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Motion and Force


CHAPTER 4

Motion

CHAPTER 5

Forces

CHAPTER 6

Laws of Motion

Find a toy car, a piece of cardboard, and three to five


books that are nearly the same thickness. Make a
ramp for the car by tilting the cardboard against one
of the books. Set this up on a flat surface. Let the car roll down the ramp and
see how far it goes once it leaves the ramp. Now, put a second book on top
of the first to make the ramp steeper. See how far the car goes once it
leaves the ramp. Using a ruler or measuring tape, record the distance the
car travels. Continue stacking the books to make the ramp steeper. Does
the car go farther each time? Why or why not?

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Chapter
Motion
How long can you stand perfectly still? Ten seconds? A minute? Even if
you stand still, things inside your body are moving, like your heart and
lungs. And, even fast asleep your body is not really at rest with respect to the universe!
The 24-hour rotation of Earth is carrying you around at several hundred miles per hour. Every
365 days Earth completes a 584-million-mile orbit around the Sun. To make this trip, Earth
(with you on its surface) is rushing through space at the astounding speed of 67,000 miles per
hour! To understand nature we need to think about motion. How do we describe going from here
to there? Whether it is a toy car rolling along a track or Earth rushing through space, the ideas in
this chapter apply to all motion. Position, speed, and acceleration are basic ideas we need in order
to understand the physical world.

 How do we accurately describe our position?


 How do we show motion on a graph?
 What is special about
the motion of falling objects?

Earth photo courtesy of NASA.

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4.1 Position, Speed, and Velocity


Where are you right now? How fast are you moving? To answer these questions precisely, you
need to use the concepts of position, speed, and velocity. These ideas apply to ordinary objects,
such as cars, bicycles, and people. They also apply to microscopic objects the size of atoms and to
enormous objects like planets and stars. Lets begin our discussion of motion with the concept of
position.

position - a variable that tells


location relative to an origin.
origin - a place where the position
has been given a value of zero.

The position variable


Position as a You may do an experiment in your class that uses a car on a track. How do
variable you tell someone exactly where the car is at any given moment? The answer
is by measuring its position. Position is a variable. The position of the car

describes where the car is relative to the track. In the diagram below, the
position of the car is 50 centimeters (cm). That means the center of the car is
at the 50 cm mark on the track.

Position and Position and distance are similar but not the same. Both use units of length.
distance However, position is given relative to an origin. The origin is the place

where position equals 0 (near the left end of the track above). Heres an
example of the difference between position and distance. Assume the track is
1 meter long. Suppose the car moves a distance of 20 cm away from the 50
cm mark. Where is it now? You know a distance (20 cm) but you still dont
know where the car is. It could have moved 20 cm to the right or 20 cm to
the left. Saying the car is at a position of 70 cm tells you where the car is. A
position is a unique location relative to an origin (Figure 4.1).

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Figure 4.1: If the car moves 20 cm to


the right, its position will be 70 cm.

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Speed
Speed is a motion The variable speed describes how quickly something moves. To calculate the
variable speed of a moving object, you divide the distance it moves by the time it

takes to move. For example, if you drive 120 miles (the distance) and it takes
you 2 hours (the time) your speed is 60 miles per hour (60 mph = 120 miles
2 hours). The lower case letter v is used to represent speed.

speed - describes how quickly an


object moves, calculated by dividing
the distance traveled by the time it
takes.
average speed - the total distance
divided by the total time for a trip.

instantaneous speed - the actual


speed of a moving object at any
moment.

Units for speed The units for speed are distance units over time units. If distance is in

kilometers and time in hours, then speed is in kilometers per hour (km/h).
Other metric units for speed are cm per second (cm/s) and meters per second
(m/s). Your familys car probably shows speed in miles per hour (mph).
Table 4.1 shows different units commonly used for speed.
Table 4.1: Common Units for Speed
Distance

Time

Speed

Abbreviation

meters
kilometers
centimeters
miles

seconds
hours
seconds
hours

meters per second


kilometers per hour
centimeters per second
miles per hour

m/s
km/h
cm/s
mph

Average speed and When you divide the total distance of a trip by the time taken, you get the
instantaneous speed average speed. Figure 4.2 shows an average speed of 100 km/h. But, think

about actually driving though Chicago. On a real trip, your car will slow
down and speed up. Sometimes your speed will be higher than 100 km/h, and
sometimes lower (even 0 km/h!) The speedometer shows you the cars
instantaneous speed. The instantaneous speed is the actual speed an object
has at any moment.

Figure 4.2: A driving trip with an


average speed of 100 km/h.

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Solving Problems: Speed

The Speed Limit of the Universe

How far will you go if you drive for 2 hours at a speed of 100 km/h?
1. Looking for:

You are asked for a distance.

2. Given:

You are given the speed and the time.

3. Relationships:

distance = speed time

4. Solution:

distance = (100 km/h) (2 h) = 200 km


Your turn...

a. You travel at an average speed of 20 km/h in a straight line to get to your


grandmothers house. It takes you 3 hours to get to her house. How far
away is her house from where you started?

The fastest speed in the universe is


the speed of light. Light moves at
300 million meters per second
(3 x 108 m/s). If you could make light
travel in a circle, it would go around
the Earth 7.5 times in one second!
Scientists believe the speed of light is
the ultimate speed limit in the
universe.

b. What is the speed of a snake that moves 20 meters in 5 seconds?


c. A train is moving at a speed of 50 km/h. How many hours will it take the
train to travel 600 kilometers?
a. Your grandmothers house is
60 km away from where you
started.
b. The snakes speed is 4 m/s.
c. It will take the train 12 hours to
travel 600 kilometers.

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Chapter

Vectors and velocity


Telling in front How can you tell the difference between one meter in front of you and one
from behind meter behind you? The variable of distance is not the answer. The distance

between two points can only be positive (or zero). You cant have a negative
distance. For example, the distances between the ants in Figure 4.3 are either
positive or zero. Likewise, one meter in front of you and one meter behind
you both have the same distance: 1 meter.

vector - a variable that gives


direction information included in its
value.
velocity - a variable that tells you
both speed and direction.

