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SIEMENS

CABLE
BOOK

POWER CABLES

&
THEIR APPLICATIONS

PART 1
VOLUME

-t

Power Cables
and th eirApplication
Part

Materials . Construction
Criteria for Selection
Prniont
r I vJvvr Ple n nin n
Laying and Installation . Accessories
Measuring and Testing

Editor: Lothar Heinhold

3rd revised edition. 1990

Siemens Aktiengesellschaft

Observations on the German terms


and the VDE Specifications

'

'Kabel' and oLeitungen'

Kabel' and 'Leitungen'

Porrer cables are used for rhe transmission of elecrrical energy or as control cables lor the purpuses of

measurement, control and monitorin-s in electric


pouer installations. In German usage. a disrinction
rs made rraditionally benr.een 'Kabel' and .Leitungen'.

'Leituneen' (literally'leads') are used. generally


speaking. for wiring in equipment. in u.inng installations and for connections to moving or mobile cquipments and units. The terrn can thus be rranslated
as 'insulatcd wires' or 'l.iring' or .flerible cables'

or'cords'.
'Kabel' (cables) are used principally for power rransmission and distribution in electricity supply-aurhoritv sys[ems. in indusrry and in mines etc.

$'ith the use of modern insulating and

sheathin_s materials rhe constructional differences between .Kabel'


and 'Leirungen' are in many cases no longer discernl

ole.

The disrinction is therelore observed purelv in terms


of rhe area of applicarion. as desiribed in DIN
lDE 0:98 Part I for pouer cables and part 3 for
s.iring and flexible cables, and in the desien specifica_
tions referred to lherein. e.g. DIN VDE Oij0for wiring and flexible cables and DIN VDE 0271 for pVC
insulated cables.

Further factors in the choice between .Kabel' and


'Leitungen' are the equipment Specifications (e.g.
DIN VDE 0700), the installation Specifications (e.g.
DIN VDE 0100) or the operating stresses to be expected.

It can be taken as a rule of thumb that .Leirungen'


must not be laid in the ground, and that cables of

flexible construction are classified as .Leituneen'.


even if their rared voltase is higher rhan 0.6I kV
- e.g. trailing cables. This apart, there are also types
of 'Kabel' that are nor inrended for laying in the
_eround (e.g. halogen-free cables with improved performance in condirions of fire to DIN VDE 0266.
or ship lirin! cibles to DfN VDE 0261).r - .."

In the present translation the ierms 'cable' an,

'porver cable' have been used to include flexible anr_


u iring cables where there is no risk of confusion.

\-DE

Specifications

From considerations of consistencv in references an,


for greater clrrity, the VDE Specificarions applicabl_
to po$er cables are eeneralll' quoted in accorcancc
rvith the new pracrice as 'DIN VDE . . . .'.

This applies equalll ro rhe older specificationr


ri hich still retain the designarion , VDE . . . ' or

'DIN

57

..

./VDE

..

.' in their tirles. Furrhermore

since these specifications are of lundamental significancc, the practice of quoring rhe date of publication
has been dispensed wirh.

Insulated Wires and Flexible Cables

Constructional Elements

of Insulated Cables
Conductors

ll

l.l
l.:

Wiring Cables and Flexible Cables

l2

Porver Crbles

IJ

Insulation

l)

l5

3.1

l'7

3.1. r

tr.)

Poll mers
Thermoplastics (Plastomers)
Copolymers F)uoroplastics. Polvr rni l Chloridc {PVC) Pohcthylenc tPE)
Cross- Linked Pol.vethylene (XLPE)
Elastomers
Thcrmoplastic Elastomers lTPE).Conducting Rubber.Natural R ubber (NR).
Stl rene Butadienc Rubbcr (SBR).Nirrile
Butadiene Rubber (NBR1. Butyl Rubber
( IIR ). E thylene- Pro py lene Rubber (EPR).
Silicone Rubber (SiR).Ethl lene Vin;-i
Acerrre (EVA)
Thermosetting Polymers (Duromers)
Chemicel Aging of Poh nrcrs
Thc Intluence of Moisrure on
Polyolefi ne Insulating !larerials
Impregnatcd Paper
Lirerature Referred to in Secrion 2

Protective She:lths

J.l
3.2
J.J

Thermoplastic Sheaths
Elastomer Sheaths
Sheathing Materials for Special

3'l

Purposes

lvletal Shearh

39
39

Protection against Corrosion

.ll

Cable rvith Lead Sheath


Aluminium-Sheathed Cables

4l

Armour

43

Concentric Conductors

41

)
1.1

l.l.t
l.

l.l

)t

2.)
!.)

1t

8
3.1

3.!t

8.1.1
8.1.2
3.1.3
8.1.1
3.1.1
3.1.

::)

3.i

-r

3.1

io

J_1

t.1
'1 a

45

Conducting Layers
Metallic Componen!s of Electrical

45

Screening

46

Longitudinally Water proof Screens.

47

.19

Core ldentificrrion of Clblcs

3l

ll
lt.l
I l.:

Application tnd Installxtion of Cablcs


Rated Voltagc. Opcraring Volrilge
Selcction of Conductor Cross-Sectional
Area

.19
.19

54

))
55
56

6:
1l

/)

86
33

89

Power Cables

lZ

National and Intcrnational Standards

0t

t2.l

VDE Specifications
Standards oI Other Countries
IEC and CENELEC Standards

01

12.2
12.3

94
94

l3

Tlpes of Construction of LowHigh-Voltage Cables

IJ.-t
13.2

General
Type Designation
Selection of Cables and Accessories

100

Power Cables for Special Applicatiom

124

t.)..)

Electrical Screening

National and International Standards


VDESpecifications
HarmonizedSrandards
National Types
IEC Standards
Selection of Flcxible Cables
Clbles ibr Fircd I nsrallations
Fiexible Cablcs
FLEXO Cords
Flcxiblc Ceblcs lbr \lining and
Industrv
Halosen-Free SIENOPYR Wiring rnd
Flexible Ca bles rritlt Improvco
Perlormrnce in thc Evenr of Frrc

Dcfinition of Locltions
to DIN !'DE 0100

3'7

38

.+9

t0

?7
30
J)

TJpes of Wires and Cables

14.1
14.2

and

Cable wirh Elastomer Insulation


Shipboard Power Cable
14.2.L Constructionand Characteristics

102

t:+
124
124

1.1.2.2 Application and Installation


1.1.3 Halogen-Free Cables with Improved
Characteristics in the Case of Fire
1.1.3.1 Testing Performance under Conditions
of Fire
Spread of Fire.Corrosivity of Combusrion Gases. Smoke Density. Insulation
Retention under Conditions of Fire
Construction and Characteristics
l+,_).J
L:r1ing end I nsralla rion
t.1.4
Cables for Mine Shafts and Galleries
14.5
R ivcr and Sea Crbles

125

l:)

18.4

ll5

18.4.1
18.4.2

l:8
129

Airport Cablcs

lJl

11.7

131

1{8

Cable ',vith Polymer Insulation and


Lead Sheath
I nsulated Overhead Line Cables

l5

High- and Extra-High-\roltage Cables

lJ+

1i.1

Cable with Polymcr Insulation

5.2

5.3

i.3.1

15.1.2
15.3.3

Lo*.Pressure Oil-Filled Cable wirh


Leld or Aluminium Sheath
Thermally Stable Cable in Stcel Pipe
High-Pressure Oil-Filled Cable
lnternai Gas-Prcssu re Crble
External Gas-Pressure Cablc (Pressure
Cable)

18.4.3

1i0

1r.6

18.2.4 Use of Tables


18.3 Calculation of Load Capacity

t.)!

18.-1..:l

J+

1i5

Ca b les

18.4.6

139

Planning of Cable Installations

16
17
17.1
17.2
17.3

Guide for Planning of Cable


Installations

t4l

18.5
8.5.1

Cable Rated Voltages

t+o

18.5.2

.Allocation of Cable Rated Voltages


Rated Lightning Impulse Withstand
Voltage
Voltage Stresses in the Event of Earth
Fault

l+o

18.5.3
18.6

Current-Carrving Capacity in Normal


Operation
18.1
Terms, Definitions and Regulations
18.2
Operating Conditions and Design
Tables
18.2.1 Operating Conditions forlnstallations
in Ground
18.2.2 Operating Conditions, Installation in

'| .11

147

1E

air
18.2.3 Project Design Tables

Load Capacity Installed in Ground/Air.


Rating Factors for Installation in

Ground, lor Differing Air Temperatures


and for Groups in Air

150
150

152

t52
157
159

Pipcs

Thernral Resisrances I{ and ?'i.Load


Capacity for an Installarion of Pipes in
Ground or Air or in Ducts Banks

1i8
139

18.6.1
18.6.2

18.6.3
18.6.4
18.6.5
18.6.6
18.7
18.8
19
19.1

19.2
19.2.1

l8t

ThermalResistances
184
Thermal Resistance of the Cable
18.1
Thermal Rcsistance of Air
186
Horizontal I nstallation . Vertical Installation . Atmospheric Pressure. .\mbicnt
Temperature. Solar Radiarion. Arr;r n-genrent of Cables
Thermal Resistance of the Soil
. lgi
Temperature Field of a Cable.Definition
of Soil-Thermal Resistance . Daily Load
Curve and Characteristic Diameter 'Drying-Out of the Soil and Boundary Isorherm d. Fictitious Soil-Thermal Resistance 7"j and ?"j".Load Capacirv
v
Grouping in the Ground
. 107
Fictitious Additional Thennal Rcsistanccs
AIj and AIi- duc to Grouping.Loud Capacity. Extension of the Dn .\rea.Current-C:rrrying Cupacity ol Dissimilar

18.-1.5 Installation in Ducts and

138

180

Soil-Thermal-Resisrivity

. l1-i -

. ll

{J

Cable in thc Ground. Phi'sical and Thermal Characteristics of Soil. Influcnce of


Moisture Content.Msasurins. Basic
Quantities for Calculation Bedding Matcrial.Sand.Gravel Mixtures. Sand-Ccmcnt
Mixtures Calculation of Loud Caplcity
Installation in Channcls and Tunncls ?-10
Unventilatcd Channels and Tunncls .,.0
Arransemcnt of Cablcs in Tunncls . 133

Channcls u'ith Forced Venrilation


Load Capacity of a Cablc for ShortTime and Intermittcnt Operatron

General

215

.
.

239

Calculation with Minimum Time Value


Adiabatic Heat Rise
.
Root-Mean-Square Value of Current
.
Short-Time Operation
Intermittent Operation
.
Symbols Used in Formulae in Section l8
Literature Referred to in Section 18. .

239

239

241

241

242

243

245

250

1<1 Short-Circuit Conditions


General
Temperature Rise of Conductor under
1<'l
Line-To-Earth Short Circuit
Conductor and Sheat Currents under
Line-To-Earth Short Circuit
257
Load Capacity under Line-To-Earth
Short-Circuit
/J9

i
I

l9.i
l9.l.

Short-Circuit Thcrntal Rating


Guidc tbr Projcct Dcsrgn .

r65

"

l6J

'

Pcrlornrrncc undcr Short'CircuiL Condirions Short-Circuit Dut).' Short-Circuit


Crplcity ol' Conductor. Scrccns- Shclths

ll.l
ll.l

end.\rmour
Criculutions of Short-Circuit Capacity
..\dirbltic und Non- \rlilbrrtic Tcmpcrl-

185

19.3.+
19..r
19..1. I

v.+.1

ing Short-Circuit
Thermo-N{echanic;rl Forccs and
. 292
Erpansion
Gcnerll EtTcct of Thermal Explnsion in
Crblcs Mounting ot' Singlc-Core Cables
296
Accessones
.
.
C"p".iry
Short-Circuit
\fechanical
19'7
Elecrromlgnetic Forccs
Eilccr of Electromagnctic Forccs LineTo-Elrth. Linc-To-Line und Balanced
Thrcc-Phlsc Short Circuit
i00
\lulti-Corc Crrblc
Tcnsilc Force fi Surlucc Prcssure fi'
Clble Construction Erperience and
Calcuhtion Quantities Firing Elements
Single-Core Cables and Fixing

\[cthods
Bcnding Stress Surluce Prcssure
Srrcssing ol' C)amps

l9.l.,l

lnd

fi

.\cccssories
Sl mbols used

19.6

in Scction l9
Litcrature Rcfcrrcd to in Section l9

in Formulae

Resistance and Resistance per Unit


Lcngth of Conductor

20

20. r

20.2
20.1

ir

Resistance per Unit Length on d.c.


Resistance pcr Unit Lcngth on a.c.
Currcnt Reiatcd Losses
Inductance and lnductance per Unit
Length

-l.t
i.2
21.2.1

21.2.2
21.2.3
11 1,1

tt

21.4

_r05

Inductance per Unit Length of a


Conductor System
Single-Core Cables
Earthed at Both Ends
Arrangement of Cables
Earthing from Either One or Both
Ends of Metal Sheath or Screen
Cross-Bonding of the Sheaths,
Transposition of the Cables

Multi-Core Cables
Zero-Sequence Impedance and ZeroSequence Impedance per Unit Length
Literature Referred to in Section 21

23

Clp:rcitlnce :tnd C:lpacitancc per Lnit

Lcngth
ccncnrl

. -ili
. ll6
. 319
.

J-U

320
321

3?2

322

-ri l

l-l1

. li't
. il6

InsulationResistance,Insulation
Resistrnce per Unit Length
rnd Leakage

)) I

.
21 Determination of Voltage Drop
. i40
ll.l General
.
l-+.1 Short Cable Runs
. ll0
l+.i Long Cable Runs
25 Economic Optimization of Cable Size i'll
l-i.l S;-mbols used in Formulae in
i47
Section 25
.
i-17
25
in
Section
to
Relerred
15.: Lircrature
Porver Cables nith
26 Interference of
-f
-1'+0

-1-10

ud

elecommunication

Crbles

lntcrtcrcncc
16.1.1 \lutual Inductancc
16.1.1 Inducing Currcnts
16.l.i Current Rcduction Fcctor of the
Intlucncing Powcr Cable
16.l

lnductivc

16.1.-l Voltagc Reduction Factor of


i20

.lil

Operating Capacitance per Unit


Lcngth Ci
Clpacitivc Currcnt /i and Earth'Fault
Currcnt ,fi of a Cable
Dielcctric Losses

Control

Binders

19.5

:1.-.1

ll.+

rurc Risc ivtethod Tcmperature Rise dur-

19.1.3

27

Z7

. -151
. ]51
. -lil
. i52

the

355

357

Noise Voltage in Symmetrical Circuits


.
Ohmic Intert'crence
.
Interference
Inductive and Ohmic
.
Details Required for Planning
.
Crlculated Example

358

lnl'lucnccd Telccommunication Cable


16.1-5 Rcduction Factors of Compensating

26).
16.3
26.1
l6.j
:6.6

l'19

Conductors

i58
359

i59
160

Design and Calculation of Distribution

- J-:O

.362
Systems
. 362
27.1 Introduction
Requirement
Determination of Power
27 .Z

27

. 32f
. 322
328

. 328
. 329
329

JJU

as a Basis for Planning


.?..1 Load Requirement of Dwellings
27 -2.2 Load Requirements of Special

JOJ

363
365

Consumers
27.2.3
27.3

Total Load
Planning of Distribution

Systems

366

27.3.t
z't.3.2

General
Selection of Distribution Voltase

JOO

JOO

JO/

'^^'
.-'
and lypes ol up-

17.3.3 Low-Voltage Systems

368

Ststcm Configuratron
ciation in the Public Supply Extension of
a Low-Voltage System Systems of Buildings lndustrial SupPly Systems Location
oisubstations Component Parts of the

Calculation ol
Inlestigations of Protective Measures
Asainst Excessive Touch Voltage
27.4.,1 In" estigation of Short-Circuit
Protection and Discrimination
17.+.5 Computer-Aided Systenr Calculation
27.5 Literature Referred to in Section 27

Cable ldentification Marking

385

)9.1
29.2
29.3

29.4
29.4.1

29.4.1
29.5
29.5.1

29.5.2
29.6
29.6.1

29.6.1
30
30.1

Jl.t

Outer Sheath of Polyvinylchloride


lPVC) and PolyethYlene tPE)
Jute Servines on Cables s'ith Lead

420

i1.2

189

Manufacturers,VDE-Marking
Colours of Outer Sheaths and
Prolective Coverings
Core Identification for Power Cables
up to Uql U:0.6/ I kV
Core Identification for Cables for

Lal ing the Cables


Transporting
Preparation for LaYing the Cable
Differences in Level of the Cable
Route
Laying of Cables in the Ground
Cable Route
Laying of the Cables
Laying of Cables Indoors
Cables on Walls, Ceilings or Racks '
Cable Tunnels and Ducts
Cable Clamps
Types of Clamps
Arrangements and Dimensions
Installation Guide
Preparation of Cable Ends

416

Sheath
32

Cable Accessories

)J.l

Fundament::l Objectit es
Requirements
Stress Control
Fundamental PrinciPles for the
Construction and Installation of

31.2

il.3
i2.4

rl-)

Compound Filling Tc'chnique


Cast-Resin Techniques
Shrink-On Technique
Lapping Tcchnique
Push-On Technrque
Plug Tcchniquc
Literaturc Referred to in Section

33

Cable Plan

-:1 .i

J-,+,+
32.4.5
12.4.6

,11i
.124

Acccssones

32..1.3

..395
..395

Rated Voltages Exceeding


L:o,U =0.611 kV
29

410

-r_:.+,I

Laying and Installation

28.4

Repair of Damage to Outer Sheath

t8i

! | .+.)

?8.3

31

)61

Basics

a Lorv-Voltage S1'stem

28
28.1
28.2

418

JU.

Lo$.Voltage SYstem
i75
17.i.-1 \f edium-Voltage SYsrems
Mediumthe
of
Expansion
upply'
S
Public
voltage System' Distribution Systems tn
Large Buildings lndustrial Supply Systems Standby Power Supply Component
Parts of the Medium-Voltage System
Charge Current Compensation and Star
Point Treatment The Superimposed
High-Voltage SYstem
i81
Svstem Calculation
1? 1 I

Earthine of Metallic Sheaths and


Coverings
Conductor Jointing

30.2

J't

tl7
lt9
4ll
+J{
135
437

32 . 137
.138

Measuring and Testing of Power


lnstallations

34

Elcctrical l'Ieasurements in thc Cablc


Installation, as Installed

Jtr

Voltage Tests

39'7

General

439

440

J).-:
35.3

Testing with d.c. Voltage


Tesring rvith a.c. Voltage

399

36

400

401
401
401

JO.

Locating Faults
443
Preliminary Measurements
Location Measurements bY the
Conventional Method
Locating of Faults by Pulse Reflection
Method
Preparation of Fa ult Point by Bum-

398
399

403
408
408
408
410

415
415

O.1

JO.+
Jb.

JO.O

M7_

Through
Locating Using Audio FrequencY
Testing of ThermoPlastic Shealhs

449

450

452

37

Construction and Resistance of


Conductors

454

38

Conversion Table

457
458

iuonstrucilonal ElgtllgtILS ul

ll l5ulclLE\l vc|utso

1 Conductors
for aluminium.

The conductors in wiring cables and flerible cables


consis! norvada.vs of copper (Cu). The use of aluminium (Al), as well as copper, is also common in power
cables. The cross-sectional area of the conductor ls
quoted brsically not Js the geonterritul but as the
electrical!1' eJfectiL'e cross'sectional area. i.e the
cross-scctiontl rrcl as dctermined by e rcsistance
, -rasurement.

rvith the tempcrature

standard tor copper. IEC 28


'lnternational Stendard ot' Resis(ilnce tor Copper'.
n standrrd value for the resistivity at ?0'C

page 310):

In the international

.- given as g,o=$=g.0l7l1l Omm:im The

temperature coefficienI e:o at ]0'C for this copper


is rro:3.93 x 10-riK. This value increases or de'
creases approximatcly in proportion to thc conductivity. Investigations have sho$n that the product
of the temperature coefficient and the resistivity rvith
different conductivities is neariy constant a!
0.6776 x 10-a O mm'?/m K.

Similar relationships exist for aluminium. In this


case, IEC 1 11 'Resistivity of Commercial Hard
Drawn Aluminium Conductor Wire' gives the resistivity at a temperature of 20 "C as
azo:0.028264 Q mm2/m and the temperature coefficient as e.o:4.93 x 10- r/K. This coefficient is pro-ortional to the degree of purity of the aluminium.
z{d decreases with increasing impurity in the same
.y as the electrical conductivity. Here again, the
product of resistivity and temperature coefficient remains approximately constant, in rhis case at
.139 x 10 -a f) mm27m K.
The temperature dependence ofthe resistivity is given
in general by

Qc.: Qr,[l + a3,(3, - 9,)]


Thus

(1.0)

x 10-r(9-20) Q mm:im (1 2)

1.1

J)

expressed in "C.

ln the planning of

cable installations. horvever. in


vierv of the unavoidable uncertaincies in the given
intbrmation. it is quite sut'ficient to calculate rvith
the conventional temperature coefficients lsee

for copper.

1:o:393xl0-17K
7.o :126 x l0-r;K
1

On:-1-:234 5 6

(1.3)
(1 4)

[or aluminium.
1:o

:4

03

x 10-

ri

zo :4.38 x 10 - 31K
O

I
::-:2)8

(1.5)
(1.6)

6(|

In general.
1

aJ

= ----------:
VOf

l/N.

1.7)

To convert a measured conductor resistance to the


reference conditions of 20 "C and 1000 m length, the
following expressions are applicable, according to
rEC 228, 1966:

for copper,

for copper,

q"=g.o*0.68 x 10-a(3-20) O mm2/m

Qr:Q:o*

(1.1)

254.5 1000 ottm


n,o=R"ri#frx:,

(1.8)

11

Conductors

lor aluminium,
R:o = Ra-

,. lloo 97t #L
248+3 I

t.9)

accepted so far.

s here

i]
R,
1

conductor temperature (oC)


measured conductor resislance at 3'C (Q)
length of cable (m)
R.o conductor resistance at l0'C (Q,'km)

To permit the economicai construction oIcables rrirh


a small numbcr of rvire
-eauges. the conduclor desiqn
has been siightly altered in accordance uith IEC ll8
(for details see IEC ll8. 1966) and rhe resisrancc determined lccording ro Ihc e\pression
IJ
.\.:o = --------; /\ I A: At !Z Llll
1l'ft rl'

n
d
K

If the conductors are insulated rvirh a material $ hicL


provokes an adverse chemical reacrion s,ith the copper. a metallic protective laver round rhe coppcr $ irc
is necessary. e.g. of tin or some other barrier (scr
page 27).

l.I

resisrivity at 20'C
for copper. .4 = l'1 .211 Qmmr; km
lor aluminium, ,1 :)8.264 f)mm?,,km
number of wires in the conductor
diameter of individual wires (mm)
factor to allow for the cffects of manulacruring
processes:

K,
K.
K.

The minimum number and the diameter of the wirc


and the resistance of the conductor are laid dowr
in IEC 228 and DIN VDE 0295 (see also pages 45i
to 457). Cables used abroad embody conductors ir
accordance wirh the rcspectile national specifica
tions. in the case rhar rhesc differ from IEC.

(1.10)

\\ here

.1

minium for conductors in wiring cables for fixcd installations. These types. also mentioned in the ncu
IEC specification, have not, however, been gencrall.

for u,ire diameter and surface trcatment


for conductor stranding
for core stranding

Because of improved manufacturing techniqucs. par-

trcularll lhe compaction of stranded circular and sector-shaped conductors, the basic principles shich
had underlain the establishmcnt of conductor resistances had lost something in validity. so that a revision of the existing IEC and VDE specifications became necessary. In particular the differences in rhe
resistance values lor solid and stranded conductors.
and for single- and multicore cables, in the former

It was thus possible


1978 edition of iEC 228 to achieve greater
consistency of resistance value and a reduction in
ranges were no longer applicable.

in the

Wiring Cables and Flexible Cables

Tlpes of Conductor
For flcxible and uiring cablcs in the Federal Republic
of Germany. rvith fcw cxceprions. circular copper
conductors arc uscd. Thcsc are aimed at two arear
of application:
For Fi.rc/ lnstullut iorr
The cables are subjcct to nrechanical stresses due to
bending only during installation. Accordingiy, solid
conductors are preferably uscd up to cross-sectionalarea of 10 mm: and strandcd conductors i' -\vc
l0 mm2
For the Connection

o-f

ll'lobile Equipnrcnl

These cables. since they have to be flexible. embody_


fine-stranded conductors for all cross-sectional areas.
Where a particularly high degree of flexibility is necessary, e.g. in the leads to welding-electrode holders,_

the number of conductor classifications from six to


four. In 1980 this international agreemenl. rras
incorporated into the standards for power cables,

u'ires, and wiring cables and flexible

cables
account in the tables and planning sheets in the presenr

(DIN VDE 0295). The new values are raken inlo

book.

As well as plain aluminium conductors, the use has


been tried in some countries of nickel-olated or
tinned aluminium, and the so-called coppei-clad alu-

1l

Fig. l.t
Multiple stranded, circular fl exible conductor

Coppcr Conductors
.

Solid conductors lrc prctcrrcd up to l(r mm- crossscctional srea. strondcd conductors lbr 25 rnm: and
J

Tinscl strxnds

Tinscl cond uctor


Fig,

1.2

Tinse I conductor

Fllt

coppcr wire

Thrcad oi svnthetic Ilbres

Fie.

1.3 Construction of tinsel strund

boVc.

Givcn lnd adcquatc lbility to rvithstand bcnding. thc


conductors should have a space tlctor rvhich. together with rhe chosen conductor scction. results in good
utilization of the cross-sectional urea of the cable.
Accordingly, where possible, compacted circular conductors. or. if the cable construction permits. compacted sector-shaped conductors. are used. The space
flctor defines the percentage of the geometrical crosssectional area of a conductor that is occupied by
the individual wires. The construction of single-core
cable and three-core separately-leaded (S.L.) cable
rcquircs the use of circular conductors.
Aluminium Conductors

--\e conductor strands are madc up ot'c number. ilpopriate to the cross-sectionul urer of the conductor.
oi errra tlnc substrands (multiple srrunded. circular
tlerible conductors. Fig. l.l). For very llexible connccting cords of vcry small cross-scctional arcir. c.g.
0. 1 mmr lbr clcctric shavcrs. tinscl conductors ( Figs.
l.L and l.i):tre uscd.

IIultiple strunded cirtulur JIe.rible <'onluttors (Fig.


1.1) consist of strands whose individual rvircs are
themselves stranded or bunched. The ability of the
conductor to wirhstand mechanical stresses and its
fle.ribility depcnd particularly on rhc stranding arrangement. as well as on the quality and diamctcr
of the wires. The shorter the lay of the strands and
substrands, the greater the flexibility and the ability
r withstand bending. The srrands may be laid in
ne same direction in all layers (uniform-lay strand.,rg) or the direction may alternate from layer to la,'-er
(reversed-lay stranding). Conducrors with uniformlay stranding are preferred in llexible cables for hoists
' ,ecause of their better runnins behaviour rvhen
changing direction over rollers.
Tinsel conductors (Fig. 1.2) are made up ofa number
of tinsel threads stranded rogether. Each thread (Fig.
1.3) consists of a textile core with a helical wire strip
(copper strip 0.1 ro 0.3 mm wide and 0.01 to 0.02 mm

thick).

DIN VDE 0295 pcrmits the use of circular solid and


stranded aluminium conductors lionr 25 nrmr uprvlrds lnd scctor-shapcd conductors Irom 50 mm:
upwrrds.
Solid conductors ure prcterrcd in cables rvith pol.v''nrer
insulation and sector-shlped conductors in the rangc
of cross-sectional urcas tiom 50 to 185 mnrr. Singlecorc cablcs normally have strandcd circular conductors: solid conductors are usuirlly uscd only in laid-up
single-corc cablcs in cases of high thermal loading.
because of thc problems of thcrm:rl expansion (see
page 192).

If cables with polymcr insulation and aluminium protcctive (P) or ncutral (PEN) conductors are laid in
the ground or in an agrcssive atmosphere. in the
evcnt of damagc to the sheath and thc insulation
these conductors may be open-circuited in the course
of time through corrosion. The possibiiity of damage
must therefore be taken into account. rvhen such
cables are installed. by the selection of appropriate
protecuve measures.

llilliken

Conductors

For high-power transmission with conductor crosssectional areas of 1200 mm2 or more. special measures are necessary to keep additional losses due to
skir effect within tolerable limits. To this end, either
the individual conductor stlands are provided with
an insulating layer (e.g. enamel) and so laid-up that
13

Conductors

\ormal lay-up

Compacted

their position within the cross-section of the conductor changes periodically along the lenght of rhe conductor, or the conductors are made up of separate
stranded, sector-shaped elements which are rrrapped
in conducting paper (Fig. 1.4). This latter type is
also known as the milliken conductor.
Single-core oil-filled cables require a hollorv conductor, rvhile external-gas-pressure pipe llpe cables require oval conductors.
Superconductors

Lou -loss conductor for oil-lillcd


cables ( \liiliken conductor)

Circular holloq
conouclof

Fig. l..l
Construction of multi-core circu lar conductors

x1<s.
,/.n fl/$'

ffi

Oval conductor

Solid

Stranded

shaped

shaped conductor.

conductor

Fig. 1.5
Construction of sector shaped conductors

Fig. 1.6

Model of a flexible superconducting cable core.


Constructed of aluminium wires each with a lhin
coaring of Niobium laid-up over a PE carrying tube.
Above this an insulation of polymeric plastic loil is
applied followed b1r the concentric retum conductor
and a profiled PE rape as proleclive layer
t-

tl

The most suitable conductor materials for superconducting cables are pure niobium and niobium-tin.
those critical temperatures are around 9.5 K .. _.
18.4 K respecrively. Since the current llorls onhlin
a very thin surface layer (0.1gm). lhere is no need
for the u,hole conductor to consist ol this rclatively
expensive superconducting material. It is sufficicnt
if a thin layer (10 to 100 pm) is dcposited on a carricr
naterial, e.g. high-purity copper or aluminium. The
carrier metals must be so disposed that they are
not traversed by rhe magnetic field of the conductor,
and the generation of eddy-current losses is avoided

(Fig. 1.6).
The development of superconducting cables is as yet
in rhe early stages, although 110 kV cables capable
of transmitting 2500 MVA have already been produced for experimental purposes.

--l

For the insulariorl of rviring cables and llexible


cables. s-vnthetic nraterials and naturll rubber are
used. and for porver cables. as rvell as these' tmpreg-

nated paper. As a result of the development which


has taien place in recent years. these materials can
be produced rvith various electrical- thermal and mechanical properties according to their intended purpose. It is thus possible to manufacture cables lbr
specific requirements and tields of application.

2.1 Pol-vmers
A poll-mer is I macromolecule composed oi r hrqe
number of basic units. the monomers. If tlte mlcromolecule is s-"-nthesized using onl."- one kind of
rD{,pomer. the producr is a homopolymcr. If the poi- .er chains are made up of nro diffcrent tvpes of
monomer. the result is a copoll-mer. and of three
different t)-Pes a terpolYmer'

\lost of the important insulating matcrials are today


produced s).'nthetically. Only in the case of clastomers
rre partly narural products still oi technical signil-i-

Technically important polymers are classified (Tlble 3.1.1 .rccording to their physical properties as

tr
F
tr

thermoplastics (Plastomers),
elastomers and
thermosetringpolymers(duromers).

The polymers principally used in cabie engineering


are listed in Table 2.2.

is rvorth noting that materials rvhich do not fit


lnto rhls clussification oi thermoplastics. elastomerics
and thermosetting materials are finding increasing
application in cable engineering. These include the

It

cross-linked polyolefines (e.g. cross-linked polyethl-lene), rvhich behave as elastomers above the criticel
melting point. as manifested particularly in the
heat-pressure characteristics :lt iligh letnperatures

(Fig.2.1).
Also in this crteeorv ure the so-cllled thermophstic
elastomers rvith their chdracterislic thermoplastic
behlviour at processing temperatures and elastomeric cltlrlctcristics ltt thc temperatures at r''hich
thev are used.

cance.

Trblc

2.1

Technically important polymers chssilied according to thcir physical properties


Polymers

Sy.'ntheti, mate rials

^r,,rtu,ior,ill
lrstomers

Highly molecular materials which


after cross-linking (vulcanizing)
develop elastic characteristics i.e.
a large reversible elongation in resPonse to low tensile stress

Thermoplaslic (Plastomers)

Thermosetting pol,vmers
(Duromers)

Macromolecular materials lvhich


are. at higher temperatures. Plastically formable and are teverslbly plastifiable, i.e. theY harden
on cooling but become Plastifi-

Polymers which harden when


heated above a critical temPera-

able when reheated

ture and are no longer reversiblY


formable. In this condition these

materials are normallY crosslinked

15

2lnsulation
Table

2.2

Summary of the most important polymers used in the manufacture of cables

Thermoplastics (Plastomers)

Duroplastic
(Duromers)

Elastomers
Cross-

Thermoplastic

linked
Thermo-

Elastomers

plastics
Pol.vvinl lchloride
Polyethl lene
Ethylene Vinyl-Acetate
Copoll mer
(v.{ < 30%)

Cross-

Blends

PE

linked

XLPE

Polyfines and
Natural Rubber
I nree btocK -'
Polymer

Cross-

Styrene-

linked

Alkylene-

Ethylene

styrene

Polyethylene

EVA

Ethylene-.Acrl,late-

Copolymer, e.g.:

Erhl'lene-Ethyl-Acrylate EEA
Elh)'lene-Butyl-Acrylate EBA

Poll'propylene
Poll'amide

of

PVC

PP

Copoiymer

tha ne

Resin

Styrene- Butadien

Rubber

and Poll,ester

SBR

NBR
EPR

"

Ethylcnc-Propylenc

ETFE

Dienc Monomer
Rubber

EPD M

Polychloroprenc

CR

Chlorsulphonyl

FEP

Polycthy Ienc

CSM

Chlorinated Polycthylenc

CM

Silicone Rubber

SiK

Epichlorohydrin
Rubber

ECO

Ethylene-VinylAcetatc-Copolymer
(vA > l0%)

EVA

The gencral tcrm for EPR and EPDM is EPR

:'tslockpollmcr:acopol)mcruhosachainiscomposcdofaltcrnatingscqucnccsofjdcnticalmonomcrunits

lndenr deprh
LDPE
10

,/-

,,r/

70 80

90

(70r)

..1"')

XIPE minenl

Heat-pressure test to DIN VDE 0472


Test sample: conductor 1.5 mmr with insulation

filled

0.8 mm thick,

EPR

Test duration: 4 h

{cross-linked]r

<;

EVA'

Determination of load using the formula:


I

lo

conren

>30%

F:0.6.y'2-D-6-6'

(cross.linked)
I

120 150

140

"c

150

Temperar!re Ll

llvA

Fig. 2.1
Heat-pressure characteristics of polyolefi nes.

.1:":^::y-

,t

,r.i
4:

PVC

EP

Pol)'ure-

llR

Ethylene-Propylene

rnropthr'leneHexafluoropropylcncCopoll'mer
( Fluorinated Ethylene

Rubber)

Rubber

Ter rr fl

Propllene)

Epoxy

Resin

N itri lc- Bu tad ien

Eth.vlen e-Tetrafl uoro-

eth) lene

NR

(lsoprene Isobutylene

Rubber

Copolymer Thermoplastic
Polyurethane
(PUR)

P.A

Natural Rubber
Buryl Rubber

Load in N
Diameter of core in mm
lvlean wall thickness of insulation in rnm

PI
PL

2.1.1 Thermoplastics

Plastome rs)

Thermoplastics are madc up of linear or branchcd


macromolcculcs. and unlike the elastomers and thcrmosetting pol;-mers hlvc rcvcrsible forming charlcteristics. Thc combinltion of propertics of thcmoplastics are dctcrmincd by their structural tnd molecular arrangcment. Thc thermopiastic polyethylene
(PE) has the simplest structure oi all plastics

trls. i.i

t.

HH
tl
HH
Fig.

2.2

Structural torm of Poll.'ethelene {PE)

In the so-called high-pressure polymerization of ethchein molecules with liltcral JIkyl groups ilre
$ne.
'.ne''l bv redicll initiation {LDPE los-Densitv
PO. Ionic polr mcriz:rLion lt lorv prcssurc. on thc
othcr hxnd. lcads to lincar. very lirtie brlnched chains
(HDPE - ffigh-Dcnsity Pfl. Thc less branchcd the
chain molecules of a polyeth-vlene are. the greater
is its possible cr-vstallinity. With increesing crystallinity, melting temperature, tcnsile strength. Youn-g's
modulus (stiffness), hardness and resistancc to solvents increase. while impact strength. rcsistancc to
stress crackins and transparenc.v decrease. Like ail
thermoplastics, the polyolcfines - as in the case of
e.g. polyethylene and polypropyiene - also consist
of a mixture of macromolecules of dilferent sizes.
and it is possible to control the mean molecular
weight and the molecular weight distribution within
tain Iimits through the choice of suitable polymerization conditions.
. the

technical data sheets of the raw material manufacturers, instead of the mean molecular rveight, the
It florv indexr)(for polyolefines) or the so-called
K value (for polyvinyl chloride, PVC) is quoted (see
page 18).

The mean molecular weight and the molecular weight


distribution have a considerable effect on the mechanical properties. Thus, as a rule, tensile strength,

elongation at tear and (notched) impact strength in-

::-" The rncl!-llow


iO

lr""""r:r""

index tMFI) is thc quanrity of matcrial in g uhich undcr

is exrruded rhrough a givc'l sizcd jcr in a pcriod of

creasc rvith incrcasing chain lcngth. as :rlso thc viscos-

ity oi the plasticized material. It should be borne


in mind. however. that with

incre:rsing mclting visrnaterial


more
difficuit to rvork.
cosity the
becomcs

The molecuiar chains (polyethylcnc. polvvinl-l chloridet rcsulting from the synthcsizing rclctions. c.g.
the polymcrization of suitable monomers (ethylene.
vinyl chloride) are tormed by atomic forces (primary
bonds). The cohesion of the molecular chains is due
to secondary forces. In the polyolefines, for erample,
the dispersion or vxn der Waal forces predominate.
In this case the forces of attraction betrveen the molecules are unpolarized. In plastics rvith polarized
groups. besides the dispersion forces. dipole orientation furces betrveen the chains are also eifective (e.9.
in PVC). Strong forces of attraction betrveen the
chain molecules are also represented by the hydro,een
bridges. as. for example. in poly-amides. poll-urethancs :lnd iluoroplastics. With sy-mmetrical structures the thermoplastics bonded by dispersion. dipole
or hy-drogen bonds tend towards crvs(rllization.
The_"- are thcn hard and tough. lnd of high strength.
and the sotjening range is smail. To the e\tent that
the macromolecular structure is asymmetrical (e.g.
in PVC). thc tendencv ro crystallization is reduced
and the sollening ranse extended.
Arvareness of thcse rclationships norv makcs

it

possi-

ble to manul'acture plastics tailored ro their application requirements. In addition to standard thermoplastic PVC and PE. thermoplastics and elastomers
produced by specifically directed copoll-merization
of ethylenes rvith other copolymerable monomers
har e assumed significancc in cable engineering.

Copolvmers

The thermoplastic copolymers most frequentlv used


in cable engineering are based on ethvlene and are
produced by copolymerization with vinvl acetate
(EVA copolymer) or with alkyl acrylates (EEA and
EBA copolymers). EVA copolymers with a vinyl acetate content up to 30% contain methylene units in
crysralline formation and are therefore workable as
thermoplastics. With a further increase in the vinyl
acetate (VA) content the product becomes rubbery.
Polyethylenes and the ethylene copolymers, such as
e.g. EVA, are of special significance in cable engineering because these thermoplastics can be cross-

t7

rl
2lnsulation

tl

ll
n

cI

ll

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

n
I

Among rhe insulating materials used for flexible anr


wiring cables, plastic compounds based on polyvinr
chloride (PVC) have assumed particular significance

tl

-co-cH

Fig.2.3 Structural form of EVA

il
ll

il

ll

Fluoroplastics

n,

il

ll'
:

The various mechanical propcrties of the polymers


(e.g. tensile strenglh, extension, elasticity and cold
resistance). the various resistances to external influences (e.g. acids, aikalies. oil) and their electrical and
lhcrmal characteristics determine the areas of application of the cables in s hich they are used for insuladon and sheathine.

lli
It;
i

ti

-+-

i-i-r-i+
I
it
Y-r
L

^1r

---l-L

tr

tt

rr

rEF

CF3Jy

Fig.2.4 Structural form of ETFE and FEP

I
18

2.5

Structural form of PVL

For insulating and sheathing mixtures in cable engi


necring, PVC obtained by the suspension method i
usually used. These types of PVC, offered by th
chemical industry as S-PVC. are distinguished b'
thcir grain structure and K value. The K value. ac
cording to Fikentscher (DIN53726), characterize
the mean molecular weight of the PVC. The grai:
structurc is significant from the point of view of th
processing of the compound. For the manufactur.
of soft PVC compounds for the cable industrl'. a;
S-PVC uith porous grain (plasticizer sorption) an(
a K value of about 70 has bccome generally acceptcd
PVC and additives like plasticizers, mineral fillers
antioxidants. coulering pigment a.s.o. are preparel
in a mixing and gelling process, under heat, to pro
duce the working compound.
The compound, usually in granular form, is pressec
onto the conductor as insulation, or onto the cori
as a sheath, by means of extruders.

ii-i-i+
Fig.

Fluoroplastics are characterized by an outsrandint


combination of properties. such as good thcrmal stabilit.v, excellent electrical characteristics and high rcsistance to chemical attack and flame rcsistance. Thc
best known fluoropol-vmers in cable engineering are
the thermoplasrically workable copolymers of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) and of tetrafluoroethylene and hexafluoropropylene (FEP)
(Fie. 2.a).

lli

The starring material, the vinyl chloride, is nowadal


produced mainly by the chlorination of eth-vlen.
(Fig. 2.5). It can be converted to polyvinylchlorid.
by the emulsion (E-PVC), suspension (S-PVC) o:
mass pol),merization (M-PVC) method.

)inked b1' means of orsanic peroxides or high-energy


radiation. Cross-linking increases the thermomechanical stability - i.e.. rvith a temperature loading
beyond the crystallite melting point of the crosslinked thermoplastics the material no longer exhibits
themroplastic. but rather thcrmoelastic characteristlcs.

il

ll

Pure PVC resulting from polymerization is unsuitable for use as an insulating and sheathing materia
for flexible and wiring cables, because at its servic
temperature it is hard and brittle, and also thermali'
unstable. It is only through the incorporation of ad
ditives that the mechanical/thermal and electricr
characteristics necessary in such materials, togerhe:
with good processing properties, are obtained.

