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Unit

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CHAPTER 4

Motion

CHAPTER 5

Forces

CHAPTER 6

Laws of Motion

books that are nearly the same thickness. Make a

ramp for the car by tilting the cardboard against one

of the books. Set this up on a flat surface. Let the car roll down the ramp and

see how far it goes once it leaves the ramp. Now, put a second book on top

of the first to make the ramp steeper. See how far the car goes once it

leaves the ramp. Using a ruler or measuring tape, record the distance the

car travels. Continue stacking the books to make the ramp steeper. Does

the car go farther each time? Why or why not?

Back

Chapter

Motion

How long can you stand perfectly still? Ten seconds? A minute? Even if

you stand still, things inside your body are moving, like your heart and

lungs. And, even fast asleep your body is not really at rest with respect to the universe!

The 24-hour rotation of Earth is carrying you around at several hundred miles per hour. Every

365 days Earth completes a 584-million-mile orbit around the Sun. To make this trip, Earth

(with you on its surface) is rushing through space at the astounding speed of 67,000 miles per

hour! To understand nature we need to think about motion. How do we describe going from here

to there? Whether it is a toy car rolling along a track or Earth rushing through space, the ideas in

this chapter apply to all motion. Position, speed, and acceleration are basic ideas we need in order

to understand the physical world.

How do we show motion on a graph?

What is special about

the motion of falling objects?

Chapter

Back

MOTION

Where are you right now? How fast are you moving? To answer these questions precisely, you

need to use the concepts of position, speed, and velocity. These ideas apply to ordinary objects,

such as cars, bicycles, and people. They also apply to microscopic objects the size of atoms and to

enormous objects like planets and stars. Lets begin our discussion of motion with the concept of

position.

location relative to an origin.

origin - a place where the position

has been given a value of zero.

Position as a You may do an experiment in your class that uses a car on a track. How do

variable you tell someone exactly where the car is at any given moment? The answer

is by measuring its position. Position is a variable. The position of the car

describes where the car is relative to the track. In the diagram below, the

position of the car is 50 centimeters (cm). That means the center of the car is

at the 50 cm mark on the track.

Position and Position and distance are similar but not the same. Both use units of length.

distance However, position is given relative to an origin. The origin is the place

where position equals 0 (near the left end of the track above). Heres an

example of the difference between position and distance. Assume the track is

1 meter long. Suppose the car moves a distance of 20 cm away from the 50

cm mark. Where is it now? You know a distance (20 cm) but you still dont

know where the car is. It could have moved 20 cm to the right or 20 cm to

the left. Saying the car is at a position of 70 cm tells you where the car is. A

position is a unique location relative to an origin (Figure 4.1).

78

the right, its position will be 70 cm.

SC.912.P.12.2-Analyze the motion of an object in terms of its position, velocity, and acceleration (with respect to a frame of reference) as functions of time.

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MOTION

Chapter

Speed

Speed is a motion The variable speed describes how quickly something moves. To calculate the

variable speed of a moving object, you divide the distance it moves by the time it

takes to move. For example, if you drive 120 miles (the distance) and it takes

you 2 hours (the time) your speed is 60 miles per hour (60 mph = 120 miles

2 hours). The lower case letter v is used to represent speed.

object moves, calculated by dividing

the distance traveled by the time it

takes.

average speed - the total distance

divided by the total time for a trip.

speed of a moving object at any

moment.

Units for speed The units for speed are distance units over time units. If distance is in

kilometers and time in hours, then speed is in kilometers per hour (km/h).

Other metric units for speed are cm per second (cm/s) and meters per second

(m/s). Your familys car probably shows speed in miles per hour (mph).

Table 4.1 shows different units commonly used for speed.

Table 4.1: Common Units for Speed

Distance

Time

Speed

Abbreviation

meters

kilometers

centimeters

miles

seconds

hours

seconds

hours

kilometers per hour

centimeters per second

miles per hour

m/s

km/h

cm/s

mph

Average speed and When you divide the total distance of a trip by the time taken, you get the

instantaneous speed average speed. Figure 4.2 shows an average speed of 100 km/h. But, think

about actually driving though Chicago. On a real trip, your car will slow

down and speed up. Sometimes your speed will be higher than 100 km/h, and

sometimes lower (even 0 km/h!) The speedometer shows you the cars

instantaneous speed. The instantaneous speed is the actual speed an object

has at any moment.

average speed of 100 km/h.

MA.912.S.1.2-Determine appropriate and consistent standards of measurement for the data to be collected in a survey or experiment.

SC.912.P.12.2-Analyze the motion of an object in terms of its position, velocity, and acceleration (with respect to a frame of reference) as functions of time.

79

Chapter

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MOTION

How far will you go if you drive for 2 hours at a speed of 100 km/h?

1. Looking for:

2. Given:

3. Relationships:

4. Solution:

Your turn...

grandmothers house. It takes you 3 hours to get to her house. How far

away is her house from where you started?

the speed of light. Light moves at

300 million meters per second

(3 x 108 m/s). If you could make light

travel in a circle, it would go around

the Earth 7.5 times in one second!

Scientists believe the speed of light is

the ultimate speed limit in the

universe.

c. A train is moving at a speed of 50 km/h. How many hours will it take the

train to travel 600 kilometers?

a. Your grandmothers house is

60 km away from where you

started.

b. The snakes speed is 4 m/s.

c. It will take the train 12 hours to

travel 600 kilometers.

