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Lecture Viscoelasticity

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You are on page 1of 76

of Polymers

Objectives

focus on linear viscoelasticity

Introduction

Polymers

polymeros, meaning many membered

two words

polymer molecule

Polymers Classification

Thermoplastics (linear)

(PS)

Thermosets (crosslinked)

chains

Polymers Definitions

Structure

A reversible transition from a hard and relatively brittle state into a soften or

rubber like state

Cross-linking

A bond that links one polymer chain to other. Once cross linking takes place, the

material can no longer be shaped.

Curing

Stiffness of Polymers

stiffness

Designer aims to keep the elastic deflections below some critical limit

temperature, can be thought of as constant

This is not true for polymers. Polymers have time and temperature

dependent modulus

1000 when the temperature is changed

modulus, around 3 GPa

Glass-transition regime,

in which the modulus

drops steeply from 3

GPa to around 3 MPa

Rubbery

regime, with a

low modulus,

around 3 MPa

polymer starts to flow

Regime of

decomposition in

which chemical

breakdown starts

Viscoelasticity

Elastic solid

Stored energy restores the original shape once the force is removed

Viscous liquid

No definite shape

Viscoelasticity

an elastic solid and a viscous liquid

Material response which combines both liquid and solid like features

is termed Viscoelasticity

intrinsic nature of the material and

Linear

Viscoelastic

Behaviour

=

=

Since

=

=

Thus

=

+

strain with time

of strain or strain rate

solid is obtained by combining the two laws

= +

The equation represents the Kelvin or Voigt model for linear viscoelastic

solid

viscoelastic deformation are

Creep

Stress Relaxation

Creep

influence of mechanical stresses

are still below the yield strength of the material

after unloading

Creep

Creep

Creep

3 Newtonian flow

Creep

and 3 are exactly proportional to applied stress

()

= 1 + 2 + 3

fracture

Log Time

At very short times,

compliance is that

of a glassy solid and

is independent of

time

At intermediate

times, compliance

is time dependent

and behaviour is

viscoelastic

defined in middle of viscoelastic

region to characterise the timescale for creep

compliance is that

of a rubber like solid

and is independent

of time

is very large at room temperature for glassy materials

to the formerly applied stress

neglect the quantity 3 (Newtonian flow)

Recovery

Stress Relaxation

and constant stress will be recorded

proportional to applied strain and will decrease with time

Stress Relaxation

=

()

eventually decay to zero

Log Time

At very short

times, Relaxation

Modulus is that of

a glassy solid and

is independent of

time

At intermediate

times, Relaxation

Modulus is time

dependent and

behaviour is

viscoelastic

be defined in middle of

viscoelastic region

Relaxation Modulus

is that of a rubber

like solid and is

independent of

time

of the same general magnitude, but identical

only for simpler models

Mathematical

Modelling of

Linear

Viscoelasticity

Mathematical Modelling

chemical composition or molecular structure

deduced from a single creep or stress-relaxation plot

viscoelasticity

independent elastic and viscous components

Mathematical Modelling

Boltzmann Superposition Principle

deformation

Creep behaviour

of a viscoelastic

solid under multistep loading

Mathematical Modelling

= 1 ( 1 )+2 ( 2 )+3 ( 3 )+

Creep

compliance

( ) ()

1

in terms of the unrelaxed modulus

=

+

( T)

()

2 , 3 added at times 1 , 2 , 3 respectively

stress at time

= 1 ( 1 )+2 ( 2 )+3 ( 3 )+

Answer

= 1 ( 1 )+2 ( 2 )+3 ( 3 )

Viscoelasticity

theory of linear viscoelastic behavior

viscoelasticity because it defines an integral equation

linear differential equation

Viscoelasticity

2

0 + 1

+ 2 2 + = 0 + 1

+ 2 2 +

only one or two terms on each side of this equation

mechanical models constructed of mechanical components

Mechanical

Models

Mechanical Models

constructed using elastic springs and viscous dashpots

of viscosity

not happen

reaches maximum extension

1 , 1

2 , 2

No instantaneous retraction

1 = 1

2

2 =

Total stress

= 1 + 2

Total strain

= 1 = 2

Thus

= +

Recovery

where

By Integration

=

[1 exp ]

In terms of compliance

= [1 exp

The retardation time is the time after loading for the strain to reach

(1/exp(0)) of its maximum value in time

Limitations

dashpot can not relax

= 0

= +

=

Maxwell Model

Total stress

= 1 = 2

Total strain

= 1 + 2

, 1 , 1

1

1 = 1

=

=

+

= 0 0 =

+

, 2 , 2

Strain

behaviour

Time

Maxwell Model

, 1 , 1

m

= 0 exp

, 2 , 2

Maxwell Model

Limitations

= 0

viscoelastic materials

single exponential decay term

, 1 , 1

, 2 , 2

Maxwell Model

2

0 + 1

+ 2 2 + = 0 + 1

+ 2 2 +

and creep, at least the first two terms on each side of Equation must

be retained

0 + 1

= 0 + 1

0 + 1

= 0 + 1

= 0) and

in both cases

Kelvin and Maxwell models can not define the general behaviour of

viscoelastic solid completely

with a Maxwell unit

=

1

1

+

+

= + ( + )

Limitations

would require the inclusion of many terms in the linear differential

equation

number of Maxwell elements in parallel or a large number of Voigt

elements in series

How would this model predict the creep and relaxation response?