The most import:rnt additivcs arc:

tici:ers
The plasticizcrs normllly usecl are cstcrs ol'or3lnic
acids. such as DOP (Di-1-crhyiherylphthaiate) or
DIDP ( Di-isodecy-lphthalatc). Estcrs of lzelnin or scbacic acid tre used for compounds rvith especillly
good cold resistance, while those for higher servtce
temperxtures contain trimellith ccid esters or poll ester plcsticizers.
P

las

Stabili:ers
These confer thermal and thermal oxidization stabili-

ty on rhe PVC compound during processing and in


service. Principally used as stabilizers are leld salts
such as basic lead sulphate or lead phthalate Antioxidunts tre necesslry in addition. to prevent. ibr
c. ,rplc. dcterioration of the plasticizcr through oridatlon.
Fillcr s

-f

;e are used to obtain a specitied combination of


char:rcteristics. In addition thev contribute to reduce
thc cost. The most uscd llllcrs for PVC compounds

lrc culcium carbonate and kaolin.

Pol-veth-'.'lene (PE)

Polyethylenc is a macromolcculur hydrocarbon rvith


a structurc sirnilar to thut of thc parat'fins (tbr thc
structural tbrnrula see page l7). This matcrial. rvith
its excellcnt dielcctric properties. is used ls an insulating matcrial in porver cable enginecring in both noncross-linked (thermoplastic PE) and cross-linked
(XLPE) form. The power cables produced by Siemens with thcrmoplastic polyethylene insulation are
knorvn by the protected trlde name PROTOTHEN'Y
and those with cross-linked polyethelene insulation
by the trade name PROTOTHEN-X. Of the wide
range of ty'pes of polyethelene offered by the chemical
industry, only specially prepared, purified and stabi'
lized tlpes rrc uscd in cablc cngincering.

Thcse improve the

workebility Stclrltcs urc usually

used.
P

ROTO D

For installations with especially stringent requirements as to burning behaviour, compounds for cables
have been developed which satisfy the bunched cable
burning test, Test Category 3, of DIN VDE 0472,

Pari 804, lead to a lower emission of smoke and gas


and do not release hydrogen chloride (see pages 79
and 125).

i
I

!r
't

r
:

'
:

la-vers over and under the insulation. The inner lal er

both thermoplastic and cross-linked poilethelene lre sensitive to ionization dischargcs. it is


necessar-v- ior clbles rvith r:rtcd voltages from
L 6, L = 3.5 6 kV upwards to incorporlre conducting

usually consists ol a weakly conducting alkyl copo'


l1,mer. Various mcthods rvere tbrmerly used to provide the outer conducting laYer:

>

grlphitizing or conducting lacqucr or

tr

conduct-

ing adhesivc rvith weakly conducting tape applied


cxtruded conducting luyers. lvhich serc either applied in a scparxte process or extruded in the sante
process with the insulation.

R Flexible antl lYiritg Cables

Cables with PVC insulation manufactured by Siemens arc known by the trade name PROTODUR'
They can be laid without special precautions in ambicnt temperatures above -5'C. If the cables are
colder than this, they must be carefully warmed be, e installation. Flexible and wiring cables are generally of smaller diameter than porver cables' and are
therefore subject to lower stresses in installation. so
that with careful handling they can be laid at lorver
.' lperatures. For countries such as Norway. Srveden
or Finland. PVC compounds are available which afford the necessary bending capability down to low
temperatures.

Because

to it:
Lubric tut ts

I
T
T
T

co[]pounds

Conduclor

Conducltng

Insulalinq
compound

I
Fig.2.6

Schematic arrangement of triple extrusion


19

1
-!I

2Insulation

According to the new specifications of


only outer conducting layers
perextruded rvith and bonded to the insulation are

DIN VDE

02731 . .87,

mitted.

The extruded conducting layers are very thin, and


so firmly bonded to the insulation that they can be
separated from it only with a scraper' In some counrries conducting layers are used whose adhesion is
somervhat lower, so that - if necessary after scoring
rvith a tool - they can be stripped by hand (cables
rvith strippable conducting layers). Because of the
force required in the stripping operation' such laycrs
are made somewhat thicker.
L

To ensure operational reiiability in medium' and highvoltage porver cables. it is particularly important'
apart from using high-purity material and observing
appropriate cleanliness in the nranulacturing processcs. that thc insulation and the conducting layers
should be free of bubbles, and that therc should be
good adhesion bctwecn the conducting laycr and the
insulation. According to DiN VDE 0273 this must
be checked on every manufactured length by means

of an ionization test.
comparison with high polymers with polarized
structures, such as PVC. high polymcrs with unpolariscd structures, such as PE and XLPE' are characterized by outstanding electrical charactcristics. They
have, horvever, poor adhesion properties in relation
to other materials, e.g. moulding compounds. This
characteristic has to be takcn into account in the
design of accessories.

In
:

L
Ui

li
ll
ll

I
1
n

For the lorv-voltage range a polycthylenc insulation


compound has been successfully developed which
bonds s'ell to accessory materials and thus ensures
the water-tightness of joints.

PROTOTHEN.Y
is not usual to use thermoplastic polyethylene in
power cables for lJolIJ=0.611 kV, because of the
high conductor temperatures to be expected under
short-circuit conditions. For higber rated voltages'
while it offers advantages in comparison with PVC
and paper insulation because of its satisfactory dielectdc properties, it has declined in significance as
power cable insulation, beceuse of its poor heat/presiure characteristics (Fig.2.1), in comparison with
cross-linked polyethylene, and has been omitted from
the new specification VDE DIN 0273/..87.

It

t0

Cross-Linked Polyethylene (XLPE)

PROTOTHEN.X
The linear chain molecules of the polyethylene are
knirted by the cross-linking into a three-dimensional
network. There is thus obtained from the thermoplastic a material uhich at temperatures above the crlstallite mclting point cxhibits elastomcric propcrties
By this mcans the dirnensional stability under heat
As it
and the mechanical properties are improved
oC
can be
result, conductor temperltures up to 90
to
250 "C
up
and
opcralion
normal
pcrmitted in
ns.
under short-circuit conditio
There are thrce principal methods for cross-linking
poll'cthylenc insulation matcrials :

Cross-linking bY Pcro.x idcs

Organic radical componcnts. in particular spccilic organic pcroxidcs. are incorporated. Thesc dccomposc
at temperaturcs above thc cxtruding lemperaturc'
into highly rcactive radicals. These radicals interlink
rhe initially isolated polymer chains in the thermoplastic in such a rvay that i] spxce netuork results
(Fig. 2.7).
'o'as crossFormerly, polyethylcne cable insulation

linkcd mainly by 'continuous vulcanization in

steam tube', in the so-called CV!)method (Fig.2.8)'

In this methoti the polycthylcne. mixcd u ith the pcroxide as a cross-linking initiator. is pressed onto thc
conductor. by means of an extruder, at about 130 "C
(below the temperature at rvhich the pcroxide dccomposes). Follouing this. in the same process, the insuiated core is passed through a tube, about 125 m
long, Iilled with saturated steam at high pressure'
At a pressure of 16 to 22 bar and a temperature ol
aboui 200 to 220 "C, the organic peroxide decomposes into reactive primary radicals, which effect the
cross-linking. The crosslinking process is followed
immediately by a cooling stage. This must similarll
take place under pressure in tubes 25 to 50 m long'
to privent the formation of bubbles in the wlcanizec
maierial through the presence of gaseous products

of the peroxide reaction'


An alternatives to this 'classical' crossJinking pro
cess, methods have been developed in which gase'
or liquids, e.g. silicone oil or molten salrs (salt bath
cross-linking) are used as media for the heat transfer
I' Cv:

continuouJ nrlcanisation

f".

R-?-o-o-f?"'-R

Peroxide

CH,

CH.

cH.

Primary radical

t-R-9-9'

+ CH.

cH.

tR-C:O

CH"

- cH2-CH2-cH2-cH2-

cHr-cHr-cHz-cHr-

Po

I
t

Lr|.

R-c-oH +
I

cH4

- cH2-cH
a -cHz-cH2O

CH.

- CHz-CH -CH2-CH2-

Polymer radrcal

-t

- cH,-tH-cH2-cH2- cH2-cH-cH2-cH2 -

Barliial combination during


network formalion

Fig.2.7

Cross linked
Pol'Tethylene

Cross-linking of Polyethylene by organrc perortdcs

I
I

lnterml enl
drive unil

T
I

Tension

conlrcl unit

I."

Cooling

tit

l0ne

or

'f
t

T
Tube length approx 125 m

Fig.2.8

Continuous cross-linking in a steam tube (CV process)


I

Y
I
I

2Insulation
Compared to vulcanisalion with steam, these methods permit crossJinking at higher temperatures and
lower pressures.
Cross-linking by Electron Beants

The polymer chains are crosslinked directly by


means of high-energy electron beams, without thc
necessity for the heating stage which is essential with
peroxides. It will be clear from consideration of the

reaction sequence in the cross-linking of polyethylene


by electron irradiation, as illustrated in simplified
form in Fig.2.9, that in this case also gaseous reacrion products are formed (mainly hydrogen).
Cross-linking by Siloxane Bridges

Polyolefines can also be cross-linked by means of


siloxane bridges, u hcreby suitable alkoxysilancs are
radically grafted into the poll,mer chains. In the presence of moisture and a condcnsation catalt st. hvdro-

"- CH z-CHz-CH2-C H, *CHz-CHz-CHr-CH.^^,

lysis takes place to form silanol groups, which


then condense to the interlinking siloxane bonds
(Fig. 2.10).
Because the grafted silane can contain up to three
reactive alkoxy groups, this offers the possibility that
bundled linking locations can be formed.

Although as regards the chemical structure of

the

cross-linking bridges the cross-linked polymer matrix


appears to be quite different from those produced
by the methods previously described, a combination
of characteristics is nevertheless obtaincd which essentially corresponds to that of the crosslinked PE
produced by the classical methods.

Like all polyolefines, crosslinked polyethylene is


subject to a time and tenrperature-dependent oxidative decomposition, and it. has to be protected against
this by the addition of anti-oxidants, so that il can
uithstand continuous service at 90 "C over a lonq
period of time (see page 27).

Polyethylene

leo
I

H.

-CHz-CH-CH2-CHr^
a

*cHz-cHz-cH2-cH.^,
J

lao

Formation of
polymer radicals

lI

* C Hz-CH-CH2-CH.^,.,
H.*

-, CHz-CH-CH2-CH"I

Eadical combination
during nework lormarion

1)

* CH:-FH-CH2-CH, ^I

^^,CHz-CH-CH2-CH"-,

Cross.linked
Polyethylene

Fig. 2.9
Cross-linking of Polyethylene by
electron beams

Elastomers 2.1

HrC.
H.C.

-CHr

cH,

OR

Hrc:cH-si-oR
\

HrC.

Polyerhylene

cH,

OR

H.L

HrlGrairing

{Radical initiation)

/o^
"."a'cH-c{2-cq2-si-oR
oR
*"a.

RO

"tta. r, i'i2

Rojsi-cH,-cHr-c H
cH,

cH"

Hydrolysis

H2O

(caralysrl

-2ROH

H.C
CH.
H

CHz

Fis.

2.10

Cross-linked
Polyerhylene

Cross-linking of Polyethylene by Siloxane bridge method

2.1.2 Elastomers
In contrast to the thermoplastics. the molecule chains
l[ elastomers form an extensive meshed networli'
This cross-linking, or vulcanization, gives rise to the
elastic nature oIthe material: a large reversible extension in response to low tensile stressElastomeric materials are used lor insulation and for
sheaths. They are applied mainly where the product
has to be particularly flexible.

A wide range of

elastomers is nowadays available


to the cable industry. This makes possible the manufacture of compounds with specif-rc properties, such
as high abrasion and oil resistance, weather and heat
resistance and flame resistance, combined with good
overall elecrrical and mechanical chlracteristics.

The classical elastomeric material. natural rubber'


hls declined in signific:.rnce in recent yerrs' In its
place. the synthetic elastomers. produced by the copolymerization of ethylene and propylene, are conitantly finding new areas of application in cable engineering. These ethylene-propylene copolymers'
known under the general term EPR, contaln no dou'

by
ble bonds, and cannot, therefore, be crossJinked
unsathe
to
rhe vulcanization methods appropriate
turated rubbers (e.g. natural rubber, styrene butarubber). On ihe other hand, because of the

diene
absence of iouble bonds in the main molecular
greater
chains, these elastomers have a significantly
to
resislance to thermooxidative decomposition and
heat'
and
ozone
rhe effect of ultra-violet radiation'

2 Insuladon
IJ

Fig. 2.11

i-i*

Structural form of EPR and EpD

EPR

HH

tl

EP0i\il

with Erhylidiene

Y_Y
tl

as Iercomp0nent

HH

With the incorporation of a dienet), EPDM elas-

ene butylene blocks, which are so struct.ured that etl

tomers are obtained (Fig. 2.1 1), in which the doublebond active in cross-linking is arranged not in rhe
main chain but in a side -eroup.

ylene butylene chains contain styrene units as en


blocks. Polyesters and polyurethanes wirh TPE prol'
erties are also known.

Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE)

:'

Technically interestine combinations of propcrtics


can be obtained through thc admixture of rhermoplastic olefines. e._1. poll propylene rvith ethl lene propylene elaston.rers, or bl rhe direct production of socalled pollolciine block poll'nrers. Such copolvmers
of ethl'lene and propllene *'ith a block structure consist of an EP elastomer phase uith crlstalline homopoll mer end blocks. *'hich represent the unstable reversible cross-linking centres. At temperatures above
the cr]'stallite melting point. rhese materials have
thermoplastic propcrties: belou thc cr1'stallite melting point the),behave as elastomers. Polymers of this
kind are therefore called thermoplastic clastomers

(TPE):'.
Another class of thcrmoplastic clastomers is represented by three-block polvmers o[ styrene and ethl l-

Other types of elastomers used in cable engineerir


are polychloroprene, chlorosulphonated polyethl
enc and chlorinated polycthylcne, which. because t
thcir advantaceous properties in relation to enviror
mental influences. are prcfcrably uscd as shearhin
matcrials.
Conducting Rubber

Through the addition of conducting fillers, e.g. ca.


bon black. natural rubber and syntheric elastom.
compounds riirh a resistivity of from a few Qcm u
to several thousand C2cm can be produced. Conduc
ine rubber compounds are generally used in the mor
itoring of flexible and riiring cables in mines. an
also for inner semiconductin-s layers and held limi
ing in s,"-nthetic elastomer insulated high-r,ohag
cables (Ozonex principle).

Natural Rubber (NR)

Natural rubber is obrained in various counrries i


rhe equatorial belt from rhe rubber tree (hevea bras:
The drencs used as tercomponenls are spccial hydrare mrlcrials *ilh
double iinks tahich arc non{onjugatcd
ln ror:re Fublicerions for thcmoFllsric cllslomcrs rh. !bbrclia(ion TPR

rj u*d

as prcviousl]

liensis). This tree contains in the cambium cells unde

its bark a milkl juice (latex), which flous our whe


the bark is cut. The rubber is obtained from th
through coagulation with chemicals, electro coagL

Elastomers 2.1
{

lation or by other methods. The resulting rubber is


supplied to the manufacturer in smoked form as
'r*ok"d sheets' and in chemically bleached form as
'crepe'. Rubber is a hydrocarbon of high molecular
weight with the monomer unit 1,4-polyisoprene'
with the addition of vulcanization and aging-protection additives, specially selected fillers, and where appropriate by blending with synthetic elastomers, insuiating compounds for cables and compounds for the
sheathing of flexible and wiring cables can be manufactured.

Unlike synthetic elastomers, natural rubber has to


be subjected to a so-called mastication process during

rnufacture. to make it receptive to the additives


a,rd to obtain the required plasticity in the compound. The significance ofnatural rubber in the cable
industry has declined sharply in recent years in favour of synthetic eiastomers.

hand, i lower isoprene content lowers lhe rate of


vulcanization and makes the product less elastic'
The relatively smali number of double bonds makes
butyl rubber less susceptible to the effects of oxygen
and ozone. The main advantages are very low water
absorption and low gas permeability. The good heat
resistance permits operating temperatures uP to
90 "C with suitable compound structures. The mechanical properties can be improved by the addition
of special active fillers; plasticizers, for example, im'
prove the elastic properties, particularly aI low temperatures. Since EPR and EPDfvt synthetic elastomers have become available, butyl rubber ist used
onl;' in special cases.
Ethylene-Propylene Rubber (EPR)

EPR is uscd
su

Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR)

SBR is a copolymer of styrene and butadiene' referred to as either a hot or a cold polymer according
to the method of manufacture. Cold polymers. rvith
the normal st)rene contcnt ol 2'lol, (by rveight) arc
characterized in comparison rvith the so-called hotrubber t-vpes by higher tensilc and tclrr strength rnd
bctter rvorking c h arac teristics : thel irrc thercfore prcferrcd as admixtures used in thc production of SBRNR compounds. SBR and SBR-NR mixturcs trc
suit:rble for usc ts insulation in lorv-voltagc fleriblt'
and,,r'irins cubles for operxting tenlpcrlltlres up to
60 "c.
Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR)
Through the copolymerization of acryl nitrile nith
hutadiene. ellstomers are obtained rvhich are distin.,-rishcd in comparison rvith the SBR types b-u" high
oil rcsistance and good rveather resistance. For this
rc:lson thev are preferably used for sheathing compo u nds.

By mixing rvith PVC, NBR-PVC blends are produced


rvhich have better flame resistance.

Butyl Rubber (IIR)

Butyl rubber is a copolymer of isobutylene and


lsoprene. To permit vulcanization, an unsaturated
componcnr of 1.5 to 4.5% (by rveight) is introduced.
Thc lorier the isoprcne content. thc less is the ertent
to rvhich thc rubbcr lgcs under hc:.rt i on thc othcr

ls:r

general designation for the tr"o

b-types

ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) and


erhylene-propylene terpolymer rubber (EPDM).

Ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) is a copolymer of


lorv density rvithout C-C double bonds. i.e. it rs a
completely saturatcd polymer rvhich. likc polyethylene. can only be cross-linked radically The further
dcvelopment of this saturated rubber to EPDM
(Fi-s. 2.11) through the incorporation of dienes rvith
hrcral doublc bonds pcrmits a conventional sttlphur
vulcanization as ',vell as radical cross-linking. e.g
u irh pcroxidcs.

There is litrle ditterencc bcnvccn cross-linked EPR


and EPDivl as regards mechanicll and electrical
properties. Peroxide - i.e. radical - cross-linking.
ho$ever. gives better long-term hext resistance and
better heat pressure charucteristics than sulphur vul-.*caniza lio n.

Outstanding characteristics of these elastomers are


resistance to ozone. oxtgen and ionization. good flexibility at low temperatures and high resistance to
$eather and light. Because of their good dielectric
properties EPR and EPDVI. depending on the struc'
ture of the compound. are suitable for insulation at
voltages up to 100 kV, rvith a maximum permissible
oC. Such insuservice temperature between 80 and 90
Iating materials will wirhstand temperatures up to
250 "C without damage under short-circuit conditions.
Cables rvith ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) manu-

rlcturcC by Siemens are knorvn by thc protected


tradc name PROTOLON.
25

2lesulation
Blending EPR with PE enables the mechanical
strength and hardness to be increased significantly
('hard grade'). The insulating materials so produced
closely resemble the elasticized polyethylenes in their
combination of characteristics, i.e. they exhibit, as
well as the improved mechanical characteristics, improved electrical characteristics, similar to those of
polyethylene. They are known by the abbreviation
HEPR.

Silicone Rubber (SiR)

Silicone rubber is produced by the polycondensation


of hydrolyzed dimethyldichlorosilane and methylphenyldichlorosilane. The macromolecules in this
case consist not of carbon chains, as in most other
polymers, but of silicon-oxygen chains (Fig.2.1?),
uhich is the reason for the rcmarkably high heat
resistance.

During processing, fillers are added to the silicone


rubber, together with organic peroxides for the purpose of crossJinking (vulcanization). The end product is characterized by a high heat resistance. Because

of the excellent insulation properties and the practically unvarying flexibility over the temperature range
from -50 to +180"C, flexible and wiring cables
insulated *irh siliconc rubber crn bc uscd contin'180'C (up
uously at conductor tempctatutes up to
to 250 "C for short periods).

Thc

silicone-rubber-bascd SInNOTHERM compounds manufactured by Siemens have outstanding


eiectrical charactcristics r.vith good resistance to
ozone. They are inscnsitivc to moisture and exhibit
good rveather resistance. The-v are thus suitable for
both insulation and sheathing. Another preferred
arel of application is that of accessorics.

Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA)

EVA is a copolymer which is used either as a t.


moplastic (vinyl acetate content < 30%) or, with s
able crossJinking, as an elastomer (see Fig.2.,l
structural formula). The properties of an EVA cc
lymer are in the main determined by the ratir
vinyl to acetate content. Cross-linked EVA e
tomers are characterised by good heat resistance
permit conductor temperatures up to 120'C- T
also exhibit excellent resistance to aging in hot
and superheated steam, together with very satisfa
ry heat/pressure characteristics (see page 16), part
larly at high temperatures. In addition, EVA c,
pounds have outstanding resistance to ozone and
ygen, weather resistance and colour stability. The
namic freezing point is in the region of -2{
- 30 "C. The application of EVA as an insula
material is limited by its electrical characteristic
the low-vohage range. The compounds are used
heat-resistant non-sheathed cables and flexible co
and for heating cables.

2.

1.3 Thermosetting Polymers (Duromers)

Unlike the elastomers, thcrmosetting polymers


usually closely crosslinked and in general have be
t.
',vear resistance and dimensional stability than
moplastics and elastomers.

Thc application of the thermosetting pollmers as


sulating materials is limited to the use of epo:
and polyurethane rcsins for thc {iiling of cable ac
sorics. Filling resins bascd on epoxides are preferr
converted to the thermosetting state bv heat-cur
Poll'urethane resin materials, on the other hil
harden at room temperature, and so offer advanti.
in application techniques. Both types o[ resin are :
able for outstanding adhesive strength. particulr
to metals.

A suitable choice of

resins and hardeners enabl


uell balanced combination of thermomechanical

electrical pfoperties

to be obtained, together r

good chemical resistance.

ftttl QH" 9H. I

-Fo-gi-o-qi-o-fttrl
I
CH3 R
L
(R

Fig.
_:o

CH, or C,H,)

2.12 Structural form of SiK

-Duroplastics ' Chemical Aging 2'2

2.2 Chemical Aging of PolYmers


is understood lhe change in the
Bv the term'aging'
-maierial
with time Polymers are subof a
"ioo.it'i.,
iect'in use to chemical changes which have an adverse
,e-i;;;;;
their mechanical and electrical characterisncs.

with
The chemical aging processes are accelerated
to
necessary
increasing temperature. It is therefore
temperap.ot..t pily..tt which are exposed to high
iur.t Uy means o[ stabilizers' in order to ensure an
from
adequare service life for the products made
them.

particularly.'. sheaths tha( are exposed


proto direct sunlight (UV radiation) must be further
rected ag;rinst this effect by the addition of so-called
lieht stalilizers to the compounds' Carbon black has

rlrtion lnd.

'.

vc-d

to be an excellent light stabilizer,

especialll"

lbr polyoleiines; an addition ol2 to 3% (by $cigh[)


rineiu divided carbon black, well distributed'
tords an effective Protectlon.

oi

al--

In the prescnce of atmospheric oxygen, thc chcmical


aging of many polymers' e.g. the polyolefines' arises
from oxidation processes rvhich are provoked' or accelerated. by heat and light' For thc purpose of stabilization. anti-oxidants are added to thc polymcrs ln
a proportion, normally' oi 0.1 to 0 5% (b1" neight)
Asins relcrions. espcciulll oxidution. itrc ltccclcrl(r'd
cltall-ticall.v by the presence of some metals This
is parricularl; marked in thc case of contact bct\\'cen
coppcr and polyolefines. in this situation anti-oxii rnts oftcr no apprecicble proccction'
tn practice. to avoid direct contact betlveen pollolchnc insulation and copper conductors. separators are
otien introduced. e.g. plastic hlms rvith sufficient stahilitl in cont:-rct sith copper. or tinncd coppcr con-!.lctors itre used. In mediunl and high'voltage cable
the tield-limitrng conducting layers act as separltors'
Conductins compounds xre protected against the eft'ect of direct contact lvith copper by their high carbon black content.
Where there is direct contact betrveen polyoleFtne insulating materials and copper conductors. metal
deactivators are added to the insulating compounds
to counl.eract the catalytic effect. It has been possible
to demonstrate by practical aging tests that by this
means a sen'ice life can be achier.ed which is compa-

Evaluation of the aging properties of polymer cable


life'
materials is based on two quantities: the sertice
a
material
which
for
time
*ii.h d"oot.t the period of
up to
remains serviceable' and the temPerature /imi''
;hich a material can be used subject to given boundary conditions. These two quantities are interrelated'
so that an increase in the temperature limit results
in a reduction in the service [ife'
In determining the corresponding pair of values for
the service life and the temperature limit, the changes
in the signihcant characleristics lvhich are necessary
for the iunction of the material must be examined
as functions of temperature and time up to point
rvhere an end criterion is reached. The choice of characteristics and of the end criterion determine the re-

It

f
i

sults.

In clble engineering the terr strength is in most clses


adopted as the essential characteristic, and as an end
criterion, on practical reasons' the attainmenl of a .."particular elongltion value, e.g. en=50% (residual
elongation).

Tf
f

DtN VDE 0304 contains guidclines for the dctermrnrtion of the thermal stability oI electrical insulating

mlrerials. the revised edition of December 1980 being


a rcproduction oi IEC 216 (1974).

According to DIN VDE 030'1. under the designauon


' tcmpcraturc indcx ' (Tt ). a te mperaturc limit for a
scrvicc liic ot'20000 h is stipulated Tli l6J' for example. signifies that the material for which it is quoted
rcmains scrviccablc for 20000 h under lnl thermal
strcJs a! tcmperaturcs up to l6'l 'C'
To obtain the tempercture index (TI). expcrimentalll'
determined pairs oI values for a rirnge of temperatures - the test temperaturc l' and the service life
r5 - lre plotted on a grlph trith time on a loecrithmic
horizonial aris and the reciprocal of the absolute
temperature on the verticai axis. A straight line is
drawn through the plotted points and bv- ertrapolation gives the required temperature index' ln the
grrphs of Figs. 1.13 to I I6 the temperrture.values
on the horizontal axis h:rve been converted to oegrees
Celsius ("C) for erse of resdtng.

--

rrble riith that obtained in compounds not subjecr


to contact $.ith coooer.

21

Chemical Aging 2.2

rc6.

h.
301
20

rcl
o> Yeats

10s

4l

,l,I

1J

100

8l
Months

2
101

6
4

?0
10

02
6

Days

\\.
2

10'

6
4
2

4b dc $

20

0.6
0.4

do120{0160 2oo 25o"c3so

40 60 8b 100 120140160 200 250 "C J50


TemPeralute-

Temperatute

Curvc

Curvc

..to.

Normll peroxide crosslinked compound


for mcdium-voltage cablc
Compound with metal dcactivator for lo$volrage clble with copper conductor

Fig. 2.15
Service life

of EVA insulation comPounds

2.1.1

,{vice

liie of XLPE insulation compounds

Fig. 2.15 shows thc temperature dependence of thc


service life of an EVA insulating compound' Aging
took place in contact with tinned conductors; the
end crirerion was eq: JQo/o and the temperxture index
(Ir) was 117 "C.

29

lDSUlaUOn

2.3 The Influence of Moisture


on Polyolefine Insulating Materials

rc5
h

4
30
20

rcs

10

10"

6
4
?

l.Months

l0j

,|

6
20

1
2

10

6
101

0ays

6
2
1

Practical experience and long-term tests on mod^,


cables have shown that water has an adverse effer
on polyolefine insulating materials such as pE anT
XLPE. Using appropriate dyeing techniques, it;.
possible to observe tree-like structures in such mater
als subjected to electrical stresses. These originatd
from practically unavoidable microscopically smalr
fault locations and run in the direction of the electr
field. This phenomenon, known as 'water treeing
(WT) is quite distinct from 'eiecrrical' tree formatio=n
(electrical treeing, ET) caused, for example, by ior
izarion.

1o'

The mechanism whereby WT structures arise has nc so far been clearly explained. Because the WT growr
is influenced by many lactors besides water and elecl
tric flelds, and these processes rake a long time, inve:
tigation is very difficulr and time-consuming. t-no

ing the finer points, WT structures can be c*ded


into two groups (Fig.2.17):

6
1
2

tr

0.6

TemPeralute.....--..-.-

Fig. 2.I6
Service life of EPR insulation compounds

Fig. 2.16 shows the scrvice lifc characreristic for an


EPR insulating compound for 0.6,/l kV cables. The
values uere obtained from insulating coverings in
direct contact rvith copper (l0yo elon-eated conduclors); the end criterion $as cR:100% and the rempirature index ( I/1 rres I I3 'C

'bow-tie trees' in rhe interior of the insulation _


'vented trees' originaring from rhe boundaries of
the insulation.

Because of the low concentration of moisture in rhF


intcrior of the insularion, the growth of .bow-ti.
trees' is slorved do*n. so that they usually remai

small (Figs. ?.18a and 2.18b). The serviceability oTcablcs is thcrcfore only rarch impaired b1..bo*,-tr.
trces'.

'\'cntcd rrccs' (Figs.2.l9a ro :.190 r"quirc .norl

critical asscssmcnt. Thcsc can cxtcnd right rhrougi


the insulation if sulficicnt rvatcr is available. In rhi
\\a) thc clecrrical srability of rhe cablc is gradualll:
rcduccd. until a breakdorvn of the cable is in, te,'

ourer conducting layel

Point oi

)K.
Inner conducting layer

A\N

,,80w'tie

Conducror

Fig.2.11
Diasramatic example of WT structures

l0

Influence of Moisture 2'3

Fig. 2.194

" Vented tree ". grorving from the outer graphited


conducting lay-er o[ a PE cable

Fis. 2.18

'' 6o*-tie rress" in a cable rvith XLPE insuhLion


(magnihcation 1 : 100)

,
t

Fig.2.l9b
PE cable from the earll dlls of PE technLquc.
" \'enrcd trcc". grosing from thc outer uraPhitcd
conducring

la1-cr

8.

Fig. 2.18 b
PE cablc' from the

'' B()\\-.!ic trccs"


of

clrlv days of PE techniquc rvith


hiei dcnsity (magniiiclrtion I : !60)

ll

Fig. 2.19d
" Vented tree " (lcncrh approx. 700 pm) on rhe\.der
extruded conducting layer of a 20 kV XLPE cable
afler several years operation $ith water inside the
cable (magnification I :135)

Fig.2.19c
PE cabl: fronr rhc elrlr. davs of PE technique.

'\:nted rree" srorring from the outcr srlphited


.-onductinc It\cr. {Thc picture
',r,rs constructed fronr
i\\ o photociaphs

Fig. 2.19e
" \/ented tree" (length approx. 50 pm) at rhe outer extruded conducting layer of a 20 kv XLPE cable after
se\eral vears of operarion (maenification: 1 :1i5)

:r

Influence of Moisture 2.3

by the conversion of the water tree into an electrical


tree (Fig. 2.19l).
for
Experiments on cables that had been in service
of
lack
of
a
result
as
which'
oUout.igttt years. in
con'
to
the
penetrated
care in iristaliation, water had
ductors and the screen regions, have confirmed the
deterioresults of accelerated laboratory tests on the
of insustrength
ralion to be expected in the electrical
lation. In this lonnection. Fi-s' 2'20 shows, by means
of Weibull statistics (a method of evaluation speciall)"
developed for the physics of breakdown mechanismsl, the determinid residual strength as dependent
on the nature of the applied voluge' which by linear
probresression of the measured values plotted in the
ratec
rhe
of
2oh
abilit-v diagram is established as 63
lvatet
value. lt cin be seen from this illustration that
in the conductor has a particularly unfavourable el'fect on the insulation [2. 1].
This knorvledge has given rise to the follo"vin-e measures for rhe construction. manufacture and installation of cables with PE or XLPE insulation:

a) minimization of fault locations in insulation

and

al the boundaries of the conducting layers' i'e':


tr optimization of the purity of the insulating
and conducting-layer materials and the cleanliness of the manuf;rcturing process:

extrudcd conductins lavers to bc preferred'

conrcnt and prcvcntion of ln'


gress of moisture. i.c.:

b; rcduction of sltlcr

tr

tr

prevention of ingress of water into the conduc'


tors and the screen region in mlnutacture'
storage' transport and installation and in service (e.g. through subsequent damagc to the
sheath).
use

of mechanicitlll resistant outer sheath' e g'

of PE.

Fig.2.l9f
Structure change from WT to ET at the top of a
" Vented rree", XLPE cable aiter 6000h "Water treeing test" with 5 kV/mm and water in the conductor
and following short-time stressing with approximately
nine times operational field sfength. (The picture was
construcred from trvo photographs)

provision of lcngthsise rvirtcr-tisht screen tegion to limit the ingress oI rvater in the event
of damage to the sheath.

tr

in high-voltlge cable. for > 36i60 kV' the use

of a Iaminated aluminium sheath and a lengthrvise water-tight screen region'


In addition to this. intensivc development is in progress to increase the resistance of XLPE insulating
iompounds to WTt) bv means of additives [2 3]'
r, In lFr hlc:trurc lLo rcicrrc,.l t..) r "WJtcr trcc rctrrdcnt

compouno

r\\ TP. rcmoourd)

-rJ

Probabiliry of failure P

aoa

/_"$_____

I
24

,rf:t
I

ll

JI

Test series
Percenr rared

kV/nn 7t )

varue %

12

100 157

0.1

100

lor

kV/mm

Vollaqe qradienr

rc2

a) a.c. \'oltage

102

f.-..........-

kvimm
Voilage gradienl 6

b) Impulse voltage

Nerv condit.ion, dry. not prcstrcsscd

Water in the conductor and bclow thc shcath


of thc
cable after eight years in opcration
Water under the sheath of thc cablc aftcr
so.en
)ears ln oPeratron

oJl
50

Ware..at the undxmt{:cd sherth aftcr ninc


lcars in

operatron

t0

23
Jestseres
Fig.2.20
Breakdosn stren,sth

1i 2)3|

eel:elr iared kV/mm. 150

varLe vo

of t0 kV pE cables.

\\'eibull-Disrribution :
Probabilirv of lailure p relarir e to mcan voltage
sradrent f (break-doun rolragc dir.ided bl
thickncss
of insulation)

.rl

100

,, i0 ,
47

g9 | 116
59 I 78

0.r

tc

102

hV/mm

Voltage gradrenr F

c) d.c. r'oltale

Impregnated Paper ' Bibliography 2'5

_2.4 lmpregnated PaPer


impregnated paper was used for conductor insulaoi th" last century' It made possible
tion ai ttre
"ni of cables for higher voltages' Be-the manufacture
pirper lnsulilcause of its good dielectric properties'
to lne
tion is still indispensible for cables used al up
-hiehest operating voltages customary today ln the
loiv- and medium-voltage ranges' however - up to
polymers to an ever30 kV - it has been replaced by
development
- increasing eKtent in recent decades' This
to the highalso
increasingly
is noru bJing extended
voltage range.

I G '. papcr consists of the purest possible


-

long*ta-

It is
oled ccilulos". obclincd from northcrn timbers'
pro,lso knort n ls sudium ccllulosc papcr' lrom the
insuarc
."ss by rrhr;h it is prepared. The conductors
Ln ivith this special high-quality paper to the thick'
n!-. required tbr the ratcd volta-ee In the casc ol
prothc higher'voltagc cables, it is advantageous to
scrcen
I
vide conducting pilpers on the conductor and
of metallized paper on the core. rvhose thickness' up
to ir certain iimit' according to DIN VDE 0225' is
counred as part of the insulation thickness'
The single- or multi-core clble asscmbly' accordins
to the cable construclion. is dricd in an imprcgnltLtng
txnk and then impregnatcd rvith a degasscd and dried
impregnating medium f impregnrting compound')
appropriate to lhe intended purpose of thc cablc'
Papcr-insulated c:.rblcs arc dividcd according to thc
ncthod of imprcgnation into mirss-tmpregniltco
clblcs and oil-llllcd c0blcs. Cables lvhosc lnsulatlon
I rillcd aftcr instlllation *ith nitrogen undcr pressltre
crtblc
2q; knorr n its internrtl gls pressure

tion from the liquid to the semi-solid state' and are


prevented from flowing in the permissible service
temperalure range by the microwax structure'

- like all
dielectric
polybutene compounds - have outstanding
propenies, even after long periods of service

In addition,

these non-draining compounds

For extra-high-voltage low-pressure oil-frlled cable'

a lorv-viscosity gas-absorbing impregnant is


This may be e mineral oil rich in aromatic

used'

combenwith
alkyl
pounds. a naphtha-based mineral oil
good
)ene additivei or an alkyl benzene, ensuring
gas absorption in an electric field at all service temOther
i.r",ur.t. especially in regard to hydrogen'
recharacteristics oI these impregnants are adequate
in
srvell
to
tendenc.v
little
sistance to oxidation and
used'
the presence o[ the sealing materials

2.5 Literature Referred to in Section

Krmmel, C : Sunderhauf. H: Lringswasserdichte


Kunststoffkabel (Lengthrvise watertight clbles)'
Elektrotechn. Z. (1952) No 4, pp' 173-176
f2.ll Kulkner, W: Miiller. U; Peschke' E F: Henkel'
H.J.: Olshausen' R.v.: Water treeing in PE and
XLPE insulated medium and high'voltage cables'
Elektr.-Wirlsch. 8l (1932) No' 26, pp 9l l-9?2
VPE[1.i] Pcschke. E : Wicdenmann. R': Ein neues
Water-tree-retardiermit
\littclspannungskabel
cndcr ilTR-)isolierung (A nerr XLPE mcdium(WTR) inr oltage cable wilh water-tree-retardant
(19S7)
No 6'
36
.uhtilon). Elektr.-Wirlsch

Il.ll

uou -r ollitgc. mcdium-r oltlge lnd urternitl gits prcssure cebles are impregnated rvith high-viscosity pol!-

'

'|tcnc compounds. r'hich have very lorv dielectrtc


,.sscs and erccllcnt irging charucteristics' trom .low
to vcrl high opcrating tempcfatures. ln compilrtson
ri ith thc oil-resin compounds produced tiom natural
or svnrhetic hldrocirrbon restns.

The viscositl of the impregnating compound is chosen in such a way that small differences in level do
not cause the compound to migrate.

For special cables to be installed on steep slopes.


'non-draining cables' and internal gas pressure
cables. special compounds are used, known as nondraining or nd compounds. These consist oi polybutenc modificd by the addition ot' selected microcrys-

tallinc'r',lxcs: thcv shrink onlv slishtlv in thc transi-

i5

Experimental installation for the investigation


of the influence of water on polymer insulating materials
in medium- and high-voltage cables

,.:

;.i;:' ;;

\
'\

Protective Sheaths ' Thermoplastic Sheaths 3'1

3 Protective Sheaths

A distinction is made in the DIN-VDE specifications


between sheaths and protective coverings or outer
of thermoplastics or elastomers'
-coverings
Protective coverings and outer coverlngs serve as corrosion protection over a metal sheath or as light me-ct"nical protection for flexible and wiring cables'
!i..*rexs shetths are dimensioned for greater mechanrc l stresses.
Since the Droperties of these components ltre slmllcr
1 ior dimensions' only rhe collective term
"'s..cxth' is uscd in rclation to cablcs in the follo* ing

section.

3.1 ThermoPlastic Sherths


Pol-vvinyl Chloride (PVC)

PVC-based compounds arc uscd prcdomintntly as


n sheathing material for po',ver clblcs and for llcxiblc
lnd rriring cables becausc ol thc mlnl ad\'ltntil{cs

thcl ol'ilr.
The thermoplastic sheath is extruded onto the c:Lblc
corc assembly in a proccss providin-t a seamless
sheaths havc a cleln.
'"cr. Cablcs rvith PVC outer

iroth

surface.

The PVC compounds combine high tensile strength


lnd elonr:arion. pressure stability even in high-tem'
. .rrturc reglons. resistlnce to prlctic lly lll chenriclls in soils and most chemic:rls encountered in chemicll plants. and especially flame resistance and reslstlncc to aeing. The sheaths used in PROTODUR
cablcs are characterized by their comparative hxrd'
ncss. toughness rnd adequirte pliabiliry from the
point of vierv of bending at low temperatures (see
page 18).

The PVC outer sheath proved over many years for


por"er and wiring cables in fired installations is also
used. in a suitably softer form, for flexible cables.
Llshr and medium PVC-sheathed flexible cords have
bL'en introduced satisfactorily for household equipmcn! bccrusc ot'thcir cicar irnd durable colours and

smooth surlaces. PVC-shearhed flexible cords are nor


suitlble for use at low temPeratures. in the open atr

or in heating appliances (e.g smoothing irons)' in


rvhich the cable can come into contact with hot parts:

elasromer-sheathed cords should be used

in

these

cases.

Poll ethl lene (PE)


Practical experience in supply'authority systems has
shorvn rhat in many cases medium-voltage cables laid
in the ground are subjected to considerably higher
mechanical stresses than was originally assumed' Be'
cause of rhe danger presented to cables by the pene'
tration of moisture. an undamaged impervious outer
sheath has a decisive effect on the life expectancl"
of PE and XLPE insulation (see page 30). A mechanicalll resistant PE sheath is therefore increasinglvprelerre,i. especially' for medium- and high-voltage
cables *ith XLPE insulation. A PE shearh is recommcndcd in thc ncrv spccification DIN VDE 0271 37
rbr XLPE cablcs laid in thc ground

Thc disadvantagcs of thcse mlterials. such as llamm.rbility. greater ditticulty of handling in instailatton'
interior adhesion to the miltericls normally used in
rueccsories lnd greater longitudinal shrinkagc' are lcccpted in vierv of their grei'tter hardness and abrasion
."ria,rnaa. From considerations of resistance to UV
r;.-rdiltion and environmcntitl strcss cr:rcking' onl;
black PE sheaths arc permitted. Thc mosl significant
fuctor in the choice of the base poly-mers is the temperature to be expected in normal service. The screen
temperature to be expected under fault condirions
(see page 286) should be allowed for by suitable constructional measures.

Particularly advantageous is the combination of a


PE sheath with the measures described in Section 7 3
tbr the sealing of the screen region of the cable
againsr the ingress of moisture.
ln connection with the leading-in or laying of cables
in intcrior locations. ir must be rem!'mbcred th;lt PE
37

l'rotecrrve Sheaths

sheaths are not flame retardant. Where necessarv.


appropriate fire protection measures should be
adopted at the site, e.g. spraying or painting the cable
with a flame retardant protective coating.

to weathering, chemicals and heat Siemens have developed special synthetic elastomer compounds for
use as an outer sheath material.

