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You are on page 1of 41

the CMB

Jon OBryan

Advisor: Asantha Cooray

24 October 2013

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Outline

Background (CMB, open problems in

cosmology)

Varying Alpha

Quantifying Non-Gaussianities

Conclusion

2 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Outline

Background (CMB, open problems in

cosmology)

Varying Alpha

Quantifying Non-Gaussianities

Conclusion

3 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Cosmic Microwave

Background (CMB)

4 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Background: CMB

5 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Background: CMB

Penzias & Wilson: isotropy

6 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Background: CMB

COBE: anisotropies

7 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Background: CMB

WMAP: better resolution

8 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Background: CMB

Planck: even better resolution

9 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Inflation

horizon and flatness

problems

solutions

non-Gaussian behavior

difficult to detect

10 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Outline

Background (CMB, open problems in

cosmology)

Varying Alpha

Quantifying Non-Gaussianities

Conclusion

11 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

(

n) =

`

a`m Ym

`m

`

Y

where m are the spherical harmonics

12 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Correlation Functions

power spectrum (2-point correlation

function)

ha`1 m1 a`2 m2 i

= hC`1 i

`1 `2 m 1 m 2

13 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

WMAP team

Wednesday, October 23, 13

14 / 41

Higher Order

Correlation Functions

need additional information for NG part

Bispectrum (3-pt)

`

`

`

ha`1 m1 a`2 m2 a`3 m3 i = B`1 `2 `3

m1

m2

m3

`2

inequality

`

|`1

`2 | `3 `1 + `2

`3

15 / 41

Higher Order

Correlation Functions

Trispectrum (4-pt)

ha`1 m1 a`2 m2 a`3 m3 a`4 m4 i =

X

( 1)

LM

`3 `4

(G`1 `2 (L)

`3 `4

T`1 `2 (L))

`1

m1

`2

m2

L

M

`3

m3

`4

m4

`2

L

L

M

`1

`3

`4

16 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Outline

Background (CMB, open problems in

cosmology)

Varying Alpha

Quantifying Non-Gaussianities

Conclusion

17 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

motivation:

a) claimed observations of a spatially

345 (2003) 609)

spectra, etc.

18 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

19 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Finding Spatial

Variations

assuming small perturbations to , we get:

`m

`m +

d

nY`m

functions to obtain information about

variations in

20 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Trispectrum

Measurement

want to measure

; we need two

functions to determine the G and NG parts

from

C`

C`

alpha across the sky

21 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Trispectrum

Calculation

recall the trispectrum from earlier,

ha`1 m1 a`2 m2 a`3 m3 a`4 m4 i =

X

( 1)

LM

T``13``24 (L)

`3 `4

(G`1 `2 (L)

`3 `4

T`1 `2 (L))

`1

m1

`2

m2

L

M

`3

m3

`4

m4

L

M

=

@/@

@/@

@/@

C `2

)(C`3

@/@

C`

@/@

C `4

)

functions

22 / 41

@/@

Aside: Calculating C`

@/@

1306.1232

23 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Measured Variation on

Alpha

in , which can

we care about variations

2

1 X

=

(2` + 1)C`

4

`

24 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Finding

C` : Estimators

compare to obtain C`

to simulations

ratio of data

leaves C`

(with C`

= 1)

25 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Data Estimator

data estimator: theres a form of this

out as

h

i

h

i

X

1

(2,2)

(x) (x)

(x) (x)

K`,data =

A B

G D

2` + 1 m

`m

`m

where

(x)

A`m

(x)

`

C`

b` a`m ,

(x)

B`m

(x)

`

C`

b` a`m , etc.

Wednesday, October 23, 13

26 / 41

Weighted Maps

example weighting

weighted maps

(l)

@/@

C`

27 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Theory Estimator

theory estimator: analytical form of this

estimator

(2,2)

K`,th

1

=

(2` + 1)2

@/@

(C`1

`i ,mi ,L,M

2

2

C` F`2 L`1 F`4 L`3

C `1 C `2 C `3 C `4

@/@ 2

@/@

C `2

) (C`3

@/@ 2

C `4

)

Wednesday, October 23, 13

28 / 41

Gaussian Simulations

trispectrum to data to extract C`

Wednesday, October 23, 13

29 / 41

C`

Wednesday, October 23, 13

30 / 41

rms

< 3.79 10

C`

at z~1100

31 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Comparison with

Other Methods

understanding the results

there are no other measurements!* -- no

one else has measured da/a(x) at z~1100

0.4 < z < 2.3 (Chand): (-0.57 +/- 0.10)x10-5

(0.9989 +/- 0.0037)

32 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Outline

Background (CMB, open problems in

cosmology)

Varying Alpha

Quantifying Non-Gaussianities

Conclusion

33 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Non-Gaussian

Motivation

if early inflation fields have non-trivial

in the CMB

functions

34 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Parametrize NGs

local model

3

9

2

2

= g + fN L [ g h g i] + gN L

5

25

where g is the Gaussian part

3

g

function

S(`1 , `2 , `3 ) / B (`1 , `2 , `3 )

fN L (`1 `2

`3 )

N L (`1 `2

L) gN L (`1 L

`2)

35 / 41

Return to Bispectrum

and Trispectrum

determine NG parts of trispectrum

` (r)

k 2 dk gT ` (k)j` (kr)

0

Z 1

2

2

(r)

k

dk P (k) gT ` (k)j` (kr)

`

0

where P (k) is the primordial power

Wednesday, October 23, 13

36 / 41

Potential Problems

interpolations (~1e16 points!)

37 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Outline

Background (CMB, open problems in

cosmology)

Varying Alpha

Quantifying Non-Gaussianities

Conclusion

38 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Conclusion

CMB is a powerful tool for measurements

and meets our theoretical expectations

very well

through correlation functions to make

novel measurements related to nongaussianity

39 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Timeline of Progress

start NG analysis and paper

start drafting thesis

finish and defend thesis

40 / 41

Thank You!

41 / 41

Wednesday, October 23, 13

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