Using positive and The answer is to use position and allow positive and negative numbers. In the
negative numbers diagram below, positive numbers describe positions to the right (in front) of

the origin. Negative numbers are to the left (or behind) the origin.

Vectors Position is an example of a kind of variable called a vector. A vector is a

variable that tells you a direction as well as an amount. Positive and negative
numbers are enough information for a variable when the only directions are
forward and backward. When updown and rightleft are also possible
directions, vectors get more complicated.

Figure 4.3: Distance is always a


positive value or zero.

Velocity Like position, motion can go right, left, forward or backward. We use the term
velocity to mean speed with direction. Velocity is positive when moving to

the right, or forward. Velocity is negative when moving to the left, or


backward (Figure 4.4).
The difference Velocity is a vector, speed is not. In regular conversation you might use the
between velocity two words to mean the same thing. In science, they are related but different.
and speed Speed can have only a positive value (or zero) that tells you how far you

move per unit of time (like meters per second). Velocity is speed and
direction. If the motion is in a straight line, the direction can be shown with a
positive or negative sign. The sign tells whether you are going forward or
backward and the quantity (speed) tells you how quickly you are moving.

Figure 4.4: Velocity can be a positive


or a negative value.

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Keeping track of where you are


A robot uses vectors Pathfinder is a small robot sent to explore Mars (Figure 4.5). As it moved,

Pathfinder needed to keep track of its position. How did Pathfinder know
where it was? It used its velocity vector and a clock to calculate every move
it made.

Use two variables to Any formula that involves speed can also be used for velocity. For example,
find the third one you move 2 meters if your speed is 0.2 m/s and you keep going for

Figure 4.5: Pathfinder is a robot


explorer which landed on Mars in 1997
(NASA/JPL).

10 seconds. But did you move forward or backward? You move 2 meters
(backwards) if you move with a velocity of 0.2 m/s for 10 seconds. Using
the formula with velocity gives you the position instead of distance.

Figure 4.6: The change in position or


distance is the velocity multiplied by the
time.

Forward and Suppose Pathfinder moves forward at 0.2 m/s for 10 seconds. Its velocity is
backward movement +0.2 m/s. In 10 seconds, its position changes by +2 meters.

Now, suppose Pathfinder goes backward at 0.2 m/s for 4 seconds. This time
the velocity is 0.2 m/s. The change in position is 0.8 meters. A change in
position is velocity time (Figure 4.6).
Adding up a series The computer in Pathfinder adds up +2 m and 0.8 m to get +1.2 m. After
of movements these two moves, Pathfinders position is 1.2 meters in front of where it was.

Pathfinder knows where it is by keeping track of each move it makes. It adds


up each change in position using positive and negative numbers to come up
with a final position (Figure 4.7).

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Figure 4.7: Each change in position


is added up using positive and negative
numbers.

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Chapter

Maps and coordinates


Two dimensions If Pathfinder was crawling on a straight board, it would have only two choices

for direction. Positive is forward and negative is backward. Out on the surface
of Mars, Pathfinder has more choices. It can turn and go sideways! The
possible directions include north, east, south, west, and anything in between.
A flat surface is an example of two dimensions. We say two because it takes
two number lines to describe every point (Figure 4.8).

axis - one of two (or more) number


lines that form a graph.
coordinates - values that give a
position relative to an origin.

North, south, east, One way to describe two dimensions is to use northsouth as one number
and west line, or axis. Positive positions are north of the origin. Negative positions are

south of the origin. The other axis goes eastwest. Positive positions on this
axis are east of the origin. Negative positions are west of the origin.
Coordinates
describe position

Pathfinders exact position can be


described with two numbers. These
numbers are called coordinates. The
graph at the left shows Pathfinder at the
coordinates of (4, 2) m. The first
number (or coordinate) gives the
position on the eastaxis. Pathfinder is
4 m east of the origin. The second
number gives the position on the north
south axis. Pathfinder is 2 m north of
the origin.

Figure 4.8: A flat surface has two


perpendicular dimensions: northsouth
and eastwest. Each dimension has
positive and negative directions.

Maps A graph using northsouth and eastwest axes can accurately show where

Pathfinder is. The graph can also show any path Pathfinder takes, curved or
straight. This kind of graph is called a map. Many street maps use letters on
the northsouth axis and numbers for the eastwest axis. For example, the
coordinates F-4 identify the square that is in row F, column 4 of the map
shown in Figure 4.9.

Figure 4.9: Street maps often use


letters and numbers for coordinates.

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Vectors on a map
A trip with a turn Suppose you run east for 10 seconds at a speed of 2 m/s. Then you turn and

run south at the same speed for 10 more seconds (Figure 4.10). Where are
you compared to where you started? To get the answer, you figure out your
eastwest changes and your northsouth changes separately.
Figure each Your first movement has a velocity vector of +2 m/s on the eastwest axis.
direction separately After 10 seconds your change in position is +20 meters (east). There are no

more eastwest changes because your second movement is northsouth


only. Your second movement has a velocity vector of 2 m/s northsouth. In
10 seconds you moved 20 meters. The negative sign means you moved
south.
Figure 4.10: A running trip with a
turn.

Captain Vectors Hidden Treasure


Use these velocity vectors to
determine the location of Captain
Vectors hidden pirate treasure. Your
starting place is (0, 0).
1. Walk at a velocity of 1 m/s south for
10 seconds.
2. Then, jog at a velocity of 3 m/s east
for 5 seconds.

Figuring your final Now add up any eastwest changes to get your final eastwest position.
position Do the same for your northsouth position. Your new position is

(+20 m, 20 m).

3. Run at a velocity of 5 m/s north for


2 seconds.
4. Then walk backward south at a
velocity of 0.5 m/s for 2 seconds.
Where is the treasure relative to your
starting place?

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Solving Problems: Velocity


A train travels at 100 km/h heading east to reach a town in 4 hours. The train
then reverses and heads west at 50 km/h for 4 hours. What is the trains
position now?
1. Looking for:

You are asked for position.