Polychloroprene (PCP)

Poll'amide (PA) and Polyurethane (PUR)


Polyamides are polycondensarion products with linear chain structures made up of dicarbon acids and
diamines or aminocarbon acids. Polyurethanes are
polyaddition products with a chain-formation to spatial structure of di-isocyanates or polyisocyanates
and dialcohols or polyalcoholes respecrively. Flexible
and wiring cables subjecred ro parricularly high mechanical stresses or to chemical influences, e.g. from
benzene or agressive, mostly aromatic oils (e.g. coaltar oils), are provided with a protective layer of polyamide or polyurerhane or/er the sheath or the insulation. These two materials are distinguished mainly
b1 outstanding mechanical propcrties and good resistance to oils, fats, ketones, esters and chlorinated
hldrocurbons. Pollamide protective covcrings arc
applied to, among others. flexible and wiring cables
for use in mineral oil extraction and in aircraft.
Poll'amides are not suitable lor use as insulating materials, on account of their poor dielectric characteristics. but because of their high abrasion rcsistance and
touqhness, together with their good resistance to organic solvents and fuels thc! are used as sheathins
materials for special flcrible and rviring cirblcs.
Polvurerhane sheaths har.e high inrpact rcsistancc.
high fleribility at low rentperarures and,sood abraslon rcslstance.

A polymer of 2-chlorine-butadien shows a good resis_


tance against the influences ol light, oxygen and
ozone and a very good resistance against cold, heat
and flames. Its excellent resistance against chemicals,
which is very high for a elastomer deserves special
mention.

It

has, therefore, particular advantages for use as

a basic material for sheathing compounds.

The cables and flexible cables manufactured b1,Siemens uith a sheath based on polychloroprene are
kno* n under rhe rrade mark PROTOFIRM. The
mechanical srrength of the vulcanized compound is
very hi-lh. therefore. these cables have an increased
service life under mechanical stresses of any \_J.
PROTOFI RM sheaths also offer advantages u.hire
good resistance to seathering. flame rctardance and
a certain ammount of resistance to oil is reo uired.
furthcrmore where a clastomer is preferred to pVC
compounds bccausc of its higher flexibility, rcsistancc
to abrasion and tear cxtension.

Thcsc shcaths, thercfore. arc particularly suited for


flcxiblc cablcs in undcrground mining applicarions
and loc:rtions rrith fire hlzard
Chlorosulphonl

I Potvethllenc (CSII)

is produccd bl,chlorosulphonation of pol),crh1lc'nc. The parrly cr)srallinc polycthylcnc is in rhis


CS i\'1

Poll propl lene (PP)

is of lcss importance because of its


brittleness ar lo\\' tempcrature and its special sensitir._
itr to t hermo-oxida tir e deteriorltion. eipecilllv rvhen
in contrcr uirh coppcr. can onll bc emploved undcr
Poly'prop1.'lene

limired conditions.

3.2 Elastomer Sheaths

ln

the Federal Republic of Germany, apart from


use in
* iring and halogen-free coblei *ith im.ships
proveo propertres under fire conditions, elastomer
sheaths are only used for rviring and f,lexible cables.
Because natural rubber has only limittcd rcsistancc
-1O

process transferrcd into an anrorphous clastonter.


The cross-linkins can be established by using eirt-^r
radical or conventiontl special sulphur compounu-.
CSNI is alailublc:rs an industrial prodtrct undcr the
tradc mark HYPALON (N4anulacturer: Dupont de
Nemours International S.A.). Both. propertics and
the ranqc of applicarion corrcspond to thosc of polvchloroprc-nc (PCP). hos,cver. CSlvl has improved
properties as regards colour lastness and resistance
to heat.

Chlorinated Polyethl.lene (CM)

CM is a new sheath compound with characteristics


virtualll identical wirh those of HYPALON but u,ith
rcduced flcxibility at lou' temperirtures. When
blcndc'd g ith oth!.r !'lastontcrs soccial comoounds

Sheaths of Rubber for Special Purposes'

EPR or EPDM
can be produced, e.g. by the use of
tl"
at low temperarure is improved' 9r',by
t'lexibility
'"i'tiiur-i",adien
rubber the oil and fuel resis-

"t"
tance is imProved'

Nitril-ButNdien Rubber (NBR)


immersed in oil
Cables which are ro be permanently
on
o.. o-tia"a with an oil resistant sheath based
predominantlv
is
rubber
ttti", (NBR)' Nitril
"iitii il"a"a'with
and is known for its good
"r.i
,..ir,on". to oil. This resistance to oil is based on
ii. o"i".i,v of the nitril rubber molecule' Nitril ruboils
U", it ,ft.t.f"re highl.v resistive to non'polarised
highlv,olt.nt, but docs sri'eil considerably in
"i.
polarised solvents'

ivc

rylh*!::l

sheath
NYBUY and PVC'insulated cables with lead
as locutions with
;;;;J r- ntting stations as well cables
also have'
i"" ona explosion hazard: these
mechanical damas protectio; against corrosion and
ogi. uo oot.. sheath ol PVC'
17640
For the lead sheath a cable lead Kb-Pb to DIN
vrthe
agatnst
is used which is sufficiently resistant
materi
bration whictr are normally present' The base
at for this cable lead is pig lead Pb 99'94. tots
DIN 1719. To avoid a coarce grain structure thts
of copper
blended with 0.03 to 0 05% (by weight)
{ I tole J, r,.

_
3.3 Sheathing Nlaterials for Special Purposes
cables
Sicmcns have devclopcd cablcs and llexiblc
(FlamcunO". ,ft" trade mark SIENOPYR FRNC
n"i"tO.n,, Non Corrosive) which hlve particulirrly:
namell
importanr characteristics in the evcnt of tire'

>

reduced support

ol

combustion cvcn

rvhen

bunched

Trble 3.1 Cable lead to DIN 17640'


A base metal of Pb 99.94 to DtN 1719 with an additional 0.001% lvlg must bc uscd

nation

bl thc usc ol'spccial shcathing mrtcrials

base matcrials are olelincopol-vmcrc such.:ls


flamc-retardent qualities'
- VA or EEA. To achicve
thcsc mctcrii.tls being normally combustiblc' ccrtaln
hvdratc containing mineral tlllers are used' Thcrefore
- satisfl the aboic requirements itll other additivcs
such as lnriitging a!:ents are halogen-frce'

Ahe

3.4 Nletal Sheath


Lead Sheath

Insulation materials. sensitive to humidity' e'g tmprcgnated, paper are protected by a metal sheath'
Since the bcginning of cable mlnufacturing leud,
s hich is crsl io hlnJlc. hls bccn the proven mrtterill
tbr this pLrrDosc. Lcud covc'rcd PVC'shelthed cablcs

Kb-Pb Te 0.0+

Abbreviation
Uscd lbr

Cablc sheaths
rvhich tre subjected
to l high dcgrcc

Wcak ullol cable


shcuths: busc metal

> tirmes do not contlin corrosivc sttbstanccs


> grcrtlv rcduced snrokc dcvclopmcnt
> rctcntion of instltiltion
r', hicvcd

Tellurium lead

D.sig-

lbr manufacturc
of liloy clblc
shci.I

of vibrution

ths

Componenls in % (b! rveightt


Cu

0.03

5b

Sn

0.0i to 0.05

-0.05

o.orto
remlindcr to

rcmtindcr to t 00?6

Pb

\{lximum umount of rddiLi\cs in

70

Ag

0.001
0.001

I[

0.050

Fe

0.001

\tg
Sb

0.001
0.005

Sn
Zn

0.005
0.001

: Thir

"

lcrd smeLlers
Cu uddi(ion crn bc omi(lcd by irgrconrcnt bct!\r'cn

rnd cablc m:rnuilcturlrl

uprol)05';
' iirt-*"i".rrr riupumx\ rlso hrlc :rn so conicn( ol

l9

Table

3,2

Features of Lead and Aluminium

Features

Cable lead Kb-Pb

to DIN
Density

Aluminium for

640

cable sheaths

g/cm3

Ten<ile o.a..rh

2.7

N/mm2

Elongation

!o 18
40 to 50

lo to zo
z) to J)

4to5

5.0 to 6.5

13

Brincll Hardness to DIN 50351

HB 5131,2s130
HB 2.sl3t, 2s130

Melting point
Specific resistance at 20

17

'c
'C

Thermal conductivity
Specific heat capacity

327

55 to 65

z) to J)

roirr
658

Om

2t.4.10-8

K.

34.8

218

I
m-l\

1.45.106

2.5 . 106

--i-;

2.84.

10

For cables u hich are to bc subjccred to hcavier vibration, e.g. cables for installation on bridges, rail*.ay,
cables or aerial cables, Siemens prelerably use a leadtellurium-alloy to DIN 17640 (Kb-pb Te 0.04). The
basis for rhis alloy is pig lead pb 99.94 ro DIN 1719.
to u'hich at leasr 0.035% of tellurium is added.

To ensure these cables correspond to the normal ^, ,,


core paper-insulated cables, the thickness of the >ro_
minium sheath is dimensioned such that the conduc_
tivity of the sheath has a value equal to or greater
than that of the corresponding standardized neutral
conductor.

The main characteristics of lead and aluminium for


use as cable shcaths arc shorvn in Table i.2.

The good electrical conductivity of the aluminium


sheath ensures a eood screening factor; the interfer_
cncc u,irh control cables and communication cables
is therefore lower than that of lead-sheathed cables

Aluminium Shcath
In the 1 940's Siemens AG rr.erc thc first manufacturcr
to succced in pressing aluminium. *.ith its high stability and good conductivity. arouno a corc asscmblr..
u hich prcviously could only be done rvith
lead. Afrer
haling provcn their rvorth, cables rvith aluminium
shc:rth wcrc included ar firsr in VDE 02g6,,10.56
"Spccifications for Metal-Sheathed power
Cables on
Triai " since 1964 for aluminium_sheathed cables.
DIN VDE 0255 '.Specification for Cables s.irh
Mass.lm pregnatcd papcr Insulation and
MeralShearh in Powcr Plants'. applies.
A. rcliable. corrosion prorccrion ensures

that the alu_


minium sheath is not threatencd even under
unfa_

vourable conditions. Aluminium_shcathed


cables arc
installed in the same manner as paper lead
cables.
The.smooth soft aluminium sheattr-atio*s
surncienitu
small bending radii (see page 400).
The good electrical conductivity of
aluminium makes
po-ssible

it

10 use the sheath as neutral


conductor
IPEN) in thee-pbase systems wtrh earrhed neutral
point (three-phase four_wire sysrems).
40

(see page 352).

Normally cables *.ith aluminium sheath do not have


to be armoured. due to the mechanical stabilitv of
aluminium. This is of parricular imporrance in rhe

of single-core cables ivhere *,ith lead_sheathed


l)'pes the mechanical protection could onlv be
achieved by a relarilely expensive non-magnetic r"case

mour

Aluminium is not susceptible to vibration and does


not tend to re-crr.stallize even at higher ambient temperatures. These facts make aluminium-sheathed
cables particularly useful for installations u,here sub_
lection to heavy Vibration is to be expected. e.q. on
bridges, alongside rails av tracks etc.

Conosion Protection 4.1

4 Protection against Corrosion

depending upon the requirements, a bedding o[ imprignated jute (NEKEBA) is applied'


If for practical reasons, a polymeric sheath was not
laid over
selecte-d a layer of polymeric foil must be
electroor
chemical
of
the armour if there is danger

po"ver cables
Meial-sheathed as rvell as armoured
corroslon'
agalnst
protection
must be provided wirh

4.1 Cable rvith Lead Sheath

F-

lytic corrosion (NEKEBEA)'

.ius \laterials in Bituminous Compounds

Pollmeric Outer Sherth

(J rutrntouretl C ubles

1^protection against corrosion consists of several


tt- -rs oi bituminized paper and one layer of pre-

neuimpregnated jute, rvith intermediate coatings oI


tr"i biiurninout coatings (Asphal0 The outer surface
is white-rvashed to Prevent sticking of the cables
rvhilsr on the drum. Norvadays this type o[ protecuon
aqainst corrosion is onl.v rarely uscd lt is increasingiloieferred to use a plastic sheath bondcd to thc lead
sheeth b1 a suitable comPound

Annoured

The PE outer sheaths of medium- or high-tenston


cables are alrvays coloured black (see page 395)'

of

Table4.1 shors the colour


DrN VDE 0206.

outer sheaths to

C ables

Beked cables are provided with a protectlve lnner


covering over the lead shelth consisting of several
layers oi bituminized tlbrous materiai rvith intermediatc lalers of bituminous compound This protecttve
rer covering serves also as bedding for the armour'
a lal er
-\e armour is prorected lsainst corrosion by surtace
outer
The
., jute in bituminous compound.
is *hite-rvashed. This tlpe of protection agalnst cor''-rsion is sufficient under normal conditions'
heav,v chemical or electroll-.ttc
corrosion at least one la-ver of elastomer type or pot)meric foii hxs to bc provided in addition to the tapes

tf there is a danger of

oi tlbrous m:rLeri:ll. unless the clble is protecred


c.n

reliable corrosion protection is provided by a


flame
sheath of PVC which is chemically stable and
abnorto
retardent. Cables which are to be subjected
mal stresses. either in operation or during installation
a PE-sheath or a reinforced PVC sheath to
DIN VDE 0225 can be Provided'

b1

outer polymeric sheath.

Table

4.1

Colour of outer sheath

PE outer sheath

\ledium and
high-voltage cable
PVC outer sheath

Separate Lead-Sheathed

S.L.)

Cables

Separate lead-sheathed (S.L.) cables have, over each


lead sheath. a bitumen layer and a layer of polymenc
tape rvhich is lollorved by a further layer of bitumen

compound and one layer of bituminized tibre tape.


Ol'er the touch protected and laid-up cores an inner
protecii'.'e shearh of puper- or textile tape. and (or).

Lorv-voltage cable

0.6/1

Black

Low-voltage cable [or


mining applications
below ground

0.6/

Yellow

lvledium- and high'


vokase cable

> 0.6iI

4.2 Aluminium-Sheathed Cables


Whilst being exceedingly durable when installed in
free air, aluminium has to be protected by a water
and ion-resistant anti-corrosive covering, if the cable
is to be installed in the ground. In order to achieve
a high degree of salety and mechanical strensth a
multiJayer corrosion protection is required.
According to DIN VDE 0255 Type A5 it consists of
a plastic foil applied overlapped and bonded to the
aluminium sheath and to the outer pVC sheath bv
means of bitumen compound.
Special tests show that the corrosion protection adheres well to the aluminium sheath and that in the
event of a locally limired damage to the cable eventual corrosion on the outside of the aluminium sheath
is practically limited to the exposed area.

.11

Armour

Armour

-fh.

orrnou, protects the cable against mechanical


for rated
stresses. In ,h. a"r" of polymeric cables
above Lfo/U:0'611 kV it normally serves
-voltages
llso as an electrical screenlng'
arPaper-insuhted lead-sheathed cables are normally
apeacn
tapes'
steel
*'ith trvo compounded
-rnorrred
in
ol'. ln open helir in such a mlnner thill the
."cond tapc corers the g:rp left b;- thc firsc'
-High-r'oh,rge crbles wirh polymer insulrrtion having

sysSingle-core cables in single'or three-phase a'c'


**-, ur" not armoured as a rule, in order to avoid
addirional losses. An armour of non-magnetic material. however, has to be provided wherever mecnanle'tcal demage or higher tensile srresses are to be
pected du-ring or after laying of the clble Occasionaliy rntr.-itpr-.gnated or oil-filled cables are manuflactured sith an open armour of steel wires' inste:rd
of a non-magnetic armour. tor reasons ot economlcs'

iallic a-opp". ,"ta.n as rvell as low-voltage cables


s: PVC or XLPE insulation and alumintum-if
a

-sheathed clbles do not require to be armoured


they are sufficiently protected against damage and
noi.uUj..t.a to tensiie stresses' The permissible pull
- during ia1-ing of cablcs is shorvn on p'rge 406'
An armour of flat-steel wires may also scrvc as a
screen in multi-corc cablcs r"irh polymcr insullttion

not having a screen ofcopper' This design is common


for PVC ilbles ior 3.5 6 kV. *here ;t scrccn lrounll
each core separately is not rcquircd' irnd illso fLrr
cubles to be installed in nenvorks rvhcre doubic carth-

earth-faults in earthcd ncutral s)sterns


rcnticr ltn :lrmour ot'stccl rrircs ltdvltnt;tgcoLts in its
firncrion as a commoll mctallic screen (scc also

Iiruits

or

^" ltc -n i

(;$les

!..,

).

lre to b!' itlbjectcd to highcr mcchlnl(especialll tensilc stress) must be 1r'

\\ hich

stresscs
mourcd rrith salvanized stcel uircs' The right protilc
I'g. tllt. round or "2"-rvire). dimensions lnd
...icnsth ol'thc $ires hits to bc choscn according to
thc size :rnrl applicarion ot'thc clble' e g as rirer
cable. submarine citble or shati cable (see pages 129
rrnd ll0t. A stccl t:tpc hclir prercnts bird-cageing
of the * ires.

.+-)

o Loncentnc conductors

Concentric Conductors

The concentric conductors in low-voltage cables such


as NYCY, 2XCY, NYCWY and 2XCWy are used
as PE or PEN conductors (see page 397) and at the
same time form touch protecdon. Accordine to the
VDE specificarions these must be of copp-er. The
cross-sectional area included in the type desienation.
houever, relates only to the material used for the
phase (main) conducrors.

in a cable

u.ith copper conductors. for cxamole.


NYC\\'\' 3 x 95 SM,50 0.6. I kV. the value of diiecr
currcnt reslsttnce of the conccntric copper conductor. to comph * ith thc abovc rc-,qulation nust not
be greater than the maximum value of that of
a cooper conduclor of 50 mmr. Similarly in a cable wiih
aluminium conducrors NAyCWy 3 x 95 SM,,9i
0.6/l kV lhe value old.c. rcsisrance of rhe concenrric

copper conductor, to comply u,ith thc above recula_


tion, must not be greater than the maximum
of that of an aluminium conductor of 95 mmr. ""alre
The concentric conductor compriscs cirhcr

I hclicallr
applied layer of copper sires or a ulve form llrcr
of copper uires r CEAN DE R-crblr., ) c.g. NYCrif:

or 2XCWY. In addition a copper tapc is applicd

hclicalll to interconnect thc \\.ircs (transvcrse helical


tapc). In rhe Fedcral Republic of Gcrmlnl. alumin_
runr rs not permitted for use as it concentric
conduc_
tor.

tll

Concentric conductors are arranged under the


outer
polymer sheath to ensure they are protected
against
corrosron. ll armour is arranged above the concentric
conducror a separarion sheaih
limperviou,
sh.eath) of PVC musr beapplied Uer*..n ttern.
"*,.uJLJ
(iyp.
relerence desisnations for concentric conductor
sLe
page 101.)

Electrical Screening- Conducting Layers 7'1

7 Electrical Screening

with
Electrical screening is necessary only for cables
functions:
Uo>0.6/1 kV and fulfils the following
Potential grading and limiting of the electrical

>

>
p

lelo

Conduction of charge and discharge currents


.

ouch Pro tectlon

To satisfy these functions the screening normally"


comorises a combination of conducting lay-ers rvith

,1lic

elements. One differentiates between cables


ru-r non-radial characteristic fields (e'g' belted
cables) and radial field cables. The rldial charactertstics of lines of held between conductor and screen
is achieved by placing a conducting layer' I metal
screen or a metal sheath over each individual core'
Insulation is stressed only perpendicullr to the rvall
(papcr
thickness. In cables with laminated dielectric
elcctriinsulation) this is the direction of the highest
cal withstand. Interstices of the corcs in thcsc cablcs
remain field-free (see Page 97).
t)
7.1 Conducting LaYers

Thc magnirudc of clcct.ric strcss rnd thc dcgrcc of


.sitivitl of thc insr-rlation mtterinl ilg lnst pilrtlal
govern the tvpe of screening of the insulit-chrrrge
!ron with conducting la]ers (Table 7.1).
rble

(H-foil), if necessary in combination wirh conducting


pop"t. it can also consist of a combination of aluminium tape with conducting Paper tapes'
Cable with PVC Insulation

The "inner conducting layer" consists of a PVC

compound having a high carbon-black content' This


is normally applied togerher with the insulation in
a single production process so that both layers are
bonded firmly without gcps or cavities'

For the " outer conducring layer" elastic conducting


adhesives with a cover o[ conducting tapes (textile
or carbon black paper) is a preflerred mcthod'
Cable rvith PE or XLPE Insulation
Bec::use

of the higher sensitivity of PE and XLPE

insulation to partial discharge the reliable ''lell adheilolc /. I


Arrangement of conducting Layers above and beiorv lhc
cable insulation
I

belorv the
in

conducting

laler over
the conductor)

The "outer conducting layer" normaly consists of


merallized paper. also known as H6chstidter Folie

mpregnated PlPer

t)
belted cable
radial field cable

Pvc

insulation
(outer
conductlng
lir!'erl

kV

KV

3.7 l0
3.7 15

3.6i6

Lio,'L'

6i 10

EPR

6i10

PE

3.616

XLPE

3.6i6

r'
tn thri boot rh\: rn]plcr rcrm .onducring h)_cr' hrs bccr ujcil ini(crd
ol rcmrconllucrrng trt!r chosc in rh\: r\s0cct.i!c IEC jtinJrrJt

above the

rlted voltages excecding

Thc "inncr conducting la.ver" consists of scleral


ielcrs ol'semi-conducting paper (llso kno"r'n as cat-

it

sulrtion

(inner

rrith Paper Insulation

bon black paper). This is often retlrred to as conductor smoothing because is used to smooth local
peaks in the electric field rvhich could otherrvise oq'
cur. e.g. because of irregularities in the surftrce of
stranded conductors.

Conducting la;-ers required

Tl pe of insulution

wilh non_rldill tictd: p"missiblc only for rlled


toit,rg.. Lo Ci<3.? l0 kV. In C..mrny bellcd cabl's irrc nodnrll/ useo
tbr voitilgcr 1,, C'<6,10 kv l*c prge l'l$)
Paper-insul:rted cablc

45

7 Electrical

Screenins

> A layer of copper wires with a helix of copper


tape or tapes aborc thc laid-up individuattv

sive eap and cavity-free bonding to conducting Iayers

is of greatest significance for the life expectancy of


the cable. DIN VDE 0273 requires proof of non-partial discharge for each individual cable length for a
voltase range up to 2 Uo and with a measuring sensitivity of <5 pC.

screened cores (transverse helical tape) which


mav
be each screened with conducting layers or;

DA

layer of copper wires with a helix of copper


tape or tapes or a layer of copper tape oter-each
indiuidual core which may be each screened with
conducting layers; or they are

The "inner conducring layer" normally consists of


a polvmer compound which is made conductive bv
adding carbon black and is, together with the insulation. applied ro rhe cable in a single manufacturing
process and in the case of XLPE cable, cross-linked

>

Metal sheaths (e.g. paper-insulated cables) aboue


each inditidual core or above the laitl-up cores
which may be each individually screened ty mer_
alized paper; or

>

Steel-wire armourins (e. g. in cables ,,vith polymer


sheath) ouer the laid-up individually screened
cores; each screened by conducting layers

r,r'ith the insulation.

The "outer conducrin_e layer" is formed by rhe insulation and a laver of conductive polymer compound
bein-e simultaneously applied to the cable and in rhe
case of XLPE cable. cross-linked. This from a technical viovpoint is rhe most favourable solution *,here
rhe conducting layer is firmly bonded to rhc insulation and rcquires a special tool to remove it durine
cablc. installltion. In anorher variant rhis l.r_ver cai
bc rcmoved bl hand after picrcing ri ith a tool.

In thc Fedcral Republic of Germanl, it u,as previous


practicc to use cabics in rvhich thc outcr conducting Iaycr consisted of graphitc rubbed on rhe outer
surface of the core *'ith a conducring tape applied
ovcr it. This graphite required a special solvcnr to
rcmovc it during installation. Thc nov regulation
DIN VDE 0273'..87 does no morc include this r.ariant.
Cablc

rr

In contrast to lhe rules for concentric conducto)./


for copper screens ir is not the elecrrical effective
cross section which is the important factor because

*'hen considering earrh fault or short-circuit stresses


(see page 287) the geometric cross secrion
is the morc
significant (Tablc 7.2). Screens are arrangcd belorv
the outer poiymcr sheath to providc protection
against corrosion.

If armouring is provided above the copper scrcen


thrs must alwavs bc separatcd from thc scrcen b\'
ln inrpcrr ious sep;.rr:llion shelth of pVC,

ith EPR Insulation

EPR is lcss sensitivc'to partial discharse in comoarj\\ith PE and XpLE bLrr hcrc ulso irincr lnd outer
',()n
conducting larers of poll.mer compound must bc
providcd und firmh.bonded ro thc insuhtion.

Other materials (e. _s. aluminium) are not acceptable. parricularll in Germanl .

Table 7.2

\'linimum cross-sectional areas of screens to VDE


(geometric cross scction )

\ominal cross-sectional
of main cond uctor
mm:

l}::llft.omponents

of Etectricar

ti
i-j

e. q.

ovcr the circumlerthe transmission of these currcnls ln the loneitudinJl


dircction ol rhe clble ro_
$ aros.the.earthed
point. additional elemenrs having
a suDstantially los.er
specific resistance
n...rr..1i
"r.
This function is performed
by metallic screens u.hich
are ln
,,r.ith the conducring lalers.
contrct
relectrical
L.rependlng
on cablc tr pc thcse
are:
46

Nominal cross-sectioni

arel of
ntm I
t6
16

70

16

1?0

to
to

150
185

_)

240

i) -

300

t)

,:100

I
'

screen

l6

50

The resis.tance ol'conductinc lavers


is sufficienr ro
,n. rerl small parrial charge and dischrrge
::l-.:-"]
currents ovcr small distances.
cncc ol the corc. For

area

i) "

''

3_i

r u.orj scclion of t6 mm: rs pcimrrrrrl


Forsincle-corc crblcs lrid in canh !cro\r sccrion of t6 nm, ij
ircrmitlcd
For cabies luid in c:rrlb

Metallic Components ' Screens Resistant to Water Penetration 7'3

Type designations of screens see page 101; details


curreni carrying capacity of screens in the event
-foi
of earth fault. double earth fault and earth short cirsce pagc 281.

_cuit

7.3 Longitudinally Water Proof

Screens

conditions are to be considered (e' g subruns with great height differential'


damage to outer sheath) additional measures can be
- taken. To avoid rvater penetrating the cable through
damage to the outer sheath rvhich could, in the area
the screen. spread over a large distance it is pru-''] of '
,ir to use cables which are protected against $ater
peuetration in the screen irreas. To achieve this proiection thcrc are scverll constructional possibilities'
] e.g. in the screen arer absorbent porvders or lapes
clbe added *hich srvell in the event of moisturc
in-:s so thirt all c:lvities and g:rps are filled and the
- longitudinal spread of moisture is limited'

If

"*rr"."
cables,
marine

In ir construction devclopcd by Siemcns thc scrcenlng


embedded in unvulc:rnised rubbcr. Thc gap
'.vires are
sealing betrveen screen wires :rnd thc extrudcd outer
conducting layer is irchievcd by a bolster of lor"-con'
ducting moisture srvelling ltbres or a cotnbinlttion
of low-conducting crepe pxper r"ith a tlpc of nonconducting moisture srvelling fibrcs. This bolstcr also
cnsures electricll contac! ol'the scr.'en rvircs lith thc
outcr conducting lirycr abovc the- insttlittitln. Outcr
nrcchunicul protcction is proridcri in cach clsc b1
lr tough PE shcath (Fig. 7.1).

This t! pc o[' construction has signiticlnt advilntlgcs


\ -r thc simplc longitudrnrtlll $;ttcr prool rltriltnt
lclling tapc or srrcllins poldcr) irnd c"cn thottgh
^...'
marginlll'more costly has rcccived good murket acccptancc. The special advantages of thc inncr cover, ol' unvr.rlcanized rubber irrc:

>

good adhesion to thc PE shcath rvhich limits the


unavoidable shrinking of PE shelth to a negligible
dcgrec:

>

protcction of the othcr component pilrts of the


cable when. in the event of shorr-circuit or double
earth short-circuit, the screcn cln attilin a relotive'
ly high temperature;

>

additional barrier against ingress of moisture


from minor damage to the sheath when in such
an cvent thc moisture is prevented from re:rchtng

Conductor

2 Inner-conducting IaYer
3 XLPE insulation
4 Outer extruded conducting layer
5 Semi-conducting crePe PaPer
6 Swelling tape
7 Copper wire screen
8 Helix of copper tape
9 Inner covering of unvulcanized rubber

l0

t'
l
I

PE outer sheath

Fig. 7.1
Single-core cable rvirh XLPE insulation. longitudinall;.'
waGr proof screens and PE sheath Type NA2XS(F)

lY

Ix

150

Rill 15 6. l0 kV

If transverse sealing of the sheath against diffusion


of moisture is required as e.g. rvith high-voltage

cables r',ith rated voltage UolU>36160 kV, an aluminium tape. plastic coatcd on one side only' is applied in a longitudal direction bctrvecn the PE sheath
and the coppcr scrcen. This is closcll- bondcd to the
PE sheath at the overlapping arca (AI pcth-shcath).
Thc area surrounding thc scrccn is tillcd u ith swclling
porvdcr. A further possibiiity *'hich is plrticulari)"
suitable tbr submlrinc c:rblc is it mctal sheath 1e. g.
Pb. Al) * hich normalll' mlkes a coppcr screen unnecessar\'.

ttlc inner core and the longitudinal sealing (ssell'I

',) n...i

.t1

Ths power-supply cable to a mobile container crane is


subJscted to frequent reeling and unreeling and also to
nt-sh-mechanical stresses.
PROTOLON trailins cables which are service-free

o{Ier safety in operaiion and long service life even


under such extreme conditions

Types o[ Wires and Cables 8'1

Insulated Wires and Flexible Cables


li
I
I

l.

- 8 Types of lVires and Cables


-

8.1 National and International Standards


porver
lnsulated wires and flexible cables for electrtc
installations must be capable of rvithstanding the
st. -ses experienced during both installation and in
operrrion. ln a typical normal plant. containing fi'red^
.ubl. run, and itirh provision lbr the connection of
nAile loads, this cln bc bcst ensured by using cables
r'1 'h comply *ith the relevant nationsl or international srandards, not only rvith regard to construcrion irnd testing but also to the parlmeters and limitrtions lbr the iype ol applicrtion For spccial applic:rtions only cables which comply, in thcir conslruction and ciaracte.istics, as close as possible to VDE
or IEC specitications should be uscd'

Intbrmation for the sciecrion of cablcs is given on

8.1.1 VDE SPecifications

The mlin VDE specificutrons govcrning c()rlstruction. tcsting and applicltion of ilcxiblc cablcs arc:
DIN VDE 0107 Insulating and shetth cornpounds
for cabl':s and tlexiblc cords
DIN VDE 0150 Cables. rvircs and flt'xiblc cords tbr
Pou er inst;.rlia cion

^:t

voE 0lS I PvC

61$1g5.

rr

ircs rrntl ilcxiblt'

cords for Porver installl tion


DIN VDE 0lSl Rubber cables. wires and flcxible
cords tbr Po*er installnlion
l)lN VDE 0139 Detlnitions tbr cables. lvlrcs ilnd
flexible cords for porver installution
DI\ \'DE 0l9l Idcntificetion ofcores in clbles and
tlerible cords used in porver installations with nominal voltages up to
1000

DIN VDE 0295 Conductors

of clbles. wires

and

flexible cords for power installation


DIN VDE 0198 Application of cables, wires and
Purts 3 and 4
flexible cords in porver installations
DIN VDE 0171 Testing of clbles. rvircs lnd l'lc'xible
c..-:::

When the VDE Approvat Organization verihes that


a flexible cable complies with the relevant VDE specifications it authorises the use of a black-red printed
identification thread. A second identification thread
is used as a manufacturers mark which shorvs for
the products of Siemens AG the colours green-rvhite'
red-rvhire. As an alternative to the identification
threads or in addition to these the mark dVDE )
and the manufacturers lrade mark may be printed
or embossed on the cable or sheath ln special cases
the clbles are marked *irh r rvord lrldc murk or
by r protected trirde merk such:rs. in the case of
Siemens. a coloured line over the full length of the
sheath. At the prcsent limc therc are no VDE specificalions to covir the cables shorvn in Sections 8 21
to 8.4 horvever, in producing thcse cablcs' the su[et1'
technical requiremenls laid dorvn in VDE are ad'
hercd to such that all types of construction compll'
with thc principles of these rules.
ouge 55.

8.1.2 Harmonized Standards''

It is thc rask ol the Europenn Committec tbr Elcctro'


tcchnictl Standardisation (CENELEC) to rcmovc
rcchnicirl bJrricrs to trldc bctr"ccn mcmbcr countries

*herc diflering standrrds. nittional resulirtions or approvll proceedurcs crist. \\'ithin thc committee ecch
ioun,tj it represented bl its national delegates (representatives of consumers. mtnufltcturers and standrtrds org:rnislrtions) $ho prcpirrc I b;rstc hlrmonization document rvhich. after a pcriod for public commcnt. is used as a basis tor a final harmonized document rvhich is then issued and brought into force'
The relevant nationrl committees are then obliged
to ilccept the contents ol these documents without
deviation or addition and introduce them into their
relevant national standards system.

if..liiiiu"int,or,t.
i:",tr:."-i"",tf

"n,f

L. r

Rcrzhil. E.: \\'drncr. A.. Hlrmoniricrung dc.


Boolilct ll. vDe-Vcrhg cmbH

-leilunr.n

+9

ii
i
I

r yPes

or E'lres and cables

CENELEC harmonized documents


cables are:

for

flexible

HD

21

Pollvinyl chloride-insulated cables of rated


volrages up to and including 4501750V _
Part 1 up to Parr 5

HD

22

Rubber-insulated cables ofrated voltages up


to and including 4501750V part 1 up ro
Part 4.

These documents together with the associated


amendments are aimed to achieve world-wide approval of rhe relevanr IEC srandards (see page 55.y.

In the Federal Republic of Germany they are published and in force as:

DIN VDE 0281 PVC cables, wires and flexible


DIN VDE

0l8l

cords for porver installation


Rubber cables. *,ires and flexible
cords for polver installation

The national standards DIN VDE 0150 for rvDes of


construcrion. rvhich are replaced by rhe above har_
monized standards, have meanwhile been with_
drawn.

The harmonized standards relate firstly to the most


commonly used cables such as insulated u,ires and
flexible cords. For these a special marking was a-greed
containing rhe letrers <HAR> or ahernarivel;; harmonization thread coloured black-red-yello*..
This marking rogerher $,ith VDE mark. authorized
by thc approval organization. and the manufacturcrs
nrark is sho*.n on the insulation or sheath. hcnce
products of Siemens AC are marked e. g.

SIEMENS <VDE> <HAR>

lf identification threrds are used the nationalirv of


thc ap-proval organization can be dererminea fiom'
thc
lengths of colours on rhe thread (Ta^differing
ble' 8.I ).

Thc marking is approved b1,the CENELEC


member
countnes ln accepting the HAR approval proceedure.
The use. of wires, cables and cords marked
in this
manner ts accepted by these countries
without further
approval:

(B)

Belgium
pederal Repu.blic oiGermany

Denmark (DK)

(F)

Unired kingdorn
Ireland

QRtl

_i0

ognise the harmonized standards but their use


in

these countries requires individual approval.

Type Designation

In order to avoid confusion due to language a new


common system of type designations has been
agreed. Inirially this system will be used only for
harmotized cables and approved supplementary types.
This consists of three parts (Table g.2).
The first parr identifies the regulations to which
the
cable has been manufactured and the rated volta_ee.
The letter " H " indicates that rhe cable in all respelts
complies u'ith the harmonized standard. A lettei .e,
is used ro indicate that the cable complies basically
uith the harmonized standard but is only
"pprou.d
for use in a specific country (approved national
supplementary rype).
vohage is expressed by tu,o a.c.

Ln:,:,:O
uo,' u wngrg:
Uo

volra,*

is the r.m.s. value between any insulated conduc_

tor and earth and

Marking

France

The countries Finland, portugal and Switzerland


rec-

qgg)
\'r\.'

/r,
(D) ii.irr,Jril"a, tNI_l
r

,. r,,

NorwaY (N)
Austria (A)
SPain (E)

Ss eden (S)

is the r.m.s. value between any two phase con_


ductors in a multic-core cable or in a svstem
of single core cables.

The second part contains the abbreviations for component parts. The third part contains information
on the number of cores and rated cross-section as
u'ell as indication uhen a protective conductor
(green-lellorr) is included. For harmonized flexible

cables the presence of a grcen-1,ellou core is nb.loneer


indicated b1 rhe letrcr ..1" or
s.hich previou-slv
rr as uscd as a suffix ro the tvpe
designation.

..O

National and International Standards 8'1

Table

8.1

Approval authorities and harmonization marking


Harmouization
marking either
printed or embossed

Country and approval authority

Harmonization marking
by black red yellow
identihcation threads
(colour length in cm)

black lred
CEBEC

Beleium

<HAR>

lYellow
1

Coirite Electrotechnique Belge (CEBEC)


Federal Republic of Germany and West Berlin
v.iU"na Deutscher E lektrotech niker (VDE) e' V '
Priifstelle
Denmark

.arks

<VDE> <HAR>

<DEivtKO> <HAR>

Elektriske Materielkonrroll (DEMKO)


USE

France

<HAR>

il

Union Technique de I'Electricite (UTE)

,nd

<IIRS> <HAR>

lEtvlNlEQU <HAR>

KElvlA-KEUR <HAR>

NElvlKO <HAR>

<OVE> <HAR>

<HAR>

institute for Industrial Research and Srandards (llRS)


Italv
tstiiuro del Marchio Qualita (lMQ)
Netherlands

N.V. tot Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialien


(KEMA)
Norwey
Norees Elektriske M ateriellko

nrroio
Orr"rr.l.ttir.t

".

nt ro

ll (NENIKO)

Verband fiir Elektrotechnik (OVE)

Sweden

SENIKO

s' enska Elektriska Nllterielkontrollanstalter

. ivrKo)
-Jilln
Asocilcion Electrotichica v Electronica Esp'rnola (AEE)
rited Kingdom
British Approvals Service for Electric Cables

OUNEO <HAR>
BASEC

<HAR>

.I

5l

-us v.rulgs
Table

8.2

System for cable designation for flexible


cables to harmonzed standards

EIemen6 of the description

Part I

ffi

Standffds
Harmonized type
Recognized national type

tl

Rated voltage UolU


300i300 v
300i500 v
4s017 s0 v

---J

07

Insulation
PVC

Natural andror styrene-butadiene


Silicone rubber

aubba.
-

Sheathing
PVC
Natural and or styrene-butadiene rubber

Poll'chloroprene
GIass-fibre braid
Texrile braid
Textile braid u ith flame-retardaru qompound
Special constructions
FIar. divisible

Flar, non-divisible
Cen rral he:rrt { non-strain_be:rring

D5

Circular solid (risid)


Circular stranded (rigid.y

oi rec::sr roiil"o *,,"rr,,ro*


oi IEC l:8i ior. n.riUt" crblc>
_
Highlr flerible rCles 6 of tEC I jti)
tbr
s

Itc\lblc cables

-\'

Ntt. of corcs

l'rotcctile conductor
\\'il hout green vellorr corc
rlrtn grecn, r,ellorr core
Sizc of conductor

cxrntptcs of t).pe desicnations

,i;i,T:"il:l-:heathed

clbre ror
-ccncrar purposcs

r", r'llll;Y l;iil]


3::'t l1':^l **..-,n*,n..
*irh green vellou.core

;,_::::,i.-,

-R
-K
-F
-IJ

Tinsel conductor

i,,1f;
.... . .s,u 5uuq conductor

T
T2
H
H2

Conductors

!l:^i:1. lgi"',
Flexible_(Clas

R
S

H07RN_F 3c2.s

;:ii'il;:":lliiledcircurarcord.,-'l;;rl:llJlft1.;

rJ

Part 2

Part

Harmonized Standards 8.1

8.3

Table

Summary of cables to harmonized standards

Cables

to DIN VDE

0281

Type
abbreviation

Rated
voltage

No. of

Nominal

cores

cross-

Superseded types
to VDE 0250

sectional area

UolU

mmz
Single-core non-sheathed cables

for internal wiring


- with solid conductur
- with flexible conductor

H05V-U
H05V-K

300/500

with rigid solid conductur


wirh rigid stranded conductor
with flexible conductor

H07V-U
H07V-R
H07V-K

45017 50

rat linsel cords

H03VH-Y

300,'300

H03VH-H

Single-core non'sheathed cables


for general PurPoses

Flut non-sheathed cords

',r PVC-sheathed cords

-,,rcular

lli.r

Ordinary PVC'sheathed cords


- circular

Flat PVC-sheathed flexible cables lo


lilts and simihr aPPlication

0.5 to

NYFA, NYA
NYFAF, NYAF

1.5 to l0
6 to 400
1.5 to 240

NYA
NYA
NYAF

NLYZ

300'300

0.5 and 0.75

NYZ

H03VV-F
H03VVH2-F

3001300

2ro4
2

0.5 and 0.75


0.5 and 0.7i

NYLHY rd
NYLHY fl

H05VV-F

300i 500

Ito)

0-75 to 4

H05VVH2-F

300/500

0.7 5

NYMHY rd
NYMHY rd
NYMHY N

HO5YVH6-F
H07VvH6-F

300i 500

3to24

0.75 and

I
1
1

0.1

to

to

16

0.5 to

16

1.5

450r7i0

2.5

NY FLY
NY FLY

Cuhles

to DIit' l/DE 0)31


llcut-resistant silicone

:tlili'b9_;.rided cords

HO5S.'-K

j00

500

H03RT-F l:oo':oo
H05RR.F

300'500

narl- po I vchlo ropreneshclthcd cords

H05RN-F

300r500

v;- po lvchloroprencsheathed flexible cables

HOTRN-F

,..,

rd i nlr-v.. to

gh-rubber-

shcathed cords
'd

H ca

450,',750

l2and3
Ito)

0.7

to

1.5

0.75 to 2.5

N]GAFU
NSA

NLH. NVIH

3and4

4and6

fandJ

0.75 and I
0.75 and I

Nivl Hdu
Nlvl Hdu

0.7 5

N Nl Hou

.5 to 500

2and5
3and4

1to25
1to 300

4ro24
4to24

0.7 5

4to24
4to24

0.75

NNIH. NMH6U
and NSHou

Rubber-insulated Iift cables


for normal use

braided cables

armoured cables

HOsRT2D5-F
HO7RT2D5-F

H05RND5-F
HOTRND5-F

3o0i soo

450/750
300/5oo

45017i0

NFLG
NFLG
NFLCC
N FLGC

5i

Table 8.4

Comparison of flexible cabres to harmonized shndards


DIN vDE 02gr and
Type of cable

Cables to

DIN VDE
c:- -r^ ^-_-s rrux-snca[osq
caDles Ior lnternal wiring
',r-yrE-!ur
- with solid conductor
- x'ith flexible conductor

*'irh rigid solid conductor

r'ith rigid stranded conductor


uith flexible conductor

Flat tinsel cords

-----_.-.-

-.......--.........."o.d. ..---=-....."=.Light PVC-sheath.d


"o.d,
- circular
flat
Ordinarl' PvC-sheathed ;-d;- circular
- flat
Flat non-sheathed

Flat pvc-shearheo fl
"*ibl.
lifr and similar application

"ullill.-_.._.-

02g2 with IEC

Superseded
0281

Comparable
construction

types to

DIN VDE

O25O

H05V-U
H05V-K

NYFA, NYA
NYFAF, NYAF

H()TY-U
H07V-R
H07V-K

NYA...e
NYA...m
NYAF
NLYZ
NYZ

Jrrrsrs-Lurs u(.)n-sncatneq caDtes lor general purposes

DIN vDE

H03VH-Y
HO3VH-H

tough_rubbcr_sheathcd cords

c:rblcs

H05VVH6-F
HOTVVHGF

NYMHY
NYMHY
NYFLY
NYFLY

f'I

exist. nrmelr.

a number

' li';;,::i:i;J!:j:;:: na,iona, ,vpes which


approvgd narional
rypes u.hich are an addition
ro the

I" ::HT
",
<t

p..,.

f3fl l?'
"#
;i', i"r;';A,ffi :.T
h

:,

--

i: ." i!;.1;1
o, n.,

::,i: ::,:,,

1r<

NSA

245 rEC 5l

H05RN-F
HOTRN-F

l.-t National Tl.pes


,.r

<,)

245 IEC

HO5RND;F

::i{"

Fa

HO3RT-F

HOTRNDs-F

approved hirmor

N2GA FU

H05RT2D5-F

rhose cabtes shou,n rn


Tabtc 6
or natlonal t1.pes

^1

HOsSJ-K

HOTRT2D;F

rmourcd cables

a)

))1 lE t-

Comparable
consl.ruction

0282

NLH

l.