80

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MOTION

Chapter

Telling in front How can you tell the difference between one meter in front of you and one

from behind meter behind you? The variable of distance is not the answer. The distance

between two points can only be positive (or zero). You cant have a negative

distance. For example, the distances between the ants in Figure 4.3 are either

positive or zero. Likewise, one meter in front of you and one meter behind

you both have the same distance: 1 meter.

direction information included in its

value.

velocity - a variable that tells you

both speed and direction.

Using positive and The answer is to use position and allow positive and negative numbers. In the

negative numbers diagram below, positive numbers describe positions to the right (in front) of

the origin. Negative numbers are to the left (or behind) the origin.

variable that tells you a direction as well as an amount. Positive and negative

numbers are enough information for a variable when the only directions are

forward and backward. When updown and rightleft are also possible

directions, vectors get more complicated.

positive value or zero.

Velocity Like position, motion can go right, left, forward or backward. We use the term

velocity to mean speed with direction. Velocity is positive when moving to

backward (Figure 4.4).

The difference Velocity is a vector, speed is not. In regular conversation you might use the

between velocity two words to mean the same thing. In science, they are related but different.

and speed Speed can have only a positive value (or zero) that tells you how far you

move per unit of time (like meters per second). Velocity is speed and

direction. If the motion is in a straight line, the direction can be shown with a

positive or negative sign. The sign tells whether you are going forward or

backward and the quantity (speed) tells you how quickly you are moving.

or a negative value.

SC.912.P.12.2-Analyze the motion of an object in terms of its position, velocity, and acceleration (with respect to a frame of reference) as functions of time.

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Chapter

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MOTION

A robot uses vectors Pathfinder is a small robot sent to explore Mars (Figure 4.5). As it moved,

Pathfinder needed to keep track of its position. How did Pathfinder know

where it was? It used its velocity vector and a clock to calculate every move

it made.

Use two variables to Any formula that involves speed can also be used for velocity. For example,

find the third one you move 2 meters if your speed is 0.2 m/s and you keep going for

explorer which landed on Mars in 1997

(NASA/JPL).

10 seconds. But did you move forward or backward? You move 2 meters

(backwards) if you move with a velocity of 0.2 m/s for 10 seconds. Using

the formula with velocity gives you the position instead of distance.

distance is the velocity multiplied by the

time.

Forward and Suppose Pathfinder moves forward at 0.2 m/s for 10 seconds. Its velocity is

backward movement +0.2 m/s. In 10 seconds, its position changes by +2 meters.

Now, suppose Pathfinder goes backward at 0.2 m/s for 4 seconds. This time

the velocity is 0.2 m/s. The change in position is 0.8 meters. A change in

position is velocity time (Figure 4.6).

Adding up a series The computer in Pathfinder adds up +2 m and 0.8 m to get +1.2 m. After

of movements these two moves, Pathfinders position is 1.2 meters in front of where it was.

up each change in position using positive and negative numbers to come up

with a final position (Figure 4.7).

82

is added up using positive and negative

numbers.

SC.912.N.1.1-Define a problem based on a specific body of knowledge, for example: biology, chemistry, physics, and earth/space science.

SC.912.P.12.2-Analyze the motion of an object in terms of its position, velocity, and acceleration (with respect to a frame of reference) as functions of time.

Back

MOTION

Chapter

Two dimensions If Pathfinder was crawling on a straight board, it would have only two choices

for direction. Positive is forward and negative is backward. Out on the surface

of Mars, Pathfinder has more choices. It can turn and go sideways! The

possible directions include north, east, south, west, and anything in between.

A flat surface is an example of two dimensions. We say two because it takes

two number lines to describe every point (Figure 4.8).

lines that form a graph.

coordinates - values that give a

position relative to an origin.

North, south, east, One way to describe two dimensions is to use northsouth as one number

and west line, or axis. Positive positions are north of the origin. Negative positions are

south of the origin. The other axis goes eastwest. Positive positions on this

axis are east of the origin. Negative positions are west of the origin.

Coordinates

describe position

described with two numbers. These

numbers are called coordinates. The

graph at the left shows Pathfinder at the

coordinates of (4, 2) m. The first

number (or coordinate) gives the

position on the eastaxis. Pathfinder is

4 m east of the origin. The second

number gives the position on the north

south axis. Pathfinder is 2 m north of

the origin.

perpendicular dimensions: northsouth

and eastwest. Each dimension has

positive and negative directions.

Maps A graph using northsouth and eastwest axes can accurately show where

Pathfinder is. The graph can also show any path Pathfinder takes, curved or

straight. This kind of graph is called a map. Many street maps use letters on

the northsouth axis and numbers for the eastwest axis. For example, the

coordinates F-4 identify the square that is in row F, column 4 of the map

shown in Figure 4.9.

letters and numbers for coordinates.

SC.912.N.1.1-Define a problem based on a specific body of knowledge, for example: biology, chemistry, physics, and earth/space science.

SC.912.P.12.2-Analyze the motion of an object in terms of its position, velocity, and acceleration (with respect to a frame of reference) as functions of time.

83

Chapter

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MOTION

Vectors on a map

A trip with a turn Suppose you run east for 10 seconds at a speed of 2 m/s. Then you turn and

run south at the same speed for 10 more seconds (Figure 4.10). Where are

you compared to where you started? To get the answer, you figure out your

eastwest changes and your northsouth changes separately.

Figure each Your first movement has a velocity vector of +2 m/s on the eastwest axis.

direction separately After 10 seconds your change in position is +20 meters (east). There are no

only. Your second movement has a velocity vector of 2 m/s northsouth. In

10 seconds you moved 20 meters. The negative sign means you moved

south.

Figure 4.10: A running trip with a

turn.

Use these velocity vectors to

determine the location of Captain

Vectors hidden pirate treasure. Your

starting place is (0, 0).