2. Given:

You are given two velocity vectors and the times for each.

3. Relationships:

change in position = velocity time

4. Solution:

The first change in position is (+100 km/h) (4 h) = +400 km


The second change in position is (50 km/h) (4 h) = 200 km
The final position is (+400 km) + (200 km) = +200 km. The train is 200 km
east of where it started.

Chapter

Fast Trains!
The Bullet train of Japan was the
worlds first high-speed train. When it
came into use in 1964, it went
210 km/h.
Research todays high-speed trains of
the world. How fast they go?
Research to find out why the United
States lags behind in having highspeed trains. Find out the advantages
and disadvantages of having highspeed trains in the U.S.
.

Your turn...

a. You are walking around your town. First you walk north from your starting
position and walk for 2 hours at 1 km/h. Then, you walk west for 1 hour at
1 km/h. Finally, you walk south for 1 hour at 2 km/h. What is your new
position relative to your starting place?
b. A ship needs to sail to an island that is 1,000 km south of where the ship
starts. If the captain sails south at a steady velocity of 30 km/h for 30
hours, will the ship make it?

a. Your new position is


1 kilometer west of where you
started.
b. No, because
30 km/h 30 h = 900 km.
The island is still 100 km away.

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Section 4.1 Review


1. What is the difference between distance and position?
2. From an origin you walk 3 meters east, 7 meters west, and then 6 meters
east. Where are you now relative to the origin?
3. What is your average speed if you walk 2 kilometers in 20 minutes?
4. Give an example where instantaneous speed is different from average
speed.
5. A weather report says winds blow at 5 km/h from the northeast. Is this
description of the wind a speed or velocity? Explain your answer.
6. What velocity vector will move you 200 miles east in 4 hours traveling
at a constant speed?
7. Give an example of a situation in which you would describe an objects
position in:
a. one dimension
b. two dimensions
c. three dimensions
8. A movie theater is 4 kilometers east and 2 kilometers south of your
house.
a. Give the coordinates of the movie theater. Your house is the origin.
b. After leaving the movie theater, you drive 5 kilometers west and
3 kilometers north to a restaurant. What are the coordinates of the
restaurant? Use your house as the origin.

Look at the graphic below and answer


the following questions.
1. How fast is each cyclist going in units
of meters per second*?
2. Which cyclist is going faster? How
much faster is this cyclist going
compared to the other one?

*The word per means for every or for


each. Saying 5 kilometers per hour is
the same as saying 5 kilometers for
each hour. You can also think of per as
meaning divided by. The quantity
before the word per is divided by the
quantity after it.

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4.2 Graphs of Motion


Consider the phrase a picture is worth a thousand words. A graph is a special kind of picture that
can quickly give meaning to a lot of data (numbers). You can easily spot relationships on a graph. It
is much more difficult to see these same relationships in columns of numbers. Compare the table of
numbers to the graph in Figure 4.11 and see if you agree!

constant speed - speed that


stays the same and does not
change.

The position vs. time graph


Recording data Imagine you are helping a runner who is training for a track meet. She wants
to know if she is running at a constant speed. Constant speed means the

speed stays the same. You mark the track every 50 meters. Then you measure
her time at each mark as she runs. The data for your experiment is shown in
Figure 4.11. This is position vs. time data because it tells you the runners
position at different points in time. She is at 50 meters after 10 seconds,
100 meters after 20 seconds, and so on.

Graphing data To graph the data, you put position on the vertical (y) axis and time on the

horizontal (x) axis. Each row of the data table makes one point on the graph.
Notice the graph goes over to the right 10 seconds and up 50 meters between
each point. This makes the points fall exactly in a straight line. The straight
line tells you the runner moves the same distance during each equal time
period. An object moving at a constant speed always creates a straight line on
a position vs. time graph.
Calculating speed The data shows that the runner took 10 seconds to run each 50-meter segment.

Because the time and distance was the same for each segment, you know her
speed was the same for each segment. You can use the formula v = d/t to
calculate the speed. Dividing 50 meters by 10 seconds tells you her constant
speed was 5 meters per second.

Figure 4.11: A data table and a

position vs. time graph for a runner.

MA.912.S.3.2-Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data and present visual summaries from the following: bar graphs; line graphs; stem and leaf plots; circle
graphs; histograms; box and whisker plots; scatter plots; and cumulative frequency graphs.
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Graphs show relationships between variables


Relationships Think about rolling a toy car down a ramp. You theorize that steeper angles
between variables on the ramp will make the car go faster. How do you find out if your theory

is correct? You need to know the relationship between the variables angle
and speed.
Patterns on a graph A good way to show a relationship between two variables is to use a graph.
show relationships A graph shows one variable on the vertical (or y) axis and the second

variable on the horizontal (or x) axis. Each axis is marked with the range of
values the variable has. In Figure 4.12, the x-axis (angle) has values between
0 and 60 degrees. The y-axis (time) has average speed values between 0 and
300 cm/s. You can tell there is a relationship because all the points on the
graph follow the same curve that slopes up and to the right. The curve tells
you instantly that the average speed increases as the ramp gets steeper.
Recognizing a The relationship between variables may be strong, weak, or there may be no
relationship from a relationship at all. In a strong relationship, large changes in one variable
graph make similarly large changes in the other variable, like in Figure 4.12. In a

weak relationship, large changes in one variable cause only small changes in
the other. The graph on the right (below) shows a weak relationship. When
there is no relationship, the graph looks like scattered dots (below left). The
dots do not make an obvious pattern (a line or curve).

Figure 4.12: This graph shows that


the average speed between A and B
increases as the angle of the track
increases.