0i

NM II

245 IEC

5i

245 IEC

53

NMHciu

14i tFa il

NMHou
NSHriu

braided cables

A.

,)7

truoncr rnsuluted Iift cilbles for


normal usc

:ff::,lr-"T

))1 rEt-

H05\'1'-F
H05\'1'H2-F

H05RR-F

vr(lrnar)' polychloroprcnc-sheathcd fl exiblc


cublcs
rr sr\ \ porlchloroprcne-shcathed
flcrible

d.

227 IEC 02

l^ I tra

Heat-resistan! silicone-insulated cables


Drstoeo cords

227 IEC 0l
227 IEC 0l

l)? lFa i1

Cables to

227 rEC 05
227 IEC 06

H03\'\'-F I nvr pv,,r


Ho3\'\'H2-F I Nil;jy ii

DIN VDE

vrqlnilrl

to IEC 227

245 IEC

6i

245 I EC 66

N FLC
NFLG
N FLGC
N FLCC

o1 a.pproved national tvpes


tne harmonized tvDes:
'ho.,"

----.-.-uhich deviure lrom

natiolal types which


not yer bcen embraced
by,rhe
.harmonizarion procedurc. e.g. flexible
caDles wtth a rated volta-se > I kV
as wellas muhi_
core cables for fixed u.iring for which
harmoniza_
rlon ls not yet finalised.

All tables mentioned in 1 and 2 are however


covered
b1'VDE specificarions, carry the VDE ."**;;;;
are only approved for use in the Federal
n"juUIi.

of Germanl'.

National and Internationat Standards ' Selection 6f Flexible Cables 8.2

8.1.4 IEC Standards


The following IEC publications are current in respect
of cables:

rEC227:
"Polyvinylchloride-insulated flexible cables and
cords with circular conductors and a rated voltage
not exceeding 750 V

"

1 Sheathed cables for fixed wiring.


10 Light polyvinyl chloride'sheated cable
cables for light duty.
41 Flat tinsel cord
42 Flat non-sheathed cord
43 Cord for decorative chains

4 Non-sheathed flexible

5 Flerible cords for normal

51 Braided cord
52 Light polyvinyl chloride'sheathed cord
53 Ordinary polyvinyl chloride or tough'rubbersheathed cord
57 Ordinary polychloroprene or other equivalent synthetic elastomer-shearhed cord

tEC 245:
" Rubber-insulated flexible cables and cords with
circular conductors and a rated voltage not exceeding 750

'

V".

to IEC correspond in construction lvith


rhe rypes listed in Table 8.4 to DIN VDE 0281 and
DIN VDE 0282. They differ in some cases in dimenre cables

Ans

and test requiremenis.

the IEC standards cables are identificated by trvo


numbers preceded by the abbreviated title of the relevant IEC standard. The first number designates the
basic class of cable, the second the specific type rvithin the basic class. The class separation of 'medium'
and 'light' does not comply with the classiflcations

in DIN VDE.

dutY.

Flexible cables for he'.rvy duty.

66 Heavy polychloroprene or other equivalent synthetic elastomer-sheathed flexible cable

Sheated flerible cables for special duty.

70 Braided lift cable


7l Flat polyvinyl chloridc-sheethed lift cables and
cables for flexible connections
74 Though-rubber-sheathed lift cable
75 Polychloroprene or other equivalent synthetic elas'
tomer-sheathed lift cable

Flexible cables for special appiication

3l

To ugh-rubber-sheathed

arc

r.r'elding electrode

cable

82 Poly-chloroprenc or other equivalent s;"nthetic elastomer-shcathcd arc $ clding elcctrode cllble

Non-sheathed cables for lixed rviring.


Single-core non-shcrlhed ctblc rvith rigid conductor lbr general purposes
01 Singlc-core non-shcathed cable rvith llexible cond uctor for general purposes
He:rt-resistant silicone-insulated cable for a con-

0l

'
^03

ductor temperature of maximum 180 'C


05 Single-core non-sheathed ccble rvith solid conduclor for internal
for a conducior temperalule
"viring
oi 70 'C
06 Single-core non-sheathed cable with flexible conductor for internal rviring for a conductor temperIrure of 70.C
07 Single-core non-sheathcd cable rvith solid conductor for internal wiring for a conductor temperature
oi l0i .C
08 Single-core non-sheathed cable wirh flexible conductor for internal wiring [or a conductor temperarure of 105 .C

8.2 Selection of Flexible Cables


When selecting the type required the relevant VDE
specifications and thc VDE specifications for the
erection of power installations and also the special
regulations issued by electricity supply authorities or
others (factory inspeclorate. mines and quarries inspectorate) rvhere applicable. must be observed. In
countries other than Germany, in addition to the harmonized types, cables made to the VDE specifications may be used provided their characteristics meet
the requirements for the function and the relevant
regulations for that country. Tables 8.5 and 8.6 show
the most commonly used types and areas of application.

))

8.2.1 Cabtes for Fixed In]tanation


Table

8.5

Cables

for fixed installarion

Typc

Single<ore
non-shcathed
cables for

300i 500

To facilirare large-scale inrernal


wrnng. additional colours and
two-colour combinations are
allowed. Green and yellow may

inrernal *iring

onl) by
I

I
I
I
Single-core
non-sheathed
cables for

<, r_ -_:!,Jt:. --*,t:i_

H07V-K is flexible, becruse of ils


DIN

rl
l.

lrncl) stranded conductor. and


so oflers advanraqes

morr'ing parrs

troi

I
:
i
4

PRoToDUR insuhtion

Copfcr conductor. solid


Conper conducror. srr.rndcd
Copper conducror. flcriblc

1.8'ltv

Cables rvith a nominli \oltt!e


( ,, L' of at lcrsr L8 I tV
rrJ
considqred to bc short-circuit

crblc for
spccii!l

I'ol\chloronrcni shc lh
PRr)r('Lo\ iniuhrion
Conpcr conducror fi c\iht

nurPoscs

ll!

ru

ild

::0

:rtio

con-

rilid

prcllc-she!thed

SlFLr\

- e,g. hinged

panel.s.

As equiporenrial bonding conductors, these wires can be Iuid


directly on. in or undcr pluster,
or on racks etc.

'l

tn

Pollchloro-

\'[

0:81

for inslallation in conduit in confined


spaces or for connections to

purposes

Single-core

individually, ho*-

ever. rt rt rs permirred by lhe


applicable safety requiremenrs.

PRorot)uR insulation
Copper conductor. solid
Copper conducror. flexible

,1i0 750 V *:-ili.r,

used

DIN
028r

I)

lN

\'t'

0:50

und earth-fault-proof in su itchboards und disrribution bolrds


ralcd ur up lo I 000 V.

LA building arc indispensible


h.n slot chasing is not possible
rn buildings of prc-strcsscd or
SIF

il!

\flrc\

DI\ \'I,?
0:i0

Poured concrete. or on li!:ht

building boards.

Rubhcr sheath
PR0r()r)uR insuhrion
Coppcr conducror. sotrd

LiSht PVC.
thcd
cable
shea

1 PRoDoruR

ci

sheath

Exrruded fitler

3 PRoroDuR insulnrion
4 Copper conducror. solid or strrnded

lt

l4

For applications \ri(h more srrin- e.g. in ugriculrurirl installations, dairies.


gent requirements

cheese-making plants. laundries.

industrial and administrative


buildings.

DIN..

0t50

vD.

Fixed Installation 8.2

Standard
colourS

Applications

Crosssctional
area
mm_

of insulation

Io dry locations

0.5 to I

Green-yellow
Black
Light blue

.lilucto15

In oprating

ln

areas and store


rooms subject
to fire hazard

with explosion

Not permitted

Noi permitted

Not permitted

Open instullutioo on insulators beyond

Installation'in

ln s$irchboards

plastic conduit
on and under

and distribution
bourds to

In damp and
wet locations,
and outdoors

or sheath

Brown

For intemal wiring of equipment and protected installation in and on luminaires.


Also for installation in conduil on and
under plaster, but only for signalling sys-

violer

tem5.

areas

hazard

Grey
Whire
Red

1,5

lo 400

Crcen-yellow

ln conduit on or under plitster (only in

Black

plastic conduit in bathrooms and shower


compartmcnts in drvellings and hotels) and
for opeo instrlllrtion on insula(ors over
plaster beyood arm's relch. ln cquipment.
switchborLrds and dislribution bolrds and
in or on luminaires rvith J rirtcd volt:rgc of
up ao 1000 V a.c. or 750 v d.c. to earth.
For use rn rlil vehicles the d.c. opcrating
voltage may be up ro 900 v to elrth.

Light blue
Brorvn

Violct
Grey

Whirc
1.5

to 240

Red

1.5

to 100

Bluck

for ir:rction rchiclr:s und busscs to


$cll ls in drv rooms

l)llj

plaster

Dl\

Not permittcd

\ot

Not pcrmittcd

On, in and

On. in and
under plaster to

On. in und
under plaster,

DIN VDE

depending on

arm's reach.
but not outooors

\'DE

0165

VDE 0l l5

as

,,tal

to

)lo.l1
tllrnd-:)

Naturul

In or under phstcr. including instalhtions


in bJthrooms xnd sho\-er compxrtmcn(s in

p,irmitted

drvellings and hotcls. without plilster co\'ering in cavities of ceilings and rvalls of
non-flammable mirterials. Not permitted in

lr.sudt.5
I

*ooden houses or buildingj uJed for lgricultural purposes. or in adjLrcent scctions of


buildings not separatcd from them by fireproof *irlls.

1.5

to

16

1.5 ro 10
1.5

ro l0

1.5 ro 15

r.) ro

16

Grey

Oo, in and under plaster

under plaster

OlOO

specialchemical
and rhermal
fcctors (see

DIN VDE OI65)

57

Table

8.5

T]'pe

Cablcs for fixed installarion (continucd)


Type
designarion

Rated
vottage

Construclion

Rcmarks

Stan631,

UoiU

Lead covcred

NYBUY

--

300/500

PVC.

shearhed
cable

This typc is preferred for use


*here high safery is demanded _

g. in chemical r\'orks, heavy in_


dusrr]' and mining installarions.
e.

I -l__-_,
PRoroouR outer shcarh
: Lcad shcath
I Errrudcd filtcr

1 PRoroola

DIN V5
0250

insularion

5 Coppcr conducror. solid or slrandcd


PVC-shearhed
metalclad

NHYRU Z' t' 300;i00

Used in place of liehr pVCsheathed cables

iaole

I
:
i

\\'nere tlxtngs on plaster are more


$ideiy spaced. \HyRUZy has
an eiasric rubber illler and a

^\_eon

\YLY

kV

Erlmded fillc.

src x t

x!i ,r/rtv<vDEt

Cables

\YLRZY

.1,',8

kV

sheath. The shearh \{ire nust not


be used as an eanhing or protec-

ln'e conductor.

'll-

Applicalion accordine to DIN

\;DE 0t:3.

-rj

stcxExt.6liv<vD>

DIN VI
0150

Thc discharge wire consisrs of


unl|ed copper slrands of 0.3 mm
dia. and has a cross-secrional

I ProrcDrR shqth
: Foldcd mctal (zinc) shcarh
I Dischargc *irc

l.i

Shcath uirc
i PRoroD(a insularion
6 Coppcr conduclor. solid or srrlndcd

Lighrins

DIN
0250

tinned-copper shearh wire 0.5 or


mm: s.irh one, rrr.o or three
strands) under the iolded-meral

PRoroola oulcr shaarh


Foidcd rn.tal (zinc) shcalh

:l

.li 3

tbr fixed u.iring

area of 1.5 mm:.

PRoroouR insulalion

5 Coppr conducror. Ilcxiblc

'NOTHERM.
rnsulated

SIA

300i 500

l\,laximum

operating
I
I temperarure 180.C.

he!tresistant

For use in high-ambienr lemper_


- e.g. in hearing appliI
I ances. hrgh.po\r'er luminaires.
foundries and boiler rooms.
I
rxposure to superheated steam
1
and flue gases should be
I

caotes

SI.AF

.ondu.r*

Silicone rubbcr insularion

atures

Cr

ruc

cld.-<v
relates

to-

DIN VDE
0t50

avoided-

2 Coppcr conductor, rolid

3
Heat.
rlslSlant
silicone.

insulatcd{ablc

5E

HO5SJ.K

AO5SJ.K

300/500

Coppcr conductor. llcxible

DIN VDI
0282

Fixed Installation 8.2

Standard

Applicxtions

colours
of insulatioo

l^LrossI

ln operatlrlg
areas

or shea!h

secLlonSl

rooms sublect
to fire hazard

area

mm-

|
.L

On, in and uoder plastet' but not in bath'


rooms and shower compartments in dweilings and ho!els,

1.5 to l5
1.5 to i5
1.5 ro 35
1.5 to 6

tnd store

On. in and
under Plaster

On, in and
under plastcr
pefinrtted

In ilrets
with e:(plosion
hazrrd

On, in and
under plaster,
depcnding on
specialchcmical
and thermirl
factors (see

DIN VDE

Grey

1.5 ro 15
1.5 to :5
1.5 to 25

1.5

to

0.75

On, in and under plaster and ln rooms coll'


taining high-frequency equipment. but not
in buthrooms and shower comparlments ln
drvellings and hotels.

10

to

contxining

On. in and
under plas{er
permitted
irno to

high-lrequencY
equlpment.

in rooms con_

On. in and
under plaster.
in rooms

DIN VDE

0165)

Not permitted

0293

but not

trining hi!h-

outdoors

lrcquency
cquipmenr

cqulvrlcnl
Onlv in ventilared steel pipes to DIN '19010 or in
signs
neon
metallic
also
in
under
and
on
flastcr.
-iitrlrt
and reliefs as well as cable conduits of mctal'

Not pcrmissible

Not permissible

On rnd
under plaster

Not permissible

Not pcrmissible

Not permttted

,'-ot permitred

In prorected installations in equipment and


in or on luminaires

Not permi(ed

120

0.75 ro 95

ln conduit on and under Plaster and in or


on luminaires

Not permitted

lnstallation in
plastic conduit
on and under
plaster

In switchboards
and distribution
boards to

DIN vDE

0165

59

l\.pes

Table

ol wtres and Lilbles

8.5

T) pe

Cables for fircd insrallation (conrinucd)


Tl'pe
dcsignatio

Hcatresistant
synthetic
elastomerinsulated

N4CA

cables

N4GAF

Ratcd

Constructron

\'oltacc

.;

r'

.150i

750 V

Maximum operating conductor


tempcrature 120 'C.
For wiring subject ro highmechanical s(resses.

I
I
I

60

Rcmurts

S\nrhetic clirstomcr insularion


Copper conduc!or. solid or slr.rnded. tinned
Copp.r conduclor. lle\iblc. linned

Stirndarc

DIN VE
0250

Fixed Installation 8.2

Slfndard

.ors

.{pplicxtions

colours
Cross-

of insulation

In dry locarions

-sectional
area

ln dcmp and

In operlting

ln

wet Iocallons.

arcas and store

with e:(plosion

and outdoors

rooms subjec!
to tire hazard

hazard

Not permitled

lnstailation in
phstic conduit
on irnc unocr

In switchboards
and distribution

plaster

DIN VDE

rmm-

-0.5

ro 95

L5 and 1.5
L5 and f.5

-L

Black
Creen-Yellow
Blue

1.5 and 2.5

Brown

0.5 to 95

Black

In conduit on and under plaster. in or on


iuminaires and in protected installillions ln
equipmenl.

i.rreas

boirrds to
OI65

.l
t,
,l-1
I

6L

tJ I)

pes

ol \\rires and Cables

8.2.2 Flexible Cables


Table

8.6

Ttp.

Flat

FIe

xible cables

T) pe

Rared

dcsignation

voltage
L'o' U

HO3VH.Y

300i 300

Construction

Rcmarks

To avoid overloads. these

unset

cords may be used for permanent connection to appliances, or in conjuncrion

cord

I PRoToouR inlul!tion
2 Tinselconduclor
lat non-

HOSVH.H

100 i00

cord
I

lunda_

DIN Vr,
0281

\\'ith appliance conneclors,


only if the current does not
exceed 1A.
Not suirtble for cooking or
heatlng appliances.

Not suirable for connecting


cooking and heating appli-

shearbed

DIN

0:81

ances,

PRoToDuR insuhlion

Copper conduclor. highl! t'le\ jblc

Light

HO]\TV.F

PVC.

HOJVVHz-F

100 100

sheathed
corcl

I
:
i
Ordinary

HO5VV.F

PVC-

HOJVVH2.F

300 i00

Not suilable for connecring


cooking rnd hertinu appliAs \rcll as thc round t)pe.
thcre is also a Oat version

PRorooL,r insuhlron
Coppcr conduclor. ftc\iblc

0.5 and 0.7i mmr.

H03VVH2-F, tqin-core,

Pcrmitted for connecting


cooking and hearing appli

shcathcd
corcl

only if there is no
possibility of contact beances

1 PRoroDuR

shcarh

PnoroDUR insularion
Copper conduclor. llcxiblc

ances.

PRoTot)LR shc!lh

t)t\ \
0:s

tween the cable and hot


parts of the appliance or
other sourccs of hcat.
As well as the round t!pe.
there is also a flat \.ersion
H05VVH:-F, r\rin-core.
u,

/) mm'

DIN VLrr
0281

Flexib le Crbies 8.1

rctors

JET

Cross-

sectional arer

Srandard
colours

Applications

of insulation
or sheath

Loca(ion

Black
Whire
Grey

ln drv locarions -

B lack
Whire

In dry locations
and otfices

Permissible strcss

mm:
0.1

0.5 rnc 0.75

e.

e. in homes and offices

e.g. in homes. kitchens

0.i and 0.?i


0.5 rnd 0.15

Black
Whire

2
3

0.75 to 2.5
0.75 to 2.5
u.

/) to i.)

0.75 to 1.5

to:.5

BIack

whire

e.

g. rudios. table

lamps etc.

In dry locations

lnd

.. g- in homes. kitchens

offices.

Not in rndus(riirl or agriculturrl premires.

0.i and 0.75

For light electricll equipmenr uith rer;" lorv


mechanical stresscs

Brown

For connecting extremely light hand appir


- e. g. elecrric shavers. The curren!
loading must not exceed I A and the length
must not exceed 2 m.

ances

In dry locations: for domesric xnd cooking


appliances also in damp and uet locattons.
Not in industrial or agricultural premises.
but permitted in taiiors shops and similar
premises.

For lighr electrical equipment !r i!h lo$


stresses - e. g. otllce rtachinej.
table lamps. kitchen appliunces erc.

mcchlnicrl

For connecting electrical appliances wi!h


medium mechanical stresses - e.g. washrlrg
machines. spin driers. refrigerators etc.
The cables may be installed permanenll! e. g. in fumiture. decorative panelling,

T1'pes of Wircs and Cubles

Table

8.6

T) r,e

Flcxiblc cablcs (continucd)


Ttpe
desiSnation

Rrled
\oltage

Rcmarks

C(rnstructr(rn

Sldnd.rr,{,

L'o L

Braidcd

HO3RT-F

100/i00

corcl

:31

l
I
I

Brrid
Te\rile

fill.r

S\ nrhelrc

The braid consists of polished rayon yarn. Further


development led to the de-

Dt\ \.t_

0l8l

sign of rubber-sheathed
cables suitable to withsrand
the high-mcchanical and
thcrmai stresses Nhen uscd
rr ith dorncstic irons (scc

Secrion FLEXO-cables).

.L:lomer insuhlion

.1 Copper condu.t!rr. fle\rble. tinned

Crdinarytough
rubber-

HO-iRR-F

,i00 500

Thcse cubles irre not suil-

rble lbr continuous usc


ou

t)tN \'r
0:8:

ldoors.

sheathed

cord

I \!rurrl rubher \h$th


: S\nlheric el!\tomcr insulation
3 CDppcr condu.ror. fl\ible. tinned

Ordinarv
poll chloro-

HOJRN-F

,i00 500

For use u hcrc thcrc is

.l

possibilitl of crposurc ttr


I

prcne-

l)lN Yt_
0:sl

l'rts and oils.

sheuthed
Pol)chloronrcne shcrrh
nth.uc !lrsbnrrr insulut'on
Cof'pcr conduclor. llc\iblc. linncd

cord

S)

HOTRN-F

.150r750 V

Pcrmittcd for permanent


protccted installation in
conduit or in equipment.
and for rotor connecting
cablcs for motors rvith ratcd
voltagcs of up to
I 000 V a.c. or 750 V d.c. to
carth.

polychloroprcncshcathed

flcxiblc
cublcs

ln rail vehiclcs

DIN Y[

0t8t -

the d.c.

-+!

opcrating volta!c may bc


up ro 900 V to earth.
The dcsign ot thc

,l
I

\/i

OZOFLEX-H07RN-F highll

I
I

Pol-rchloroprcnc outhr sbath


Pol,Ychloroprenc inncr shealh

3 S!nlhelic elaslomer insulation

Copper conductor. flexibl.. tinned

ncxiblc cuble is similar to


thar of the H07RN-F. but
with a short lay. textile filler
and extremely finely
stranded conductors.

r.

5 Teitile fillcr

PROTO-

NSSH6U

0.6/1

kv

This type ofcable is suitable


for forced guiding and feeling only to a limited extent.
For this kind of use,

FIRM.
sheathed
cable

1 PRorofrnM tpol\'chloroprene) outcr shcath

Polychloroprcnc inncr sheafi

3 Syn$eric .lasromer insularion

64

Coppcr conductor. flexible. tinncd

CORDAFLEX cables
(NSHT0U) are recommended (sce page ?2).

DINIff
o25Z

Flexible Cables 8.2

'rductors

Stlndard

Applic.rtions

nber

Cross-

colours
of insulation

Location

sectional afeil

or shesth

Pcrmissiblc strcss

mm:

l.i
l.i

0.75 ro
0.75 to

Bluc-white

ln dry locations
and offices.

e.g. in homes. kitchens

Not in industrial or rericullural premiscs.


but permitted in tailors'shops and similar

For lighl eleclricrl appliances wirh lo\r


mechanicul strciscs - e. g. elecrric blankers

premises.

0.;-i to

0.;i

l.i

Black

ro 6

In dry locations
und offices.

e.

-r.

in homes. kirchens

Not in industriul or lgricultur:rl prcmiscs.


but permitted in railors shops Nnd similar

0.7i !o 6
0.75 to l-5

premises.

F-or conncc!ing electricul uppiilnccs rrith


low mcchilDicrl strcsses - c.:. \'Jcuun:

clclrncrs, irons. kitchen cquipmenr. solderlng lrons ctc.


Thcsc clblcs miry also be insr:riled permilncntly - c.g. in lurniture. d!'cori!ri\e

pJncllint. scrccns ctc.


0.;-i lnd 1.0
{).7i irnd I
0.75 and
0.;

Bhck

In drv, damp lnd *ct locations lnd outdoors

0.7 5

1.5

',) l$

oi6

1
I
I
I

1.5

to

In dry, damp and rvct locations and ourdoors.


In agricultural operating arcxs and thosc

to

c"hi-r

500

300

ro 25

to 4

and 1.5

I and
1

r^ fi-- l'.."..1

In operating areas and storerooms ta


DIN VDE 0165 subjecr to explosion ha-

l.) anq z.)

and

1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

to
ro

to

185
185
185

to 70
to 4

For connccting electrical appiiirnces and


tools. including industrial equipmenr $irh
mcdium-mechanical stresses - e. g. large
wirtcr herters, hot-plates. pouer drills. cir.
cular saws and mobile motors or machines
on buildinq sites. For permanent installa.
tion - e.g, in temporary buildings - and for
dircct instlllltion in componenrs of hoisting equipment. machines erc.

Where cables are subject to kinking and


rwisting - c.g. lbr hcnd grindtrs and porver

1.5
1.5

2.5 to 400

ro 36

Black

to 25
to 300

For connecting clcctrical lppiilncrs lnd


tools rvith lorv-nrcchunicirl stresses - e. g.
dccp-l'at lriers. kitchcn equipmenr. soldering irons. hcdgc clippcrs clc. Thesc cables
mr-'- ulso bc insrallcd pcrmanently - e.g. in
cxvities in pretabricated building secrions.

drills.

Yellow

ln dry, damp and wet locarions ard outdoors.


Irr agricultural operating arcas and those
subject to fire hazard.
In operating arcas and storerooms to
DIN VDE 0165 subject to explosion

For heavy equipment and tools wirh highmechanical stresses on buildiog sites, io
industry, in quarries and in open-cast and
ulderground mines.

hazad.

b)

Tvoes of Wires and Cables

Table

8.6

Flexible cablcs (continued)

Type

Type

designalion

Constructron

Rated
voltage

Remxrks

StandarLl

Suitable for operation in


water at depths up to

Constrt

500 m.

rclales to

The ability to operate con-

DIN

rinuously in water has been


proved by tests.
Design and dimensions are
as for H0?RI.--F.

0?82

UoiU

HYDRO.

TGK

FIRM

TGKT

cables

TGW

450/750 V

:l

tlon

cle*

V'

Cables lo meet special


rcquirements on request.

TGFLW

Polychloroprcnc sheath

2 S-lnrhclic clasiomcr insulaoon


3 Coppr conductor flciiblc

:t
Heat-

{CMH.IG

300/500

lflsulation cross-linkcd polyolcfinc

resrstanl

flexible
cable
Heal-resistant !! nthctic claslomer sheath

Maximum operatlne con_


oC.
ductor tcmperature 120

Const

These cables also remain

relates

flexible at low remperarures


- down to about -10"C.

0282

Maxlmum opemtlng con_


oC.
ductor temperature 180

0250

rL-r.

lion cl(

DIN VI]

Hcat-rcsistanl sl_nthctic clastomcr insulrlion


Coppr conduclor. flcxrblc, linned

Heat-

N:GMH]C

300/500

resistant

\''

Exposure to superheated
steam and flue gases is

siliconeinsulated

harmful.

and
sheathed
cablc

lf air is excluded at temPer1 Siliconc-rubber shcath

2 Siliconc-rubtlcr insulation
J Coppr conductor. flexiblc
ARCO.

DIN

NSLFFOU

200

atures above 100'C the mechanical properties of the


silicone rubber are imparred.
These cables have a PRO-

TOFIRM sheath which

FLEX
welding
cable

I
:

PRoIoF|RM (polychloropr.nc) shcath

is

DIN vt-'

oil-resistant, flame retardant and resistant to abrasion and indentation. Maxtmum oPerating conducror
temperature 80'C.

Scparator

3 Copp.r conductor. flcxiblc

FLEXI-

NSLFFOU

100

PREN
cable
1

PRoToFIRM

(polychlo.oprcnc) shcath

2 Scparator
3 Coppcr conduclor, hiShly ncxiblc

66

DIN

cables have an extremelY

0250

fi ncly-strandcd

weldiog
(hand held)

FLEXIPREN hand-welding
conductor,

with thinner strands thall


arc required bY VDE 0250.
This makes them excePtlooally flexible.

\_

Flexible Cables 8.2

Cross-

icctronal arcir

Stcndxrd

Applicrtions

colouts
of insulation
or 5neirlh

Locltion

Pcrmissrble srress

Blue

fn water, in d4,, damp and wer locations


and outdoors

For connecting electrical equipmcnt wnh


medium-mechanical stresses. especiall)
cquipmenr which opcrates continuousl)- in
water - e. g. submerged pumps and underwater Iloodliehrs.
TGK tbr rlaler temperarures up ro 10.C
TCKT tbr continuous immersion in cclking water up to -10'C
TGW and TCFLW lor rvate11g111p.r","rat
up ro 60'C.

C rev

ln dry. damp and Ner !oc!rions 3nd


outdoors

For connecting cooking rnd he:rrinu rcciiJnces with medium-mechanical stresl.J -rnd
increuscd embient tcmpcrJtures - e. g

mml

I
I
I
I

to

-<00

ro 15
to i00
!o -:00
ro

li

lo -0

lo;0
I

u:to-.J
u :lo__)
0.li lo l.-i

0.75 io
0.i5 to
0.75 to
0.75 to

.l

i0

Brown

.l
.l

lo lo r35

25 !o

cookers. lect c stortse hqlters etc.

Black

Black

In dry, damp and wer loclrions and


outdoorS

For Iow-mechanical srresses and


ambient lemperatureS.

In dry, damp and rver locations and


outCloo15

For very high-mechanical stresses as


machine aDd hund-rvelding cables.

In dry, damp and wer locarions and


outooors

Highly-flexible hand.welding cable for very


high-mechaniclrl stresses.

hi_eh-

o/

T1pe5 ofJVires and Cables

Table

8.6

T! pe

Fiexible cablcs (continucd)


T.vpe

dcsignation

PVC

SYSL

Construction

Rated
voltage

Rcmarks

Stand;rr.

For llxcd installation but


not rr'ith free movement and
forced guidance orl rollers
or reeling dury.

Constr

oiU

300/500

control
cable
I

I
2

tlOn Clo(.

related l.

DIN

0250

PRoroDuR shcarh
Separator I >l: core)
PRoroDL'R insularion

.{ Coppcr conducror lle\ible

PROTO-

\YSLYO

-1001500

\ - r-

FLEX

PVC.

control

The outer sheath is substan-

PRoroouR shcalh

2 TJ(ilc la)c.

tially unaffectcd by mois-

PRoroDuR insulslion
.1 Copper conductor. fle\ible

ca ls.

I
}.YSLYCYO

i00 i00 v

;riii 4i. ifli :1jt


1

FLEX

1\l'n('.i9-

screened

PVC-

control
cablc

I
:
I
I

PRoToDUR shcath

Tinned-coppcr brsid

PRorooriR innlr shcath


PRoroDuR insulation
5 Copper conductor. flcrible

Lifr

YSLTKJZ

300/500

ture. oils. fats and chemi-

These cables meet rhe re-

quirements for " Elcctrical


equipmcnl of indusrrial
machines" in accordance
\\ilh IEC :04 and DIN

VDE

01

ll.

The screening

braid of rhe NYSLYCYO.


by virtue of its design, has
a very low coupling of
150 O/km.
Insulation lnd sheath are
made from a cold-resistant
PVC compound (flexible

control
cable

do,,\'n to -10'C)
Cables with up to l8 cores
have a tertile strain bearing
element: with 24 or more
cores the strain bearing elcment is a steel rope. This

PRoroDuR shcath

Separalor

PRoToDUR

insllalion

5 Copper conductor. Bcxible

6 Sheathcd strain bcaring clcment

68

DI\ \'I

0li0

reels.

cable

PROTO.

For arrcngements affording


fre--dom of movement: not
for lorced guiding over
rollers or operation on

$ill support

the maximum
suspension Iength with a
factor of safety of five. The

manufacturer's installation
instructions musl b adhered to.

Constr
tion cl(rclatcs tc

DIN \r)
0250

Flexrble Crbles 8.2

rductoas

inber

Crosssectional areS

Standard
colours

Applications

of sheath

Location

Crey

In dry damp und wct locrtions

Permissible stress

mm:
r60

0.5 ro 6

For control equipmenr, production lines


muchine tools as connecring lnd inter-

lnd

conlecting cxbles with medium-mechanical


srresses.

o6L

0.5 to 1.5

Crev

ln dry. danrp lnd rrct locrtions

For control equipment. production lines


and machine tools as connecting and interconnr:cting cablcs with medium-mcchanicll
slrcsscs,

L) _,\

0.i ro:.i

Grev

In dry. damp and

*ct locltions

For controi rooms, production lines lnd


datl-proccssing equipmcnt with mcdiumrncchrnicdl stresses. rvhere interferencc
<r'hhrF<.i.\6

Black

ln dry, damp and wet location

i( rFd,'ire,l

A sclf-supporting flexible control cable


with mediurn-mechanical strcss - e.g. for
lifts rnd conveyor systemsl suspension
lengths up to -s0 m. cage relocity r.rp to
1.5 m.'s.

69

8 Tl pes of Wires and Cables


Table
T.

8.6

--

Flexible cablcs (continucd)


T! Pe

Rated

designation

voltage

Construction

Remarks

Stanrr

Insulatioo and sheath are


made from a cold-resislant
compound (flexible dorvn to

Con-

UolU

Lifr
llerible

YSLYTK.JZ
YSLYCYTK-JZ

300/500

control

cabies

i0 'c).

The strain bearing element


is a steel rope with reduced
rs isting

uhich

*ill

tion

r'
DI\

rela

0l5G-

support

rhe maximum suspension


lengrh !rith a factor of

I PRO1oDUR shearh
: Te\til. b.!id
I PRoroDuR in ner shealh
I Sepiiraror
i Te\rile filler
6

PRoroDuR insuhuon

7 Coppei conductor. nerible

Shealhed nrain bcanng clemcnl

safer) of fi\'e.
ln equipment for which interference suppression to
YDE 0875 is required. type

\'SLYCYTK-JZ nust

be

used. The manufaclurer's

installa(ion instructions
must be ldhered to.

Flat PVC'insulated cables

DI)

Pvc-

are nol intended for use

0ts,

shea!hed

ouldoors.

Flat

H05VVH6-F

i00

500

lle\ible
cables

for lifis

HO?VVH6.F

500/700

and

similar
applicarion

PL,{NO.
FLEX

NGFLGOU

PRoToDUR rhcarh

:
i

PRoIoDUR insulalion

Copf'er conduclor. flexible

A cold-resistani chloroprene rubber is used for rhe

300/500 V

sheath. enabling the crblcs


to remain sufficientiy flexible doqn to - 35 'C. Thc
insulation consists of an
ozone and \r'ealher-resistant

flat
flexible
cables

1 Pollchlaroprcnc shcalh

Synthctic .laslomcr insulation

3 Copper conductor. highly nexibl

70

PROTOLON synthcticelastomcr. Maximum o;rr_


aring conductor temPera-

ture 90 "C.

DII'
025(

Flexible Cables 8.2

nductors
umber

Crosssecuonal area

Standard
colours

Applicrtions

of sheath

Location

Permissible strcss

Black

ln dry, damp and wet iocation

Self-supporting flexible control cables with


medium-mechanical stress - e. g. for lifts
rnd conveyor syslems; suspension iength5
up to 150 m, cage velocity up to l0 m.s.

mm:

i+

rdi-

0.5 for rhe

.ually-

communi-

ireencd

cation cores

lfnmunilon

t
0.75 and I

ro l'1

o14
'.o

nd+

1.5

Black

In dry, damp and wel locatlons

caole.

to l6

to 2.5
1ro.1
1

Fle:<ible power and control cables with medium-mechanical stresscs and sharp bending in one plane in operation - e. g. in hoisting equipment, transport systems, machine
lools erc.. as power supply and control

Black

In dry, damp and wet locations and


oulooors

1roi5
1to95

71

8 Types of Wires and


Table

Cables

E.6 Flcrible cablcs

-f! pe

CORDA-

(continucd)

Tlpe

Rated

dcsignation

NSHTOU

0.6/1

Construction

Rcmarks

Srandart

Maximum operating conductor temperature 90 "C.

02i0

oltage
L'oiU

kv

FLEX
cable

DIN VDE

Shca(h ol' pol) chloroprene.


0erible dorr n lo - l0 "C.

I
:

Polvchloroprene ourer :he!rh

Polvchloroprene inncr shealh

3 S!nlhetic claslomer insulation

I
CORDA.

\SHTOU

0.6,1

Copper conductor. Ile\ible. linned

kv

I1arimum operuting conductor temperature 90 oC.


Sherth of pollchloroprenc.
0eriblc doqn ro - 15.C.

FLEX(K)
cable

I
I

Dh* vl)
0150

PolYchloroprene lrulcr rhe3lh

Suppo ing braid

-1 Pol)"chloronrene Inncr sherlh

I
i

Texljle Lrlcr
Slnllictic elasromer insubtion

6 Coppcr conducror. Uc\ihtc.


COR DA.

FLEX

\SHTOU

0.6

tinncd

1kv

l\1

cable

I
:
I

Pol)chloroprenc oursr shcuth


Suppo.ring braid
Polvchloroprene inne. she!rh

Ll Svnlheric elaslomer insulation

5 Foil
6 Coppcr conduc(or. Ilcxiblc.

72

axi m r.:m opcrarin g

con-

ductor temperature 90.C.


Sheath of poll'chloroprene,
flcxiblc do$ n ro -:0.C

(sM)

tinned

DIN VI:
0t_r0

Flexible Cables 8.2

nducrors
Crosssectional area

Standard

Applicltions

colours
ofsheath

Locauon

Permissible stress

tslrcx

In dry, damp und we! localions and

For high-mcchanical stresses on rcels without guide rollers fbr apparJtus with realing
speedy up to 60 m,iminule.

mm:
1.5

2.5
.1

to

outdoors

50

''

::o

l0

Li

.rnd 1.5

1.5 to

Bhck

ll0

In dry, drnp ind \\et locallons xnd


outrloors

l0

For high-mechanical stresses prel-.rably for


lorced guiding - c,g. rccls or guide rollers.
lbr high Jccelerirtion and tra\el speeds in
hoists, trunsportltlon xnd qolevor cqulp_
mcnt. For tru\'al spccds up to l:0 m mlnLIIC,

L5 and 1.5
10

to

50

Yellow

In dry. damp and $et locations nd


out<loors

For very high-dy-namic stresses as e. g.


opcrution of clcctro-hydraulic grab cranes'
ciane Iifting mrgnets etc. as well as mobile
cublc carrien. For travel speeds up to

ll0

mtminutc.

S Tl pcs

qrf \\ij1g5

and Cublcs

8.2.-l FLE\O Cords

FLE\O cords comprisc clastomcr- or

PVC-shcathcd

cables iraving either vulcanized or nroulded. non-scp-

arable connectors. such as plues connectors or appliance plugs, factory attached at on or both cnds. If
cables and connectors are of elastomers these are vulcanized in the press. With PVC sheathed cables the

Fig. 8.1
European flat plug up to 2.5 A to

DIN 49464-F/CEE 7 sheet XVI

connectors are also of PVC injection moulded to


form one unit. Frequently plastic plugs are also
moulded on to elastomer-sheathed cables. Prefabricated FLEXO cables save time and cost during instlllation. have a high deeree of electrical sufetl. and
offer the user practical advantages.

Due to the additional requirements for connecring


:ables tor hearing applicanccs, especiall_v- domestic
rrons. a cable sas developed u,hich u'iil u,ithstand
the high bending stresses and remperature. This cord
is available under rhe trade name THER\4OSTABIL
rnd is desiened closely to rhe r),pe of construction
05RR and fulil,compiies rvith rhe harmonized standard.
Thc pin support bridge is of mouldcd Duroplast and
supports other contacts such as the protecrivc conductor contact. it is not permitted to use thermoplastic materials for the manufacture of the pin support
bridee. All component parts of the conneclor are
firmly embedded and secured on ail sides in cither
the elastomer or rhe plastic during moulding and
therefore are electrically insulated and mechanically
protected.
The conductors are either soldcred or rvcided to the
contact pieces. The attachment. of thc cord to the
support bridge is formed by a tapered sleeve rvhich
prevents sharp bending and improvcs resisrance to
kinking. The arrangement of cord entry into the conneclor can be either central (Figs. 8.1 or 8.2) or angled (Fig. 8.3). Cables with central cable cnrry arc
suitable for appliances \\,here the plug is frequently
disconnecred and connecled. Connectors with aneled
cable entry are generally more suirable *here sp-ace
is limiued.
The relevant standards iay down rhe profile and d!
for the pin end of the connector. However
the overal shape of the body of rhe supporr bridge
is lefr to the designer providing rhat all test requirements are fulfilled. A Siemens design, generally favoured by users, is protected under the trade name
PROTOFORM.
mensions

Connectors of different constructions could also be


manulactured, bul because ofthe high cost of mould'1,1

Fig.8.2

SCHUKO plug for 10 A to DIN 19.1.11-Rl CEE


\:ll \r'irh two protecrive contacr s)stems.
nainlv for use in Belgium and France

sheet

Fig.8.3

SCHUKO plug for 10 A ro DIN 49.1.11-Rl/CEE


IV

sheet

ing and tooling this is only pracrical where

laree

quantities are required.

The free cable end, used for the fixed connection,


can be finished by the customer as desired and can
be stripped, fitted wir.h boot-lace slee.r'es, sDade connectors or others.
As part of an elaborate quality control system all
features relevant to safety are tested both during and
immediately after manufacture. Safety features related to personel safety are routine tested.
Furthermore, during approval type testing rhe relevant national approval authorities carry out extensive elecrrical and mechanical tests.

lndustrl S'3
Flcxiblc Cablcs lbr i!lining and
Heavy PROTOITONT Polychloroprenc-She:rthed
Cebles NSSHOU
These cables are used lbr the connection of motors.
l'ixed and movable heavy apparatus as weil as indus-

trial tools. This type of construction aiso


For factory made
approvals
conncction cords. special

il::;:;';X""":L':,i:',i1,';::l'iiiil,:"*l;t:

harmonized ri.;;;. il" rpprovels rre brsed on


,tt. I..quir"rn"n-ir-" r oix I'dE regulations ls rvell
as CEE publications 7 rnd ll respectlvelv'

8.3 Flexiblc Cables for )Iining

-.

and IndustrY

replaces

type NSHOU. which was not covered by the harmonized standard. tor cables subjected to hrgh-mechanical strcsses having cross-scctional lrcas up to 6 mmr
and up to 5 cores. In mining belorv ground rvhere
cebles ere subjected to gls J construction type nust
be used which has l concentric protectlve conductor
surrounding either all main phase conductors or is
equaly divided arranged around e:rch individual
phase conductor. The iater typc is prelerred in rhe
mining industry (Fig. 3.5). Thc inrcrsticcs of the corcs
mly:rlso be used to incorporate pilot cores.