1. Walk at a velocity of 1 m/s south for

10 seconds.

2. Then, jog at a velocity of 3 m/s east

for 5 seconds.

Figuring your final Now add up any eastwest changes to get your final eastwest position.

position Do the same for your northsouth position. Your new position is

(+20 m, 20 m).

2 seconds.

4. Then walk backward south at a

velocity of 0.5 m/s for 2 seconds.

Where is the treasure relative to your

starting place?

84

SC.912.P.12.2-Analyze the motion of an object in terms of its position, velocity, and acceleration (with respect to a frame of reference) as functions of time.

Back

MOTION

A train travels at 100 km/h heading east to reach a town in 4 hours. The train

then reverses and heads west at 50 km/h for 4 hours. What is the trains

position now?

1. Looking for:

2. Given:

You are given two velocity vectors and the times for each.

3. Relationships:

4. Solution:

The second change in position is (50 km/h) (4 h) = 200 km

The final position is (+400 km) + (200 km) = +200 km. The train is 200 km

east of where it started.

Chapter

Fast Trains!

The Bullet train of Japan was the

worlds first high-speed train. When it

came into use in 1964, it went

210 km/h.

Research todays high-speed trains of

the world. How fast they go?

Research to find out why the United

States lags behind in having highspeed trains. Find out the advantages

and disadvantages of having highspeed trains in the U.S.

.

Your turn...

a. You are walking around your town. First you walk north from your starting

position and walk for 2 hours at 1 km/h. Then, you walk west for 1 hour at

1 km/h. Finally, you walk south for 1 hour at 2 km/h. What is your new

position relative to your starting place?

b. A ship needs to sail to an island that is 1,000 km south of where the ship

starts. If the captain sails south at a steady velocity of 30 km/h for 30

hours, will the ship make it?

1 kilometer west of where you

started.

b. No, because

30 km/h 30 h = 900 km.

The island is still 100 km away.

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Chapter

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MOTION

1. What is the difference between distance and position?

2. From an origin you walk 3 meters east, 7 meters west, and then 6 meters

east. Where are you now relative to the origin?

3. What is your average speed if you walk 2 kilometers in 20 minutes?

4. Give an example where instantaneous speed is different from average

speed.

5. A weather report says winds blow at 5 km/h from the northeast. Is this

description of the wind a speed or velocity? Explain your answer.

6. What velocity vector will move you 200 miles east in 4 hours traveling

at a constant speed?

7. Give an example of a situation in which you would describe an objects

position in:

a. one dimension

b. two dimensions

c. three dimensions

8. A movie theater is 4 kilometers east and 2 kilometers south of your

house.

a. Give the coordinates of the movie theater. Your house is the origin.

b. After leaving the movie theater, you drive 5 kilometers west and

3 kilometers north to a restaurant. What are the coordinates of the

restaurant? Use your house as the origin.

the following questions.

1. How fast is each cyclist going in units

of meters per second*?

2. Which cyclist is going faster? How

much faster is this cyclist going

compared to the other one?

each. Saying 5 kilometers per hour is

the same as saying 5 kilometers for

each hour. You can also think of per as

meaning divided by. The quantity

before the word per is divided by the

quantity after it.

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MOTION

Chapter

Consider the phrase a picture is worth a thousand words. A graph is a special kind of picture that

can quickly give meaning to a lot of data (numbers). You can easily spot relationships on a graph. It

is much more difficult to see these same relationships in columns of numbers. Compare the table of

numbers to the graph in Figure 4.11 and see if you agree!

stays the same and does not

change.

Recording data Imagine you are helping a runner who is training for a track meet. She wants

to know if she is running at a constant speed. Constant speed means the

speed stays the same. You mark the track every 50 meters. Then you measure

her time at each mark as she runs. The data for your experiment is shown in

Figure 4.11. This is position vs. time data because it tells you the runners

position at different points in time. She is at 50 meters after 10 seconds,

100 meters after 20 seconds, and so on.

Graphing data To graph the data, you put position on the vertical (y) axis and time on the

horizontal (x) axis. Each row of the data table makes one point on the graph.

Notice the graph goes over to the right 10 seconds and up 50 meters between

each point. This makes the points fall exactly in a straight line. The straight

line tells you the runner moves the same distance during each equal time

period. An object moving at a constant speed always creates a straight line on

a position vs. time graph.

Calculating speed The data shows that the runner took 10 seconds to run each 50-meter segment.

Because the time and distance was the same for each segment, you know her

speed was the same for each segment. You can use the formula v = d/t to

calculate the speed. Dividing 50 meters by 10 seconds tells you her constant

speed was 5 meters per second.

MA.912.S.3.2-Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data and present visual summaries from the following: bar graphs; line graphs; stem and leaf plots; circle

graphs; histograms; box and whisker plots; scatter plots; and cumulative frequency graphs.

SC.912.P.12.2-Analyze the motion of an object in terms of its position, velocity, and acceleration (with respect to a frame of reference) as functions of time.

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MOTION

Relationships Think about rolling a toy car down a ramp. You theorize that steeper angles

between variables on the ramp will make the car go faster. How do you find out if your theory

is correct? You need to know the relationship between the variables angle

and speed.

Patterns on a graph A good way to show a relationship between two variables is to use a graph.

show relationships A graph shows one variable on the vertical (or y) axis and the second

variable on the horizontal (or x) axis. Each axis is marked with the range of

values the variable has. In Figure 4.12, the x-axis (angle) has values between

0 and 60 degrees. The y-axis (time) has average speed values between 0 and

300 cm/s. You can tell there is a relationship because all the points on the

graph follow the same curve that slopes up and to the right. The curve tells

you instantly that the average speed increases as the ramp gets steeper.