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MA.912.S.3.2-Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data and present visual summaries from the following: bar graphs; line graphs; stem and leaf plots; circle
graphs; histograms; box and whisker plots; scatter plots; and cumulative frequency graphs.
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Slope
Comparing speeds You can use position vs. time graphs to quickly compare speeds. Figure 4.13

shows a position vs. time graph for two people running along a jogging path.
Both runners start at the beginning of the path (the origin) at the same time.
Runner A (blue) takes 100 seconds to run 600 meters. Runner B (red) takes
150 seconds to go the same distance. Runner As speed is 6 m/s (600 100)
and runner Bs speed is 4 m/s (600 150). Notice that the line for runner A is
steeper than the line for runner B. A steeper line on a position vs. time graph
means a faster speed.

slope - the ratio of the rise (vertical


change) to the run (horizontal change)
of a line on a graph.

A steeper line on a position vs. time graph means a


faster speed.
Calculating slope The steepness of a line is called its slope. The slope is the ratio of the rise

(vertical change) divided by run (horizontal change). The diagram below


shows how to calculate the slope of a line. Visualize a triangle with the slope
as the hypotenuse. The rise is the height of the triangle. The run is the length
along the base. Here, the x-axis is time and the y-axis is position. The slope of
the graph is therefore the distance traveled divided by the time it takes, or the
speed. The units are the units for the rise (meters) divided by the units for the
run (seconds), meters per second, or m/s.
Figure 4.13: A position vs. time
graph for two runners.

MA.912.S.3.2-Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data and present visual summaries from the following: bar graphs; line graphs; stem and leaf plots; circle
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Speed vs. time graphs


Constant speed on a The speed vs. time graph has speed on the y-axis and time on the x-axis. The
speed vs. time graph bottom graph in Figure 4.14 shows the speed vs. time for the runner. The top

graph shows the position vs. time. Can you see the relationship between the
two graphs? The blue runner has a speed of 5 m/s. The speed vs. time graph
shows a horizontal line at 5 m/s for the entire time. On a speed vs. time
graph, constant speed is shown with a straight horizontal line. At any point in
time between 0 and 60 seconds the line tells you the speed is 5 m/s.
Another example The red runners line on the position vs. time graph has a less steep slope.

That means her speed is slower. You can see this immediately on the speed
vs. time graph. The red runner shows a line at 4 m/s for the whole time.
Calculating distance A speed vs. time graph can also be used to find the distance the object has

traveled. Remember, distance is equal to speed multiplied by time. Suppose


we draw a rectangle on the speed vs. time graph between the x-axis and the
line showing the speed. The area of the rectangle (shown below) is equal to
its length times its height. On the graph, the length is equal to the time and
the height is equal to the speed. Therefore, the area of the graph is the speed
multiplied by the time. This is the distance the runner traveled.

Figure 4.14: The position vs. time

graph (top) shows the exact same motion


as the speed vs. time graph (bottom).

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MA.912.S.3.2-Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data and present visual summaries from the following: bar graphs; line graphs; stem and leaf plots; circle
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Section 4.2 Review


1. On a graph of position vs. time, what do the x-values represent? What do
the y-values represent?
2. Explain why time is an independent variable and position is a dependent
variable in a position versus time graph.
3. What does the slope of the line on a position vs. time graph tell you about
an objects speed?
4. The graph in Figure 4.15 shows the position and time for two runners in a
race. Who has the faster speed, Robin or Joel? Explain how to answer this
question without doing calculations.
5. Calculate the speed of each runner from the graph in Figure 4.15.
6. The runners in Figure 4.15 are racing. Predict which runner will get to the
finish line of the race first.
7. Maria walks at a constant speed of 2 m/s for 8 seconds.
a. Draw a speed vs. time graph for Marias motion.
b. How far does she walk?
8. Which of the three graphs below corresponds to the position vs. time
graph in Figure 4.16?

Figure 4.15: Questions 4, 5, and 6.

9. Between which times is the speed zero for the motion shown on the
position vs. time graph in Figure 4.16?
Figure 4.16: Questions 8 and 9.

MA.912.S.3.2-Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data and present visual summaries from the following: bar graphs; line graphs; stem and leaf plots; circle
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4.3 Acceleration
Constant speed is easy to understand. However, almost nothing moves with constant speed for
long. When a driver steps on the gas pedal, the speed of the car increases. When the driver brakes,
the speed decreases. Even while using cruise control, the speed goes up and down as the cars
engine adjusts for hills. Another important concept in physics is acceleration. Acceleration, an
important concept in physics, is how we describe changes in speed or velocity.

acceleration - the rate at which


velocity changes.

An example of acceleration
Definition of What happens if you coast down a long hill on a bicycle? At the top of the
acceleration hill, you move slowly. As you go down the hill, you move faster and faster
you accelerate. Acceleration is the rate at which your speed

(or velocity) changes. If your speed increases by 1 meter per second (m/s)
each second, then your acceleration is 1 m/s per second.

Acceleration can Your acceleration depends on the steepness of the hill. If the hill is a gradual
change incline, you have a small acceleration, such as 1 m/s each second. If the hill

is steeper, your acceleration is greater, perhaps 2 m/s per second.


Acceleration on a Acceleration is easy to spot on a speed vs. time graph. If the speed changes
speed vs. time graph over time then there is acceleration. Acceleration causes the line to slope up

on a speed vs. time graph (Figure 4.17). The graph on the top shows constant
speed. There is zero acceleration at constant speed because the speed does
not change.

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Figure 4.17: Speed vs. time graphs


showing constant speed (top) and
acceleration (middle and bottom).

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Chapter

Speed and acceleration


The difference Speed and acceleration are not the same thing. You can be moving (non-zero
between speed and speed) and have no acceleration (think cruise control). You can also be
acceleration accelerating and not moving! But if the brakes are applied and the car slows

down, it is accelerating because the speed is now changing (faster to slower).


Example: Acceleration describes how quickly speed changes. More precisely,
Acceleration in cars acceleration is the change in velocity divided by the change in time. For

example, suppose a powerful sports car changes its speed from zero to
60 mph in 5 seconds. In English units the acceleration is 60 mph 5 seconds
= 12 mph/second. In SI units, 60 mph is about the same as 100 km/h. The
acceleration is 100 km/h 5 seconds, or 20 km/h/s (Figure 4.18). A formula
you can use to calculate acceleration is shown below.