,re high-mechanical stresses met in mining and


he:rvf industry require tough cebles with a type of
construction suited to the relevlnt application.
These cabies must have a particularly stronq outer
shcrth. For clastomer-shcathctl clbles Siemens huvc

developed the impacr rcsistant. tcar-abrasion reslslant PROTOFIRIvI sheath (sce pagc 38). Sheath colours see Table 8.7.

't.rtrlc ti.7
Shc;rth colours

.tnd

DIN VDE

tl
I

l
l

PROTOFIRM outcr sherth

Polychloroprene inner sheath


Textile layer
+ Numbered PROTOLON-insulated cores
5 Copper conductors, flexible. tinned

to DIN VDE 0:06

Fig. 8.-l

0118

NSSHoU l9 x 2.5

Heavy PROTOivlONT polychloroprene'shelthed cables


0.61 1 kV

Sheath colo ur

Rltcd voitage L/o/U<0.6. 1 kV


Rrtcd voltage Uo/ U> 0.6r I kV
Intrinsically safc cquipment

Poll chloroprene-sheathed Cables

for Heavv\ lechanicai Stresses


Pollchloroprene-sheathed cables for heavy-mecnanical stresses
for rated voltases uo to 1000 V are

;'i[{ill

3i,'.,

Tl."

ii,*T.,il?il;

JJ*: !,,
caotes.forminingi. 1;:
rhe-regulations DIN vDE 0118 and
;;:: ""E0168 as well as anv special regulations
mining authoriry must be observed.
annltcations DIN VDE 0100 is similarlr- ,.1.i.'i''n

i'"lllrl:]::1,

1 PROTOFIRM outer shexth


2 Polychloroprene inner sheath
3 Textile layer
4 Layer of tinned copper wires
5 PROTOLON insulation
6 Copper conductors, flexible, tinned
Fig. 8.5

Heavy PROTOMONT polychloroprene'sheathed c:ble


NSSHoU I x 95+50/3 E 0.6i 1 kV

/)

8 Tlpcs of \\rircs and Cables


PROTOLON trailing cables (Fig.8.10) are constructed in line rvith DIN VDE 0250. For thc currcnrcarr) ing capacities to DIN VDE 0250 o{' 3 loaded
conductors in free air at 30'C thc valucs sho$n in
Table 8.8 apply. For ambient tcmperatures orher
than 30 "C rhese values require to be adjusted using
the factors given in Table 8.9.

The cores for high-voltage cables lrom 6 kV uprvards

PROTOFIRM outer sheath

2 Polychloroprene
3 Extruded filler

are constructed

sheath

Conducting rubber
PROTOLON
insulation
5
6 Copper conductor. flexible

principle

(see

proved over several decades i.e. to avoid harmful


partial discharge conducting rubber layers are placed
over the conductors and above the PROTOLON insulation. The earth conductor, sheathed in conducting rubber. is divided and laid into the interstices

Fig. 8.10

PROTOLON trailing cable


NTSCGEWoU I x 25+l xtj

to the OZONEX

page 24) developed by Siemens and which has been

betrveen the cores.

6i10 kV

In high-tension cables the conductins rubber

lar.er

also acts as touch protection. It is therefore necessarv

for the conductivity to be such rhat thc rcsistlr.,.,


betsecn the protective conduclor and any poinr on
the outcr conducting )ayer not to ercccd i00 O,

Table 8.8

ing clpaciries of PROTOLON


i0'C ambient

Current-carrr
cables at

Nominal cross-

Currcnt-carrving capacitics

sectional area

mm-

rrailins

ra(cd voltase

up ro 10 kv

above l0 kV

./..)

6
10

IO
25

'

110

146

i5

t71

50
70

21 3

For motor connection boxes, transformer station!

and gate-end boxcs and similar equipme)-

336

PROTOLON indoor terminations are used.

r50

450

185

514

For cables laid on the ground etc. a correction factor


of 0.95 has ro be applied
Table 8.9

Correction factors for ambient air temDeratures other


than 30 'C. To be applied ro the current-;arrying capacities shown in Table 8.8

78

Trailing cables must be provided wirh terminations


to protect against ingress of moisture. With rated
voltages greater than 6 kV the termination also provides an electrical function. The individual rerminatjon constructions are dependant on operating and
installation conditions.

279
391

oC

strensth and provides torsion protection.

181

95
120

Ambient temperature
Correction factor

For particularly hieh stresses and travel speeds erceeding 60 n min PROTOLON cables are fitted u.irh
an additionll rextile braid incorporated in rhe outer
sheath. The textile braid increases mechanical

For rated voltages up to 10 kV a simple dir.iding


box termination is sufficient (Fi-q.8.11). From l5 kV
upwards a dividing box rvith core sleeves is required
(Fig.8.12). Where space is severely limited a smaller
divider with core sleeves over the cable tails is available (Fig. 8.13).
For use on ourdoor trailing cables up to 35 kV a
rn:lcanised water shed termination is available which
may be directly connected to overhead supply wires
(Fig.8.1a). These are mainly used in Electriciry
Board networks during network alterations, for the
supply to floating dredgers, or open cast mining, or

ll'3
Flcriblc Cablcs tbr ivlining lnd Industrl
Heavy PROTOIIONT Polychloroprene-Sheethed
C;rbles NSSHOU
These cables are used lbr the connection of motors.
l'ixed and movable heavv apparatus as well as indus-

triel rools. This type of construction also


For lactory made
rpprovals
connccdon cords. special
are necessary lor
tnougn
cven
indiridual countrics
lhe cord itself complics in llmost ull clscs wltn tne
harmonized stanaaiJ- rnc lpprovals are based on
the requiremenis-or-p r x vDE regulations ls rvell
as CEE publications 7 and 11 rcspectively'

)lining

8.3 Flexiblc Cables for


and Industry

repiaces

NSHOU. which was noc covered by the harmonized srandard. tbr cubles subjected to high-mechanical siresses having cross-sectional arexs up to 6 mmr
and up to i cores. In mining beloiv ground rvhere
cebles are subjccted to g:rs J construction ttpe rrust
cype

be used rvhich has

concentric protective conducror


surrounding either all main phase conductors or is
equaly divided arranged around elch individual
phase conductor. The Iutcr ty-pe is prel'errcd in rhe
mining industry (Fig. 3.,s). Thc intcrsticcs of rhe corcs
mlv also be used to incorporate pilot cores.

-,re high-rnechanical strcsses met in mining and


heavv induslry require tour:h cubles with u type of
construcrion suited to the rclcv3nt application.
These cables must have a particularly stronq outer
shr'oth. For clastomcr-shca thcci cablcs Siemens havc

developed the impacl rcsistan!. tclr-abrasion rcsistant PROTOFIRIvI sheath (see page 38). Shcath colours see Table 8.7.

I PROTOFI
2

RlI

outer sheath

Polvchloroprene inner sheath

Textile laver
Numbered P ROTO LON-insulated cores
j Copper conductors, flexible. tinned

"l

'trblc ll.7
Slrc:rth colours

and

DIN VDE

Fig. 8.{
Heavy .P ROTO ivlO NT polychloroprene-sherrhed cables
NSSHOU l9 x 1.5 0.6, 1 kV

to DIN VDE 0106


0118
Sheath colo ur

Rutcd eoltage UolU< 0.6 I kV


Kutcd vohage UolC;>0.6 1 kV
' ntrrnsically safe cquipmcnt

Pol;-chloroprene-Sheathed

.\lechanical Stresses

Cables

for Heavv-

P.ol:-chloroprene-sheathed

cables tbr heavv-melor rated vohaees up to LOOO v aie


ffilT":':YTd by Siemens under the trade name
and 8.5). when serecting
;;;:y-.lt"Ir (Figs.8.4
rhe
regularions
DrN vDE 0118 and
iirl:'rlflllyS
of rt . -L-- ", od as well as any special regulations

cnanical stresses

F..';:,..:l:t.ul, mining aurhority must be observed.

','qustnal applications
,., rrrEvant

DIN VDE 0100

is

similar-

1 PROTOFIRM outer sheath

Polychloroprene inner sheath

3 Textile layer
4 Layer of tinned copper wires
5 PROTOLON insulation

Copper conductors, flexible, tinned

Fig. 8.5

Heavy.PROTOMONT polychloroprene-sheathed crble


NSSHOU 3 x 95+50i3 E 0.6/1 kV
15

- 8 Tlpes of \\ ircs and Clbics


Cables for Coal-Cuttcrs for Operation

bclow Ground

\'loving corl-cultcrs in rnining below ground are connected with coal-cuttcr cablc (Fig.8.6). These cables
are subjected to the hcavicst mechanical stresses.

Depending on the type of cable arrangement: free


dragging, forced guiding by protective cable drag
chains or forced guiding with a cable roller system,
three different cable constructions were developed
particularly for rhe supply of power to coal-cutters.
The drag cable must be capable of withstanding the
operational pulling forces with a high lactor of safet.v. For this purpose a steel-copper braid is embedded
in the outer sheath which performs additionally the
function of concentric protective conductor.

In the drag chain system

cables are guided rvithout


siqnificant tensile stress. Thc cutter cable in this ar-

ranqencnt, howcvcr, must bc particularly flcrible to


allow casicr installation and to achicve frce ntovcmcnt of thc chain. To achieve this the concentric
protcctivc conductor consisting of stecl-copper braid
is arranged between the inner and outer sheaths.
A later development for forced guiding ofcoal-cutter
cable is the protected installation in an enclosed duct
via a moving roller system. For this purpose a specially flexible range of coal-cutter cables, having a
braid of strands of polymeric yarn embedded in rhe
outer sheath, rvere developed. All cutter cables have
control and monitoring cores laid into the interstices
bets cen lhe cores. For mechanical reasons these control and monitoring cores are constructed in concentric form. The monitoring conductor is electrically
connected to the conductive rubber layers lr hich surround the cores of the phase conductors. This connection is used together with a monitoring device
to detect damage to the cable and initiate disconnec
tion.

With increasing cross-scctional areas thc problenr of


both mcchanical handling and service Iile incrcase
and because of this Siemens do not manufacture
PROTOMONT coal-cutter cablcs larger than
150 mmr lor Us1'L:0.6i1kY.
Poll chloroprene-Sheathed Cables for Hoists

In interconnecting shafts between coal seams of different lcvels. hoists mav be installed.

PROTOFIRM outcr shcarh

2 Armour (protective conductor) of steel-copper braid

, i

I nncr sheath
Control monitoring conductor:
control conductor 1.5 mm2 flexible tinned copoer conducror under a PROTOLON insulation colouied blue
and monitoring conductor 1.5 mmz tinned concentric
copper conductor and conducting layer
5 Phase conductor:
copper cooductor, fldxible tinned under a coloured
pROTOLON insulation and conducting layer

.1

2 3 4

56

1 PROTOFIRM sheath

2
3
4
5
6
7

Wide mesh textile braid


Textile braid
Screened communication cores
PROTOLON insulation
Sheathed strain bearing element
Copper conductors, flexible, tinned.

Fig. 8.7

PROTOMONT rubber-shearhed cables for hoists.


NTMTWOU 8 x 1.5 ST+2 x I FM(C) 0.6iI kv
td

I ndustr-v 8.3
for Mining and

Fqr thL' con(r.l1. of hoist cages,


c:rblc NT\ITWOU is uscd.

J
,:!i

,\

rorslon-trce centrally arranged


tiee hanging of rhis cable up to 200
car.ion purposes. two of the ten

screened.

polychloroprene-Sheathed Cables

Lighting
Frr. ,^h. .:lT:'tfn
cotl rtce

.\JJnuu

i ii.t

.fl.ameproof

lishii,iffi

cabtes are used in whiih'


r idual core screenins is used as o prototivi,ciiiil-ffiar

or. Whcre rhe corl face lighting installation iidiri.


porttes relecommunicarions, then the coal face ligbt.
ing cable musr also conrain a screencd conmuniee.
rions Dair 1Fie.3.3).

loth cable rvpes are connccted to monitodng 6ppa.


r:rrus. In the case of NSSHOU cablcs onc phtsc i;n.
ductor is used as a conductor in thc monitoring rys.
rcnr. In cables incorporating tclccomnunicxtions onc
n:onitoring corc is providcd shc:rthcd with conduc.
rivc rubber rvhich in turn is conncclcd to thc cotrduc.
tivc rubber layers over thc phasc con(luctor$ itnd thc
control cores.

67

.{
5

PROTOFIR\t o uter she:rth


Textile layer
Polychloroprene sheath
Conducting rubber sheath
Protective conductor
PROTOLON insularion
Communication cores
Copper conductor, flexible, tinned

Fig.8.8
ROTO MONT-polychloroprene sheathed cable
lor coal face liehtins
NSSHKCGEF-MOil
3 x 6 + 2 x 2.5 ST+2 x 0.5 FM +2.5 UL 0.6/1 kv
P

llining

UolU>0.6ll

l9es
SUPROMONT

for rated
kV under the trade

cabie (Fig 8.9).

39

r0

1 Monitoring conductor
5 Conducting laYcr
6 Extrudcd fillcr
ProtcctiYc conductor
8

Control corc

Il

insulrtron
t0 Coppcr conductor. llcxiblc
9 PROTODU

Fle. 8.9

SJPROIVIOIT C.TbIC NYHSSYCY


J x.15+l x l(y'3 E+3 x l.i ST+UL i.6 6 kV

SUPROivIONT cables of cither thermoplastic or


clustomcric construction are used to bring the high
tcnsion nctwork of 6 kV or 10 kV direct to the load
ccntrcs. These cables are used, lor example. for the
incomrng feed to transformers in mining work laces
bclow ground and in lunnel operations for roads or
underground rail systems. This avoids having lowvoltase cables with lar-ee cross-sectional areas. For
rersons of safety thcse cables are provided with a
protectivc conductor, a monitoring conductor and
stcei-wire braid as armouring below the outer shexth.
In addition control cores are incorporated in rhe intcrslices of cores. SUPROMONT cables are supplied. mostly, in lengths of either 100 m or 200 m
with factory-fitted end terminations. The form of termination being arranged to suit the type of connecting or interconnecting boxes.
Trailing Cables and their Terminations

Trailing cables are used to transmit large amounts


of energy in the voltage range of 1 to 35 kV and
are subjected to high-mechanical stresses. These
cables are used on large mobile machinery such as

Cables above 0.6/1 kV

Siemens provide mining cables

bDuR out"' th""th

for'b
:

of

s t

voltname

excavators, dredgers coal face equipment and hasting

gear in the form of drum wound or trailed power


supplies.
77

8 Tlpes of \\rires and

Cables

PROTOLON trailing cables (Fig.8.l0) are consrructcd in linc rvith DIN VDE 0250. For thc currcntcarr) ing capacitics to DIN VDE 0250 ol' -1 loaded
conductors in frce air at 30'C the valucs shorvn in
Table 8.8 apply. For ambient tcmperaturcs orher
than 30 "C these values require to be adjusted using
the factors given in Table 8.9.

The cores for high-voltage cables from 6 kV uprvards

PROTOFIRM outer sheath

2 Polychloroprene
3 Extruded filler

to the OZONEX

principle (see
by Siemens and which has been
proved over several decades i.e. to avoid harmful
partial discharge conducting rubber layers are placed
over the conductors and above the PROTOLON insulation. The earth conductor. sheathed in conducting rubber. is divided and laid into the interstices

are constructed

sheath

page 24) developed

,l /-^-.1,,^ri-I uvvvr
uLrrrrs r',hhpr
' !vrrs

5 PROTOLON insulation
6 Copper conductor. flexible
Fig. 8.10

PROTOLON trailing cable


NTSCGE\\'oU 3 x ?5+3 x 15 I6i10 kV

bet*,een the cores.

ln high-tension

cables the conducting rubber laler

also acts as touch protection. It is therelore necessarv

for the conductivity to be such that the


Table 8.8
C urrenr-carr1
cables at

ing capacities

oC ambient
-.i0

Nominal crosssectional area

mm-

oi

betseen the protective conductor and any point


rhe outcr conducting layer not to escced 500 Q.

For particularly high

Currcnt-carrf ing capacities in A


ratcd voltai:e
up to l0 kV
abovc I0 kV

43
56

10
16

r04

110

25

138

146

35

171
213

:zo

zo)

279

95

3t7

JJO

120
150

170

391

50
'70

78

stresses and travel speeds erPROTOLON


cables are fitted rvith
ceeding 60 m min
ln additionll textile braid incorporated in the outer
shcath. The terlile braid increases mechanical
strength and provides torsion protection.

Trailing cables must be provided with terminations


to protect against ingress of moisture. With rated
voltages greater than 6 kV the termination also provides an clectrical function. The individual termination constructions are dependant on operating and
installation conditions.

18r

450

185

di

PROTOLON trriling

2.5

rcsistar^

514

For cables laid on the ground etc. a correction factor


of 0.95 has to be applied

For motor connection boxes, lransformer station.


and -eate-end boxes and similar equipme.-PROTOLON indoor terminations are

used.

For rated voltaees up to 10 kV a simple dividing


box termination is sufficient (Fig. 8.11). From 15 kV
upwards a divrding box with core sleeves is required
(Fig.8.12). Where space is severely limited a smaller
divider with core sleeves over the cable tails is available (Fig. 8.13).

Table 8.9

Correction factors for ambient air temperatures other


than 30 "C. To be applied to the currenl-carrying capacities shown in Table 8.8
Ambient temperature
Correction factor

78

oC

cables up to 35 kV a
wlcanised water shed termination is available which
may be directly connected to overhead supply wires

For use on outdoor trailing

(Fig.8.1a). These are mainly used in Electricity


Board networks during network alterations, for the
supply to floating dredgers, or open cast mining, or

Haloucn Frcc Cablcs 8.3

Fig. 8.1 I

Dividing box termrnatton lor

trailing cebles NTSWOU and


NTSCCEWOU wi(h rrted
voltages from I to 10 kV

tbr rhe po',ver supply to building sitcs. This outdoor


tcrminiltion is dcsigncd to withstand thc strcsscs to
be expected

during tiequcnt rcirrrangement ofcables.

8.4 Halogen-Fre SIENOPYR Wiring


and Flexible Cables with Improved
Performance in the Event of Fire

Fig. 8.12

Dividing box termination with


for trailing cables
NTSCGEWOU with rated
voltages from l5 to l5 kV

stress cone

Fig.8.13
Low-space dividing box with
stress cone for trailing cables
NTSCGEwoU with rated
voltages from 6 to 10 kV

-vi
+
-t

Experience gained from a number oi large fires has


shorvn that. particularly in buildings rvith a high density of installed cables and rvires, e. g. hospitals. horels
etc.. considerable consequential damage can be
caused when the cable insulation is PVC based. In
such conditions during the combustion of PVC matcrials chlorine and hydrogen is released rvhich in the
presence of moisture combine to form the highl-v corrosive hydrochloric acid. The consequential damage
caused by this is often more eKtensive than thc prima'
r-v damage. ln addition such materials in the event
of tlre lead to such a strong smoke dcvclopmcnr thlt
rescue rvork and tire fighting is signiticantly hampered.

To reduce rhe risk. espccially in buiidings with a high


concentration of people and/or high value contents.
Siemens has developed halogen-free insulution materials having special profile characteristics to suit their
applications und employ these on the most important
basic types of cables and wires. These new products
bear the trade name SIENOPYR and l'ulfil the general requirements for cables and wircs in respect of
electrical mechanical and chcmicll pirramctcrs and
in addition have the following spccial cha ractcristics :

tr
tr
>

very little support of combustion


no corrosive combustion gasscs from halogcns
much reduced smoke dcnsitY

The testing relating to combustion cher:rctcristics of


cables and wires are laid down in DIN VDE 0472
for
rhe combuslion characteristics in Part 804
gasses in Part 813
the corrosiveness ofcombustion
the smoke

Fig.8.14
Vulcanized outdoor water
shed termination with clamP
on terminal

density

in PreParation

For further details see also page 125 " Halogen-Free


Cables with Improved Performance in the Event of
Fire."
The oreferred areas of application for SIENOPYR
cablei are in installations having increased safety reouirements, e.g- hospitals' .high-risc buildings' theatres, industrial buildings' Po\Yer stations' hotels,
79

8 Ti pcs of Wircs and Crrtrlcs


schools. dcpartnlent storcs. clectrontc
ing plants and the trausporl lnoustry'

d ta

proccss-

Hcat-Rcsistant Non-Shealhcd Singlc-Core

SIENOPYR Cables

For thc application of thcsc cablcs thc rulcs givcn


in DIN vDE 0198 Part 3 " Application of cablcs.
*ires and flcxrblc cords for porver installations. Cen'

eral rules for cables". must be observed. In particular


the data for the relevant basic types of cables, from
which the SIENOPYR t!pes were derived' must be
noted. In addition also rhe relevent installation and

apparatus standards as \\'eil as standards and directives of the relevant authoritics or institutions
must be observed.

In line uirh current market requircments the folloriing cable t)':pes are readily availablc:
r-ight sheathed SIEr.\OPYR cables.
Heat resistant non-sheathed singie-core cables
Single-core sl nrhetic clastomer-sheathed SIENOPYR
cables for special purPoses
Sy nrhetic elastomer-sh ea t hed llexible SI ENOPYR (X )

For ssitchgcar and distribution boards in drl rooms


as rviring cablcs. u'ith incrcascd pcrformance in thc
event of firc, cables 4i0t750 V with solid conductor
(N)HX4CA or with flexible conductor (N)HX4GAF
are used. These cables are also suitable for internal
rviring of apparatus having rated voltages up to
1000 V a.c. or 750 V d.c. to earth. The maximum
conductor operating temperature is 110 "C. These insulated rvires also remain flexiblc at low temperatures
and can be used dorvn to - 30'C.

The construcrion complics riith the rcgulations for


heat-resistant s]'nthetic clastomer-insulated cabies
(N.ICA respectively N4GAF) DIN VDE 0150
Part 501.

l.v

cables.

Apart frorn thc above special tl pes arc mlnufactured


c. g. control cabics.
Light-Sheathed

SIENOP\R

;;..,".,, -. . . ,.1

Cables

As installation cables in buildings u'ith high dcnsitl ol'

people andror valuable conlents for fixed installation


above, on as rvell as in and under plaster SI ENOPYR
sheathed cables type NHXMH 300i 500 V are recommended. These cannot only be used in dry but also
in humid and wel rooms. The cable corresPonds to
DIN VDE 0150 Part 214. It is based. as regards dimensions and basic characteristics on the NYM type
of construction and is designed for the same maximum conductor opcratine (emperature of 70'C.

Insulation of s,r'nthctic elastomer based on Ethl'leneVinl lacetatc-CopoJlmer


2 Copper conductor. solid. tinned
3 Coppcr conductor. Ilexible. tinned
Fig. 8.16

Heat-resistant non-sheathed single-core SIENOPYR


cable. (N)HX.lGA. (N)HXlGAF'1507750 V

\..Single-Core 51'nthetic ElastomerSheated SIENOPYR Cable for Special Purposes

These cables

1 Sheath of non-crosslinked polyolefine compound


2 Core insulation of non-crosslinked special compound
3 Insulation of crosslinked polyolefine compound
4 Copper conductor, soiid or stranded
Fig.8.l5
Light sheathed SIENOPYR
80

cable

NHXMH

300/500 V

kV can be used for fixed


traction vehicles and buses to

for

1.8i3

installations in
DIN VDE 0115 Section 2 as well as in dry rooms.
DiN VDE 0100 permits lhese to be used as shortcircuit fault proof and earth fault proof connections.
The maximum conductor operating temperature is
90 'C. The sheath is oil resistant to DiN VDE 0472
Part 803 test type A.

The construction is in line with DIN VDE 0250


Part 602 for special rubber-insulated cables NSGAFOU.

Halogen-Free Cablcs 8.3

Shelth ot'cross-linked synthetic elastomer based on


Ethl

lene- V in

lacetrte-Co poly mer

Insulution of cross-linked synthetic elastomcr based


on Ethy lene-ProPYlene- Rubber
3 Copper conductor, flexible. tinned

Fig. 8.17

Single-corc s)ntheric elastomer-sheathed SIENOPYR

clble lbr sPccial PrlrPoses


r\)HXSCAFHXO 1.8;l kV

SIE\OPYR(X) Synthetic Elastomer-Sheathed


,-(lesible Ceble (N)HXSHXO
' :or tlexible connection c:lbles irnd interconnecting
cubles in buildings with high conccntration of people
;rnd or vulueble contents with medium-high mechanicul strcss s1 nthetic elilstomer-sheathed
SIE\OPYR(X) c;rbles are used. tYPe

(N)HXSHXO (Fig.3.18). Thcsc can bc use-d in dry.


tllmp and wet rooms as rvell as outdoors. They may
lrlso be used in fixed installations
The cables are constructed closely to DIN VDE 0250
Prrt 81 2 (NSSHOU). The ma.rimum conductor operrting temperature is 90 "C. The sheath is oil resistant

ro DIN VDE 0472 Part 803, test type A. Furtherrnore the cable is KMVr) fault resistant which means
Lhey are also suited to meet the special conditions
ol rpplication in nucleer power stations.

,-i-iiFliL'

.e.oolant

medium

ry-rffi'
I

Outer sheath ofcrossJinked syntheiic elastomer based

on Ethylene-Vynilacetate-Copolymer

2 Inner sheath ofcrosslinked synthetic elastomer

based

on Ethylene-Vynilacetate-Copolymer
3 Insulation of cross-linked synthetic elastomer based
on Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber
4 Copper conductor, flexible, tinned

Fig.8.lE
SIENOPYR(X) Synthetic elastomer-sheathed flexible
cable (N)HXSHXO
81

9 Core Idenrification of Cables

Core Identification of Cables

The identiflcation of cores for insulated cables has


been agreed internationallY and is incorporatcd in
DIN VDE 0293 (Table 9.1 ).

Table

9.1

cables have one core with a smaller cross


then
this core must be marked green-yellow
scction
in cablcs with protective conductor or blue in cables
without protective conductor.

If flexible

Core idcntilicrtion
Cablcs s ith grecn, yellorv core

(markcd J' to DtN VDE 0l-i0


rcspcctivr-ly'G to DIN VDE 0?81.0:31)

Ciblcs u'ithout grccn /1'cllorv corc


(markcd'0'to DIN VDE 0250
rcspcctivciv 'X' to DIN VDE 0131i 0:81)

Cablls for fi\!'d instirlliltion


I

green !cllo\\

black (othcr colours

grecn l ellorv. black r'

brorvn, bluc

greeni ycllorv. black. blue

black, blue. brol n

grecni yellorv. black, blue, brown

black, blue. brou n, black

greeniycllorv. black. blue, brown, black

black. blue. brou'n. black. black

6 and over

grecn/yellow,

black and numbcrcd

'')

additional cores black and numbered


Flerible cables
3)

black

brown, blue

ereenlyellow. brown. blue

black, blue, brown "l

green/yellorv, black, blue, brown

black, blue, brown. black')

greeniyellow, black, blue, brown, black

black, blue, brown, black, blacka)

6 and over

green/yellow,

black and numbered

additional cores black and numbered


r) Ti3 individual colours
lreco or

:'

rr

'r
82

yellow or any othd colour combinalion except grecn/y.llow is no! pcrmi(rcd. Cabtes for wiring
Panially Typc Tcsted Factory-Buih Asscmbles may hoq,cver bc marlcd grecn or ycllow as w.ll as with dual colouri.
This 2-core variant is !o DIN vDE otOO Part 540 and is only pcrmissibtc for qoss secrions equal or grcaler rhan 10 mrtl'l coppcr
Tire corc coiour for illumination and lightirlg is brown
i to 5-corc cablcs without grccntyclloq corc arc no! yc! harmonizcd

of appararus and

Identification 9

Tr;c;mn^rr.ni

rhrt

tn.

core marked greeniyellow must be used exclusivell- for protective conductor (PE or PEN) This
must not be used tor any other purpose'

The core marked blue is used for neutral conductor (N). This core can be used as required (i e also
as phase conductor) but not as protective conductor (PE) or combined neutral and protectlve conductor (PEN).
porver supply cables are used in telecomunication
installations ro VDE 0800 the green/yellow core must
also be used exclusively as conductor with protective
l( :tlon.

If

dJ

l0

Deilnitions of Locations

10 Definition of Locations to DIN VDE 0100

The definition of locations in accordance with the


follo*ing categories often requires exact knowledge
of the condrrions at site as $ell as of the operating
conditions. If. for exampie. tn a location high humidiry occurs only at one definite place but the rest of
the location is dry because of proper ventilation. the
whole iocation need not be ciassified as damp.

Humid and Wet Areas and Locations


are rreas in which electrical equipment must be at
Ieast drip protected (lP X1 to DIN 10050).

In areas and locations in rvhich $ater jets are used


fbr cleaning but uhere the elecrrical equipment is
not normaly directly subjected to rvater jets the

Electrical Operating Areas

.quipment must be at least spiash protected 1lP XJ


to DIN .10 0i0).

are rooms or locations used essentially for the opera-

In

tion of eiectrical equipment and eenerally


ro qualified personnel onll'.

accessible

These include. ior example. suirch houses. conrrol


rooms. distribution installations in separtte rool.lls.
separate electrical test depanments and laboratories.
machine rooms in pou.er stations and rhe like u here
the machines are artended solely by qualified pcrsons.
Closed Electrical Operating .{reas
are rooms or locations used exclusively for the opera-

in rvhich uater.jets are used


and where the eiectrical equipment is directly suh
areas and Iocations

jected to the q ater jers than the cquipment must ha\v


a sufficient tvpe of protection or suitable additionll
protection u hich does not impair rhe proper operation oi' that equipment.

Notc:
Protection class lP X5 to DIN -10050 does protecr
the equipment against cleanine with high pressure
water jets e. g. hosins dou,n or hieh pressure cleanin g.

tion of electrical equipment and kept locked.

The
Iocks may be opened by authorized persons onll- and
onl_""

qualilied persons are permitted to enter

these

areas.

for example. closed su itchboards and


disrribution boards, lranslormer cubicles, switcheear
cubicies. distribution boards in sheet-steel housings
or in other forms of enclosure. pole-mounted substaThese include,

tlons.

Locations )Yith Fire Hazard

are rooms or locations or sections in rooms or in


the open where, owing to local conditions and the
nature of the work. there is a risk that easily ignitable
materials in dangerous quanrities mav come so close
to electrical apparatus that high temperatures on tl.'
\v/
apparatus or arcs may cause fire.
These may include working. drying, storaqe rooms

Dry Locations

or sections of such rooms as well as locations of

are rooms or locations in which condensation of


moisture does not usually occur or in which the air
is not saturated with moisture. These include, for
example, dwelling rooms (also hotel rooms), ofljces;
they may also include: business premises, sales
rooms, lofts, staircases and cellars with heatine and

When classifying rooms as locations with fire hazard


the relevant regulations must be observed.

venrilation.
Kitchens and bathrooms in dwellings and hotels are
considered as dry rooms as regards the wiring insrallation, as moisture is present in them only tempo-

rarily.
84

this nature outdoors, e.g. paper, textile and woodworking lactories. hay, straw. jute, flax stores.

Easily ignitable is applied to combustible solid marerials which when exposed to the flame of a march
for 10 s continue to burn or to glow after the source
of ignition has been removed.

These may include hay, straw. straw dust, wood


shavings, loose excelsior, magnesium turnings, brushwood, Ioose paper, cotton waste or cellulose fibre.

Location Types l0

)lobile Buildings

-"...onrtru.tions

which arc suitable lbr anrJ designed


for repeated crrection and dismantling such as fair
equipment e. g. round-abouts' slides, are:lna
-ground
stantls. sales kiosks. tents, also buildings for travelling erhibitions, apparatus for artistic displays in the
and similar. Wagons which can be largely modi-air
fied and used operationaly in a fixed location (e'g'
Shorvman rvaqons) are also classified as mobile build'

horse. cattle. slreep and pigs. In lddition duc to the


prescnce of casily ignitable materials an increased
danger of tire may be present. Further dangcrs arc
present in rooms for intensive farming and also for
small animals e. g. failure of life sustaining systems.

Depending on the form of danger existing in the agriculture operating area. in addition DIN VDE 0100
Parts 720 and 737, covering humid and wet areas
and rooms as well as outdoor installations' musr be
observed.

ings.

Aress with ExPlosion Hazard

- r.^ arexs in rvhich because of local and operational


_

L..,rci:rons:rn explosive utmosphere c:ln occur in r


danUerous quantity (explosion hazard).
Ap.qrplosire atmosphere is u mixture of combustible
1- )r. t"pou.t. mist or dust with air. which contains
i,.c usual additional substances (e. g' moisture). under
atmospheric conditions such that atter ignition a
burning reaction extends unaided.

Opcrarional equipment for areas with explosion hazard are selected in respect of zones. temperature class
and the explosion group of the combustible material:

see

Installations on Building Sites

DIN VDE

0165.

comprise the electrical equipment for carrying out


struitural rvork above or below ground on building
sites as rvell as with structural steelwork' Building
sites also include constructional work and parts of
'"ch which is extended, modified. put into service
.,,-{emolished.

at rvhich merely handlamps, soldering irons'


welding equipments. electric tools to DIN VDE 0740.
^ g. drilling machines, grinding wheels. polishers and
ulner appliances used individually are not regarded
as building sites.

Ptaces

Agricultural Operating Areas


are rooms, locations or areas which are used for agri-

culture or similar purposes e.g. horticulture.

Note:
In agricultural areas because of special ambient con'
ditions e. g. ingress of moisture, dust' highly chem!
cally agreisive vapours acids or salts' to which lhe
electricil equipmint is subjected there is an increased risli oi accident both to persons and to farm
animals (large animals). Large farm animals include
85

.r

ryp,,!d U .rllu lnrtillt:ltlOn Ol L:lblCs

Application and Installation of Cables

Cables must be selected and applied in line


wirh ruies
laid dorvn in DIN VDE 029& and *," .,unauiirl._
ferred.to therein. They must be installed
;;
ing suitable installation fixing marerials. ",ili;
Th;y;;;

prorecred against mechaniial. thermal


cll damase by location or protective means.

;;:i;-

be.

)Iechanical protection rvhich is generally


accepted

include:

' >

Insulared u,ires in condurt u.hich


bear the identifi_

carion mark A ro DIN VDE 0605.

Such dangerous locations


or near floor level.

UV

Light

l'C-sheathctl t.ables may be


insralled in brick_
cmbedding l;;;;.;;";,
nor pernlilted where rhe concrere
ts tamped, vibrated
or rammed.

pofyr.ria

iri".ui"iy

lan exist io.

fi""a.

"";;p;;-;;

under pl.aster must be insralted


verrically
parailel to the room corners.
In ceil_
:_r^:::r-zontally
rngs rhe may be installed using
the
di;";
;;;;;
:e atso DIN VDE 18015).
'norr
o.r cabre nxing
:"1::
shape must be considered. W

9:1,:

ll ::

;;il','i;

b.i;g.J ;;;

;;il;

;; ;$..i

::;:l::,l|: ?I;

i"".Tl"rT?i:
.cted movement
does not cause damage to the
elec_
u Ical equlpment.

:::

Apan fro.m the cable oubide


diameter and the cable
construction also the rype of
insrallation
tion wilt affect rhe smaijisr
""d ";;;;:

"l""."ui" fi"aj"g.""!lli.

are raid doq,n rn DrN vDE


02e8
Il:',.1:::*
:",,"es
rarr
J (see Table
I l.l ).

Metal sheathing as well as


any unrnsulated sheath
not be used as operitional
Itj":-yr,
tng conductors nor must
"r;;;;r;;;;':
tiey oe used
lor neutral

or protecdve conduclor.
86

"i;'i".;f;,;d

s ashers.

*ork and cemenr. Direcl

A^t_locarions which are parricularly


hazardous additlonal
protec_tion must be provided"
sreel conduit or cladding .. fri"f,

FIar underplasrcr cable musr only


be installed bv rr,^
means and pro..rr", ,fr., a" i",
a.ioi'l
::.,:!,":h
oama,ce rhe cable. Approvcd means
of n*ing .r.
:r
lor rnsrance use of pads of gypsum plur,.,
o, ,h.up-.j
ce.ble clips of plasric or insulcrion
.our.d ,"r"1. ,i.l,i
adhesive or nailing u.irh spccial
n*;"g,

Flat underplaster cable can be installed


under plasrerboard.sheets only when the
boards ur. ,.aur.a'l
rhe \r,all \\,irh pads of_e1,psum plaster.
\_

> Sheathed cables.


i > Porr er cabies.
> Installarion in or undcr plaster,
> lnstaliation in cavities.
> Installation in rrunkin_s ro DIN VDE 060.1.
or

Ir.is not permitted to bury flexible insulated


power
in the ground.

cables

Lig.lu Pt'C-sheathed cables


P l,',C -s he

hc

ca b

es,y y B (t

,yyl.t and lead coceretl


y r"y h;";;;.," ;; i;:

underground conduit providinc


;" ;;;j;
ill,l
l"accessible
and replacabl.
lemarns
;.
strong, protected ""d ing;J
";;;;;;;i
il^Tlfri:"ilv
lrqurds.
and venrilared. This type
"guinrt

should be rhe exceprion and


only used
\\'here rrallr)rg drunt and
,?11."
urtn

.::l_"ir".:.

minin

of insialatioi

i".,h;;;;;.

drug cablcs areused on mo_


ma-chinery

;;J";;;;;;;;

well as convcying
_accessorics.as
a oove eround and
"quip;;;;
open_cast
opera-.-.
uons DrN vDE 0r68 n,"r,
olitl"llJoomilar
r

In rpecia!

g. u,ith flexible cable for fast


moveforced guiding over rollers
speciaily
con_
:)-::l:
i"dcables, e. g.
strucrecl
CORDAFLe X ' p"f rcii"r"_
prene-sheathed cable NSHTOU
must be usel.
ca.ses, e.

/oads musr be relieved of purr


or
3:!P.!:: :'.1,!:
at their connecring

rh" p.ot;iiu.

f^r:l :tl.r..,core
conductor
"nar. ,h";;i;-;;l;;
must be left longer
ca.rrying cores, such that iailure
tf," ,irui"
:lfrent
retreving,device
the protective conductor.or"
"i i, lniy
srress
rhe currenr carryrng cores.
:r,-.j:::":-.roundingafte-r
off
of
the cabte entry p"iii
:11e,v:: ".
the power cables against sharp
"r"

$:i,:"#;::",

bends

Pcrnrissiblc Bcndine

Table l

l.l

Radii

ll

\lininrum pcrmissiblc bcnding radii


Rated voltage up to 0.6/

Cablc tl pc

kV

Rrted
votrilgc
above 0.6, I kV

Cables

for pernwnent inslallatiotl

Outer diameter r/ o[ the cable or thickness d of llat cable


up to 10 mm

over l0 to 15 mm I over 25 mm

Permanent installation

+d

4d

Formed bend

l(

2d

Fletible cublcs

Outer diamcter r/ of the cablcs or thickncss


up

to

I oYer

3mm

I to ll

Fixed installation

3d

3d

Fqp movine

)u

1d

e--.;able entry

3d
5d

Forced guiding

"

e.g.

drum operatton
cabie waeon operation

mm

'

7.5d

Jd

of lht clblc

o\er
lo\er
ll to l0 mm I l0 mm

1t

6d

ir/

5d

l0 {/

+u

5J

5l

l0 r/

5t

i,/

6t

tzd

1d

5r/

drag chain operation

roller guides

6d

l.) .I

l0 (i

i11

5d

1.5d

l.J

10 r/
Ll

t5 d

t'Thet-rpcofconsrruclionmustbccheckcdlocnsurcsuirabilityforlhisl)peoIopcrrlion

The application and installation of neon Iighting


cables is covered in DIN VDE 0128. In addition to
this the following must also be observed:

Where neon lighting cables enter enclosures they


must be covered with sleeving or enter through a
gland. In ouldoor installations the cable en!ry must
be sealed by sheaths or covers of insulating material
to prevent surface creepage.

In respec! of cable constructions which are used for


several different types of application it may be advisable to discus the application with the manufacturer.
87

Appiication and Insrallation of Cablcs

I.

Rated Voltage, Operaring Voltage

The definitions of ratcd voltace and operating voltage of wiring cables and flerible cables is given in
DIN VDE 0198 Part 3.
Rated Voltage

The rated voltage of an insulated cable is the voltage


on rvhich the construction and testing of the cable,
in respect of electrical characreristics, is based. The
rated voltase is expressed bv ls.o a.c. voltage values
Llol U expressed in V:
LIo rms value between one-phase

r/

conductor and earth


(non insulated surrounding).
rms value between t$'o-phase conductors of a
multi-core cable or a system of single-core cables.

In a s,ystem rr.ith a.c. voltase the ratcd voltage of


the cabie must be at least equal lo the rated voltase
''f the system ro
',r.hich it is connected. This condiriJn
.rpplies to the value Uo as rvell as ro rhe value U.
In a svstem $.ith d.c. voltage the rated svstem voltace
musr not ercced 1.5 timcs rhe rared a.c. voltage of
the cabic.

Operating \roltage
The opcrating voltaee is thc voltage bet\r.ecn conduc-

tors or bctrvccn conductors and carth pr"aan,; .,


*
porvcr installarion undcr hcaltht,stablc conditions.
Cables y,ith Raled Voltage

uolu <0.61 I

kv

These cables are suitable for application on 3_phase.

sinlle-phase and d.c. installations *h.r" th.'mu*i_


mum permanently permissible operating voltage docs
not erceed the rated voltagc of rhe cable by morc
tharl
109i' for u,iring cables and fle_rible cables u,jrh ratcd
Vollage
Lr6i

1096

U<

-1501750

for wiring cablcs and llexiblc

volta se
L'o.

cablcs

sirh

rared

U:0.611 kV

lf iring Cohle:; unl Fta.rih!e Cuhlt,.r \t.irh Rott,l l.olrugc


L:o U >0.611 ky'
Thc'se cables are suirable

for application in

3_phase

and single-phase installations having a maximum


opcrarrng voltaee not e.\ceeding l0yo above the rated
voltage ol the cable.
Table I 1.2
Typical rated voltages of various cable types
Rated
voltage

Cabie type

r00/i00 v
300/500
450/750

single-phase installations where


rhe star point is eflectiveiy earthed:

v
v
v

single-phase installations where


rhe star point is not effecrively earrhed providing

Tinsel cords and flat non-sheathed cords


FJat building u.ires

Light PVC-shearhed cables


Heavy polychloroprene-sheathed flexible

cables

0.6/ 1kv
| .8/ 3 kv

4 i 8kv
6 /10 kv

kv
12 120 kv
l4 /25 kv
18 i30 kv
:0 /35 kv

PROTOFI RM-sheathed cables


Single-core poli chloroprene-sheathed

lor special purposes


Neon lighting cables
cables

8.7i t s

8E

a) in 3-phase and
b) in 3-phase and

UolU

220i 380

The cable may be used:

Trailing cables

that any individual earrh laulr is not susrain.j

Ionger than 8 hours and the rotal ofall earth


laulr._.
tlmes per vear does not cxceed 125 hours. If this

situation can not be ensured than. ,o anru."


u
life of rhe cable. a cable having a higher

service

rated voltage should be selected.

for Direct Current Installatiotts


For cables in d-c. installations the permanent perCables

missible operadng d.c- voltage between conductors


must not exceed 1.5 times the rated a.c. voltage of
the cable. In 2-wire earthed d.c. installationsthis
value must be multiplied by a factor of 0.5.