Recognizing a The relationship between variables may be strong, weak, or there may be no

relationship from a relationship at all. In a strong relationship, large changes in one variable

graph make similarly large changes in the other variable, like in Figure 4.12. In a

weak relationship, large changes in one variable cause only small changes in

the other. The graph on the right (below) shows a weak relationship. When

there is no relationship, the graph looks like scattered dots (below left). The

dots do not make an obvious pattern (a line or curve).

the average speed between A and B

increases as the angle of the track

increases.

88

MA.912.S.3.2-Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data and present visual summaries from the following: bar graphs; line graphs; stem and leaf plots; circle

graphs; histograms; box and whisker plots; scatter plots; and cumulative frequency graphs.

SC.912.N.3.5-Describe the function of models in science, and identify the wide range of models used in science.

Back

MOTION

Chapter

Slope

Comparing speeds You can use position vs. time graphs to quickly compare speeds. Figure 4.13

shows a position vs. time graph for two people running along a jogging path.

Both runners start at the beginning of the path (the origin) at the same time.

Runner A (blue) takes 100 seconds to run 600 meters. Runner B (red) takes

150 seconds to go the same distance. Runner As speed is 6 m/s (600 100)

and runner Bs speed is 4 m/s (600 150). Notice that the line for runner A is

steeper than the line for runner B. A steeper line on a position vs. time graph

means a faster speed.

change) to the run (horizontal change)

of a line on a graph.

faster speed.

Calculating slope The steepness of a line is called its slope. The slope is the ratio of the rise

shows how to calculate the slope of a line. Visualize a triangle with the slope

as the hypotenuse. The rise is the height of the triangle. The run is the length

along the base. Here, the x-axis is time and the y-axis is position. The slope of

the graph is therefore the distance traveled divided by the time it takes, or the

speed. The units are the units for the rise (meters) divided by the units for the

run (seconds), meters per second, or m/s.

Figure 4.13: A position vs. time

graph for two runners.

MA.912.S.3.2-Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data and present visual summaries from the following: bar graphs; line graphs; stem and leaf plots; circle

graphs; histograms; box and whisker plots; scatter plots; and cumulative frequency graphs.

SC.912.N.3.5-Describe the function of models in science, and identify the wide range of models used in science.

89

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MOTION

Constant speed on a The speed vs. time graph has speed on the y-axis and time on the x-axis. The

speed vs. time graph bottom graph in Figure 4.14 shows the speed vs. time for the runner. The top

graph shows the position vs. time. Can you see the relationship between the

two graphs? The blue runner has a speed of 5 m/s. The speed vs. time graph

shows a horizontal line at 5 m/s for the entire time. On a speed vs. time

graph, constant speed is shown with a straight horizontal line. At any point in

time between 0 and 60 seconds the line tells you the speed is 5 m/s.

Another example The red runners line on the position vs. time graph has a less steep slope.

That means her speed is slower. You can see this immediately on the speed

vs. time graph. The red runner shows a line at 4 m/s for the whole time.

Calculating distance A speed vs. time graph can also be used to find the distance the object has

we draw a rectangle on the speed vs. time graph between the x-axis and the

line showing the speed. The area of the rectangle (shown below) is equal to

its length times its height. On the graph, the length is equal to the time and

the height is equal to the speed. Therefore, the area of the graph is the speed

multiplied by the time. This is the distance the runner traveled.

as the speed vs. time graph (bottom).

90

MA.912.S.3.2-Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data and present visual summaries from the following: bar graphs; line graphs; stem and leaf plots; circle

graphs; histograms; box and whisker plots; scatter plots; and cumulative frequency graphs.

SC.912.P.12.2-Analyze the motion of an object in terms of its position, velocity, and acceleration (with respect to a frame of reference) as functions of time.

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MOTION

Chapter

1. On a graph of position vs. time, what do the x-values represent? What do

the y-values represent?

2. Explain why time is an independent variable and position is a dependent

variable in a position versus time graph.

3. What does the slope of the line on a position vs. time graph tell you about

an objects speed?

4. The graph in Figure 4.15 shows the position and time for two runners in a

race. Who has the faster speed, Robin or Joel? Explain how to answer this

question without doing calculations.

5. Calculate the speed of each runner from the graph in Figure 4.15.

6. The runners in Figure 4.15 are racing. Predict which runner will get to the

finish line of the race first.

7. Maria walks at a constant speed of 2 m/s for 8 seconds.

a. Draw a speed vs. time graph for Marias motion.

b. How far does she walk?

8. Which of the three graphs below corresponds to the position vs. time

graph in Figure 4.16?

9. Between which times is the speed zero for the motion shown on the

position vs. time graph in Figure 4.16?

Figure 4.16: Questions 8 and 9.

MA.912.S.3.2-Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data and present visual summaries from the following: bar graphs; line graphs; stem and leaf plots; circle

graphs; histograms; box and whisker plots; scatter plots; and cumulative frequency graphs.

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MOTION

4.3 Acceleration

Constant speed is easy to understand. However, almost nothing moves with constant speed for

long. When a driver steps on the gas pedal, the speed of the car increases. When the driver brakes,

the speed decreases. Even while using cruise control, the speed goes up and down as the cars

engine adjusts for hills. Another important concept in physics is acceleration. Acceleration, an

important concept in physics, is how we describe changes in speed or velocity.

velocity changes.