Figure 4.18: The acceleration of a


sports car.

Acceleration in To calculate acceleration, you divide the change in velocity by the amount of
metric units time it takes for the change to happen. If the change in speed is in kilometers

per hour, and the time is in seconds, then the acceleration is in km/h/s or
kilometers per hour per second. An acceleration of 20 km/h/s means that the
speed increases by 20 km/h every second.
What does units of The time units for acceleration are often written as seconds squared or s2. For
seconds squared example, acceleration might be 50 meters per second squared or 50 m/s2. The
mean? steps in Figure 4.19 show how to simplify the fraction m/s/s to get m/s2.

Saying seconds squared is just a math-shorthand way of talking. It is better to


think about acceleration in units of speed change per second (that is, meters
per second per second).
Figure 4.19: How do we get m/s2?
MA.912.S.1.2-Determine appropriate and consistent standards of measurement for the data to be collected in a survey or experiment.
SC.912.P.12.2-Analyze the motion of an object in terms of its position, velocity, and acceleration (with respect to a frame of reference) as functions of time.

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Solving Problems: Acceleration


A sailboat moves at 1 m/s. A strong wind increases its speed to 4 m/s in
3 seconds (Figure 4.20). Calculate the acceleration.
1. Looking for:

You are asked for the acceleration in m/s2.

2. Given:

You are given the initial speed in m/s (v1), final speed in m/s (v2), and the
time in seconds.
v v
Use the formula for acceleration: a = 2 1
t

3. Relationships:
4. Solution:

a=

4 m/s 1 m/s 3 m/s


=
= 1 m/s 2
3s
3s
Figure 4.20: An acceleration

Your turn...

example.

a. Calculate the acceleration of an airplane that starts at rest and reaches a


speed of 45 m/s in 9 seconds.
b. Calculate the acceleration of a car that slows from 50 m/s to 30 m/s in
10 seconds.

a. 5 m/s2
b. 2 m/s2

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Chapter

Acceleration on motion graphs


Acceleration on a A speed vs. time graph is useful for showing how the speed of a moving
speed vs. time graph object changes over time. Think about a car moving on a straight road. If the

line on the graph is horizontal, then the car is moving at a constant speed (top
of Figure 4.21). The upward slope in the middle graph shows increasing
speed. The downward slope of the bottom graph tells you the speed is
decreasing. The word acceleration is used for any change in speed, up or
down.
Positive and Acceleration can be positive or negative. Positive acceleration in one
negative direction adds more speed each second. Things get faster. Negative
acceleration acceleration in one direction subtracts some speed each second, Things get

slower. People sometimes use the word deceleration to describe slowing


down.
Acceleration on a The position vs. time graph is a curve when there is acceleration. Think about
position vs. time a car that is accelerating (speeding up). Its speed increases each second. That
graph means it covers more distance each second. The position vs. time graph gets

steeper each second. The opposite happens when a car is slowing down. The
speed decreases so the car covers less distance each second. The position vs.
time graph gets shallower with time, becoming flat when the car is stopped.

Figure 4.21: Three examples of

motion showing constant speed (top)


and acceleration (middle, bottom).

MA.912.S.3.2-Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data and present visual summaries from the following: bar graphs; line graphs; stem and leaf plots; circle
graphs; histograms; box and whisker plots; scatter plots; and cumulative frequency graphs.
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Free fall
The definition of free An object is in free fall if it is accelerating due to the force of gravity and no
fall other forces are acting on it. A dropped ball is almost in free fall from the

instant it leaves your hand until it reaches the ground. The almost is
because there is a little bit of air friction that does make an additional force
on the ball. A ball thrown upward is also in free fall after it leaves your hand.
Even going up, the ball is in free fall because gravity is the only significant
force acting on it.
The acceleration of
gravity

If air friction is ignored, objects in


free fall on Earth accelerate
downward, increasing their speed
by 9.8 m/s every second. The value
9.8 m/s2 is called the acceleration
due to gravity. The small letter g
is used to represent its value. When
you see the lowercase letter g in a
physics question, you can
substitute the value 9.8 m/s2.

free fall - accelerated motion that


happens when an object falls with
only the force of gravity acting on it.
acceleration due to gravity - the
value of 9.8 m/s2, which is the
acceleration in free fall at Earths
surface, usually represented by the
small letter g.

Figure 4.22: A dropped ball


Constant The speed vs. time graph in Figure 4.22 is for a ball in free fall. Because the
acceleration graph is a straight line, the speed increases by the same amount each second.

This means the ball has a constant acceleration. Make sure you do not
confuse constant speed with constant acceleration! Constant acceleration
means an objects speed changes by the same amount each second.

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increases its speed by 9.8 m/s each


second, so its constant acceleration is
9.8 m/s2.

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Chapter

Acceleration and direction


A change in If an objects acceleration is zero, the object can only move at a constant
direction is speed in a straight line (or be stopped). A car driving around a curve at a
acceleration constant speed is accelerating (in the physics sense) because its direction is

changing (Figure 4.23). Acceleration occurs whenever there is a change in


speed, direction, or both.
What change in What do we mean by change in direction? Consider a car traveling east. Its
direction means velocity is drawn as an arrow pointing east. Now suppose the car turns

southward a little. Its velocity vector has a new direction.

Drawing vectors When drawing velocity arrows, the length represents the speed. A 2 cm arrow

stands for 10 m/s (22 mph). A 4 cm arrow is 20 m/s, and so on. At this scale,
each centimeter stands for 5 m/s. You can now find the change in velocity by
measuring the length of the arrow that goes from the old velocity vector to the
new one.
Figure 4.23: A car can change its

velocity by speeding up, slowing down,


or turning. The car is accelerating in
each of these cases.

Turns are caused by The small red arrow in the graphic above represents the difference in velocity
sideways before and after the turn. The change vector is 1 centimeter long, which
accelerations equals 5 m/s. Notice the speed is the same before and after the turn! However,

the change in direction is a sideways change of velocity. This change is


caused by a sideways acceleration.
SC.912.P.12.2-Analyze the motion of an object in terms of its position, velocity, and acceleration (with respect to a frame of reference) as functions of time.