Rated Opcrating Voltagc Conductor Cross Section I l '2

11.2 Selection of Conductor Cross-Sectional


.{rex
General

The temperature rise. respectively current-carrytngcaoacitv. of a cable is dependent upon the type ol
construction. the characteristics ol the materials used
and also operating conditions' In order to achieve
a sat-e design and a full service life of a cable the

conductor cross-sectional area must be chosen such


th:rt the requlrenent
current-carry ing capacity

tr
tr
1

thc

co

/"> loading

/o

nditions of

normal oPeration and


shorr circuit

satistled. This rvill ensure that no part of the


'-rble at any point in time is heated above the rated
maximum permissible operating [empcrlturc rcspcctively short-circuit tcmperature.
Current-CarrYing CaPacitY
in r'r*ormal OPeration

The design of installation projecrs is simplified by


using esrablished data collected over several decades
in respect of current-carrt ing capacitl: undcr practlcal
aoolications rvhich has now been incorporated in var'

ious regulations governing apparatus and installation. For electrical installations in buildings the
standards for electrical installation of buildings
DIN vDE 0100 apply for power installations up to
'000V. In this standard. up to the present day' in
/-ilrt 523 the types of installation rvere divided into
,-rree groups:

Group 1: insulated conductors and single-core cables


in a conduit
,-iroup 2: multi-core cables for fixed installation
Group 3: single-core cables for fixed installations
and power cables.
The xssociated values for current-carrying capacity
had been determined originally for rubber insulated
cables.

By todays standards, these groupings of types of installation appear extremely rough but have, however,

proved to be adequate for the methods practised at


that time. Meanwhile, however, different installation
practises have developed and modern, more sophisticated materials have become available. These developments have necessitated the evolution of more detaiied project planning.

In Februrry

1988. the specilication

DIN VDE 0:93

Part .1 " Recommended values for current-cilrr]-ing


capacity lbr sheathed and non-sheathed cables tor
tixed wirings. tlexible cabies and cords"' wus published. This pubiication contains comprehensive and
detailed information on the relevant terms and regularions required to determine the cross-sectional area
of conductors for normal operation and for shortcircuit conditions. Firstly the Precise operating condi'
tions on rvhich this data was based were detlned and
specilicd. Blscd on rhcsc rtferent'e !)perdtlttg conclirrr.,rs. rvhich teke into lcount thc rrpe oJ' operdtiotl
as rlcll as iutullutiort tncf ttnbient c c'rtrtlilir'trls, tabu'
lated data rvas prepared ol ratatl lalrrr's of currentcarr,ving clpacity | (rlted value). To clter tor conditions rvhich der iate from the ilgrced opcr:lting condirions. convcrsion fuctors were prepared. The relarionship:

I,:l,nf
applics riherc fl/ is rhe product of ull conlerston
tlctors rvhich arc aPPlicable.
As J basls tbr ty.'pe of operation. t t.rttllrtti'.ltis ttperutitttr
*as sclectcd. rvhich is operation at constant current
lbr a durction sufficicnt for the cable to reach thermal equilibrium but otherwise not limited in time'

Short-tinc tnd' intermittentl operatiort e'g' for

the
crane
starting currents of motors or the operatlon or
installations are described in Section 13 6'

The spec(ied untbient !empcratLrre for all applications


is :O iC ind it is required that the room is sufficiently
large and ventilated such that the ambient tcmperatu.. i. not noticexbly increased by the cable losses

The in.stallation conditions, in comparison to the pre'


viously used groups I to 3. are more precisely defined
and enlarged. One differentiates norv between:

\tethod of Installation

tYPe

A:

lnstallation in walls having low thermal conductivity'


lvlethod of installation tYPe B I :
Installation of single-core insulated cables in conduit
or duct on or in a wall,
Method of installation tYPe B 2 :
Installation of multi<ore insulated cables in conduit
or duct on or in a wall,
Method of installation tYPe C:
Installation of cable directly on or in a wall/under
plaster,

Method of installation tYPe E:


Insrallation oi cable in free atr.
89

. ^ r !l,Hu!Arrwrr dllu lltstil

ilUon oI LaDjcs

Table I 1.3

Currenr-carrf ing capacit-"-. Cabrcs for fired instatarion. Mcthod


of instatation A.

nsularing material

Br, B

and

PVC

Type designation t)

NYM. NYBUY, NHYRUZY, NYiF, NYIFY,


HOTV-U, HOTV;,HO7V-K, NHXMH

Maximum permissible
operating temperature

70

8;

"c

No. of loaded
conductors
Method of installation

ln thermally

insulated $,ails

&& PF
I

nsulated conductors

in conduit r) 5r

&ffi
RR
M ulri-core cable in

conduit

s'

Multi-core cable in
the wall

.9n or in rvalls

In condurl or

Insuiated conducrors
rn conduit on
the

uallrr

1-r j--r

4d

4@)

Insuiated conductors
rn trunking on
the wall
//./,/,/,/)

or undcr plaster
I direcr installation

trunking

Mulri-core cable in
conduiI on the \r'a ll
or on the lloor

i--t

4@

bb

Multi-core

blc on

ca

thc rvall or on

the \v

J----,

1@J

\4ulLi-corc cablc in

trunking on rhc u,all


or on the floor

Singlc-core shearhed
cable on the u,ail or
on the floor

.//rtrt

?n'/.Fi
ryt'n
Insulated conductors,
srngle-core sheathed
cablcs. m ulti-core
cable in conduit in
masonry 6)

Multi-core cable, flat


wcbbed building
wrrcs ln the wall or
under plaster 7)

-opper conductor
Nominal cross-sectional
area tn mm:

Current-carrying capacity in A

1.5
IJ

I /.)

18

t0

JI

l6

42

.i)

56

)0

89

70
95

t20

90

I*

2l

19

28

28

lo

41

36

)t

50

5.5

19.5

tt.)

LO

24

35

46

41

57

46

68

50
68

61

l)a

89
111

63
85

90

77

112

110

96

r08

95

138

151

r 19

rJo

134

164

192
'r1a

188

269

101

l ).-)
21

171

207

239

/o

Conductor Cross Scction I1.2

Table I l.-l

Currcnt-carrl ing clpacity. Crblcs for llxcd installation. \lethod of instlllation in ftee 3ir

PVC

Insulating material
Type designation

NY\,t. NY)vlZ, NYMT, NYBUY, NHYRUZY.


NHXMH :), NYHSSYCY ])

"

70

)la.rimum permissible operatlng temperature

'c

No. of loaded conductors


Method of installation

Ae
''i l>03d
CoDper conductor
ainal-cross sectional afel rn mm-

Current-carrying caprcity in A
18.i
l)

r.5
2.5
+
6
10
10

60
30

z)
i5

1?6

101

50')
70')

153

"'

JJJ

95

I'

196

Typc designation and fur(hcr dctails

:r Not included in DIN VDE 0:98


I' Ratcd voltag. 1.6i6 kv

"'

Part

iI Secdon E.l
l. Insuladon

ofc.oss-linkcd polyolcfine compound

Not included in DIN VDE 029E Part,t

r ur each of these reference operatittg corlditions the


recommended rated values of current-carrying capacitv /. are shorvn in Tables I 1.3 and I 1 .4. The headings
r ,.he tables include diagramatic representations of
the installations for ease of understanding which, togelher with the footnotes, provide a detailed description. The current<arrying capacities apply for:

>
( tr

two-core cables with two conductors loaded as


well as for two loaded singletore insulated con-

ductors or two loaded single-core sheathed cables


given in Table 1 1.3 columns 2. 4. 6 and 3 45 rvell
as Table 1 1.4 columns 2 and lor

>

three-core cables with three conductors loaded as


well as for three loaded single-core insulated con'
ductors or three loaded single-core sheathed
cables given in Tablell.3 columns 3. 5' 7 and
9 as well as Table 11.4 column 3.

Typc designadoo and furlher dcrrilr in seclioo 8.1


corducroG i! conduit ia cnclosed floor trcnch
Also appliG lo iosulalcd coDducro6 io coDdui! i! ecatilatcd 0oor u.dcb
Also appliG to ouili-corc cabl. iD opc! or vcotilatcd trench
Also applies to idsulalcd co[duc!o.s, siogle-corc shothcd cablc, rnulti<ote cablc in ducting in thc floor
Also af'pli6 ro iosulalcd coDducloB i! conduir io lbc cciling
Also applics to dulri.corc cablc i! rhc cr itg
Not includcd i! DIN VDE 0298 Pan,l. tDsulatio[ ofc.oss-[nkcd polyolcfine compouDd

''_' Also appliG (o iosularcd


_'

"
:
r'

91

.'riri)rrcauon and tnstilllalron ol cables

Whc::. for cxample, in a multi-cerrc cablc all conductors are not loadcd at tlte samc tinlc. the I'alue of

curreni-carr\,ing capacity is possibll. r:reatcr than that


given in Tables l l .3 and 1 1..1. Thc rclo,ant r.alues
depend on the type of construcrioll of thc cable and
thc insrallation conditions such that common conver_
sion factors cannot be prepared. For reasons of safety it is recommended to consider only the number
of loaded conducrors, disregarding rhe rotal number
of cores. rvhen allocating a value of current_carrvin s
capacitl. from Tables I 1.j and I 1.1. Only in rhis wai
cen olerloadinq be safely aloided.

The current-carrying capacit.i' at ambient temDera_


tures other rhan i0 "C can be esrlblished usine rhe
conve:;ion facrors given in Table l.l.l0 in paril of
t

his u ork.

I he currenl-carrvrng capacitv quantirics


,eiven in Ta_

t,

bles 11.3 and 11.-1 appiy *irh rhe proviso rhar only
eirher one multi-core cable or ru o iespectivelr. three
-ringte_

insulared conductors. alternatir.elr


siLeathca
cre cable. are installed. Ifser.eral cables are arran-eed
ne\t to one another. Jbo\'e one .tnolher or adiucinr
to or :bo!e porrer cables thcn the clrrrr'ins clpecirl.
is rcduced corresponding ro rhe hindefcd hear'dissipation. respecrively rhe addirional hear eenerared.
Cl)nveision factors rlhich clter for rhis g,:ouforg oi
cables for fixed installarion (possiblr. ,vith'po'*,cr
cables). are given in Tables 1.l.ll and l.l.12
in Sectron 1.1.1 of part 2 of rhis worx.

AIso included in part 2 rvill be found informations


on flexrble cables and merhods of insrallation uhich
could not be_incjuded in part 1 for reasons ofspace.

Lonversron lactors are also incorporated for lrcat


re_
.tistant cables, for ntulti-core cabks rr.ith ntore
thart
{irc <ores and, for cahles
operating on drtuns.

Currcnt-Carr.r.ing Capacity under


Short Circuit

,c^rtrermall) permissiblc short-circuir


currenr /,r.
.rs.oetermined from the rated
short_tine current den.v/ r-./,h. Irom Table
I .1.16 in Section 1 .1.3 of parr 3
ot tnrs work from:
l,o.=

I,r,l/llli

/,u. = /,r,,
S.

n here

/'r' Thenmally permissible


short-crrcurr current-carcapacirv
,rrb! rylng
I uermally
efectiue short_circuit currenr

92

tr,
r*

Rarcd short-circuit duration (rr,= I s)


Short-circuit duration in s
-/,n, Rated short-circuit current densit\.
S" Nominal cross-sectional area ofconductor

Determination of Voltage Drop


Especially in low-voltage networks. apart lrom rhe
current-carrytng capacity, the conductor cross_sec_
tional area must also be considered in respect of volta,ee drop Arl ro ensure this does not exceed
the per_
missible value. For the calcularion of this. .ornpr.hensive aids for desi-sn are included in Secrion
1.1.,{
of part I of rhis u,ork.
Protection against Excessire Temperature Rise
it is possible to heat cables above rhe permissible
limit bv an operarional overcurrenr as s,eil as bv
short circuit-current. prorective der.ices must be
in.
corporated. therefore. for protection against ovcrcur._
rent as lisred in e.g. DIN VDE 06j6. DIN VDE 06,
and DIN VDE 0660.
The co-ordination oI these ovcrcurrent protection
vrces to the conductor cross_sectional

dc_

area is made
bv refcrcncc ro DIN VDE 0100 part -130. Details
lbr
this arc also includcd in Section t.:.S in part
2 oi
this work.

National and International Standards l2.l

Power Cables

12 National and International Standards


12.1 VDE Specifications

DIN VDE

0273 Cross-linked polyethylene-insulated

cables, nominal voltrses :


UolU 6i10, l2120 and l8i 30

In

respect of construction, testing and applicatioo


d 2orver cables. the relevant valid editions of the
lollowing VDE specitications and DIN standards applv:

DIN VDE O]7] Cross-linked polyethylene-insul:rred


conductors for overhead transmlssion lines. nominal voltage:

uolu 0.6lt kv
,..i VDE 0]06 Recommendations on coiours for
polymeric sheaths and coverings
with polymeric and rubber insulation for cables and flexible cords

DIN VDE 0207 Insulating

and

DIN VDE

0239

DIN VDE 0255 Regulations for

mass-impregnated
metal-sheathed

power cables (except external gaspressure and oil-filled cables)

DIN VDE

I \

oil-filled cables and


their accessories for nominal voltages up to uolu 2301400 kv

tions rvith nominal voltages up to

DIN VDE

0258 Internal-gas-pressure cables and accessories for alternating voltages up

to

l/)

DIN VDE

DIN vDE 0266 Halogen-free cables with improved


characteristics in the case of flre;
nominal voltages: UolU 0.611 kV
DIN vDE 0271 PVC-insulated cables with nominal
voltages up to and including

Conductors

DIN VDE

0298

Application

DIN VDE 0272 Crosslinked polyethylene-insulated


cables ; nominal
uoiu 0.611 kv

voltage:

of cables, wires and


flexible cords in power installations

Part I : Ceneral for cables rvith rated voltages UolU up to 18/30 kV


Part 2: Recommended values for currentcarrying capacity of cables for fixed

installation

with rated

voltages

U,;lU up to 18/30 kV

DIN VDE

of
fictitious diameters for determination of dimensions of protective
coverings for cables and flexible
cords for power installations.

0299 Calculation method on the basis

with plastic insulation and


lead sheath for power installation

kv

of

cables, wires and


flexible cords for power installation

0295

0265 Cables

6/10

DIN VDE

KV

1000

0256 Low-pressure

VDE 0257 E.\ternal-gas-pressure pipe type


cables and their accessories for alternating voltages up to 275 kV

and

l'le.rible cords used in power installa-

sheathing com-

paper-insulated

Definitions for cables. rvires and


Ilexible cords for power instrllation

DIN VDE 029] Identification of cores in cables

pounds for cables and flexible cords

kv

Part

DIN VDE

1:

O3O4

Power cables

Thermal properties of electrical insulating materials

Part 27: Ceneral procedures for the determinatiod of thermal endurance properties, temperature indices and thermal endurance profiles
Part 22: Lisi r:f materials enC available tests
93

12 National and Intcrnational Srandards

DIN VDE 0472 Tcsting of cablcs. rvires and flcxiblc


cords

DIN \rDE 0100 Ercction of powcr insrallations wirh


ratcd voltages up to 1000 V
DIN VDE 0l0l Erection of power insrallarions wirh
rated voltages above 1 kV

DIN VDE 0103 Mechanical and thermal short_circuit strength of electrical power installations

DIN VDE 0105 Operation ofl power installations


DIN \rDE 0111 Insulation co-ordination to equipment for three-phase a.c. systems
above 1 kV

,lN YDE 0115 Rail-borne and trackless vehicles


DIN VDE 0l 1E Specilications for rhe crecrion of
elecrrical insrallations in mines be_
low ground

DIN VDE 0168 Spccification for the erection and


operation of elecrrical insrallations
in open-cast mines, quarries and
similar ri,orks

DINVDE 0211 Planning and design of

overhead
pou'er lines with rated voltages up
ro 1000 v

DIN VDE 0228 Proceedings in rhe

case of inrerference on telecommunication installa-

rions by electric power installations

DIN

17640

Lead and iead alloys for

cable

I2.2

Standards of Other Countries

Cables manufactured to standards of orhcr countries


e.g-. British standards (BS). French srandards (NF).
Italian standards (CEI), Swedish standards (SEN),

comply normaly

in their

basic construction witi

cables manufactured to VDE.standards but deviate


in dimensions and test requirements. Where required

AG can also supply cables to meet rh;se or


other standards. Certain rypes are already approved.
by the relevant standards institures.
Siemens

12.3 IEC and CENELEC Standards


The international commissions IEC and CENELEC
have the responsibility to unify the r.ar;-ing srandards
which exist within the E.E.C. Ar rhe piesent rime
lt cannot be forseen by u hat date full harmonization v
will be achieved. In deference ro IEC. CENELEC
does not normally prepare independant specifica_
tions. The " final harmonized documcnts.. aic issued
by CENELEC and after a short introductory period,
enforced to be incorporated in the narional specincations of the relevani standards institutions without
any change of content. In certain circumstances
CENELEC also issues European Norms (EN norms)
which must bc acceprcd by the mcmber counrriei
unchanged in form and contenr.
The following IEC publications are relevant to power
cables:

sheaths

DIN

89150

Cables and flexible cords for instalIation on ships; survey, current rat-

lngs, overcurrent protection, direc_


rion for Iaying

.DIN

89158

Power cables wirh copper braid;


MGCG

t1..pe

DIN

89

159

Communication cables,

type

FMGCG; nominal cross-sectionil

DIN

89t60

area 0.5 mm2 and 0.75 mm2


Power cables without copper braid;

type MCG

IEC 28 (1925) Revised ed.


International standard of resistance for copper
IEC 55
Paper-insulated metal-sheathed cables for rated
voltages up to l8/30 kV (wirh copper or aluminium
conductors and excluding gas-pressure and oilfilled cables)
55-1 (1978) Fourth ed.
Part 1 : Tests
55-2 (1981) First ed.
Part 2: General and construction requirements

Electrical installation in shiDs


92-3 (1965') Second ed.
Part 3: Cables (construction, testing and installations)

\J

Narional and Intcrnationil Standards

IEC lll (19S,1) Sccond cdRcsistivitl t't' conrnrcrcial hlrtt-.jrarvn alunrinium


clcctricll cond uctLr r rvirc
IEC

1.+I

Tests on oil-t-rlled

lnd

acccssones

-uas-prcssure

cables and their

141-l (1976) Second ed.


Part 1:
Oil-tllled. paper-insulated. mctul-sheathed cables
and accessories tbr liternating loltaees up to and
including -100 kV

'

ll I -l ( I 96-1) First cd.


Pl rt l:
.rcrnal qas-prcssurc clbles ancl lccessories tbr alternating voltar:es up to 175 kV

lll-3
..IT

196-1)

First cd.

J:

12.3

IEC l.l0 ( 1966) First cd.


Irnpu)sc tcsts on cablcs and thcir:rcccssorics
IEC 137 (1931) Second cd.
Calculation of the continuous current r:rrins of
cables ( 100920 load factor)
IEC 3ll (1970) First ed.
Fire-resisting charlcteristics of electric cablcs
IEL JJ-:

Test on electric cables under fire condirions


l-12- 1 (1979) Second ed.

Part l: Test on a sinsle vertical insulared


crble

lirc

or

i-r:--.i (1982) First cd.


Parr -i: Tcsts on bunchcd rvires or cablcs

'-.iternal cas-prcssurc (gas comprcssion) cables and


acccssories lbr rltcrnttins volrlues up to 175 kV

IEC 501 (1931) Third ed.


Extruded solid dir-lc.ctric insulatcd porvcr cablcs ibr
rrted voltages tionr I kV up to 30 kV

l-tl--+ ( l9lt0) Firsr cd.


Part -l:
Oil-impregnatcd papcr-insulatc.d high prcssure oillilled pipe-type crblcs and their lccessorics lbr alternatins voltagcs up to and including.l00 kV

IEC -i'+0 ( l93l) Sccond cd.


Test methods lor insLrilrions and shearhs of electric
cubles and cords (chsromcric and thcrmopllsric
compounds)

IEC 167 (196.1) First ed.


ivlcthods of tcst for the derermindtion of rhc insulation resistance of solid insuhring milterials

IEC 754-1 (1982) First ed.


Test on gases cvolvcd during combustion of electric cables.
Part 1: Determination of the amount of halogen
acid gas evolved durins the combustion of polymeric materials taken from cablcs

IEC 133 (198.1) Sccond ed.


Guide to the selcction of high-voltage cables

rF'216
zluide for
.

the determination of thermal endurance

operties of electrical insulatins materials

261-l (1974) Second ed.

'rrt

1:

IEC 311
Common tcst mcthods lor insulating and sheathing matcrials of clectric cablcs
31 1-1 Part I
\ [ethods for seneral lpplicarion

veneral procedures for the delerminirtion of ther-

3l1-1-I (1985) First

mal endurance properties, temperature indices and


thermal endurance profiles
(s. DIN IEC 216 Teil 1 / VDE 0304 Teil 2l)

Section One:
- lv{easurement of thickness and overall dimensions
Tests
for determining the mechanical properties
-

216-2 (197 4) Second ed.


Part 2: List of materials and available tests
G. DIN IEC 216 Teil 1 / vDE 0304 Teil 21)

IEC 228 (1978) Second ed.


Conductors of insulated cables
iEC 229 (1982) Second ed.
Tests on cable oversheal.hs which have a special
protective function and are applied by extrusion

ed.

811-1-2 ( 1985) First ed.


Section Two :
- Thermal ageing methods
E11-1-3 (1985)

First ed.

Section Three:

Method for determining the densiry


Water absorption test
Shrinkage test

9)

l2

National rnd Intcrnirrional Standards

8l 1- l-4 ( l9Si) First cd.


Sccti(ln Four:
- Tcst rt lo\ tcrlpcrlturc

3l I-l Part l
Methods specific to elastomcric compounds

811-l-l (1986) First

cd.

Section One:
- Ozone resistance test

Hot set test


\lineral oil imnrersion test

81 I --i

Part

lvlethods sp.ciiic to PVC compounds


1-l- l (19Ei) Fjrst ed.
Section One:
31

Pr:ssure resr at high tcmperature


Test lor resistance to crackin!:

8l I -l-2 ( 19ti5) First ed.


Scction Trvo:
Loss of mass Lcst
Thcrntal stability tcst
8l 1 -.1 Parr 4
\4ethods specific ro polyethylene and poll.propr.
lene compounds
81 1-4- 1

(1985) First ed.

Section One:
Resistance to environmenlal strcss crackins

\Vrapping tcst afrer thermal ageing in air


\{clsurcmcnt of the rnclt llou inder
Carbon black and'or minerrl conrcnt mclsurcnrent in PE

IEC 310 (1980) Firsr ed.


T!.sts for porver cables rvith crtruded insulation
lbr rrred lolrages abor.e 30 k\t (Lr.:-.j[ li\'.y up
ro I j0 kv (Li-: 170 kV)

\-

Tlpcs of Construction of Lorv- lnd High-Voltagc Cubles l3.l

l3

T-v.'pes

13.l

of Construction of Lorv- and High-Voltage Cables

General

When designing cables it is necessarv to take itccounr


oI both ambient conditions and the electrical stresses
rvhich ma-v- occur. Whcre:rs the ambient conditions
arc important rvhen selecting the right tvpe ot'protecrive covering and armour. the electrical stresses are
' : decisive tuctor tbr. rmonsst orhers. the thickness
of rhe insulltion and the right rvpe of screen. A distinction is made betrreen cabies ha,,ing a non-rldial
.-r\ctric fleld (e.9. belted cables) and radial field

bles.

,\[ulti-core cubles vith nort-ntLliul ./ielr/ have only


onc screen tbove the Iaid-up cores, They are. as cun
be sccn frorn Table 7.I (see page .{5) dcpending on the material useci for insulation only permissible up to cable rarcd t oltage of nruximum
L'or L :3.7r10 kV. Paper insulated cables rvith nonradial tleld are also knorvn as belted cubles. as abovc
the laid-up cores an addirional rhin layer of insulation is added, namely the belt insulation.
High-tension cables manufitctured to VDE are normally used for nctworks rvhich have a non-earthed
star point. The insulation " conductor,lmetal sheath "
is therefore dimensioned such that the cable can aiso.
'- the event of an earrh fault. remain in operation
z-{r several hours wirhout incurring any damaee (see
rge l-17).

'

To meet the requirements of standards effective in


-rher countries for nelrvorks with non-eanhed
star
,,oint (e.g. nerworks wirh earth-fault compensarion
or insulated star poinr) belted cables wirh increased

In the Federal Repubiic of Germanv. rvith cables


having PVC insulation on rated voltases of
l0 kV, normally multi-core cables are used.
For medium-voltlge cables with XLPE insulorion
L'e L'=

6r

hos ever single-core t) pes are mostly prelerred. Three

laid up single-corc XLPE cables have advanragcs


rr hcrc instlilution spece is Jt J prcmium.
The senicc

lili

ot' r:redium-voltase cables wirh

insuhtion is influcnccd

b_v.,

\LPE

ingress ol' moisture (sce

page 30). Thc'retbre turther developm!'nr has rhe rxr-

gct to limit and loculise the insress of rvurer rr hcn


the cable sheath is tlamagc'd. T_"-pes oi construcrion
riith PE sheath (sce plge 37) .rnd longirudinll *lrertrqht scrccns

lrc

thL'rclbrc ot'incrcascd sieniilcancg.

Dimensions and tcst spccilicutions of cables as rrcll


lbr thcir installution are laid do*n in
national VDE spccilicarions and international IEC
standards (see pagc 93). Apar! from these a larse
number ol othcr types of constructions erist for special applicirtions (sce page 12.1).
as rcsulations

The cables must be sclected depending on rated voltage. the requircmcnts in opcration and also economic
considerations. Table 13.1 shows the various basic
t.vpes of construction of cables. On pages 102 to I 23
the cable typcs together rvith tcrminations and jointing methods commonly used in Germany are illustrated. For the selection of cables the chapter " Planning of cable installations ' (page 141) should be observeo.

belt insulation are often used.


Radial field cables have a screen above the insulation
of each individual phase conductor which directs the
field lines in a radial formation. Radial freld cables
tnclude all single-core cables having a concentric conductor and screen as well as multi-core cables havins
a.conducting layer above the insulation of each indil
vldual core: the interstices are field_free.

The metallic components of the screen (see page 46)


can be arranged also either above each individual
core or above the laid-up cores.
97

l-1

Trrc. (rl'(

-l'ublc

l-1.

Clrlrics

()n51rucli()n

oi L,,rr-

lrrrcl

ilrr:lr-\ olril!l ('Jbl-s

Ilusic corrsllucrions rrl clri.lcs

*itlt insullliotr ol P\'(

Dill_rlrnr rr l'
clcclnc ficld

Rltcd
ollrscs

rrr

\LPt:
T] n(-,\l- ctrn(tl

rrcl trrrl

Erlnrplcs ol'

(,,

t) pc dcsi!nu rion

KV
,\'

rn-r udi u I li c ld

cu hle,.t

Cl blcs rrithLrut rrrctal cr.rc'ring

N\ \'. \.\\'Y
l\\':'. \.{l\\'

\lLrlti-corc cablcs

\flth

conccnl nc con.:uctcrr
N

\'C\\ \'. \..\ \'c

\'

]\C\\ \' :,. \A:\C\\ \


Up t()
-r.6 6

!\1tlt llilt \lcel rrire u;:Iout

.wliul t it ll c,ti!ct
Sinrl('-core eirblcs
ir tth coneclttric cLrIl!j!.i!i(rr

\\ rth e()irnf[ :.!rccD

-r.6 6

liom i.(r (.l ] rr itlr copfrcr :crccn

lor X LPE Thrcc-corc cablcs uith


frorn 3.61 6 coppcr scrccn abovc
crch indir idual crr re

P:rrtirrl discirargc-licc
coI.15tructt()ti b\ !r5c
ol- I cond ucting
lal cr trctrr ccn
conO ucl()r and
lnsu

i\-

l\

YS\"

S:

\'. \,\ l\S: \'

\,\\

SY

Iillion {inncr

cond ucting llr cr) us


rr cll as llt outcr

N]XSE]\'. N/\]XSE]\'

h\ cr
ly bondcd
10 thc in su lt rion
c()nd ucting
li rnr

IOT ,\ LPE

from

98

-1.6 6

Three-corc. cables q ith


a conduclins inner larer
ubor e the laid-up cores
and a coDcenlric copper
screen or flat steel \4ire
armo ur

N]XS:\" NA:XS:\'
N:XF]}'. \ A]X F]\'
NY

F\'. NAYFY

[]rrsic

lc

\ ith plrpc:- iir5ulilti(rn unti

trtcl,tl .i:cltth

onstrLrcti<rl

l-1.

" (tttlt:s inlprcr:natctl cltblct

T1 pc rrl' constructttrn

Errmplcs oltrpc dcsir:nalitrn

Bcltcci cablcr:
Thc Il id-u p corcs Jra surroundcd b\ ] colnntolt instrlatiorr
- l-.clt irtsulat irrn - lolle\\\cd b\ thc nrctlrl shctrtlr

\KLEY

irges

L'

rr

6 l0

\,.\

K L EY

\KI]A
\.-\ K U.\

-1o I ii

-r

()

Singlc-ct.rrc clrblcs

Cond uctor s ith in:ulu tion.

xnd protccri\c lr\ crs

tq

I,l8

t0

l-or r oltagcs ( ,, a : -1.6 (r kV untl


:itror c :r llr,, cr ,rl trrct.rili:eLl frirlcr tr iI]clLtdcd lbtrr c thc insullrtitlrr. to cnsurc
run;- caritics in thc diclcctric rcnrlin licld
l-rcc und ltcncc corr)n:l-trcc. CJ\ it tc\
rnlr-'" r:ccur bcIorv thc nlctitIshcuth duc
to chi.lngcs in volurnc ol'thc inrprcunat.ing nrass causcd through vltri tions rn
Ioird.

Scparatc lcud-sherrhcd (S. L.) ctblcs:


TIrree single-core clbles each u,ith lcad
shcath and corrosion protcction. laidup and provided \\'ith rire ncccssarv
olerxl protecri\ e Ia) !-rs. S. L. cirblcs Ibr
I 1.6 l0 kV and I 7.1 -:0 kV

NKLEY

\,\

K L EY'

NKY
NAKY

EK

N.\ EK

I],\
E

B,\

are commonl.v" used in Gennuny.

0 ro

18,

i0

H-Cable

Paper-insulated cores covered by H-loil are laid-up and are surrounded


by textile webbing rvhich contains aluminium wires interrvoven. A common metal
sheath and protecti\.e layer is then added overal. This type ofconstructron
is now used in Cermany only for special applications.

t ilh l"od ,h""rh (puper-lcrd

-q"bl"t

clrblc) and cables

NHKRGY
NAHKRGY

$irh iriuminiurn shc*h

qo

I3

Tlpcs of Consrruction of Low- and Hir:h-\-ol13ng

l3.2 Tr pe designation

C'n61c-5

RF

R\{ V
Cables arc dcsigna led \\'ith:

>

,\bbrcr,iltcd dcscnptlon of thc cable desicn and


its component materials

tr
>
>
>

Number of cores by nominal cross-sectional arca


of conductor in mml
Indications of shape type of conductor
Where applicable nominal cross-sectional area of
scrcen or concentric conductor in mm:
Rared voltage in kV (sce Section 17).

The description of type of construction is derived


by adding a combination of letters after the firsr letter

'N'

building the order ofconstruction out*ards from


'he conductor. The letter ' N ' indrcates " Norm 11 pe '
and designates cable tlpes uhich comply uith rhe
VDE specilicarions nrentioncd in Sections ll and 1,1.
The follo*'ing are not indicated:
_,
>
>

>
>
>

Additional S1'mbols for Cables


with lmproled Characteristics in the Case of Fire

HX
'l
FE

Insulation of crosslinked Halogen-free poIymer compound


Shcath of cross-linked Halogen-free poll.mer
compound
Sheath of non-cross-linked Halogen-frce po-

lymer compound

Insulation retention (symbol appears after


the designation of conducror)

;iymbols for Ships Cable

\{
G
\J

Power supply ships cable ro


Dsutatron of EpR
Sbeath of CR
Screen of copper braid

HNA standard

Slubols for Conrtuctor


DF

RM
SE

SM
100

The rated cross-sectional area of copper screens is


given after an oblique sign 'i ' locared aftcr the symbols for the phase conductors
e.g. NYSEY I x95 RMi 16 6 10 kV.
The rated cross-sectional lrea of the concentric conductor is also rndicated folloriing I ' sign afrer the
sl nrbols for the phase conductors
c.g. NYCWY i x 95 SMi50 0.6 I k\/.
Further Commonlv Used Sr mbots

Copper conduclor
lnsulatron ol- impresnut!'d papcr (core. bclr )
Inner and outer conductins lavers in cables rrirh
pollnrer insulation
Inncr coverings
Fillcrs of the interstices
Inner beddings of fibreous materiais.

HX

OM

Flcxible circular conducror


Stranded circular conductor conrpacted br
cither squeezing through rollcrs or lhe us;
of shaped wires (for thermall-"- stable cablc\
* ith paper insulation)
Circular hollow conductor, lhe diamerer of
the oil channei given in mm preceds the Jerter
'H' e. g. RMiV 14H
Stranded conductor of oval cross-section

Solid circular conductor


stranded circular
conductor
Jotrd sector shaped
conductor
stranded sector
shaDed conducror

YV
IYV
O
AA

Rcinlbrccd PVC shearh


Reinforccd PE sheath
Opcn armour (FO or RO)
Double outcr pro(ccrive la1,cr ol'fibrous matcria

Tc
sv

Lead sheath ol'lead Tellur alloy


Special inrprcgnation for cable with paper
insulation for steeply sloping cable runs

(sr':

nd

: non-draining compound

pagc 35)

see

Lctter Designation 13.2

Table

l-1.2

Summary ol'the main lcttcrs uscd for the typc dcsignation of cable

Construclion clenren(

r-

027 | . 0272. 02'7 3

High- and crtra


high-voltaee ceblcs
DIN VDE 0:56.
0257,0258

no le!ter

no lelter

Paper-insuhtcd

Poll"me

cables

insulated cables

DIN VDE O]5J


Norm tl pc

DIN VDE

0265,

Conductor
no letter
of aluminium
Insulation
Paper rvirh mass impregnation
Pcper oil impregnated
- lvi!h high-pressure oil cables in jleel prpe
Paper rvith mass impregnation

no lelter

o
OI

Ibr external gr.s pressurised cable


lor internJl g3s pressuriscd cablc
\:C. polyvinylchloride
PE. polrethylene
XLPE. cross-linked pollcth-vlene

]Y
2X

Concentric copper conduclor


longitu<iinal layer

-irhirh *are form iay

c
cw

Coppcr screen
- lor single-core crbles or
for multi-core cables rvith common mctallic scrccn

mclallic screen on e:rch core in multi-corc cxblcs

SE

Screening in multi-corc cirbles trirh p!pcr insulation

rnd common mcral sherth {H-clblc)

single-corc screening !r'irh metalliscd pdper


(Hdchsrddrer Folie)

Metal shearh
of lead
- for single.core cables and multi-core cables
with common sheath
- for three-core cables with corrosion protection on each sheuth
- non-magnetic pressure protection bandage on the lcld shearh
of aiuminium

EK

KL

smooth
corrugated

KL
KLD

.ron laid-up corcs

-laid-up coics
Thermoplastic sheath and inner protective covering

- rYL

UD

SneaLn

PE shearh

'appd bcdding with addirional laler


or plasttc tapc

2Y

2Y

Armour

steel tape

flar steil wire


round steel wire
spiral binder taDe
skid. wire (non-magnetic)

F
p

F
R

GL

steet tubc

ST

Outer protection

iliE",Aflf,"n"

0ute) in compound

Cable wirh IJoIU=O.6ll

PE sheath

2Y

kv wirhout concentnc conductor

wr(h grecn/ycllow core


wltnout grecn/yellow corc

-r

-l

-o

101

rJ

I Jpcs ur

\-onsrrucuon ol Low_ and Hrgh-voltage Cables

13.3 Selection of Cables and Accessories


Tablc 13.3 Cables and associate accessories
Construction

Dcsignation,

Preferrcd applicarion

Limited applicarion

Power cable:
lndoors. cable trunking.
outdoors and buried in the
ground, for power stations.
industrl and switcheear as
well as for urban supply networks, if mechanical damage

It may

standards

NY
IPROTODUR-insllation

(PVC)

l'

NYY

2PROTODUR-sheaih

NAYY

{PVC)

+
'|

is

DIN \'DE

I Cu'condLrcbr

4 Tanc or c:(trudcd filcr

lEc 50:

N\
I

\'

N\'Y

P R

OTO DU

IPVCI

R-ioJulrlion :

N,\

c\\

Conrrolccblc:
as for power cables

(P|C)

,l Tirn. or c\trudcd

t)IN VDE O:7I


tEc it)l

fillcr

L\1.
: PROI()- I Concrnrric. I pR()Tocondr,;tor
DUR.
prorccu\. or
I)UIIrn\uli[ron PE\ corrducro. sh.rrh
rl'\'Ct
t( u $lrL.r irnd (l\(l

NYC\'\'"
\.{ \'c\\'\'

,l

((rrlt\ar\L
hcjrr!t (ln.)

\\ c\ :'
:

Dl\

5 [\rru(lcd Iilt.r

P.I{OT{

).

lEc

(;
Fli,r

il

\r,i\.t

:r Srcct rrt)c

rP!c)

561
j Cu<onduclor 6 Fillcr

Con,.crrrc mnductor in $r!c

l0l

For installation in the ground.


indoors. cablc trunking and
outdoors if subscqucnt mcchanical damugc is likcl\. For

urbrn nct\rorks. houschold


fccdcrs and srrc.l Iishring.

rlii
lttl

unlikelv

O27I

PROTODUR-shcrrh

I Cu-conducror

PROT()-

DUR.

Thc c,.rnccntric conductor in


$'r\e forfi is not cut Jt brrnch
poln(s.

\'DE 0t?l
501

\\'FG\'

For installarion in rh. {round.

\..), \'FG \.

rndoors. coblc trunkin! and


ouldoors i f incrcilscd ntcch!n-

rcrl protection is rcquircd or


hich-pulling sl.csscs

(PlCl

\\ hcrc

ml)

occur durinq insrullltion


or opcrution

DIN VDE O]7I

? Lapf,cd inncr co|'crin!

formllton

be necessary to 9r..

relevant local regulation


installing in countrics ot_
than Germany.

IEC JO:

:':,a,,^..,-,-..
ConcL:nLrrc

, ' rnolrcd
,hcire!ii\
-,
condurror

\\'here high-mechlnical

m )'occur dunn
slilllllrion and opcrilrion.-r
s(icsscs

conccntric conductor shoui


rlot bc considcrcd irs irrnr

Comprehensive solutions can be provided


quickly for complex planning tasks with the aid
of a data processing system

7ri:z
;

Thermally Stable Cable in Steel Pipe 15.3

tion. The a.c. voltage rvithstand is approximately


60 kVimm and the peak voltage
130

withstand

kv/mm.

These valucs are higher than those of low-pressure


oil cables. Without sacrificing the safety in operation
it is possible therefore to reduce the thickness of insularion. Because ol this particularly economical t-vpe
ofconst:uction cables can be produced for rated voltages oi i o't/:1211710 kV and greater.

15.3.2 Internal Gas-Pressure Cable

The paper insulation over each core is impregnated


with a non-migrating humidity proof mass. Because
of thus no additional proteccive cover is necessary
during transport and installation. This cable, in contrast to external gas-pressure cable does not have
a sheath (Fig. 15.11). Above the outer layer of paper
insulation copper tapes are applied overlapped rvith
conducting paper which lorms a screen for field limiting. Either individual non-laid-up cores each prorected by a gliding rvire or laid-up multi+ore cables
,,vith flat steel-wire armour are fed into the steel pipe
rvhich. on completion. is then filled rvith Nitrogen'
The operating pressure is set at 15 to l6 bar for rated
voltages of IJltJo:61 I l0 kV The gas can penctrate
the insulation and Illl all voids such [hi]t. even in
the event oI earth t'ault. ionisation is prevented' The
vohage withstand of this cable core arransement. the
construction of which closely resembles that of massimpregnated cable, is so improved by the gas pressure
that the c:tble is suitable for higher operating voltage
(see page 134).

Fig. l5.l I
lniernal gas-pressure cable in steel pipe
NtvFSl l\' I x 120 RMiV 6'+i 110 kV

15.3.3 Extern:ll Gas-Pressure Cable (Pressure Cable)


The paper-insulated cores are each ivrapped rvith Htbil and impregnated rvith a high viscosity synthetic
oil..\bovc thc tbil is I leld sheirth. rvhich acts as
a diaphragm. and rhis is strcngthened by trvo lalers
of helic.rlll rvound copper tape (Fig l5l3) Above
rhc luid-up corcs is lr tllt steel-*irc itrmtrttr' \itcr
fccding cablcs into thc pipc'and the installation is
completed. thc pipe is iilied rvith nitroscn lt a pressure ol 15 to 16 bar. Thc girs prcssure tlloss the
mrss impregnation to erplnd under helt but' \t'ltn
thc g:rs tighilc:rd shcath Lre t ine rts a mcmbrlne' lbrces
it birck to thc originil position *hcn it cools To
eusc this ilction of the shertth membrltnc the conductors lre of ov:.rl cross-section instead of round'

Fig. t5.12
Outdoor sculing ends u ith sprcader box tbr intcrnai g:ts:-...:,1-r I t^r,, :n si,t.'r :\rI\'-r

Fig. 15.13
Externul gls-pressure cilble in steel pipe
\..P\:D!FS! lY 3 x l-to o\1 \" 5'!'t 10 \\'
139

15 High- and Extra-High-Voltage Cables

15.3 Thermally Stable Cable


in Steel Pipe
Occasionally special requirements regarding mechanical strengths ofcables are to be met. In areas subject
to subsidence, e.g. movement of ground and also
of the surface cables laid in the ground are subjected
to pressure and tensile stresses. In long cable runs
on bridges or scaffolding with long distances between
support points it is necessary to have special mechanical protection or mechanical reinforcement. For
these applications cables laid in steel pipe have advanlages over other methods, furthermore it should
be noted that steel pipe provides good screening
rvhere neighbouring control and telecommunication
cablcs could other\r'ise be affected.