An example of acceleration

Definition of What happens if you coast down a long hill on a bicycle? At the top of the

acceleration hill, you move slowly. As you go down the hill, you move faster and faster

you accelerate. Acceleration is the rate at which your speed

(or velocity) changes. If your speed increases by 1 meter per second (m/s)

each second, then your acceleration is 1 m/s per second.

Acceleration can Your acceleration depends on the steepness of the hill. If the hill is a gradual

change incline, you have a small acceleration, such as 1 m/s each second. If the hill

Acceleration on a Acceleration is easy to spot on a speed vs. time graph. If the speed changes

speed vs. time graph over time then there is acceleration. Acceleration causes the line to slope up

on a speed vs. time graph (Figure 4.17). The graph on the top shows constant

speed. There is zero acceleration at constant speed because the speed does

not change.

92

showing constant speed (top) and

acceleration (middle and bottom).

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MOTION

Chapter

The difference Speed and acceleration are not the same thing. You can be moving (non-zero

between speed and speed) and have no acceleration (think cruise control). You can also be

acceleration accelerating and not moving! But if the brakes are applied and the car slows

Example: Acceleration describes how quickly speed changes. More precisely,

Acceleration in cars acceleration is the change in velocity divided by the change in time. For

example, suppose a powerful sports car changes its speed from zero to

60 mph in 5 seconds. In English units the acceleration is 60 mph 5 seconds

= 12 mph/second. In SI units, 60 mph is about the same as 100 km/h. The

acceleration is 100 km/h 5 seconds, or 20 km/h/s (Figure 4.18). A formula

you can use to calculate acceleration is shown below.

sports car.

Acceleration in To calculate acceleration, you divide the change in velocity by the amount of

metric units time it takes for the change to happen. If the change in speed is in kilometers

per hour, and the time is in seconds, then the acceleration is in km/h/s or

kilometers per hour per second. An acceleration of 20 km/h/s means that the

speed increases by 20 km/h every second.

What does units of The time units for acceleration are often written as seconds squared or s2. For

seconds squared example, acceleration might be 50 meters per second squared or 50 m/s2. The

mean? steps in Figure 4.19 show how to simplify the fraction m/s/s to get m/s2.

think about acceleration in units of speed change per second (that is, meters

per second per second).

Figure 4.19: How do we get m/s2?

MA.912.S.1.2-Determine appropriate and consistent standards of measurement for the data to be collected in a survey or experiment.

SC.912.P.12.2-Analyze the motion of an object in terms of its position, velocity, and acceleration (with respect to a frame of reference) as functions of time.

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MOTION

A sailboat moves at 1 m/s. A strong wind increases its speed to 4 m/s in

3 seconds (Figure 4.20). Calculate the acceleration.

1. Looking for:

2. Given:

You are given the initial speed in m/s (v1), final speed in m/s (v2), and the

time in seconds.

v v

Use the formula for acceleration: a = 2 1

t

3. Relationships:

4. Solution:

a=

=

= 1 m/s 2

3s

3s

Figure 4.20: An acceleration

Your turn...

example.

speed of 45 m/s in 9 seconds.

b. Calculate the acceleration of a car that slows from 50 m/s to 30 m/s in

10 seconds.

a. 5 m/s2

b. 2 m/s2

94

Back

MOTION

Chapter

Acceleration on a A speed vs. time graph is useful for showing how the speed of a moving

speed vs. time graph object changes over time. Think about a car moving on a straight road. If the

line on the graph is horizontal, then the car is moving at a constant speed (top

of Figure 4.21). The upward slope in the middle graph shows increasing

speed. The downward slope of the bottom graph tells you the speed is

decreasing. The word acceleration is used for any change in speed, up or

down.

Positive and Acceleration can be positive or negative. Positive acceleration in one

negative direction adds more speed each second. Things get faster. Negative

acceleration acceleration in one direction subtracts some speed each second, Things get

down.

Acceleration on a The position vs. time graph is a curve when there is acceleration. Think about

position vs. time a car that is accelerating (speeding up). Its speed increases each second. That

graph means it covers more distance each second. The position vs. time graph gets

steeper each second. The opposite happens when a car is slowing down. The

speed decreases so the car covers less distance each second. The position vs.

time graph gets shallower with time, becoming flat when the car is stopped.

and acceleration (middle, bottom).

MA.912.S.3.2-Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data and present visual summaries from the following: bar graphs; line graphs; stem and leaf plots; circle

graphs; histograms; box and whisker plots; scatter plots; and cumulative frequency graphs.

SC.912.P.12.2-Analyze the motion of an object in terms of its position, velocity, and acceleration (with respect to a frame of reference) as functions of time.

95

Chapter

Back

MOTION

Free fall

The definition of free An object is in free fall if it is accelerating due to the force of gravity and no

fall other forces are acting on it. A dropped ball is almost in free fall from the

instant it leaves your hand until it reaches the ground. The almost is

because there is a little bit of air friction that does make an additional force

on the ball. A ball thrown upward is also in free fall after it leaves your hand.

Even going up, the ball is in free fall because gravity is the only significant

force acting on it.

The acceleration of

gravity

free fall on Earth accelerate

downward, increasing their speed

by 9.8 m/s every second. The value

9.8 m/s2 is called the acceleration

due to gravity. The small letter g

is used to represent its value. When

you see the lowercase letter g in a

physics question, you can

substitute the value 9.8 m/s2.

happens when an object falls with

only the force of gravity acting on it.

acceleration due to gravity - the

value of 9.8 m/s2, which is the

acceleration in free fall at Earths

surface, usually represented by the

small letter g.

Constant The speed vs. time graph in Figure 4.22 is for a ball in free fall. Because the

acceleration graph is a straight line, the speed increases by the same amount each second.

