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Non-Gaussianities in

the CMB
Jon OBryan
Advisor: Asantha Cooray
24 October 2013
Wednesday, October 23, 13

Outline
Background (CMB, open problems in
cosmology)

Measurements Using Non-Gaussianities


Varying Alpha
Quantifying Non-Gaussianities
Conclusion
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Wednesday, October 23, 13

Outline
Background (CMB, open problems in
cosmology)

Measurements Using Non-Gaussianities


Varying Alpha
Quantifying Non-Gaussianities
Conclusion
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Wednesday, October 23, 13

Cosmic Microwave
Background (CMB)

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Background: CMB

Preface: Big Bang

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Background: CMB
Penzias & Wilson: isotropy

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Background: CMB
COBE: anisotropies

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Background: CMB
WMAP: better resolution

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Background: CMB
Planck: even better resolution

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Inflation
horizon and flatness
problems

inflation and simple


solutions

non-Gaussian behavior
difficult to detect

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Outline
Background (CMB, open problems in
cosmology)

Measurements Using Non-Gaussianities


Varying Alpha
Quantifying Non-Gaussianities
Conclusion
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Wednesday, October 23, 13

Working with the CMB


(
n) =

`
a`m Ym

`m

`
Y
where m are the spherical harmonics

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Correlation Functions
power spectrum (2-point correlation
function)

ha`1 m1 a`2 m2 i

= hC`1 i

`1 `2 m 1 m 2

can be used to obtain Gaussian part

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CMB Power Spectrum

WMAP team
Wednesday, October 23, 13

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Higher Order
Correlation Functions
need additional information for NG part
Bispectrum (3-pt)

`
`
`
ha`1 m1 a`2 m2 a`3 m3 i = B`1 `2 `3

m1

m2

m3

*note the Wigner 3-j enforces the triangle


`2
inequality
`
|`1

`2 | `3 `1 + `2

`3
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Wednesday, October 23, 13

Higher Order
Correlation Functions
Trispectrum (4-pt)
ha`1 m1 a`2 m2 a`3 m3 a`4 m4 i =
X

( 1)

LM

`3 `4
(G`1 `2 (L)

`3 `4
T`1 `2 (L))

`1
m1

`2
m2

L
M

`3
m3

`4
m4

`2
L

L
M

`1

`3
`4
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Wednesday, October 23, 13

Outline
Background (CMB, open problems in
cosmology)

Measurements Using Non-Gaussianities


Varying Alpha
Quantifying Non-Gaussianities
Conclusion
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Wednesday, October 23, 13

(Spatially) Varying Alpha


motivation:
a) claimed observations of a spatially

variation in alpha (Murphy, et. al. Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc.


345 (2003) 609)

b) non-trivial effects on the power


spectra, etc.

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CMB with Varied Alpha

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Finding Spatial
Variations
assuming small perturbations to , we get:
`m

`m +

d
nY`m

which we can then use in our correlation


functions to obtain information about
variations in
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Trispectrum
Measurement
want to measure

; we need two
functions to determine the G and NG parts

from

C`

C`

, can constrain the fluctuations of


alpha across the sky

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Trispectrum
Calculation
recall the trispectrum from earlier,
ha`1 m1 a`2 m2 a`3 m3 a`4 m4 i =
X

( 1)

LM

T``13``24 (L)

`3 `4
(G`1 `2 (L)

`3 `4
T`1 `2 (L))

`1
m1

`2
m2

L
M

`3
m3

`4
m4

L
M

where we now explicitly calculate


=

@/@

CL F`2 L`1 F`4 L`3 (C`1

*note the unfamiliar

@/@
@/@
C `2
)(C`3

@/@
C`

@/@
C `4
)

functions
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Wednesday, October 23, 13

@/@
Aside: Calculating C`

using CAMB (Code for Anisotropies in the

Microwave Background), with modifications


@/@

for a varied we obtain C`

OBryan et al (2013) arXiv:


1306.1232
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Wednesday, October 23, 13

Measured Variation on
Alpha
in , which can
we care about variations

be obtained from C` noting the relation


2

1 X

=
(2` + 1)C`

4
`

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Finding

C` : Estimators

idea: data with NG, simulations that are

inherently G -- need a convenient way to

compare to obtain C`

to simulations
ratio of data

leaves C`

(with C`

= 1)

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Data Estimator
data estimator: theres a form of this

estimator using weighted maps that comes


out as
h
i
h
i
X
1
(2,2)
(x) (x)
(x) (x)
K`,data =
A B
G D
2` + 1 m
`m
`m
where

(x)
A`m

(x)
`

C`

b` a`m ,

(x)
B`m

(x)
`

C`

b` a`m , etc.

Munshi et al Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. 412 (2011) 1993


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Weighted Maps
example weighting
weighted maps

(l)

@/@
C`

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Theory Estimator
theory estimator: analytical form of this
estimator

(2,2)
K`,th

1
=
(2` + 1)2
@/@
(C`1

`i ,mi ,L,M

2
2
C` F`2 L`1 F`4 L`3

C `1 C `2 C `3 C `4

@/@ 2
@/@
C `2
) (C`3

@/@ 2
C `4
)

Munshi et al Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. 412 (2011) 1993


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Gaussian Simulations

compare Gaussian simulations of


trispectrum to data to extract C`

OBryan et al (2013) arXiv:1306.1232


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C`

OBryan et al (2013) arXiv:1306.1232


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Our Results for

rms

< 3.79 10

C`

at z~1100

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Comparison with
Other Methods
understanding the results
there are no other measurements!* -- no
one else has measured da/a(x) at z~1100

results for 0.2 < z < 3.7 (Webb); results for


0.4 < z < 2.3 (Chand): (-0.57 +/- 0.10)x10-5

results for z~1100 (da/a(t)) from Planck:


(0.9989 +/- 0.0037)

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Outline
Background (CMB, open problems in
cosmology)

Measurements Using Non-Gaussianities


Varying Alpha
Quantifying Non-Gaussianities
Conclusion
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Non-Gaussian
Motivation
if early inflation fields have non-trivial

interactions, these will be manifest as NG


in the CMB

detectable with higher order correlation


functions

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Parametrize NGs
local model

3
9
2
2
= g + fN L [ g h g i] + gN L
5
25
where g is the Gaussian part

3
g

learning our shapes: introduce shape


function
S(`1 , `2 , `3 ) / B (`1 , `2 , `3 )

fN L (`1 `2

`3 )

N L (`1 `2

L) gN L (`1 L

`2)
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Return to Bispectrum
and Trispectrum

using the same machinery as before

(trispectrum, estimators, ratio), we can


determine NG parts of trispectrum

weighted2 Znow with


` (r)

k 2 dk gT ` (k)j` (kr)

0
Z 1
2
2
(r)

k
dk P (k) gT ` (k)j` (kr)
`
0
where P (k) is the primordial power

spectrum of curvature perturbations


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Potential Problems

analytical trispectrum requires careful


interpolations (~1e16 points!)

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Outline
Background (CMB, open problems in
cosmology)

Measurements Using Non-Gaussianities


Varying Alpha
Quantifying Non-Gaussianities
Conclusion
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Wednesday, October 23, 13

Conclusion
CMB is a powerful tool for measurements
and meets our theoretical expectations
very well

Able to leverage the precision of the CMB


through correlation functions to make
novel measurements related to nongaussianity

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Timeline of Progress

Wednesday, October 23, 13

Fall Quarter, 2013:

finish analytical trispectrum code


start NG analysis and paper

Winter Quarter, 2014:

keep working on NG analysis and paper


start drafting thesis

Spring Quarter, 2014:

finish NG analysis and paper


finish and defend thesis

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Thank You!

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