Thc pipe used to accommodate the cable can be installed independanr ol rhe cable installation. For this
onll parts of the underground cablc run nced to be
accessible or opened at man holes other$ ise the pipe
can be sealed afrer being installed and tested. To
catcr for later extcnsions additional pirres can bc laid
in rescrve.

The direction o[ cable runs in srecl pipc must bc


planned in great derail such that sharp bands arc
avoided wherevcr possible. Thc insrallcd lcnsth of
cable cores is dependent upon thc tlpe ofcablc. the
cross-sectional area of conductor and thc tvpe of tcrrain. Depending on circumstances elery 300 to 800

mcters lointinl points arc requircd and at these


points zr nlo to thr!.e mctcr lcngth of largcr diametcr
pipe is r clded to r.hc main pipc via srecl adaptors.
This consrruction makes it possible to rcopcn this
joint at a iatcr datc and rcclosc it $.ithout endangcring thc cable or cuu.inc rhc pipc. Ar rhc end of the
cable pipe a sprcuder box is uscd t'ronr *hich the
cable tails are lcad to sealing cnds: thesc cable tails
bcing protected bl non-magncric flcxible pipcs. The
stcr'l pipe must haYc good corrosion protection because \!ater tightness and mechanical \r'ithstand of
the steel pipe are viral facrors in this form of cable
installation. The pipes are therelore protected by a
layer of extruded PE coverinc.

earthed steel pipe forms a cathode. Material transfer


cannot occur.
The operating pressure and hence the air/oil tightness
of the installation is monitored by contact manome-

15.3.1 High-Pressure Oil-Filled Cable

The paper insulated cores which are screened with


H foil are impregnated with low viscosity synrhetic
oil. A layer of copper tape in which the helix gap
is closed with a plastic tape prevents the impregnation leaking and also prevents ingress of moisture
during transporrarion and installation. Above this,
a protection against damage during feeding into the
pipes. a slow wound helix of non-magnetic gliding
rvire is added (Fig. 15.10).
On conpletion of final installation the pipe is then
evaculted before filling r.r'irh a lorv viscosity insglqring oil and via a prcssure rcgularing detice, .a
under a working pressure of 16 bar. As the oil expands due to temperature rise caused by electrical
load the cxcess florvs into a storage container *hcn
a set operating pressure is reachcd. Converscly as
the cable cools and oil pressure falls the rcquired
quantity is automatically rerurncd, via a pump s1,stem. to maintain the set operating pressure. The vital
componcnt parts of the pressure regulating apparatus. such as pressure monitors. pumps and valves.
are duplicated in the installation. Faiiure ofanl one
item automaticalll initiatcs rhc sriitching in of thc
rcscrvc itcm. The pos cr suppll lor this sr.srcm is
normalll takcn from the nctwork bur a standbl gcnr'raaor is also installed to carcr for suppll, failure.
The opcrating prcssure oI l6 bar ntaintains the cable
insulation void-free during anl condirion of op-rr-

It is possible to improve this corrosion protection


by the use of "electric corrosion protcciion". To
achiele this protection graphite electrodes are installed close to the pipe. Pipe and elcctrodes are connccted to the output of a lo*.-pou er rectifier set such
that the graphire elecrrodes are anodes and the

Fig. 15.10
High pressure oil filled cablc in steel pipe

Low-Pressure Oil Cable 15.2

of small leakages, e.g. at pressure switches,


merering links or valves any oil loss is replaced over
a long period by the oil present in expansion vessels.
Operation can therefore be continued until a suitable

Single-core cables are provided with a longitudinal


channel via a hollow conductor. Depending on the
diameter of the oil channel, the viscosity of the oil
used and the loading of the cable with double-sided
feeding, cable runs of approximately 4000 m can be
adequately supplied with oil. If only one end is connected to a vessel the relative length is halved.

In

For oil-fiiled cable runs where great differences in

Three-core oil-filled cables are sealed off rvith


spreader joints. The individual cores are carried
through corrugated flexible copper pipes to single'
conductor sealing ends. The oil expansion vessels are
connected to the splitter dividing bos. With singlecore oil-filled cables the pressure expansion vessels
are connected to the individual sealing ends.

level occur and also for very long cable runs, sealed
stop joints are fitted to divide the static pressures
and also to allorv the connection of expansion vessels
along the cable run. With this system one achieves
locked sections which with respect to oil content are
completell independent of one anolher. For Iong
rble runs. depending upon height differentials. the
number of locked sections is reduced compared to
those required for a level run.

The operlting pressure of an oil-filled cable is nor:--.ally bctrveen 1.5 and 6 bar. Since the strength of
the lead sheath only permits lorv internal pressures,
thcsc cables have a pressure protecrion tape in the
form of a helix rvound directly over the lead. [n
3-core oil-hlled cables this tape is of steel but in
single-core cables it is of non-magnatic material. For
cables with aluminium sheath the tape is omirted

case

time occurs to make a repair.

For all voltage ranges outdoor sealing ends with porcelain insulators are available (Fig. 15.9).

AII lorv-pressure oil-filled cables can be

connected

via connecting sealing ends direct to transformers or


s*.itchgear (see page 394). Especially for the highest
voltages the rvide spaced through-bushings can be
replaced by sealing ends shorving particular advanrage where space is limited, e. g. in caverns, enclosed
srr itchgear etc.

Oil expansion vessels consist of cylindrical steel containers rvhich contain oil-hlled comprcssiblc cclls
The cells are soldered air tight. All remaining spacc
in the container is hllcd rvith oil. Depcnding on the
exoansion of the oil which results from load Iariations and seasonal lemperolures of the ground. the
rrumbcr ol'rcsseis is cillcuhted irnLl thus thc operilting
orcssure is maintaincd ivithin desired limits. Vessels
.,l thc samc construction arc built into the cable drum
')r the purpose of controlling the pressure inside thc
-table. rrithin prescribed limits. during trrnsport storiLge and installation thus catering for nornlal temperture lluctuations.

The operaring pressure of an oil-filled cable. or an1


onc of the several locking sections within an installation, is monitored by means of contact mirking manometers. lI an excessive temperature rise occurs
rvithin the full length of the cable, the high-pressure
contact is operated similarly and if damage or oil
loss occures, the low pressure contact is operated.
The functioning of the cable can thus be monitored
from one central point and any fault can be signalled
by either visual or audible alarm. Lorv-pressure oilfilled cables have the advantage over other high-voltagc cable thal this constcnt monitoring is possible
l, t r! ra!:r.!i',.elv iorv oo,,.rating oressure.

Fig. 15.9

Ouldoor se'rlins enris lbr single-corc oil-ililed clbles

t3'l

l! lllgn- anq Exlra-l.llgn- vollagE \'aulcs


Oil content

1.0

r0

0.5

Conduclor cross'secllon

a oil-filled cable b

4-_

mass-impreenated cable

Fig. 15.5

Relationship of current-carryine capacity with respecr


to cross-sectional area

Oil pressute

Fig. 15.7
Characteristic of an oil expansion vessel
Dielecllic loss factof lan

{)

r.c Iage q:ad:enl F

a oil-filled cable b

-.._

mass-intprcgnared cablc

Fig. 15.6

Dielectric loss factor


(typical relationship)

in

rcspcct

to \'oltugc

sradient

voltage at which the cavitics start to ionise the loss


factor often rises r,erv considerably (ionisation knee).
The dielectric loss factor tan d for oil-fllled cables
(Fig. 15.6) is considerably lower and is little influenced by temperature and voltage; foimation
of voids and ionisation do nor occur. Oil-filled
cabies are, without having to increase the operating
pressure, the only cable which can be used for the
highest currentll, used a.c. operating vokage (up to
Ci. :420 kV).

l -)o

Fig. 15.8
Oil expansion vessel rvith

g:$

Oil-{llled cables are manufactured as 3-core cabies


for cabie rated voitage of U:60 ro 132 kV and as
sin-cle-core cables up to the highest currently used
operating voltages. The longitudinal channels for oil
movement are achieled in 3-core cables by omitting
the filler from the inrersrices between the laid-up
cores and the metal sheath. The oil channels are
therefore situated directly below the metal shearh
*'hich facilitates rhe connection of oil expansion vesseis at anv given srraight joint. shouid this be necess.rr), as on long cable runs (Figs. 15.7 and 15.8).

Cable with Polymer Insulation ' Low-Pressure Oil-Filled Cables 15.2

cent. developments it is recommended' for the increase of safety of operation and in service life to

The voltage withstand is:


For mass-

build these high-voltage cables with protection ingres


of moisture in both longitudinal and radial direction
(Fig. l5.l).

For rated voltages up to UolU:64lll0 kV cables


with pollmer insulation are already in use to a large
extent. The development of this cable for higher voltages is continuing.

15.2 Lorv-Pressure Oil-Filled Cable


with Lead or Aluminium Sheath

:or the oil-fillcd cables (Figs. 15.2 and l5.l)

thc
ir thin oil. \\'hcn

paper insuhtion is impregnarcd


"vith
heated the expanding oil can florv through longitudi-

nll

channcls to oil expansion vessels which receive


:.-.le oil under increasing presstlre, conversely $ hen
' lche load is rcduccd and cooling occurs, the oil is
lbrced back into the crble.

In oil-impregnated cablcs cltvities cirn nc!ct occur'


These cables are therefore insensitivc to tcmpcraturc
cycles and are therefore thermally stablc. Thc voltage
withstand of oil-filled cables during opcration is
markedly higher than that of mass-imp regnated
cables (Fi-q. 15.4).

impregnated
cables

Short-time
withstand
kv,'mm
Limiting continuous
withstand
kV/mm
Working stress
kV/mm

50
12 to 15
max.5

The insulation of oil-filled cables therefore onll requires to be half the thickncss ofrhat of mass-impreunated cables for a given rated voltage. With the higher thcrmal stability of thc oil-filled cable also a higher
operating temperature can be used. Since. because
of thc reduced insulation thickness on oil-filled cables
and thus the thermal resistance is less, these clbles
have a higher current carrying capacity by approximately 50% highcr for a givcn cross-scctional i.rrea
(Fi-s. l5.s).
Thc higher the operating voitage of a cable the morc
important becomes the dielectric loss factor tan d.
With mass-impregnated cable the loss factor laries
considcrably r', ith vuriltions in rcmpcrature. At thc

0rl :illed cable

15.2 Oil-tllled cable


NOKUDEY l x 3oo Rlt.'v 1l H

Fig.

64i 110

kv

JO

20

llme-..-*

Fig. 15.3

oil-rilled crbl.j NoKDEFOY I x Ii0 sNt

36r'6{) kV

Fig. 15.{
Time-voluge rvithstand ol oil-fillcd cablc in compurison
rvith mass-impregneted cable

li5

15 High- and Extra-High-Voltage Cables

15 High- and Extra-High-Voltage Cables

All cables are subjected to changes in load and therefore to temperature cycling during operation. The
changes due

to thermal expansion and contraction

of both the conductors and insulation materials


under the metal sheath, in mass-impregnated cables,
produces small cavities (voids) in the insulation
which u,hen of a certain size start to produce partial
discharge due to the influence of the dielectric field
rvhen this field is of a certain srrengrh. At this stage
not only the dielectric losses are increased but also
uhere high volta_ges are concerned the service life
of the mass-impregnated cable may be reduced. For
this rcason this type of cablc to DIN VDE 0255
is permitted only for rated volrages of up ro
UotU:18130 kV. For higher rared volrages thermally stable cables wirh papcr insulation (Table 15.1)
or cables with polymer insulation must bc uscd.

15.1 Cable rvith Polymer Insulation


In the past for rated voltascs from Lro,U=36160 kV
almost rvithout exception thermalll srable cablcs rvirh

]'ablc

l5.l

Fig. t5.l
High voltage cable wirh XLPE insulation

Tl pe 2XS(FL)2Y

x 2a0 RM/35 64/'1 10 kv

paper insulation were uscd but these are now increasingly superseded by' cables with insulation of XLPE
and in somc countries also of EPR. The special advantasc of the cables is tbat thcy are maintenancelree. The construction of the cables complics, except

ibr dimensions. rvith the standard construction for


rated rolta,ees up to [',, U:18'i]0 kV. Bascd on re-

Summarl'of trpc ol'construction and arca ofapplicarion for thcrnrallr stablc cablcs rvith papcr insularion
Cahlt, .rith natul shtath

Basic

Normalll

construction

rated voltages U

used

C'ahlt, in .tracl pipc

Standards

Basic
cons

lruction

Normalll

used

Standards

rated voltagcs L'

kY
Oil_fillcd cablc.r

Lou.pressure

60 to -llio

oil-fi1led cablcs
u ith lead or

t - :410)

DIN VDE 0]56,


IEC 141-1

Hirh-pressure
oil-filled cable

10 to

(t;

iti0

IEC 141-4

= 110)

aluminium sheath
Gas prcssura cablcs

Internal gas
pressure cables

External gas
pressure cablcs

l -l+

110

(t;

to 150
= 170)

DIN VDE 0258,


IEC 141-l
DIN VDE O]57.
I EC 141-l

Insuleted Overhead Line Cables 14.8

Table

14.2

Recommendations for installations


Recommendation for

Type of proximity ot
crossing

installation

On pole

No gap necessary

In woodland or near

No distance specified,

single trees

mechanical damage must be


avoided

From roof areas

Touching when swinging and


under maximum sag to be
prevented

From chimney stacks

lvlechanical damage when


swinging must be prevented,
the distance above opening
of chimney stack 2.5 m

'rom anlenna and

Touching when swinging also


with maximum sag must be

\-irens

ports, insulated suspension clamps are used which


also accommodate a change of route direction of up
to 30o. For branch points, insulated branch point
clamps are used which allow connection without removing insulation from the cores. The electrical connection is made through a toothed contact plate.

When selecting suspension clamps, the maximum


allowable rope tension (normally between 30 and
40 N/mm2 of rope diameter) with a maximum support load not exceeding 6000 N must be observed.
The suspension spans are selected depending on the
terrain to be between 300 to 500 meters. This span
also depends on the height of the mast which may
be up to 150 m, however for pole heights ol 8 to
10 m the span is approximately 40 to 60 m.

prevented

From accessable parts

not

less than 0.6 m

of buildings e.g. flat

roofs
From bridges or
similar

No distance specified.
mechanical damage must be
prevented

From telecommunication overhead lines:


Bare wires

Acrial cables
Fixing points of
telecommunication
equipment

vTable

Distance at crossing

:,:l

rrbove or bclow

14.3

C urren t-carrying capacity ofinsulated overhead line cablcs

Jross-sectional
area of aluminium

conductor

mm:

Operating frequency up to 60 Hz

Wind speed 0.6 m/s


Ambient temperature 35 'C
Direct sunlight
lvlaximum conductor temperature 80 oC

JJ

l4

Power Cables for Special Applications

solvents and fuel oils. The lead sheath must not


be used as neutral conductor (N). If a sheath
wire is incorporated it can be used to earth the lead
sheath e. g. in explosion proof installations
(DIN VDE 0165). Because of the good coupling resistance of the closed lead sheath these cables have
advantages where electromagnetic compatibility
(EMC) is important.

14.8 Insulated Overhead Line Cables


Insulared overhead cables are not strictly power
cables. Based on their application and construction
they ha1'e become classified as overhead line cables.
Because the same insulation materials are used as
for po*cr cables these overhead line cables are corered bl the VDE regulations for cable.
Construction and Characteristics

lnsulated overhead line cables for medium voltage


are not standardized. The construction is largell in
line u ith cable to DIN VDE 02.73. For the construction and testing of overhead line cable lor 0.6,11 kV
rated voltage the standard DIN VDE 02.74 is applicable. The stranded rope conductors (15 to 70 mm:t
are made of drawn pure aluminium * ires. These
wires compll uith DIN 4E200 parts prior to being
manufactured into the conductor rop!-. For th!- construction and characteristics of the conductor rope
DIN 48201 Part 5 applies rvith thc'erception of thc
values for numbcr of strands. ciiamctcr and elcctrical
resistance of the rope rrhich is laid dorvn in
DIN YDE 0174. The insulation of individual conductor ropes consists of biack XLPE t1'pe 2XI1 to
DIN VDE 0107 Part 12 u,hich. to improve resistance
to sunlight and u'eather. has an addition of at l9i,
carbon black. In addition to single-core overhead line
cables. bundles of 4 cabies are also standardized
(4-core insulated overhcad line cables). in this 4-core

cable the phase conductors are marked by l, 2 or


3 longitudinal ribs along the lengrh of the cable. The
neulral conductor (N) being the fourth core has the
same cross-sectional area as the phase conductors.
The neutral does not bear an identifying mark.
Bundles of four cores each with a conductor cross
section of 70 mm2 are also available combined with
either one or two additional cores of smaller cross
secrion (35 mm2;. These additional conductors carry
identification markings of four and five ribs respectively.
Application and lnstallation
Insulated overhead line cables have advantages particularly over difficult terrain. They are frequentll
used in woodland (narrow avenues are possible) and
are also used for the extension or refurbishment of
existing urban netuorks. In these areas four-core
overhead line cables are predominant for systemsA
three phase * ith PEN. Bundles of four-cores wrr.,.
one or two additional cores of reduced cross section
are used where street lighting is feed from the same
main line.
Single-corc overhead line cables are frcquently used
ior the suppll of single-phase loads.
Suspension and support ol the cables is possible b-v
rhe use of \ ooden or concrete poles as well as from

roof supports. For this

s1'stem

DIt.\ VDE 0211 ap-

plies and for domestic iecds DIN VDE 0100 Part 7ll
applies. The specific characteristics of insulated over-

head line cables provides full insulation qithout


breaks both in opcn terrain as uell as in buildings
rr here mechanicai damage to the insulation is most
unlikcly to occur. Rccommendations for installarion
in differcnt situations is given in Tablc 14.2.

For thc current carrling capacitl ol overhead line


cables (see Table 14.1) instead of thc values in
DIN YDE 019E. houcrer. Table 4 of DIN YDE 017.1
applies. The conductor temperature. in the event of
short-circuit for mcchanical reasons must not exceed
1i0 "c.
For the suspension of insulated overhead line cables
special supporting equipments are required. In the
suspension clamps each individual core of the bundle
of four is securely wedged in a polymer chock thus
transmitting a friction grip of the rope core indirectll'
via the insulation. \\rhere the cable incorporates cores

Fig. t4.15
nsulated overhead line cables
\-FA:X :l x 70 R\,1 0.6'1 kv
I

of smaller cross-section these are not held b] the


clamp. For the suspension from poles or roof sup-

River and Sea Cable . Airr'ort Cable . Cable with Polvmer Insulation 14.7

Fig. t4.t3
Airport cable FLYCY I x 6 REl2.5 ll2kV

Application and Installation

Single-core airport cables supply airport lighring


equipments connected in serries. Normally singlephase transformers are used to feed special liehts.
For this duty joints or plug connectors are used to
connect the equipment via flexible tails of NSGAF.

14.7 Cable rvith Polymer Insulation


and Lead Sheath
Fig. 14.12
Installation operation at sel: running off from cuble
stack over rollers to laving head at stcrn of vesscl

in the bed using a scavenging kecl rvirh high pressurc

Cables with polymer insulation and lead sheath are


used in Germany for spccial operating condirions
whereas. in thc main. PVC-insulated cables are used
for rated voltages of 0.6/1 kV. In special circumstances lead-sheathed cables are also used for higher
rated voltaecs (e. -q. 3.6'6 kV) or with a different insuIation of c. g. XLPE.

water Jets.

For river crossings srandard cablcs could also be used


ii laid in thermoplastic piping or luid in rrenchcs cur
in thc bcd.

14.6 Airport Cables


Airport cables suppll energy to aifport lighting appa-

Construction rnd Charucteristics

Cablc u ith poll.mer insulation and lcad shearh for


0.6 I kV ratcd voltauc arc govcrncd by DIN VDE 0265.
Thcsc are constructcd as multi-corc cable and conrain
either solid or stranded copper conductors. The lead
sh!':rth is arranged ovcr the inner covering. Below
this an additional tinned conductor may be arranged
as sheath rvire- Above the lead sheath a PVC sheath
is provided.

ftrtLls.

Application and Installation


Construction and Characteristics
The cables are single corc and have a copper conduc-

tor of 6 mm: and a concentric conductor of 2.5. 4


or 6 mm? cross-section. Insularion and outer sheath
are of PVC. The consrruction is in line with iEC 502
and DIN VDE 0271. Prelerred rated voltages are 1/2
and 5/10 kV- Other rhan this standard consrruction
tr hich is used in Germuny there are construcrions
having EPR insulation and CR sheath e.g. ro the
American standards of rhe Federal Aviation Administralion (FAA L 8l+).

Cables rvith polvmer insulation and lead sheath are


applir'd especiallv rvhere there is danger ofeffect from

Fig. l{.1-l
Cable rvith PVC insulation and lead shearh
NYKY 0.6,'I KV
tJl

r{

ro\}er

LaDles

lor Speclal Applrcatrons

In order to avoid mctallic contact bctween construction elements having different electrolytic potenrials
a protective extruded covering of PVC (separation
sheath) is always included between a concentric con-

ductor and the round steel-wire R or the flat steelwire armour F. In addition, a protective PVC sheath
is included above the armour. This sheath is coloured
yello* in underground mining cables with rated volt-

age of 0.6/l kV. For both construction and tesr.ing


of these cables generally DIN VDE 0271 applies for
PVC insulated cables and DIN VDE 0273 for XLPE
insulated cables. In addition, where no other national
standard exists, IEC 502 is relevant.

Installation and Fixing

In mining installations rvith slopes up to 50'rhe cable


must be supported at dislances of no more than
5 meters and must bc hung rrith suitable sas betueen
supports. This applies for armoured as well as unarmoured gallerl' cablcs.

In mining

locations rvhere the slopes excecd 50'


cables must be tear rcsistant u ith a degrcc of safcty
factor 3. For the calculation ol' tear rcsistancc of
cables the armour is the deciding lactor. Thesc cablcs
must. afier hanging in, be fixed by clamps at disunces not exceedin-q 6 meters. Whcrc longcr distances betr,,een supports is unavoidablc the armour
must withstand the tensile srress',r'ith a llctor ols:rfcty of 5.
Accessories for mining lpplications bclo*' cround
nrust. in Gcrman1,. apart lrorn VDE approval. also
have the special approval of rhc Obcrbcrg:imtcr (minlng lnspecloral.e ).

PVC insulated and for medium voltage XLpE is


more commonly used. For this application a cable
with both longitudinal and radial water tightness is
generally selected (see page 47). Cables having polymer insulation are particularly suited especially if
a combination of communication cores as well as
optical fibre cores are required. With paper lead
cables the lead sheath must be thicker than those
in DIN VDE 0255 to cater for the mechanical srresses
to be expected. If the cable is to be subjected continuous vibration, e.g. by heavy surf, the lead sheath
is then strengthened by alloy additions as prorecrion
against metal fatigue fractures. The armour of river
and sea cables consists of tinned steel wires uhich
are, depending on local conditions, either of round
or flat profilc. The shapc and thickness are depcndent
upon the expected tensile stresses and any prevailing
danger (bl punting poles, anchors. movement of sea
bed etc.). In particularly unfavourable conditions a
double armour may bc necessary. To provide safe
prol.ection against corrosion of thc lrmour thc c' 'r
serving comprises two layers of compounded special
jute or a polymcr shcath (PVC or PE).
Lal ing and lnstallation

The method of lal,ing sea cables is dependent upon


iocal conditions and on the tlpe of equipment available (loading facilirics and typc of ship). The dclivery
iength is oftcn onll limired by transportation capacirr'. If necessarv individual lcngrhs arc spliccd to
achieve the total required length. Should it be nccessary to joint crbles at sea. cable joints can be provided n hich are also safe in operation under difficult
installation conditions. Rivcr cablc-s and cablcs laid
in tidal insliorc \\'aters arc olten laid in trcnches cut

14.5 Rirer and Sea Cables


Cables used for crossing rirers or for ltvinc in sea
\\'ater. e.g. for the conncction ol island net\\orks to
the mainland. for the supply of cnergl' to ol'f-shorc
plant or for rhe operation of lighthouscs or nar.igational aids. are usuallt fitred sith a subsrantiai armour to \\ ithstand the high-mechanical srresses during installarion and u hcn in opcrrLrion.

T)'pe of Construction
River and sea cables normalll have polvmer or paper
tnsulation. Poh'mer-iusulared cables havc the ad\.ant:L,se

i0

ol lo\\'$eight. Normxll)

lorr.-volra-!:e cables are

Fig. l4.t I
XLPE-insulated sea crble u'ith round steel.uire
armour for I I'10 kV

Halogen Free Cable 14.3

14.3.3 Laying and Installation

with improved characteristics in the event of


fire are used in indoor installations and outdoors in
a similar manner to NYY cables. They can be arranged on racks or fixed to walls and ceilings in either
vertical or horizontal directions by means of cable
clips. The bending radius of the cable is 12 D (singlecore 15D). Installation directly in the ground is not
recommended for these cables. When terminating
these cables both inner and outer sheaths should be
cut at ihe same point. When the insulation has been
removed a silicone covering which may be included
must also be removed. In addition the instructions
[or installation and transportation given in
DIN VDE 0298 Part I must be observed. For joint,ng eirher flame retardant cast-resin joints or flame
retardanc shrink-on sleeves may be used. If insulation
retention is required tbr the joints special measures
nus! be taken.
'!Cables to DIN VDE 0266 (type NHXHX and
NHXCHX) are designed for a maximum conducror
operating temperature oi 70 "C with a maximum
permissible short-circuit temperature o[ 160 'C. For
cables (type (N)2XH and (N)2XCH) rvith VDE Register Nr. 11099109'110 the maximum permissiblcconductor operating temperature is 90 "C and the
maximum permissible short-circuir remperlrure is
250 "C. The current ccrrvins capacity- must be taken
from the relevant trbles in DIN VDE 0293 Parr l
(see Section l8).
Cables

The cablcs rith spccial characteristics in thc event


,ri firc lrc ,.-mplolcri rr hcrc spcciul mcesrrrcs. tbr thc
protection of high-rllue cquipmcnt or pcrsons. musr
'rc takcn. In these circumstlnces aplrrt from the re'iLrccd spreltl ol firc. in sonle cuses priorirl is -eiven
!-,ro the characteristics as reeards corrosiveness
of
tlmes rnd smoke densitl rvhcrels in other ctses insulirtion rctcntron mlv be ot'primc importlnce.

14.4 Cables for Mine Shafts and Galleries

In mining installations below ground

cables with
polymer insulation are commonly used as mine shaft
and gallery cables. These cables for rated voltages
0.6/1 kV always contain a protective conductor and
most of them are armoured.
Construction and Characteristics
Cables used in mining applications normally have
copper conductors. For plant with rated voltages up
to 10 kV PVC insulation to DIN VDE 0118 is used.
In areas subject to mining gas, however, only installations with rated voltaees up to 6 kV are permitted.
Installations having a rated voltage of 10 kV and
rvith cable having XLPE insulation have been approved bl Oberbergamt (OBA) (mining aurhoriry)
Nordrhein-Westlalen. The protecrive conductor is incorpomted in the follo',ving types:

>

as sepirmtc

insuhtcd conductor marked green yelNYFCY-J 4 x 50 S lvl 0.6/1 kV

lo"v e.g. as in

>

conccntric conductor above inner covering e.e.


as in NYCYRGY 3 x 50 SVI/25 3.616 kV

equally split. concentric conductor over individurl corc's c. g. irs in NYCEYRGY 3 x 50 R\1i25
6',10

kv.

Fig. t4.9
Gallerv cablc NYCYFGY

Fig.

I x 110 SNIr'70 i.6i 6 k\'

1.1.10

\tine shaft cable NYCYRGY

i x l:0 SVI 70 1.616 kV


t29

14 Power Cables for Special Applications


elastomer, halogen-free, material compound HI
base EPR to DIN VDE 0207 Partz3.

1,

The laid-up cores are surround by a core cover


of halogen-free elastomer compound with low
flammability. The sheath consists of halogen-free,
low flammability elastomer compound HM 1 to
DIN VDE 0207 Part 24 (base EVA). If necessary a
concentric conductor is arranged below the sheath
(type NHXCHX).
to DIN VDE 0266 normally have insulation
retention (see page 127) of more than 20 minutes
(designation FE). For this the conductors of smaller
cross sections require additional silicone covers.

Cables
Fig. 14.6
Arrangement testing of insulation retention
under conditions of fire

1.{.3.2 Construction and Characteristics

To improve the characteristics of cables in ltre there


are rwo courses of action. Firstly one can increase
the halogen content of the materials or one can add
components which together with halogen have a synergistic effect. By this means cable can be manufactured having a very good characteristic in regard to
rhe limitation of spreading of fire. Corrosive and
toxic gases are hou'ever developed during combustion. By special compounding it is possible to reduce,
at least, the high smoke emission of the halogen con'
taining materials. Such cablcs as FR-PVC-cable
(flame-retardant lorv smoke) arc used in some Europeaa countries c. g. lor installation in po"r'er sta(ionsAnothcr possibilit) for the improvement of the characteiistics in firc is to prevent the formation of toNic
or corrosivc gases: here pure polyolefines are used
as materials for insulation and sheaths. These materials are relativell'easill flammable. An improvement
of rhe characteristics of such pollmers is possible
b1 the use of special compounds (see page 39
"sheathing \4aterials for Special Purposes"). One
possrbilitl' for this is the addition of aluminiumoxl '
hydrate. In the case of fire \\'ater is than released
*'hich vapourises. This endotherm process leads to
quicker exringuishing of the ltre.

Cables with Improved Characteristics


in Fire to DIN \rDE 0266

SIENOPYR-FRNC-cabIe to DIN VDE 0266 type


NHXHX 0.6,'1 k\t (Fig. 1.1.7) have an insuiation of
1'rt

Fig. 14.7
SIENOPYR-FRNC-cabIe NHXHX 4 x 1.5 FE 0.6,'l kV
with insulation retention

Fig. 14.8
STENOPYR-FRNC-cable (rr-)2XH 4 x 1.5 0.6'1 k\/
q ithout insulation retention

Cable with lmprored Characteristics in the Event of


Fire According to YDE Register Nr. 11099109/ll0

SIENOPYR-FRNC-cabIe Type (N)2XH (Fig. 1a.8)


have an insulation of special cross-linked polyethylene compound 2XI I to DIN VDE 0207/Part 22 with
the laid-up cores surrounded by a cover of halogen
free, low flammabiiity thermoplastic filler. The
sheath consists of a low flammability thermoplastic
compound with increased heat resistance HM2 to
DIN VDE 0207 (base EYA). if required a concentric
conductor can be arranged below the sheath (type
(N)2XCH).

Halogen Free Cable 14.3

resistant to the spread of fire (Fig. 14.3); type designation in SIENOPYR cables: FR (flame retardant).
Similar tests are also included in other national test
specifications for cables. The current international
concept is laid down in IEC report 332-3 and an
IEC Srandard is under preparation.

As an aid for the selection of materials for cables


wirh improved perlormance in fire oxygen index testing is also used. In this test a sample of the relevant
material is combusted and it is recorded what degree
of oxygen content, in a nitrogen/oxygen mirture, is
necesssary to sustain combustion. The higher the recorded oxygen index OI " the more resistant the ma-

terial is to supporting combustion under normal conitions r sure assessment of the characteristics and
performance in fire for the complete cable can horvever only be made by testing in the chimney rig. The
orygcn index test however is most useful for material
ualitv assurance testin c.

\-/

Fig.

l{.5

Testing for smoke densiry (cube rest)

Smoke Density

Corrosivity of Combustion Gases


Halogens contained in cable marerials such as chiorine in PVC, but also fluorine and bromine in other
polymer insulation materials, raise rhcir ignition tcmpcratures and hence their rcsistance to thc spread
o | fire along the cable. I I however the cable insulation
is burnt lbr example by external heat inpur corrosive
of combustion are formed rvhich. togethcr * irh
-sases

humidity from the air or rvith *lter front fire exinguishers. form acids (e.g. HCL). This acid can lcad
ro corrosion damage to electrotechnical equipment
\-..nd to parts of buildings. A test method $'as therefore devised to measure the amount of corrosive gas
oroduced during combusrion (Fig. I4.4). [n rhe tesr
proceedure laid dorvn in DIN VDE 0471 Part 813
material samples are combusted and the gases produced passed through water while measurements are
made of elecrrical conductivitv and oH value of rhe
water.
Cables containing only materials rvhich comply rvith

prescribed values of conductivity and pH level are


classed as halogen-free and non-corrosive in the event

oi fire (designation in SIENOPYR cables: NC, noncorroslve).

:-'' in iotcrnr!!()nil rirndrnir LOI

If cables rvith insulation or sheaths containing chlorrne are combusted dense black smoke is produced.
This smoke hampers fire fighting and also evacuarion
of anv premises used by the public. To assess cables
usrn-u spccial materials rr ith lesser smoke densiry in
the case of tjre I EC TC 20 recommends an oprical
test procedure in an enclosed cube (Fig. 14.5).
The FRNC cables described on page 128 have. under
comparable conditions of fire. a ten times lolver
smoke densitl than PVC-insuiated and shearhed
' cables of similar construction.

Insulation Retention under Conditions of Firc


In certain installations it is also required under conditions of flre for the cable to remain functional for
a certain period of time i.e. to continue to supply
electrical energv. To ensure this characteristic is satisfied cables are subjected to a test of insulation retention under condirions of fire (type test) (Fig. 14.6).
In the type test laid down in DIN VDE 0472Part814
a single cable in horizontal position is subjected to
flame from a long gas burner. A voltage of 380 V
is applied to the core of the cable (rated voirage
0.6 1 kV) via a fuse and the test result is satisfacrory
ii the tise remains inract durins the test.
t27

14 Power Cables for Special Applications

Fig. 14.2
Burning PVC during combusr.ion resting

Fig. 14.3

Burning SIENOPYR-FRNC cable during combustion


tesL I n-q

[igasur]nq eleclrode
Ces

l',,?-i-.i! boll]9s

;r eoi.:_:

fvl

etncj

C:: t!3sn ng ccitigs


ii -'lf ans'metioi

Comb,,,ls:ron o,;gr

a0ru3i3t

v. l1 d slLlled vlate

pfi

elecrfoc: L

i\

Porcgiar: i:a.
coN;a

iri';

36n;r

uuo9i I9::

r--:

Cond!criviry

pH ma3suring

measuring

devri:

0evrce

Fig. I1.4
Tesl airansemgnr to assess corrosivitl of combustion gasses
116

Srction pump

Shipboard Power Cable'Halogen Free Cable

t4.2.2 Application and Installation


Cables of the type MGCC (Fig. 14.1a) can be insralled in line wirh DIN 89150 and close to IEC Publication 92-352 as a permanent installation in any
room and on open decks.
Cable

lvlcG (Fig. la.1b) should only be installed be-

low the upper metal deck.

Due to the good electrical screening of the

r'

type

MGCG, having a copper wire braid, radio interference and the disturbance of the operation of electronic equipment is reduced. The copper wire braid
also acts as mechanical protection and in the event
of a fault provides touch protection. For this purpose
5oth ends must be securely earthed by screlvs.
The load c:rpacities o[ shipboard cables is laid down
in IEC 92-201 (values: see Part 2).

,v. 3asically rhe cables type MGCG to DIN 89 158 and


rllcc

to DIN 89 160 are recognized by the follorving


classificarion bodies. However for the individual
manufacturer approval may be requiredr)

> American Bureau of Shipping (ABS)


> Bureau Veritas (BV)
> Det Norske Veritas (DNY)
> Germanischer LloYd (GL)
> Lloy'ds Register of Shipping (LRS)
> Polski Rejestr Statkorv (PRS)
> USSR Register oI Shipping (RSU)

l4:3 - -

14.3 Halogen-Free Cables 2) with Improved


Characteristics in the Case of Fire
The standard low-volnge cables (0.6i1 kV) for indoor installations (Section 13) and the standardized
installation cables (Section 8) are flame retardant in
rhe sense of IEC 332-l and the identical regulation
DIN VDE 0472 Part 804, type test B. These require
a single test on the cable using a gas burner. PVCinsulated cables and flexible wires as well as the cable
commonly used in some countries with XLPE insulation and a suitable sheath satisfy IEC test requirements. These cables have proved themselves over
many years in service and will continue to be used
in the future mainly in industrial installations.

For buildings or plant rvith a high concentralion of


either persons or high-value contents however very
ofren more stringent safety requirements apply. To
meet these requirements cables with improved performance in the event of fire are available.
1.1.3.1 Testing Performance under Conditions of Fire

The follorving characteristics of cables are relevant


under conditions of f-tre:

> Spread of fi re
p Corrosivity of combustion gases
> Smoke density
> Insulation retention during fire
Spread of Fire

Practical experience has shorvn that a single PVCinsulated and PVC-sheathed cable rihcn installed in
the normally vertical plane does not aid the spread
of fire. horvever this does not appll- rvhen cables are
bunched such as installation in parallel or in bundles
(Fig. 14.2). An arrangement [or comparative testlng
rrls developed to determine the burning characteristics of bunched cables (DlN VDE 0471 Part 804 type
rest c). For this test the cables are fired to a ladder
rack side by side in a vertical chimney. at the bottom
of rvhich a gas burner subjects the cables to flame
for a given period of 20 minutes.

Afier turning off the burner the flames must not continue to spread to the upper end of the test arrangement. Cables which pass this test can be classed as

r'

Dcpcnding on cl:rssriexti.)n aulho.ity

thii could

mcirn cithr approvrl

r'

Sc,: p.rgc

*irh

79. 'Fhloged-Frce SIENOPYR wiring rod Flerible Crblcs

improved Performrncc in th. Evnr of Fire

'

i)

14 Power Cables for

S_pecial

Applications

14 Power Cables for Special Applications

14.1 Cable with Elastomer Insulation

tions in engine rooms under tropical conditions or


when used outdoors in u'inter conditions.

These cables have been superseded in Germany by


cables with PVC insulation. Only on shipboard installarions are cables with elastomer insulation still
used to any great extent.

The core designation for shipboard cables is shown


in Table 14.1 and this differs from DIN VDE 0293.

In a iew countries low- and medium-voltase cables


u,ith an insulation of Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber

Table

(EPR) have major significance. The operating characteristics of these cables compl;' as to their permissible conductor operating temperature of 90 .C in normal operation and 250 "C in the event of shorr-circuir
with rhose of XLPE cables. However ir must be nored
thar in the medium-voltage range EPR offers a higher
resisrance to parrial discharge but on the other hand
has

slightli higher dielectric

losses.

l4.l

Core identification ofshipboard cables

No. of cores

Colo u r

Light gre1,
Light grcl -black
Light grel -black-red
Light grey-biack-red-blue

l
3

Li ght gre.v'-black-red-blue-black

Light grer'. e3ch \^ith a number designation in black commencing from the

6 and
a

bove

centre u ith number I

14.2 Shipboard Power Cable


In cables to IEC 92 for merchant marine vesscls elastomei insulation materials and normalll.also eias_
tomef sheathin,q materials are used. pVC shcaths are
also permitted in various combinarions but. because
of their thermoplastic characreristics and because of
the insrallarion conditions prevailing on shipboard.
are not recommended.

t:l.ljJ

a) MGCG

0.6.11

kV ltirh scrsen

l:1.2.1 Construction and Characteristics

In Germanv shipboard cables are manufactured.


compll in-e *'ith the relevant DIN norms. s.ith EpR
insulation and CR sheath. This insularion is suirable
for the normal conditions of operating temperatures
in ship building of up to 85 .C. The pROTOLON
compounds used by Siemens have a particularly hi_eh
reslsta-nce to high temperature and have a
long service life under the influence of ozone and partial
dis_
charges. The PROTOFIRM sheath is highiy resistant
to notch impact and tearing as well as being oil resistant and flame retardant. It mainrains irs elasticitr,
at both high and lou temperarures. e.g. in insrella_
1'1,1

b) MGC 0.6,/1 kV without screen

I
I

Tinned stranded conductors


EPR insulation (PROTOLON)
Inner covering

3
4 Separating foil
5 Copper wire braid
6 Polychloroprene-sh.ath (pROTOFI RM)
Fig.

l4.l

Shipboard po*r--r cables MCCC und

\lCG

Cables and Associated Accessories 133

uolu>6110 kv (u_>
Indoor sealing ends
(examples)

Outdoor sealing cnds

Cablejoints

(cxamples)

(examples)

Straight

12

kv)

joint WP

Push-on sealing end


FAE $ ith core sp.eading

Push-on scxling end


IAES lvirh corc sprcirding

Srraight transition joint


ctnncct paper insullted
\\

ith i-core XLPE

5\l-wP to
S.

L.

cablcs

Secling end FEP


with porcelain insulators
and core spreuding

l2l

lJ

I )?es

Tabte

ol uonstructlon ol Low- and Hlgn-voltage uables

13.3

Cables and associated accessories (continued)

Construction

2'l
S(F)
A
2X
I -Al- 2 PROTO- 3 Copper scrcen 4 PROTOcoo- THEN-X- (longirudinal THENducror insulaiion (XLPE) wa|cr dght) shcalh (PE)

+ 's
rtl

Prcferrcd application

Limircd applicarion

N2XS(R2Y

In unfavourablc insrallation
conditions cspccially if, after
mcchanical damagc ingress of
water in longitudinal dircction
musl be avoidcd longitudinally watertight cables with
extrudcd fi lling compound
and gap scaling in thc scrcen
area offer advantage.

In cablc trunking and indo(


It must bc noted that the pI
sh,eath.is no-t.flamc retardar
wnsn rnsta rng single-cors
c:IOIeS ln arr adcquate fixin(
must bc providcd bccause odlmamic effect of short-ci rc
currcnts (se pagc 297).
For lhe selection ofscreen
cross-section the earth-faul
rcspectively double ea h-p.
condirions of the nerrvorl n
be considcred.

Typcs used in countries where


3-core cables are rsquired

Thcse cablcs wirh


sheu
previously used in u..ran no
works are in Gcrmany incrr
ingly superscded by mech:Lr.
cally superior rypcs wirh Pl
shcuth.