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Curved motion
Acceleration and Like velocity, acceleration has direction and is a vector. Curved motion is
curved motion caused by sideways accelerations. Sideways accelerations cause velocity to

change direction, which results in turning. Turns create curved motion.

projectile - an object moving


through space and affected only by
gravity.

An example of As an example of curved motion, imagine a soccer ball kicked into the air.
curved motion The ball starts with a velocity vector at an upward angle (Figure 4.24). The

acceleration of gravity bends the path of the velocity vector more toward the
ground during each second the ball is in the air. Therefore, gravity
accelerates the ball downward as it moves through the air. Near the end of
the motion, the direction of the balls velocity vector is angled down toward
the ground. The path of the ball makes a bowl-shaped curve called a
parabola.
Projectiles A soccer ball is an example of a projectile. A projectile is an object moving

under the influence of only gravity. The action of gravity is to constantly turn
the velocity vector more and more downward. Flying objects such as
airplanes and birds are not projectiles, because they are affected by forces
generated from their own power.
Circular motion

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Circular motion is another type of curved motion.


An object in circular motion has a velocity vector
that constantly changes direction. Imagine
whirling a ball around your head on a string. You
have to pull the string to keep the ball moving in a
circle. Your pull accelerates the ball toward you.
That acceleration is what bends the balls velocity
into a circle with you at the center. Circular
motion always has an acceleration that points
toward the center of the circle. In fact, the
direction of the acceleration changes constantly
so it always stays pointed toward the center of the
circle.

Figure 4.24: A soccer ball in the air


is a projectile. The path of the ball is a
bowl-shaped curve called a parabola.

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Chapter

Section 4.3 Review


1. Nearly all physics problems will use the unit m/s2 for acceleration.
Explain why the seconds are squared. Why isnt the unit given as m/s, as
it is for speed?
2. Suppose you are moving left (negative) with a velocity of -10 m/s. What
happens to your speed if you have a negative acceleration? Do you speed
up or slow down?
3. A rabbit starts from a resting position and moves at 6 m/s after 3 seconds.
What is the acceleration of the rabbit? (Figure 4.25)
4. You are running a race and you speed up from 3 m/s to 5 m/s in 4 seconds.
a. What is your change in speed?
b. What is your acceleration?
5. Does a car accelerate when it goes around a corner at a constant speed?
Explain your answer.
6. A sailboat increases its speed from 1 m/s to 4 m/s in 3 seconds. What will
the speed of the sailboat be at 6 seconds if the acceleration stays the
same? (Figure 4.26)
7. The graph at the right shows the speed of a person
riding a bicycle through a city. Which point (A, B,
or C) on the graph is a place where the bicycle has
speed but no acceleration? How do you know?
8. What happens to the speed of an object that is
dropped in free fall?
9. A ball is in free fall after being dropped. What will
the speed of the ball be after 2 seconds of free fall?
10. What happens when velocity and acceleration are not in the same
direction? What kind of motion occurs?
11. The Earth moves in a nearly perfect circle around the Sun. Assume the
speed stays constant. Is the Earth accelerating or not?

Figure 4.25: Question 3.

Figure 4.26: Question 6.

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Chapter 4

BIOLOGY8CONNECTION

High Tech

Animal
Trackers
April 22, 2007A young harp seal was found stranded on a beach in
Virginias Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge. He appeared slightly thin
with some superficial injuries. Park rangers, optimistic that he would heal
on his own, placed him under observation. Unfortunately, park visitors
didnt heed requests to keep a respectful distance from the seal.
For the seals and the publics safety, he was captured and sent to
the Virginia Aquarium Stranding Center. Veterinarians treated him
with antibiotics, and soon he was consuming 10 pounds of herring a
day. In less than a month, the seal grew from 35 to 66 pounds.
During that time, a 13-year-old girl asked her birthday party guests
to bring donations to the Aquariums Stranding Response Program
instead of gifts. With the money she collected, the aquarium
purchased a satellite tag to track the seals movements.
On May 19, 2007, the tag was attached and the healthy seal was
released back to the ocean.

What Is a
Satellite Tag?
A satellite tag is a palmsized, salt-water-resistant
data collector with an
antenna attached. It
is glued to the fur of a
seals upper back, where
it remains until the seal
molts and the tag falls off.

100

The tag records information including the time, date, dive depth, dive
duration, and amount of time at the surface over the last six hours.
When the seal surfaces, the tag transmits this data to satellites orbiting
Earth. Sometimes there are no satellites overhead when the animal
surfaces, so data isnt received every day.
When data is received, instruments on the satellite record the location
of the tag and relay the data to processing computers back on
Earth. Organizations such as WhaleNet (;Internet keyword search:
whalenet) make this information available online, where it is used
by marine scientists, government and conservation organizations,
and students.

The Seals Journey: Position, Time, and Speed


WhaleNets Satellite Tagging Observation Program (STOP) provided
the following information about the seals journey.
Date
Time (GMT)

Time Elapsed

Latitude

Longitude

Distance Traveled

since previous
from previous point

point (h:min)

05/19/07
10:06
0
36.850 N
76.283 W


0 km
(This is the release
locationFirst Landing
State Park, Virginia).

05/30/07

04:45

258:39

42.195 N

65.554 W

1096 km

06/03/07

07:27

98:42

44.317 N

63.137 W

307 km

06/05/07

19:20

59:53

45.294 N

60.812 W

214 km

06/11/07

03:11

127:51

45.749 N

59.440 W

119 km
240 km

06/16/07

20:16

137:05

47.669 N

58.009 W

06/19/07

08:11

59:55

46.594 N

56.125 W

186 km

06/25/07

13:17

149:06

48.523 N

51.069 W

437 km

06/28/07

06:25

65:08

50.412 N

51.192 W

210 km

07/03/07

08:46

122:21

54.127 N

54.070 W

458 km

07/05/07

00:40

39:54

54.889 N

55.558 W

128 km

07/09/07

19:08

114:28

56.665 N

59.970 W

340 km

This information can be used to determine the seals average speed on


each leg of his journey. To calculate his average speed on the first leg:

With the satellite tag attached to his back, the seal


moves toward the ocean.