Dynamical

Mechanical

Measurements

AND

COMPLEX COMPLIANCE

Complex Compliance

deformed and resulting stress is recorded

For linear viscoelastic behaviour, stress and strain will vary sinusoidally

For an ideal elastic material, stress and strain are in phase i.e. phase

shift = 0

For an ideal viscous material, stress and strain are 90 out of phase

= 90

= 0 sin

= 0 sin( + )

Complex Compliance

= 0 cos sin + 0 sin cos

1 =

0

cos

0

2 =

0

sin

0

1

Phasor diagram

Complex Compliance

modulus

If

= 0 exp

Thus

0

0

= = exp = (cos + sin ) = 1 + 2

0

0

= 0 exp[ + ]

2 , which is

Complex Compliance

2/

2/

02

0

= 2 02

the complete period, the first term

2/

02

1 sin cos

0

1

= 1 02

2

Complex Compliance

2

= tan =

1

2

and E is maximum stored elastic energy

= 2 tan

The ratio

Typical values of 1 , 2 and tan for a polymer are 109 Pa, 107 Pa

and 0.01

= 1 + 2

Where

= 1

Response of a Sample to

Sinusoidal Shear Strain

1 is stress measured at

maximum strain divided by

applied strain amplitude

strain divided by applied strain

amplitude

general wont be zero

when strain passes through

zero

1 =

0

cos

0

2 =

0

sin

0

Response of a Sample to

Sinusoidal Shear Strain

sample responding to strain

rate as would a purely viscous

material (free flow, no strain

produced)

strain rate approaches to

zero

be responding to strain as

would an elastic material

Relaxation Modulus

relationship between creep compliance and stress relaxation

modulus exits

reciprocal to each other

Relaxation Modulus

Relationship between

creep compliance and

stress relaxation modulus

are markedly different

images if reciprocally

related

Example

Problems

Problem 1

= 0 /

And has the values 2.0 GPa and 1.0 GPa at t=0 and 104 sec

respectively. Calculate the form of the creep compliance and so

evaluate the strain 1000 sec after the rapid application of a stress of 100

MPa.

SOLUTION

and

=

= /

Problem 1

At t=0

= / = = 2.0

At t=104

= / = 2 10

4 /

= 1.0

104

=2

= 2 = 0.693

104

2 104

=

= =

0.693

0.693

(given)

(given)

104 /

Total strain

= +

Total strain

1

+

=

+

Problem 1

Putting 0 = 1/

= 0 +

1 103 0.693

1000 = 0.1

+

= 0.1(0.5 + 0.0347)

2

2 104

1000 = 5.35

Problem 2

stress can be represented by the model shown, in which spring is in

series with a Kelvin unit

1

2

total constant stress. Show that the total strain is dependent on the

relaxation time, 1 = 1and is given by

=

+

[1 exp

]

2 1

1

Problem 2

Immediately after applying stress, the strain is 0.002; after 1000 sec the

strain is 0.004; after a very long time the strain tends to 0.006. What is the

retardation time 1 ?

Note: It is not necessary to know the stress or the values of 1 , 2 and

SOLUTION

= =

= +

Problem 2

= 1 +

=+

1

1

Thus

Rearranging

= 1

1

=

( )

1

where

1 is

1

=

1

ln 1

=

1

= exp 1 =

[1 exp 1 ]

1

1

Problem 2

Spring 2

=

+

[1 exp 1 ]

2 1

At time t=0

As t tends to infinity

0.006 = 0.002 +

= 0.002

2

1 exp 1 = 0.5

1 = 2 = 0.693

()

= 0.004

1 1

exp 1 = 0.5

1 =

exp 1 = 2

1000

= 1440

0.693

Problem 3

thick and with an extensional Youngs modulus of 2 GPa, is mounted in a

dynamic testing apparatus. The specimen is initially extended by 1 mm,

and then subjected to a sinusoidally varying strain with an amplitude of

1 mm.

At 20C and 5 Hz the phase lag between stress and strain is 0.1 rad.

Calculate the maximum stress developed, the elastic energy stored

during the positive quarter cycle and the work dissipated per cycle

pendulum at 20C. The period of vibration is 2 sec and the logarithmic

decrement is 0.2. What would you expect the phase lag in a dynamic

tester to be at 20C and 0.5 Hz?

Problem 3

SOLUTION

= 2 109 0.01 = 20

= = 105 2

0 = 10

0 =

1

= 0.005

200

1

0 0 cos = 0.005

2

= = 0.2

Problem 3

Phase lag

cos = (1 0.01)1 2 0.995

1

105 0.2 107 5 103 0.995 5 102

2

= 0 0 sin

= 105 0.2 107 5 101 3.1 102

0.2 = tan 0.5 tan 0.5

0.2

=

= 0.064

(Phase lag)

Measurement

of

Viscoelasticity

Measurement of Viscoelasticity

Creep Experiment

its shear strain is measured as a function of time

()

0

starting the experiment

friction, constant torque motor instead of

weights

Creep Measurement

Measurement of Viscoelasticity

a function of time

()

0

thermal equilibrium is achieved

sample until the stop is reached

compliance are not valid

()

0

=

0

()

Dual Cantilever

Single Cantilever

Compression

Sample

Clamp / Support

Shear

Tension

References

Ed, I. M. Ward, J. Sweeney, John Wiley & Sons, 2004

(Ch 4, Ch 5, Ch 6)

Krishan Chawla, Cambridge University Press, 2009

(Ch 2.12)

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