wants the
system to perform. Dont forget to add non-functional requirements same
doc.Following is the instance of Business Requirement, Functional
Requirement and Non-FunctionalRequirement.Business Requirements :- sales
order is made against customers purchase order. Sales order isgiven for
approval to upper authorityFunctional requirement:- Sales order shall be
made with reference from Purchase order and itshould be approved from
upper authority. Non-Functional Requirement:- Sales order should be in
proper format (Specify format) and sixcopy of sales order should be printed
from printer in 1 minute
Que: How do you resolve issue?
Ans: I would rather focus on issues and the facts related . origin of issue,
severity of issue, implications and possible solutions to solve the issue. Most
importantly, not to focus on who brought that issue. Another important part
is how to avoid such issues in future.
Que: What analysis and modeling techniques do you use to translate
objectives into system requirements?
Ans: Create project-initiation diagrams including business use cases, activity
diagrams, workflow diagrams, flowcharts.
Determine project scope and derive context diagrams and project use cases
from the business diagrams.
Detail the use cases by using activity diagrams or other techniques
Create high level analysis dataflow diagrams, domain class diagrams, and
entity-relationship diagrams from the use cases or other high level diagrams
Recognize and understand the various design models, including the other
relevant types of
UML diagrams, detailed design
decomposed dataflow diagrams.

entity-relationship

diagrams,

and

Determine when to use which modeling technique, following them through a


project life cycle, and understand which diagrams are derived from others.
Understand the basic concepts of normalization and decomposition so can
converse intelligently on the topic and review diagrams that have been
normalized or decomposed
Que: What is the difference between data model and an entity relationship
diagram?
Ans: A data model is a model which shows how data is stored and used for
e.g. a normal database: It has 3 main parts1)Structural part:- how data is
structured2)Integrity part:- Rules governingstructure3)Manipulation part:operators used to select,update,query that data, eg select, update, delete
commands in sql To further add Data Modeling is when we add this theory to
Live
instance.
ENTERPRISE
DATA
MODEL(ENTERPRISE
RELATIONSHIPMODELING) :- This can be called as an conceptual model or
semantic model The sub parts of an ERM are1)Entity:- It is an object, eg
employees,computer2) Relationship:- It captures how two or more entities
are related to each other3)Attributes:- Every entity has its own sets of
attributes (e.g. PAN no in India for each employee or SSN in US)To clarify the
point look at egA employee is an entity belonging to entity sets(All
employees) which has a relationship with department, and attributes is emp
code.