1. Convert elapsed time from h:min to hours.


258 hours 39 minutes = 258 39/60 hours = 258.65 hours
2. Plug the values into the speed formula: speed = distance time.
Speed = 1096 km / 258.65 h = 4.237 km/h

SC.912.L.17.15Discuss the effects of technology on environmental quality.


SC.912.N.4.2Weigh the merits of alternative strategies for solving a specific societal problem by comparing a number of different costs and benefits, such as human, economic, and environmental.

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Sea ice formed late and broke up early for
seven of the eleven years between 1996
and 2007. Satellite tagging data helps us
monitor how animals respond to these
changing conditions. Some seals travel
further north. Others have tried to adapt
to new habitatsfor example, seals have
given birth on land instead of ice.
There the pups face new predators like
foxes, wolves, and domestic and wild
dogsanimals that dont hunt on ice.

Knowing the seals average speed at


various points on his journey can help
us gain insight into his behavior. For
example, between June 5 and June 11,
his average speed slowed significantly.
During that time, he remained in a
small area just off the coast of Cape
Breton Island. The satellite data
suggests that this area may be a
critical habitat for the harp seal.
What was he doing there? Resting?
Feeding? Finding answers to these
questions can help us make better
decisions about how and when we
humans use this coastal region.
J. Michael Williamson, WhaleNets
founder and director, explains, Similar
data from tagging right whales has led
to changes in shipping lanes around
the whales feeding areas and slowed
shipping traffic through areas where
whale calves are born. Satellite tagging
research studies have led to many new
laws and guidelines governing human
activities around endangered species.

Chapter 4

New Insights,
Improved Coexistence

Marine scientists share information


about seal population activity with
government agencies that monitor seal
hunting and fishing industries. If the seal
population declines, new regulations
could be enacted to restrict hunts and/or
protect the seals food sources and critical
habitat areas, while areas with abundant
resources can be opened to the fishing
industry. The more we learn about how
animals interact with their environments,
the better decisions we can make about
how we as humans use the oceans.
Satellite Tracking Map of the seals journey.

Whats Nice about Sea Ice?


Satellite tagging data can help us understand more about how
animals adapt to changes in their environment. For example, marine
scientists are paying careful attention to how far up the Davis Strait
harp seals travel. Harp seals stop their northward journey when they
run into sea ice, rather than swimming under it, since they need to
breathe air like we do.
Harp seals rest, mate, molt, and grow new coats on the sea ice. They
also give birth and nurse their pups on the ice. If the ice breaks up
before the pups are weaned, the pups may drown or be crushed
between large chunks of ice.

Questions:
1. What was the seals average speed between June 5 and
June 11, 2007?
2. Name two ways satellite tagging can help humans
make better decisions about how we use the oceans.
3. Research: Using an Internet keyword search for
WhaleNet, find out what marine animal species are
currently tagged. Use the website resources to create
your own map of one animals journey. Compare your
animals top speed to the harp seals. What questions
do you have about your animals travels?

SC.912.L.17.15Discuss the effects of technology on environmental quality.


SC.912.N.4.2Weigh the merits of alternative strategies for solving a specific societal problem by comparing a number of different costs and benefits, such as human, economic, and environmental.

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Chapter 4 Assessment
Vocabulary
Select the correct term to complete the sentences.
position

projectile

origin

average speed

speed

vector

graph

velocity

axis

independent variable

coordinates

slope

dependent variable

constant speed

free fall

acceleration due to gravity

acceleration

12. The variable usually represented on the y-axis of a graph is


the ____.
Section 4.3

13. The rate at which velocity changes is defined as ____.


14. An object moving in a curved path and affected only by
gravity is called a(n) ____.
15. An object accelerating under only the force of gravity is said
to be in ____.

1.

Speed with direction is called ____.

16. An object in free fall will accelerate toward Earth at


9.8 m/s2, the ____.

2.

A variable that is described using both a number and a


direction is called a ____.

Concepts

3.

The ____ is the place where position equals zero.

Section 4.1

4.

The ____ of an object is given relative to an origin.

5.

The formula for ____ is distance divided by time.

6.

____ is speed that does not change over time and ____ is the
total distance divided by the total time of a trip.

7.

The ____ of the origin of a graph are (0, 0).

8.

The x-____ is horizontal on a graph.

Section 4.1

1.

What is the speed of an object that is standing still?

2.

Name three common units for measuring speed.

3.

Write the form of the speed equation that you would see in
each of the following scenarios.
Let v = speed, t = time, and d = distance.

Section 4.2

9.

A mathematical diagram using two axes to represent the


relationship between variables is a(n) ____.

10. The ____ of a line is the ratio of rise to run.


11. The variable usually represented on the x-axis of a graph is
the ____.

102

4.

a.

You know distance and speed and want to find the time.

b.

You know time and distance and want to find the speed.

c.

You know speed and time and want to find the distance.

How are the variables speed and velocity different? How are
they similar?

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MOTION

5.

6.

Are the following directions usually considered positive


or negative? Write + for positive or for negative.
a.
b.
c.

____ up
____ down
____ left

e.____ north
f.____ south
g.____ east

d.

____ right

h.____ west

If you are given x-y axes coordinates of (4, 9), which axis is
represented by the number 9?

9.

Chapter

Which of the graphs below shows an object that is stopped?

Section 4.2

10. Which of the graphs above shows an object moving at a


constant speed?

7.

Section 4.3

8.

You do an experiment to find out how much light is needed


to make house plants grow taller. The two variables in this
experiment are amount of light and the height of the plants.
Which variable is the dependent variable and which is the
independent variable? Explain your answer.
Look at the graph below and answer the following questions.
a.
b.
c.

What is the speed of runner B at 100 seconds?