This means the ball has a constant acceleration. Make sure you do not

confuse constant speed with constant acceleration! Constant acceleration

means an objects speed changes by the same amount each second.

96

second, so its constant acceleration is

9.8 m/s2.

Back

MOTION

Chapter

A change in If an objects acceleration is zero, the object can only move at a constant

direction is speed in a straight line (or be stopped). A car driving around a curve at a

acceleration constant speed is accelerating (in the physics sense) because its direction is

speed, direction, or both.

What change in What do we mean by change in direction? Consider a car traveling east. Its

direction means velocity is drawn as an arrow pointing east. Now suppose the car turns

Drawing vectors When drawing velocity arrows, the length represents the speed. A 2 cm arrow

stands for 10 m/s (22 mph). A 4 cm arrow is 20 m/s, and so on. At this scale,

each centimeter stands for 5 m/s. You can now find the change in velocity by

measuring the length of the arrow that goes from the old velocity vector to the

new one.

Figure 4.23: A car can change its

or turning. The car is accelerating in

each of these cases.

Turns are caused by The small red arrow in the graphic above represents the difference in velocity

sideways before and after the turn. The change vector is 1 centimeter long, which

accelerations equals 5 m/s. Notice the speed is the same before and after the turn! However,

caused by a sideways acceleration.

SC.912.P.12.2-Analyze the motion of an object in terms of its position, velocity, and acceleration (with respect to a frame of reference) as functions of time.

97

Chapter

Back

MOTION

Curved motion

Acceleration and Like velocity, acceleration has direction and is a vector. Curved motion is

curved motion caused by sideways accelerations. Sideways accelerations cause velocity to

through space and affected only by

gravity.

An example of As an example of curved motion, imagine a soccer ball kicked into the air.

curved motion The ball starts with a velocity vector at an upward angle (Figure 4.24). The

acceleration of gravity bends the path of the velocity vector more toward the

ground during each second the ball is in the air. Therefore, gravity

accelerates the ball downward as it moves through the air. Near the end of

the motion, the direction of the balls velocity vector is angled down toward

the ground. The path of the ball makes a bowl-shaped curve called a

parabola.

Projectiles A soccer ball is an example of a projectile. A projectile is an object moving

under the influence of only gravity. The action of gravity is to constantly turn

the velocity vector more and more downward. Flying objects such as

airplanes and birds are not projectiles, because they are affected by forces

generated from their own power.

Circular motion

98

An object in circular motion has a velocity vector

that constantly changes direction. Imagine

whirling a ball around your head on a string. You

have to pull the string to keep the ball moving in a

circle. Your pull accelerates the ball toward you.

That acceleration is what bends the balls velocity

into a circle with you at the center. Circular

motion always has an acceleration that points

toward the center of the circle. In fact, the

direction of the acceleration changes constantly

so it always stays pointed toward the center of the

circle.

is a projectile. The path of the ball is a

bowl-shaped curve called a parabola.

Back

MOTION

Chapter

1. Nearly all physics problems will use the unit m/s2 for acceleration.

Explain why the seconds are squared. Why isnt the unit given as m/s, as

it is for speed?

2. Suppose you are moving left (negative) with a velocity of -10 m/s. What

happens to your speed if you have a negative acceleration? Do you speed

up or slow down?

3. A rabbit starts from a resting position and moves at 6 m/s after 3 seconds.

What is the acceleration of the rabbit? (Figure 4.25)

4. You are running a race and you speed up from 3 m/s to 5 m/s in 4 seconds.

a. What is your change in speed?

b. What is your acceleration?

5. Does a car accelerate when it goes around a corner at a constant speed?

Explain your answer.

6. A sailboat increases its speed from 1 m/s to 4 m/s in 3 seconds. What will

the speed of the sailboat be at 6 seconds if the acceleration stays the

same? (Figure 4.26)

7. The graph at the right shows the speed of a person

riding a bicycle through a city. Which point (A, B,

or C) on the graph is a place where the bicycle has

speed but no acceleration? How do you know?

8. What happens to the speed of an object that is

dropped in free fall?

9. A ball is in free fall after being dropped. What will

the speed of the ball be after 2 seconds of free fall?

10. What happens when velocity and acceleration are not in the same

direction? What kind of motion occurs?

11. The Earth moves in a nearly perfect circle around the Sun. Assume the

speed stays constant. Is the Earth accelerating or not?

99

Back

Chapter 4

BIOLOGY8CONNECTION

High Tech

Animal

Trackers

April 22, 2007A young harp seal was found stranded on a beach in

Virginias Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge. He appeared slightly thin

with some superficial injuries. Park rangers, optimistic that he would heal

on his own, placed him under observation. Unfortunately, park visitors

didnt heed requests to keep a respectful distance from the seal.

For the seals and the publics safety, he was captured and sent to

the Virginia Aquarium Stranding Center. Veterinarians treated him

with antibiotics, and soon he was consuming 10 pounds of herring a

day. In less than a month, the seal grew from 35 to 66 pounds.

During that time, a 13-year-old girl asked her birthday party guests

to bring donations to the Aquariums Stranding Response Program

instead of gifts. With the money she collected, the aquarium

purchased a satellite tag to track the seals movements.

On May 19, 2007, the tag was attached and the healthy seal was

released back to the ocean.

What Is a

Satellite Tag?

A satellite tag is a palmsized, salt-water-resistant

data collector with an

antenna attached. It

is glued to the fur of a

seals upper back, where

it remains until the seal

molts and the tag falls off.

100

The tag records information including the time, date, dive depth, dive

duration, and amount of time at the surface over the last six hours.

When the seal surfaces, the tag transmits this data to satellites orbiting

Earth. Sometimes there are no satellites overhead when the animal

surfaces, so data isnt received every day.

When data is received, instruments on the satellite record the location

of the tag and relay the data to processing computers back on

Earth. Organizations such as WhaleNet (;Internet keyword search:

whalenet) make this information available online, where it is used

by marine scientists, government and conservation organizations,

and students.

WhaleNets Satellite Tagging Observation Program (STOP) provided

the following information about the seals journey.

Date

Time (GMT)

Time Elapsed

Latitude

Longitude

Distance Traveled

since previous

from previous point

point (h:min)

05/19/07

10:06

0

36.850 N

76.283 W

0 km

(This is the release

locationFirst Landing

State Park, Virginia).

05/30/07

04:45

258:39

42.195 N

65.554 W

1096 km

06/03/07

07:27

98:42

44.317 N

63.137 W

307 km

06/05/07

19:20

59:53

45.294 N

60.812 W

214 km

06/11/07

03:11

127:51

45.749 N

59.440 W

119 km

240 km

06/16/07

20:16

137:05

47.669 N

58.009 W

06/19/07

08:11

59:55

46.594 N

56.125 W

186 km

06/25/07

13:17

149:06

48.523 N

51.069 W

437 km

06/28/07

06:25

65:08

50.412 N

51.192 W

210 km

07/03/07

08:46

122:21

54.127 N

54.070 W

458 km

07/05/07

00:40

39:54

54.889 N

55.558 W

128 km

07/09/07

19:08

114:28

56.665 N

59.970 W

340 km

each leg of his journey. To calculate his average speed on the first leg:

moves toward the ocean.

258 hours 39 minutes = 258 39/60 hours = 258.65 hours

2. Plug the values into the speed formula: speed = distance time.

Speed = 1096 km / 258.65 h = 4.237 km/h

SC.912.N.4.2Weigh the merits of alternative strategies for solving a specific societal problem by comparing a number of different costs and benefits, such as human, economic, and environmental.

Back

BIOLOGY8CONNECTION

Sea ice formed late and broke up early for

seven of the eleven years between 1996

and 2007. Satellite tagging data helps us

monitor how animals respond to these

changing conditions. Some seals travel

further north. Others have tried to adapt

to new habitatsfor example, seals have

given birth on land instead of ice.

There the pups face new predators like

foxes, wolves, and domestic and wild

dogsanimals that dont hunt on ice.

various points on his journey can help

us gain insight into his behavior. For

example, between June 5 and June 11,

his average speed slowed significantly.

During that time, he remained in a

small area just off the coast of Cape

Breton Island. The satellite data

suggests that this area may be a

critical habitat for the harp seal.

What was he doing there? Resting?

Feeding? Finding answers to these

questions can help us make better

decisions about how and when we

humans use this coastal region.

J. Michael Williamson, WhaleNets

founder and director, explains, Similar

data from tagging right whales has led

to changes in shipping lanes around

the whales feeding areas and slowed

shipping traffic through areas where

whale calves are born. Satellite tagging

research studies have led to many new

laws and guidelines governing human

activities around endangered species.

Chapter 4

New Insights,

Improved Coexistence

about seal population activity with

government agencies that monitor seal

hunting and fishing industries. If the seal

population declines, new regulations

could be enacted to restrict hunts and/or

protect the seals food sources and critical

habitat areas, while areas with abundant

resources can be opened to the fishing

industry. The more we learn about how

animals interact with their environments,

the better decisions we can make about

how we as humans use the oceans.

Satellite Tracking Map of the seals journey.

Satellite tagging data can help us understand more about how

animals adapt to changes in their environment. For example, marine

scientists are paying careful attention to how far up the Davis Strait

harp seals travel. Harp seals stop their northward journey when they

run into sea ice, rather than swimming under it, since they need to

breathe air like we do.

Harp seals rest, mate, molt, and grow new coats on the sea ice. They

also give birth and nurse their pups on the ice. If the ice breaks up

before the pups are weaned, the pups may drown or be crushed

between large chunks of ice.

Questions:

1. What was the seals average speed between June 5 and

June 11, 2007?

2. Name two ways satellite tagging can help humans

make better decisions about how we use the oceans.

3. Research: Using an Internet keyword search for

WhaleNet, find out what marine animal species are

currently tagged. Use the website resources to create

your own map of one animals journey. Compare your

animals top speed to the harp seals. What questions

do you have about your animals travels?

SC.912.N.4.2Weigh the merits of alternative strategies for solving a specific societal problem by comparing a number of different costs and benefits, such as human, economic, and environmental.

101

Chapter

Back

MOTION

Chapter 4 Assessment

Vocabulary

Select the correct term to complete the sentences.

position

projectile

origin

average speed

speed

vector

graph

velocity

axis

independent variable

coordinates

slope

dependent variable

constant speed

free fall

acceleration

the ____.

Section 4.3

14. An object moving in a curved path and affected only by

gravity is called a(n) ____.

15. An object accelerating under only the force of gravity is said

to be in ____.

1.

9.8 m/s2, the ____.

2.

direction is called a ____.

Concepts

3.

Section 4.1

4.

5.

6.

____ is speed that does not change over time and ____ is the

total distance divided by the total time of a trip.

7.

8.

Section 4.1

1.

2.

3.

Write the form of the speed equation that you would see in

each of the following scenarios.

Let v = speed, t = time, and d = distance.

Section 4.2

9.

relationship between variables is a(n) ____.

11. The variable usually represented on the x-axis of a graph is

the ____.

102

4.

a.

You know distance and speed and want to find the time.

b.