For how many seconds has runner A run at the 300meter position?
Make a sketch of
this graph in your
notebook. Add a
line to the graph
that represents a
third runner who
has a speed that is
slower than the
speeds of runner A
and B. This new
line should begin
at the origin of the
graph.

11. How would it be possible for an object to be traveling with


constant speed and still be accelerating?
12. Can an object have a speed of zero while it has an
acceleration that is not zero? Explain.
13. Which of these graphs show acceleration occurring

Problems
Section 4.1

1.

Your starting place on a track is 30 centimeters. What is


your new position if you move 10 centimeters to the left of
this position?

2.

A high-speed train travels at 300 km/h. How long (in hours)


would it take the train to travel 1,500 km at this speed?

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MOTION

3.

Lance Armstrongs teammate, George Hincapie, averaged a


speed of 33.6 km/h in the 15th stage of the Tour de France,
which took 4.00 hours. How far (in kilometers) did he travel
in the race?

4.

It takes Brooke 10 minutes to run 1 mile. What is her speed


in miles per minute?

5.

You are traveling on the interstate highway at a speed of


65 mph. What is your speed in km/h? The conversion factor
is: 1.0 mph = 1.6 km/h.

6.

Use the speed equation to complete the following chart.


distance (m)

speed (m/s)

time (s)

10

45

100

7.

A pelican flies at a speed of 52 km/h for 0.25 hours. How


many miles does the pelican travel? The conversion factor is:
1.6 km/h = 1.0 mph.

8.

A snail crawls 300 cm in 1 hour. Calculate the snails speed


in each of the following units.

9.

Back

a.

centimeters per hour (cm/h)

b.

centimeters per minute (cm/min)

c.

meters per hour (m/h)

If it takes 500 seconds for the light from the Sun to reach
Earth, what is the distance to the Sun in meters? (The speed
of light is 300,000,000 meters/second.)

10. Look at the graph below and give the coordinates for each
point.

11. A train travels 50 km/h south for 2 hours. Then the train
travels north at 75 km/h for 5 hours. Where is the train now
relative to its starting position?
12. You want to arrive at your friends house by 5 p.m. Her
house is 240 kilometers away. If your average speed will be
80 km/h on the trip, when do you need to leave your house in
order to get to her house in time?
13. Starting from school, you bicycle 2 km north, then 6 km
east, then 2 km south.
a.
b.
c.

How far did you cycle?


What is your final position compared to your school?
How far and in what direction must you travel to return
to school?

14. If you walk 8 blocks north and then 3 blocks south from your
home, what is your position compared to your home? What
distance did you walk?
15. You use an x-y plane to represent your position. Starting at
(+150 m, 50 m), you walk 20 meters west and 30 meters
north. What are your new coordinates?

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Chapter

16. A bird flies from its nest going north for 2 hours at a speed of
20 km/h and then goes west for 3 hours at 15 km/h. What
are the distance coordinates for the bird relative to its nest?

21. When a ball is first dropped off a cliff in free fall, it has an
acceleration of 9.8 m/s2. What is its acceleration as it gets
closer to the ground? Assume no air friction.

Section 4.2

22. Why is the position vs. time graph for an object in free fall a
curve?

17. Draw the position vs. time graph for a person walking at a
constant speed of 1 m/s for 10 seconds. On the same axes,
draw the graph for a person running at a constant speed of
4 m/s.
18. Calculate the speed represented by each position vs. time
graph below.

6
4
2
0

24. Draw a speed vs. time graph for a car that starts at rest and
steadily accelerates until it is moving at 40 m/s after
20 seconds. Then answer the following questions.
a.
b.

Position (m)

Position (m)

23. Draw a speed vs. time graph for an object accelerating from
rest at 2 m/s2.

Time (s)

25. Draw a speed vs. time graph for each of the following
situations.

4
2
0

What is the cars acceleration?


What distance did the car travel during the 20 seconds?

a.
b.
c.

Time (s)

19. Draw the speed vs. time graph that shows the same motion
as each position vs. time graph above.
Section 4.3

20. A loaded garbage truck has low acceleration. It takes


10 seconds to go from 0 km/h to 100 km/h. What is the
acceleration of the garbage truck? How much slower is the
acceleration of the garbage truck compared to the
acceleration of the sports car in Figure 4.18?

A person walks along a trail at a constant speed.


A ball is rolling up a hill and gradually slows down.
A car starts out at rest at a red light and gradually
speeds up.

Applying Your Knowledge


Section 4.1

1.

If you take a one hour drive at an average speed of 65 mph,


is it possible for another car with an average speed of
55 mph to pass you? Explain your answer.

2.

Make up your own problem! You want to end up 3 meters


south of a starting point. Write a 5-step velocity vector
problem that will get you to this point. You must travel in at
least three directions before you get to your end point.

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MOTION

Answer the following questions.

Section 4.3

a.

A herd of wild animals moves in the following directions


from a starting point in search of water: 10 km north, 3
km east, 7 km west, 20 km south, and 4 km east. Where
does the herd end up relative to its starting point?

5.

Look at the graph below and make up a story involving


motion that would create a graph shaped like the one below.

b.

A watering hole is 2 km west and 2 km south of the


starting point. Does the herd make it to the watering
hole? If not, write down the directions the herd would
need to follow to get to the watering hole from their end
position.

6.

Now draw a speed vs. time graph that shows the same
motion as the position vs. time graph above.

Section 4.2

4.

Oliver is warming up for a track meet. First he walks 1 m/s


for 100 seconds. Then he runs at 3 m/s for 200 seconds. His
shoe comes untied, so he stops for 20 seconds to tie it.
Finally he runs at 4 m/s for 200 seconds.
a.

Draw a position vs. time graph of Olivers motion. Hint:


Use the table below to calculate Olivers position during
each part during his warm up.

b.

Draw a speed vs. time graph of Olivers motion.

c.

What is the total distance that Oliver travels?

d.

What is Oliver's average speed during his 520 second


warm-up?
speed (m/s)

106

time (s)

position (m)