You know time and distance and want to find the speed.

c.

You know speed and time and want to find the distance.

How are the variables speed and velocity different? How are

they similar?

Back

MOTION

5.

6.

or negative? Write + for positive or for negative.

a.

b.

c.

____ up

____ down

____ left

e.____ north

f.____ south

g.____ east

d.

____ right

h.____ west

If you are given x-y axes coordinates of (4, 9), which axis is

represented by the number 9?

9.

Chapter

Section 4.2

constant speed?

7.

Section 4.3

8.

to make house plants grow taller. The two variables in this

experiment are amount of light and the height of the plants.

Which variable is the dependent variable and which is the

independent variable? Explain your answer.

Look at the graph below and answer the following questions.

a.

b.

c.

For how many seconds has runner A run at the 300meter position?

Make a sketch of

this graph in your

notebook. Add a

line to the graph

that represents a

third runner who

has a speed that is

slower than the

speeds of runner A

and B. This new

line should begin

at the origin of the

graph.

constant speed and still be accelerating?

12. Can an object have a speed of zero while it has an

acceleration that is not zero? Explain.

13. Which of these graphs show acceleration occurring

Problems

Section 4.1

1.

your new position if you move 10 centimeters to the left of

this position?

2.

would it take the train to travel 1,500 km at this speed?

103

Chapter

MOTION

3.

speed of 33.6 km/h in the 15th stage of the Tour de France,

which took 4.00 hours. How far (in kilometers) did he travel

in the race?

4.

in miles per minute?

5.

65 mph. What is your speed in km/h? The conversion factor

is: 1.0 mph = 1.6 km/h.

6.

distance (m)

speed (m/s)

time (s)

10

45

100

7.

many miles does the pelican travel? The conversion factor is:

1.6 km/h = 1.0 mph.

8.

in each of the following units.

9.

Back

a.

b.

c.

If it takes 500 seconds for the light from the Sun to reach

Earth, what is the distance to the Sun in meters? (The speed

of light is 300,000,000 meters/second.)

10. Look at the graph below and give the coordinates for each

point.

11. A train travels 50 km/h south for 2 hours. Then the train

travels north at 75 km/h for 5 hours. Where is the train now

relative to its starting position?

12. You want to arrive at your friends house by 5 p.m. Her

house is 240 kilometers away. If your average speed will be

80 km/h on the trip, when do you need to leave your house in

order to get to her house in time?

13. Starting from school, you bicycle 2 km north, then 6 km

east, then 2 km south.

a.

b.

c.

What is your final position compared to your school?

How far and in what direction must you travel to return

to school?

14. If you walk 8 blocks north and then 3 blocks south from your

home, what is your position compared to your home? What

distance did you walk?

15. You use an x-y plane to represent your position. Starting at

(+150 m, 50 m), you walk 20 meters west and 30 meters

north. What are your new coordinates?

104

Back

MOTION

Chapter

16. A bird flies from its nest going north for 2 hours at a speed of

20 km/h and then goes west for 3 hours at 15 km/h. What

are the distance coordinates for the bird relative to its nest?

21. When a ball is first dropped off a cliff in free fall, it has an

acceleration of 9.8 m/s2. What is its acceleration as it gets

closer to the ground? Assume no air friction.

Section 4.2

22. Why is the position vs. time graph for an object in free fall a

curve?

17. Draw the position vs. time graph for a person walking at a

constant speed of 1 m/s for 10 seconds. On the same axes,

draw the graph for a person running at a constant speed of

4 m/s.

18. Calculate the speed represented by each position vs. time

graph below.

6

4

2

0

24. Draw a speed vs. time graph for a car that starts at rest and

steadily accelerates until it is moving at 40 m/s after

20 seconds. Then answer the following questions.

a.

b.

Position (m)

Position (m)

23. Draw a speed vs. time graph for an object accelerating from

rest at 2 m/s2.

Time (s)

25. Draw a speed vs. time graph for each of the following

situations.

4

2

0

What distance did the car travel during the 20 seconds?

a.

b.

c.

Time (s)

19. Draw the speed vs. time graph that shows the same motion

as each position vs. time graph above.

Section 4.3

10 seconds to go from 0 km/h to 100 km/h. What is the

acceleration of the garbage truck? How much slower is the

acceleration of the garbage truck compared to the

acceleration of the sports car in Figure 4.18?

A ball is rolling up a hill and gradually slows down.

A car starts out at rest at a red light and gradually

speeds up.

Section 4.1

1.

is it possible for another car with an average speed of

55 mph to pass you? Explain your answer.

2.

south of a starting point. Write a 5-step velocity vector

problem that will get you to this point. You must travel in at

least three directions before you get to your end point.

LA.910.2.2.3-The student will organize information to show understanding or relationships among facts, ideas, and events.

105

Chapter

3.

Back

MOTION

Section 4.3

a.

from a starting point in search of water: 10 km north, 3

km east, 7 km west, 20 km south, and 4 km east. Where

does the herd end up relative to its starting point?

5.

motion that would create a graph shaped like the one below.

b.

starting point. Does the herd make it to the watering

hole? If not, write down the directions the herd would

need to follow to get to the watering hole from their end

position.

6.

Now draw a speed vs. time graph that shows the same

motion as the position vs. time graph above.

Section 4.2

4.

for 100 seconds. Then he runs at 3 m/s for 200 seconds. His

shoe comes untied, so he stops for 20 seconds to tie it.

Finally he runs at 4 m/s for 200 seconds.

a.

Use the table below to calculate Olivers position during

each part during his warm up.

b.

c.

d.

warm-up?

speed (m/s)

106

time (s)

position (m)

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