NA2XS(F)2Y

5 Inn:r irnd

ourer
Ialer

6 Gap sealing

(conducdng t:lpe q.ilh s*clling rapc)

cooductin_e

7 E{ruded fillcr

Designation,
standards

IEC 502

sa
I Cu*crecn over

PROTOTHE\--Xrnsulatior (XLPE)

DIN VDE O]7]


N2XSEY

PROIODUR.

each individual

n*A2XSEY

shcath {PVC)

ffi
.ri

56

.l Cu-conducror 5 Inncr rnd ourcr


conducrinc

6 Conduclin! tapc

llrcr

7 Ertrudcd filler

-ffi
\:\
I

SE
\
F
\
: Cu- I PROTO- I Flar srcel- 5 PROTO_
;i{EN-X- scrccn DUR- $irc
DURrntulstton ovcr cach shcath irrrnour shcrth
,\LPE) indilidual rpvc)
lpYC)
PROTO-

6 i 18

3{

IEC 502

N]XSEYFY
NA2XSEYFY

N:XSEYRY

NA]XSE\'RY

8 Conducting
9 Trpc

lapc

Tl pes used in othercountrics


with Bat steel-uire armour F
or armour ofsteel
round-\rire R $ hsre dilfi cult
installarion and operating
conditions exist. Preferred
\r'ith PE sheath instead of
PVC sheath for laling in

ground.

910

6 Cu-conducloa
7 Inr:i and ourer
co:du.!ing hlc.

ll:

DIN VDE O]7]

10 Errruded llller

DIN VDE
IL E )UI

O:73

Cables and Associated Accessories 133

U o; I U
Indoor scaling cnds

Outdbor sealing cnds

(examplcs)

(examples)

2 l2

kV (U^>

24

kV)

Cablcjoints
(cxrmplcs)

Brass straight

\-.

120

joint

EoD wirh transparent


irst-rcsin insulttor

PLr;h-on strright

joint Ai!lS

Srrrighr joint wP

Plue-in termination WS

Srraight transition joint Sivl-wP for connccnng


a papcr insulated S.L.-cable
to i single-core X LPE cables

t2l

13 Types of Construction of Low- and High-Voltage Cables

Table

13.3

Cables and associated accessories (continued)

Construction

NA
1Al-

2 AluEridium- 3 Plasric

shcalh

coo-

mass

apc

4 PROTODUR-

cmbcdded

Dcsignation,
standards

Prefcrrcd application

NKLEY
NAKLEY

Cablcs prcviously used

for

urban nctworks; now bcing

rcioforc-cd

supcrscdcd by XLPE cablcs.

shcau

cluctor

Limitcd applica!ion

(Pvc)

Not suitablc for mcchanical


strcsses and areas subjcct to
subsidcncc; whcrc diffcrcnssl
in lcvcl occur (e.g. stecp sloDe

cables wirh polymcr insulaiio


must be used.

561
5 Conducting papcr 6 Insulatioo
(irnprcgnaled
papcr)

N2\

(conducting papr
and

1 PROTOTHEN-X- 2

insuiation

Cu-scrccn

Al foil)

DIN VDE

0255

N2XSY

Thesc

3 PROTODUR-

NA]XSY

previously used in urban networks are in Gcrmany


incrcasingly superseded by
mechanically superior type

shcaft (PVC)

CXLPE)

:E

cablcswirh PVC shearh

with PE shearh.

ii

45

.1

conditions ol'the network ml

5 6

Cui
conducror

\:\

lDoer and ourer

aooductinglayer

]\

I Al.

2 PROTOTHEN-XinsulalioD

duc!or

be

6 Conducliog 7

Tape

S
:\
I Cu- a PROTOTHET'-

(XLPE) screen

EL )UI

N2XS2Y

ln ground for urban networks


because ofextremely low di-

NA]XS]Y

shearh (PE)

electric losscs.
To ease installation 3 cables
can be layed up and supplied
on a single drum.

4ffi
and

ourcr

120

6 Conducdng

upe

7 Tape

If after mechanical da,nage i;


gress

ofuater

is likely cable

having longiludinal water


tightness in the scrcen area h,,
hr

advanlages.

\\'hen used indoors it must b.


b
observed that the PE shealh r
not flame retardant.
\\'hen installing single.core
cables in air adequate fixing
must be provided because of
the dynamic effecr ofshort-c:
cuit currents (see pagc 297).

5561

conouctlng layer

considcred.

DIN VDE O]7]

l:14

5 lnn.i

ln ground ifbecause ofmcchanical stresses damagc to i.


PVC sheath is likely.
When instailing singlc-core
cablcs in air adequare llxing
must be providcd becausc of
the dynamic effect ofshort-ci
cuit currents (see pagc 297;.
For the selection olscrcen
cross sections. the e:trth-faui
respectively double earth.fau

DIN VDE
tEc 502

0273

Cables and Associated Accessories 133

url u>12
Indoor scaling ends
(cxamples)

120

kv (u_ > 24 kv)

Cablc joints
(examplcs)

Srraighr

joint with individual

lead inner casing

EoD wi(h rransparent


cast.resin insulators

EoD wirh transparent


cast-rcsrn insulators
wlth lncreased short-circuir

withstand

Straight joint with steel inner casing


for connecting H-cables to
S.L.<ables

'_
r ro

13 Types of Construction ofLow- and High-Voltage Cables

Table

13.3

Cables and associated accessories (continued)


Dcsignation,

Construction

Prcferrcd application

Limitcd application

In ground ifno panicular

Indoors and in cablc trunkin


only with flamc retardant ou
shcath alternarively with our
shcath rcmoved;

standards

NEK

ffi
Inditidually

4 Jutc

Stccl-lapc

rape

screcncd lcad5hca!hcd core

NEKEBA
NAEKEBA

strcsscs arc Prescnt

scrving

whcrc thcre is danger ofcorr,


sion additional corrosion prc

1234

tcction is rcquiled;
whcre differenccs in level occ
(c.9. sreep slops) cables

wilf

polymer insulation must be


uscd.

61

i Cu-

6 Conducting 7

conduc-

\,\
I

papcr

Insula(ion

Layers ofmass-

(imprcgnatcdpapcr) imprcgnaled

fibrous rnar.rial

E[EB\
lape

ffi
shcarbed lcadshcrtbed core

0255

NEKEBY

2 Individually 3 Plaslic

Al-

DIN VDE

.1

Sreel-tapc 5 PROTOa[nour DUR-

ln ground increased corrosion


protection is required; also
suitable for indoors

NAEKEBY

shcalh

Wherc differenccs in tevel


occur (e.g. steep slopes) cabl

uith polymer insuiation mu.


be used

(Pvc)

1234t

s;

6 Conducrin! ; lnsulalion

r|lp3r

E Lavcrs ofmass-

lrmpregnarcd papcr)

imp.cena(ed

fibrous materiaii

\u

ti

of : Lead I
mar3lliscd rhcrth
Scr-_ning

.\

sreel
qirc armour
FIar

--fl
l:lr

5 6;

NHKF-A
NAH KFA

$ ith flat srccl-wire armour

NHK RA

NAHKRA

hi

scr\lnq

gh-mechanical stresses can

provide in-

NHKBA

creased

,\-AHKBA

corrosion a red PROTODUR


sheath (PVC) rcplaced thejure

protection against

ierYing (Dcsignation:
s'HKRY respectively

NHKFY)

E Fillcr

a Lryers

or amour of round steel-$,ircs


R as river or sea cable: in
ground where particularl)
be expected: {o

ofmass_

rmtrcSnatcd
tlbrous rnate.ials

118

Cu-conducror ? Insula(ion
(imprcgn3reJ
o lonor:rrns pJn3' p.rlerl
5

Jure

Dh.- VDE Olj

DIN VDE O:5J

H-cables wi(h steel-t-.,.", armour are rarell used. S.L.cirbles are preferred: \ 'here i
lerences in level occur (e.g.
sleep slopes) cables with pol\
mer insulation must be used

Cables and Associated Accessories 13.3

uolu-6110 kv
Indoor scaling ends

Cablcjoints

(cxamplcs)

(examplcs)

(u-:12 kv)

Streightjoint WP

Push-on sealing end

Push-on sealing end

IAES

FAE

IO

IO

Straigh( rransirionjoinr UMP for connecting


a ]-core mass impregnated cable
to a 3-core XLPE cable

r.rer.

Table

13.3

r vrBS!

v4urvJ

Cables and associated accessories (continued)

Construction

Dcsignation,

Prcfcrrcd application

Limited application

In ground for urban nctworks

Largcr termination spac th"


tor stngte-corc cable is re_
quircd.
For installation in trunkins

standards

NA
1

S2Y

?x

Al-

3 Cu-scrcen 4 PROTO-

2 PROTOcooductor THEN-X-

shcath
(PE)

(XLPE)

ffi
I

5 Inn::

and

ourcr

lapc 7 Tapc

su

PROTOTHEN-X-

rnsulatron
(NLPE)

Cables with PVC shcath

6 Conducling

condu.!in8layer

\l\

because of cxtremely low


dielectric losscs.

THEN-

insuladon

12

N2XS2Y
NA2XS2Y

:\

I
over cach
indivudal core
Coppcr-screen

prcviousiy used in urban


nctworks are in Ccrmany
incrcasingly supcrscded by thc
mcchanical supcrior type

and indoors ir musr be norid


rhat thc PE shearh is not flan

with PE shearh.

lnsutatlon are not available i


Iongitudinal warer tighr forr

retaroant-

Multi.corc cables with Polyr


polyn

DIN VDE O?7]


IEC i02
N2XSE2Y

PROTOTHEiT-she th

NA2XSE2Y

(PE)

It

lll

{:

56

I Cu.
i
.onJJJlor

\ t\
I

PROTO-

oulcr 6 Conductint
- 7 Errruded
(ntc
Ia)cr
fillcr

st:
I Copo!'r

TtlE\-X.
titiutauon
r\LPE)

lnncr and

condu.lrn!

screcn
orct each

indii idurl

l.l

t-\

Fht
5 PROTODUR- srccl-*irc DURsheaLh armour sheath
{PvC)
(pvc)
PROTO-.1

DIN VDE

O]73

IEC 50:
nvIXSEYFY

\\/ith flat steel-wire armour F

^-A2XSEYFY

or armour ofround sleel-xire


R for underground mining.

i.*IXSEYRY
NA2XSEYRY

arc difficulr.

llli-l

6 Cu.
cobduator

lr6

910

and
outcr
concluctrng
lryer

7 Innr

6 Conducring 9 Exrrudcd

rape

PE sheath insread of
PVC shearh also for insrallation in ground where in5tallil-

tion and operating conditions

==_il
67 78

with

filler
10 lape

DIN VDE
IEC 50:

0273

The prer-iousl; used cables


u ith PVC sheath areiGer,
manr' rncreasinely
..sedc
br superior types with PE

s.

sheuth.

Cables and Associated Accessoriis 133

Uql
Indoor sealing ends

Cablcjoints

(Examples)

(Examples)

U:6110 kV ( U-

12

kV)

Push-on straight joint AiltS

iPush-on scaling end

FAE

Strright joint wP

Push-on se3ling
cnd IAES

Srraightjoint WPS *ith shrink-on

sleeve

Sealing end with

porcelain insulator FEP

,q*\
"{:;1'],,

Straight transition join! UMP for connecting


a 3-core mass impregnated cable

to 3-single-core XLPE

cables

PLug-in tcrminrtion WS

rti

13 Types ol Construction of Low- and High-Voltage Cables

Table

13.3

Cables and associated accessories (continued)


Designation,

Construction

Prefcrred application

Limitcd applicarion

Thes cables with PVC sheath


prcviously used in urban neG

In ground ifbecause ofme.


chanical strcsses damase ro rr
'
PVC shearh is likely.
When installing single_core
cablcs in air adequare fixins
must be provided bccausc o-f
thc dynamic cfTecr ofshon-ci;
cult currents (see page 297).
For lhc sclection ofscrcen
cross sections, the ca.th-faulr
respecrively double car!h-fauL

standards

\
S
2 Cu-screen 3 PROTODUR-

N2I
I PROTOTHEN.XiDsulalion

N2XSY
NA2XSY

shcarh

works arc in Germany


increasingly supeneded by
mechanically superior type

(PVC)

O(LPE)

with PE shearh.

t2i

ffi
.l 5

i5

4 Cu-

conduiror

\ \
l '1,-

'

conditions ofrhe network mu


be considered.
1

Inncr and outcr


conducung Iltef

l\
: PROTO-

6 Conduclinc 7

Conductor THEr--X-

TaDe

r.rpc

3 Cu-scrccn

:\
I PROTO-

DIN VDE

O2?3

IEC 501

N:XS:Y

ln ground for urban networks

NA]XS2Y

becausc ofextremely low electrical losses. To case installation 3 cables can be layed up

THEN.

insulation
(XLPE)

sncaut
{

pE)

and supplied on a single

ir

having longirudinal water


tighlness in the screen area h..
advantagesWhcn used indoors it must bl
obse.ved thar lhe PE shearh i

drum.

not flame retardant.


When installing single-core
cables in air adequare fixing
must be provided because of
dynamic effect of shorr-circu:

_'E
l:1.1

i56

I I afre r mechanicald^ge
gress ofwater is Iikely uable

currents (sec page 297).


For rhe selection ofscrecn
cross-scctions. earth-[ault rcspectivcl) double carrh-faulr

conditions ofthc nct*ork ml


bc considered.

Inrr: and outcr

6 Conducting

uf'j

? Trpc

DIN VDE

O]73

IEC JO]

I f,,
:'rf r
:\
: PROTO- I Coppcr scrccn .{ PROTO.onciuclor THEN-X- lonqirudincll\ THENin,;ul:rtron $ulcr ushr
,hl.rrh

A:-

N]XS(F)]Y
N.{:XS(F)lY

In unfavourable inJalliltion
conditions especial l-'.' if aftcr
mechanical damase ingress

{PE)

!tt
5 56
5 InD:r and ouler

t1t

la\cr

6 Gap

sealing

(conducting upe

,*ith srelli!rg trpr)

Exrruded filler

DIN vDE

lEc 50:

O2?3

shear

is not flame retardant.

\\'hen installing single-corc

mu5t bc avoided. longitudi-

cables in air adequate lixing


must be pror-ided because of

tages.

--:==

anaoor

*ater in longitudinal direcrion


nall]'water tight cables !\'ith
extruded filler and sap sculing
in the screen area offer advan-

l?il

conducrjnc

of

In crble trunking

il musl be noled the I L

dl namic effccr ofshort-circu


currents (see page 29?).
For the selection ofscrcen
cross section the ear(h-fault r
spectilely double earth-far.rlr
conditions ofthe network mr
be considered.

Cables and Associated Accessories 13.3

uolu-6110 kv (u-:12 kv)


Indoor scaling cnds

Outdoor sealing cnds

Cablejoints

(examples)

(cxamples)

(examples)

-,
:?

f,

:fl
HI
HI
Push-on

Sealing cnd with

Push-on

srling cnd
rAES r0

porcclain insulator FEP

sealing end

FAE

Straight joint WP

10

- ''l-

et'rKq.
Plug-in terminrtion WS

Straight joint UI{P for connccting a 3 core mass


impregnatcd cabie to 3-single core or one 3-corc

PROTODUR cable

Push-on

Push-on sealing end FAE 10

Srraightjoint WP

scaliirg end

IAES

1O

1r3

13 Tlpes of Construction of Low- aod High-Voltage Cables

Table

13.3

Cables and associated accessories (continued)

Consrruction

NY
I

PROTODUR- 2

3 PROTODUR.

Cu-sclccn

Dqsignation,
standards

Preferred application

Limitcd applicarior

NYSY
NAYSY

For powcr stations and

::---:--:------wncn slectlng screen

switchgear as well as stadons


becausc of small bending radii

56ctrons canh_faulth rq5pc-

in confincd spaccs indoors.


As underground bcause of
light weight where installation
conditions a.c difficult (c.g.

shcat

iD5ula!ioo

("vc)

(Pvc)

steep slopcs)

cross_

rrvcly ooubtc canh-faulI


conc
uons ot tnc network must
consrocrcd-

Whsn installing single-co1q


caotes ln atr adcquate fixins
musr bc providcd becaux iJ

dynamic cffect of shorr-circui


currcnts (see page 297).

t2l

=H
ti

I
5 lnner and out3r o Conducling ? Tape DIN VDE O27I

4 Cu-.ooductoa

coaduclrng

]\..,\
I A:-

\'

la,ar

(apes

S[

'\

2 PROTODUR- 3 Cu-screen

cooductor

iDsulation
(PVC)

cach
individual
abovc

rEc

502

NYSEY
PROTODUR-

Indoors, cable crunking, ourdoors and in ground; for


power stations, industr) and
switchgear

NAYSEY

shcath

(pVC)

113.r
ttJl

ttl

j Inn::andout:r
con6uauog tater

\\

6 Conducrins lape 7 Exlruded llljcr

r'

I PROTODUR- I
rij,rllrion tPvC)

steet
qire itrmour
Ft.{

\
I

PROTODUR_
shealh (pVC)

DIN VDE

O27I

IEC 502

N\'FY
NA\'FY

With flat steel-\r'ire armour F


or armour ofround steel-* ire
R in difficult installation or
operaling conditions

,.-1'R\'

NAYRY

,l

: j
i 6
Cu-cooductor 5lnnerandourcr

conducringltyer

111

Exrrlrded

conductiog{iller

DIN VDE

lEc

502

0271

When selecting screen crosssections the earth fault respe.tively double earth fauh conL
tions ofthe nctwork must be
considcred

Cables and Associated Accessories 13.3

UnlU:3.616 kV

(U-:7.2kY);

Indoor sealing end

Outdoor selling end

(examplcs)

(ex!mples)

UnlU-6110 kV (U-:12 kV)


Cable joint
(examples)

av

Strxighr loint

(spcciri \\irh lcld inncr clstng)

:caling end

IK\l

Encxscd serling end FF I0


ith porcehin insulators

I3

T5pes ofConstruction

13.3

Table

ofLow- and High-Voltage Cables

Cables and associated accessories (continued)


Designation.
standards

Construction

iA
K
B
I .41- 2 Lcad shcath 3 Srceltapc
adnour
conductor

Jute serving

NKBA
NAKBA

Preferrcd application

Limired application

ln thc ground. ifno particular

lndoors.tnd in cablc trunI\i

onty wtth ltamc retardanl


o
sncatn, tt need be outcr scn
musl be removed: $here
dil
ences rn levcl occur (e.,.
sler
slopes).cables $ ith pol!,mcr
rnsutatlon musl t uscd

Stresses arc present

#|ffi
12)4

lllt

r 6/

i
i

In'u::rLron

llnilragnxtcd pJncr,

BclL

inruh(ion

lrmprcgnrlco pcpcr)

6 Fiil.r

8 \1Jrs imprcgnrted

\.\

B\

A!: Lcad shcrth 3 Stccl ranc


ionductor

paper

4 PROTODUR-

DIN VDE

0255

NKBY

ln ground ifincreased corro-

\\'hcrc diffcrcnces r,, tc\cl

NAK BY

sion prorection is rquired:


ulso suit:rblc indoors

cur (e.g. srcep slopes) cirblc

shcalh
I PvCJ

with pol;"mcr insulation

(.

nrL

bc uscd

l:14

i 6r

7 llclt insulrtion

,,- ^,^nn.,r,l ^,n,.r

6 F,i.r:

S i\hss rmpr.snrtcd pspcr

R,\
I :\rmour of

I i.-rd shr'.|th

+-

$irc

K FA

\\'ith flat

steel-* irc- F and


round stecl-l ire armour l{.

NKRA
NAKRA

purticul r mechitnicul strcsscs shcrth


rrc to b. c\pect.d e-q. pullins. tilpc
\\'ith doublc ou(cr.iutL scrvins
as

li

I Cu-.ooductor
6 Fillc.
8 l{rssiF^n..n,,,,,1
-"{ ln,.i:r,on
7 HJ,r In.ulruon
;l;:;Lrii::ign:rtcdprfcr) lrnrprcgxrtcdpi'pcfl

llt)

O:55

NAKFA

r.\

-i Jurs \cr\'ing

I:

.i j6r-

DIN vDE

DIN vDE O]5J

ri!cr or seiL cnblc

Indoors and in

if

cab\Iunki

rc. ,anl o
ilh sleel spiral bin(l

onl] uirh flamc


$

Cables and Associated Accessories 13.3

Uol U
-3.6 | 6
Indoor sealing ends
(cxalnplcs)

Outdoor sealing ends


(examplcs)

kV (U-

- 7.2 1iY;

Cable joina
(examplcs)

PROTOLIN-srlaighr joinr

T
PROTOLIN-sealing end

l-PEB

Encased sealing end FF l0

with porcelain insulators

Straight joint \\'P

Push-on seaiing end

IAES

1O

Sealing end FEP

with porcclain insulator

109

13 Types of Construction ofLow- and High-Voltage Cables

Table

13.3

Cables and associated accessories (continued)

Construction

Dcsignation,
standards

NI'
t PROTODUR.
iosulatioD

TYFY

3 PROTODUR.

slcel

wirc armour

(Pvc)

NAYFY

shcalh

(Pvc)

4 Culosulalion

\\

]'

2 Fla!

PROTODURinsulation
{PVC)

Indoor, cablc trunking, outdoors and in ground for


power stations, industry and
switchgcar

3 PROTODUR.

NYSY
NAYSY

sheath

(PVC)

Because of small bending .adii


indoors in confined spaccs,
for power stations and switchgearas wcllas in stations, as

undcrground cablc, because


weighr favoured in
situations whcre installation is

ofits light

dimculr e.g. srcep slopes

?ffi
t7l

ttl

4i

Cu-

108

5 6

Inner and outcr


conducrins li'ller

6 Conducling 7 Tape
lape

Limitcd appticadon

DIN VDE O:7I

Lappcd inncr colcring

Ctr-screen

Prcfcrrcd application

Dh.{ VDE 0l7l

When selecting screen cros


sections the carth fault rcsn
tively double earth fauk $1r
the network must be consid
ered. When installing singlc
core cables in airadequetc:
ing must be provided becau

of dynamic cffect of short-c


cuit currents (see page :91)

Cables and Associated Accessories 13.3

Uol U :0.611
lndoor sealing end

Cable joints

lciamples)

(examples)

kV (U-

: 1.2 kV)

T-join I

Thc connection of lhc neulrtl conductors in clblcs $ith


aluminium shc th is mirde by slitting helicirlly and opcning
up rhc shcxth

Cylindrical seaiing end

Polc mountcd scilling cnd

StrJi.rltt Jornt rrithour lcud inncr clsirrn

l0l

Table

I3.3

Cables and associared accessories (continued)

Construction
Limired applicarion
r\-

A
I Al-

cooductor

EY

IiL

Aluminiumshealh

I Mqsr.. 4 PROTODUR.
crhDedded shcath
prasrrc
(pVC)

NKLEY
NAKLEY

tapc

-r

Insuhtron

(rmnrc':n3rcd ptp3r)

NK
I Lcld shcrlh

6 Filtcr
t]
Srccl-trpc

.lutc scr\ing

Dt^- \'DE

0255

NKBA
NAKBA

Cable prer.iouslr uscd for

urban nctrrorks g hcre addiIronal-carthing rhrour:h rhe


lcud sheilh

(iinducror

6 Fincr

urnnrtSorlcd pirncr) 7 Belr insuhLion


l|nrprcgn!trd prnerl

106

il::trllitr,ffi[T:

Sclr insul!lion

lrmprcgnatcd Papcr)

Cablc prcviously used for


urban nct*,orks. aluminium
sheath used as neuaral conducror (N) respecrively as
PEN conducror

DIN \ DE 0:,i5

\us

req

uired.

Indoor and in cablc trunlin:l


only u ith llume rctardanr ou-r
corcr or aftcr rcmoval oflhl
Jutc seruns. Where there ij
danqer oIcorrosion addition.
corrosron protcction is requrrcd e.g. PVC outcr shcirih
(dcsi!nurion NKBy.
NA K tl\'). l hcrr rdditionlt
earthing ria lcad shclrh ir n,, t
ncccsslr\.

Cables and Associated Accissotes 13'3

uol u :0.611 kv
indoor sealing cnds

Outdoor sealing cnd

Cable joints

eramplcs)

(cxamplcs)

(cxamplcs)

(u-:

1.2

kv)

Shrink-on straight joint

l-core cablc
, irh
ncd tails

PROTOLIN-straight joint

icr

ROTO LIN-brxnch Y-joint

.able

'!1th-dnccntric conduclor
rnd parallcl rails

PROTOLIN-transition joint for cable with pol!mer


insuiation to mass impregnated cable

*".*r,n
;'ll.l":":i:.'

wirc armour and

105

Table

13.3

Cables and associated accessories (continued)

Construction

Dcsignarion, lPrefercdaoolication
"

Limircd application

standards |
NA
I AI.

2\

\'

2 PROTOTHEN.X. 3 PROTODUR.

cotrductoa idsulation

shcath

(Pvc)

CXLPE)

PROTOTHE.\--Xrosuttuon

{xLpE)

n,h.

rn countrics othcr
(nan Lrermany.

:xl'',

Conrrolcable:

PROTODUR_

(hc.ih

as

iifpir

for power cable

ll

.r

,i

Cu{onducror

----_-_.._-

4 Tapc

or filler

:\

IEC 50:

c\\ --

\
:
J Conccnrrrc. J pROTo.
cotrdu.-ror !l-9IO_
THE\-X. prorcculc or
DUR_
Insutation tpE\r conJucror ;;ri;
r\LpE'
,Cu srrcs rnd
ii;VC;

IAI-,

:XC\\'\'I '
NA]XC\\'Y

h.lical t:locl

r:tr

fl
tl

5 Erlrud.C fiiier

for-

Where high-mcchanical
stresses may occur

durins installalion and operation.-The


conccntnc cond!ctor should
not be considcrcC as armoua

\\ here subsequent mechanical

damage is likely. For srreer

lighting and household feedrrs in urban networks.

DI\

\'DE

0172

ICL ]U]

IPROTOiHE\.X.
(XLPE,

i\
I Flal stctl
qrrc
arrnour

:XF\'"
PROTODUR_
sheath

(pVC)

@
q

{ Cu<ooduclor
i F, -.
0.6

I k\

For installarion in rhe ground.


rnooors. cable trunking and
ourdoors where higher-mechanical protection is required
or * here high pulling srresses
mal occur during insrallalion
or oPeration.

j:l

LaDlc for L-

For urban networks wi(h concentaic conductor ofwave


mdtion which is not cul al

branch points. For inslallaiion in the ground, indoors.


cable rrunking and outdoors

raansr.erJc

104

lnsra rng

l2

ffi
\{

It may be neccssary to
ob5er_r=
rcrevant tocal rcgulations

DIN VDE 0272


IEC 502

4 Exrruded filler

Power cables for urban nct.


wo.ks, for installation in the
ground, cable trunking. inand outdoors.
Cable with copper conducror
also forpower stations. industry and swilchgcar.

NA2XY

IEL )U]

\arth NLPE Insuhlion rnd coppcr


conciucLors as

qji:

3s irrmoureC

.ijblcs rrc nor !ct rnclud.d rn

DI\

\,DE 0:?:

Cablei and Associated Accessories 13.3

usl'u -0.611 kv (utdoor scaling ends

Ourdoor sealing ends

Cablejoints

r:(umptes)

(examples)

(eramples)

: 1.2 kv)

Shrink-on strairht joinr

)rc cirble
h fr
d tails

PROTOLIN-cablc cnd

PROTOLIN-straighr joinr

PEA

PROTOLIN-brunch \'-joinL

.il concuntnc conductor


.l plrxll.l rriis

T-joinr HNI

Shrink-on cable end

:ore cable
lh lli!( ste(l-\\
ir(rncd tlrrL

lrmour

end

PROTOLIN-tr.rnsirion joint for cablc with polymet


insulltion lo mass-imoregnlted cublc

l0l

Guiderfor Plannine of Cable Installations l6

Planning of Cable Installations

Table

Cable Installations

Actron

Section

Selection of type of construction lor cables


and accessories

IJ

Consideration of conditions lor transporration. installation and mounring

29.

In planning an installation Table

'
-

16.1 may act as a

guide.

tlpe ofconstruction o[the cable is to be selected


to meet ambient conditions and to withstand thc me'
chanical and thermal stresses. The installation re'
ar{irements of both VDE and those of local regulato-

;re

authorities must be observed.

- Th. short-circuit withstand of accessories must be

For the installation of sealing


ends in either indoor or outdoor, the atmospheric
conditions such as humidity, saline and dirt content
as well as altitude above see level (if exceeding

checked accordingly.

1000 m) are relevant. Special mechanical' chemical

and moisture content

of the soil are criteriar to

be

considered rvhen selecting cable joints.

16.1 Guide for planning ofcable

16 Guide for Planning of

Recommendations for trilnsportation. instnllation


and mounting methods can be found in Scctions 29
and i0. Sections 17 to 25, of the part dealing rvith
planning. contain instructions tbr thc selcction of
rrted roltagc. conductor lnd screen cross-scctionirl
-eas and for the determination of key electrical data
,r-i1her considerations $hich may have an influence
, olannine are dealt rr ith in Seccion 26 and distribution nett,, oiks are dealt rvith in Section 27.

-rr

heip in the solution of special problems Siemens


AC mckes available their experience to assist in selecting the most suitable type ofconstruction on technical and economic grounds together rvith the crosssectional area of conductor. With the aid of special

installations

l0

Selection of cable rated voltage


Selcction ofconductor cross section to the
follorving criteria when by the largest ol lhe
resultinq values are to be used

Current loading during normal operl'


tion
Fi.rult current in case of short-circurt
(mainly in netrvorks with rated voltages

greltcr than I kV)


Voltilge drop

(mtinll

in nctworks rvith

rated voltages up to 1 kV)


Economics (Calculrttions appropnatc

for instlllations rvhere large irmor.rnts of


power xrc lo be transmitted)

l0 to

Electrical key data

23

Characteristics during operarion


Interference
cables
I

"vith

communication

ndustrial and urban networks

computer softtvare. a solution can invariably be arrived at very quickly.

In the selection of a cable for a particular application


the data listed in Table 16.2 (planning aid) are necessar.v. The more accurate and detailed this information the more accurate rvill be the result. The project
engineer should have to reiy as little as possible on
DUri .rssumptlons or estlmlrtlons

l4l

16 Guide for Planning of Cable Installations

Table

15.2

Planning aid for cable installations.

For the selection of cable and determination of conductor and screen cross-sectional area the following data
necessary. To ease the handling of inquiries a check list is available on request.
1 T)'pe ofcable construction

1.1 Type designation


1.2 Material for insularion (PVC, XLPE, mass-impregnated paper)
1.3 Number of cores (single- or multi-core)
1.4 Cross-seclional area ofconductor qn
1.5 Conductor marerial (copper; aluminium)

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5

Vohage

Earthing conditions, treat-

Nominal voltase of network U.

Maximum operating vohage Ub_..


System frequency/

Type ofcurrent (3 ph,

ph, d.c.)

Rated lighrning impulse withstand vohage L',"

3.1

Insulated or u.irh arc-suppression-coil earrhed star Doint.


Ifindividual earth faults exceed 8 h lnd rhe rotal ofall earrh faults is sreat
than 125 h per Year, the duration of the indir'idual earth fauh and duiationv
of all earth faults per vear must be stated.

3.2
3.3

Direct earthin-s

4.1

Typc of operation

ment of star point


(see Sections 17 and 19.1)

Load capacin r) in normal


operation, operating condiltons

are

Earthing via additional impcdance

4.1.1 Lotd factorlr.daill, load fluctual.ion (in po*.crsupply sysremsapprox.


0.7 ro 0.8 : in ind ustrial ncr$ orks 0.7 to 1 .0 t. For intcrmiircnt operarion
a lord diagram agtinsr time is required.
4. | .l Transmitrcd porrcr (max. Ioad to Fig. Ig.1 t
4.1.1 Is a securc Lransmission cssential ( u,hich mclns a minim um of tu.o cablcs
per conncction)l
I

nstallation condirions

Lcnsth of run
in cround
in pipe in eround
in air ( free air)
in duct or tunnel

4.2.1 I nstallarion in ground


depth of la1 /r
co",er ofconcrere riles. plastic tiles. earth:n$.are cover or Iavin_s in troushs
rvith or rr ithout sand
dimensions of trouehs \a,ith drawines
arransement ofsinele-core cables bundled or side by side
dimensional drau.ings for massed group ofcables

D:;'inirion scs par:: l5{l

Planning

Table

Aid

16

16.2 Continued

4 continued

4.2.3 Installation in pipe in ground


depth of lay fr
pipe material PVC, PE, steel, concrete or earl.hen ware
pipe diameter and thickness (of wall)
Arrangement

\"n/

kOIa,

@@6

Dirgram of groups of cables


4.2.4 Installation in air
(e. g. indoors in large spaces such that the air tempertture does not increase
due to heat loss from the cables).
Installation on the floor, wall, open duct or racking, dimensional drawins
ofgroups (compare Tables 18.23 and 18.24).
4.2.5 Installation in covered channels, tunnels
The uir temperarure in the channel is increased by heat loss from the
cirble

D:rta ofchannel in line wirh Section 18.5:


inside rvidth b1

inside height /rt


covering ri
dimensional drarving of overall arrangement and answer
to q uestions in 4.3.1
rvherc forced ventilation is used the temperature of the outlet alr or for the calculation of the cooiin-e required air quantity - the temperature
of thc ineoine air must be given (normirlly max. value of ambient temperaturc).
4.3

Anrbient conditions

+.-). t

nstl

llltion in ground

ground

le

mpcrature 3.

thermal resistivity of soil


for moist area gu
for dried-out area g,

4.J.2 I nstallation in air


air temperalure 3"

4.4

Externitl heat input


4.4.1 Heating b;- direct sunlight must be considered ifsun protection is not provided (see Section 18.4.2)
4.4.2 Hclting by district heating pipes rvhere laid in sround
dimensional drarving to Fig. 16.'l and answers to questions in -1.J.1
4.4.3 Heating by other cables which run parallel or across
typc designation with data on cross-sectional area and rated voltage
load current

1b

distances and depths of lay with dimensional drawing

t+J

l6

Cuide for Planning of Cable Installations

Table

16.2

Continued

5 Load-capacity in case of

5.t

Calculation with rhe use ofvalues from network calculation


treatment ofstar point and indication ofcritical short-circuit currents
(one, two or three pole)
initial symmetrical short-circuit current.Il'
peak short-circuit current 1.
continuous short-circuit current Ii
shon-circuit duration rr

5.2

Calculation with values from protective device


(ifvalues in 5.1 are not known)
treatment ofstar point and indication ofcritical short-circuit current (one,
two or three pole)

short-circuits (thermal and


mechanical stress)

breaking capacity S.

short-circuit duration t"

Voltage drop

System frequenc.v/

Transmitted power S or loading current /o


Power factor cos p
Length of run /

Typeofcurrent:3 ph, 1 ph a.c. ord-c.


Allosable voltage drop AU or Au

7 Calculation of economy

I lt

Transmitted power S
Length ofrun /
Depreciation durarion r
Annual rate of interest p
Amortization rate I
Addition to amortization to covcr maintainance and repair
Electricity price t"
Utilization lime of power losses l',
Opcration pcriod f6

Is

Planning

'

Aid

16

! ipe of construction
Depth of lay' h

rytricr heatiry

:pth of

ducr

lay

m
m
m
m

hF

Distance

AF

Widrh
Heisht

ur
hr
Return

Feed
prpe

Inner diameter

of
...

... m

,/. ...

...

l.

...

W/Km

... W/Km

'rt

...

insulation
Outef diameter of
insulation
Heat conductivity
u latio n

of

ins

Tempe rature of

prpe

herting

'edium

24; far as Possible dePenIt on amblent temperature)

\-

'rR...

g. 16.1
lemperature rise of cable caused by district heating:
data for calculation

145

LaDle Kaleo

oltages

ble 17.1 . These are derived from the values for lhreephase installations by using the following formulae:

17 Cable Rated Voltages

Uv-^':23t:,

vt

U0...:+,

where neither conductor is earthed,

where one conductor is earthed.

v3

17.1 Allocation of Cable Rated Voltages


The voltages for which a cable has been designed
forms the basis of certain operating characteristics
and rest conditions and are termed the rated voltages.

To avoid confusion in installations having one conductor earthed e.g. in traction feed cables it must
be observed that the highest voltage ofsystem Uo.oo,
for these cables must not be greater than the permissible voltaee YS to the metal cover.
l/ {
f-

As opposed to other electrical machinery or equipment cables have rated voltages stated as UolU where

according to VDE

L/o the cable rated r.m.s. poser-frequency voltage


bet$'een each conductor and metallic cover or
earth

rhe cable rated r.m.s. pos'er-frequency voltage


between pharse conductors in a three-phase network (U --y' 3 Us).

standards for cable an additional valuc lor


highest permissible voltage L/. is stated in brackets.
The voltage designation is uritten as UoiU(U^).

ln IEC

U. is also the " highcst r.m.s. powcr-frequcncl'

voltage for equipment"


DIN VDE 0111a.

to DIN VDE 0101 and

*ith

rated voltagcs Lq U arc uccording to


use on
three-phase installation u ith l nonrinal vollagc

Cables

DIN VDE 0198 and IEC I S3 suitablc for

in uhich the highest voltase ofa s)'stem U6.n,. does


not !'\ceed the Values given in DIN VDE 011I and
IEC 71-1 (see Tablc 17.1).
Since the insulation of cables rvith polynrcr insulation
hrrr inq a rated voltage Usl {-; :0.6i1 kV and all radial

these

in sinsle-phase a.c. systems uhere both conductors are insulated from earth. rvith a sl,stem nominal voltage U^<)Uo,

tr

in single-phase a.c. systems where one conductor


is earthed, with a system nominal voltage

t.<Uo

The hi-qhesr voltage of u s1'stenr L6... for cables for


sinrle-phase alternating current rrc shorvn in Ta-

l.l6

In Gcrmany the voltage rating of 3 kV has been made


obsolete and is no longer included in VDE speciF 'tions. If in individual cascs, e.g. in circuits for:re
srarring of large slipring motors, operating voltages
Ub are encountered which are higher than that allorvcd lor cables with a rated voltage Ue1 U= 0.6/1 kV
it is acceptable according to DIN VDE 0271, to use
PVC cables with concentric conductor or armour
(e. g. NYCWY, NYFGY) having a cable rated voltlge Uo. U:0.6i1 kV. However rvith cable cross-sectional areas of 240 mm2 and above. the insulation
rvall thickness is thc samc as is required to IEC 501
for cablc \\'ith Uo,'U= 1.E/'3 kV. The pcrmissible
quantit) of L/.:3.6 kV must. ho',r'eler. not bc cxcccd.

A comparison of cablc rated voltaues to VDE

1."<1.=1 iL,o

ficld cables are designed lor the voltage Uo,


are also suitable for installations

In direct current systems having a maximum operating voltage of up to Ur.,,=1.8 kV conductor/conductor and conductor/earth VDE permits the use of
cable with Uo = 0.6 kV.

and

IEC togcthcr sith thc permissible continuous "highest voltages for elcctrical equipmcnt and machines"
rvith relevant data to BS 77 shos's that for these s
dards. apart from differing ratcd voltages the srir e
highest permissible voltages app)y (Table 17.2).

Rated Impulse (Lightning) Withstand Voltage ' Voltage Stresses in the Event of Eanh Fault 17.3

Table 17.1

Allocation of cable rated voltages U_olU(U^) and highest voltages for equipment
and the highest voltages of a system
Cable rated voltages

Systems

y.

to the nominal voltages Un

for

uolu (u^)
Three-phase current

Single-phase current

Nominal
voltage

Highest
voltage

Non-earthed system

One conductor earthed

of a system

Nominal
voltase

Highest
voltage

Nominal
voltage

Highest
voltage

u,<2Lto

of a system
Uu.o"

U;3

of a system

KV

kv

Ur^
KV

.6

.3,'3
3.6i6
l

6/10

l5
ll /20
l8i 30

(.7i

(1.1)
(3.6) r'

(i .2)

t.2

1.1

3.6
7.2

't.2

L'u-",

1.4

KV

0.6

8.3

0.7

3.6

t2

12

15

7.5
?4
36

36

)2

Not applicable in these

Not applicable in

voltage ranges

voltaee ranges

(52)
(72.s)
64/110 (123)

110

76132 (r45)

72.5
123

J!

'145

150

170

871150 (170)
t27,t220 (245)

220

220;380 (420)

380

l4

28

t2

l.l

18

21

45
60

kv

Uo

l0
20
30

2614s
36160

DIN VDE 0298 part


IEC I8J

KV

(12)
(17,5) r)
(11)
(36)

these

410

DIN VDE OIOI


DIN VDE OIII

DIN VDE

0198

part

IEC 7I-1
Thr\ \ oitrgc rrnsc to IEC t

_i.

l-l rnd

IEC I3,i ir no l)nger conltlincd in rhc vDe rp\:!irjc]rions for cublc

17.2 Rated Lightning Impulse


Withstand Voltage

17.3 Voltage Stresses in the Event


of Earth Fault

The rered lighrning impulse riirhsrand voltages U,u


trhich must be considered for electrical equipment
and machines in three-phase nenvorks are listed in
Table 17.2 as exrracred from DIN VDE 01 1 1 and
IEC 71-1. Cables and accessories which comply with
VDE or IEC standards are designed and tlsied to
withstand these stresses. In the calculation of the insulation design for high-vokage cables the impulse
withstand and switching overvoltages are very impor-

In the event of an earth lault. the cable insulation


is subjected to voltage stresses of shorrer or longer
duration dependant upon both the trearment of the
star point and the design of the network protection
(see also page 380). When applying cables different
considerations must be given to the rhree types of
stress A, B and C :

tant and are simulated by a test impulse voltage wave


. g I .2/50 ps respecriveiv 250/:500 ps (1.? and
lo_!1.
berng
-:)U
the wave front rime ivirh 50 and 2500 bcing
the decav time to half varue;.

Systems which in case

ofan earth fauit are disconnected instantaneously i.e. within 1 s: these are
mainly networks with a low-resistance earthed star
point. For this stress type all cables are suitable.

17 Cable Rated Voltages

17.2 Allocation of voltages to VDE, IEC

Table

DIN VDE 0298, part


DIN VDE 01I1,

and British Standard (BS)

Three-ohase networks to BS 77

DIN vDE
DIN VDE
lEc 71-1

Nominal

Rated lightning impulse


withstand voltage U,B

IEC 183
Cable rated
voltage

Highest
voltage

UolU

for
equipment

kv

KV

voltage
U

U.
kv

Highest
voltage

0111, list 2
0298, part 1

of a system

Ut^.'
kv

kv

Radial field cables


0.6i

1.2

I.8t3

"

3.616
6, 10
r)
8.7. 15

J.O

J.J

'1.2

6.6
1t

t2

3.6
1.2

t2

1'7.5

18i 30

36

JJ

JO

26 45

)f,
I !.)

66

64i110
tot | ):
8?/150
121 1220

220i 380

75

ll5

22

.^:
tlt

60
95

rl1n

36160

40

170

88

100

At rated voltages from UqlU= 26/45 k'._


the wall thicknss of the insulation is
selected and tested to mee! the specified

110

123

requlrements

132

14i

110
1i<

220

420

380

!.)

410

Cables with non-radial field

0.6 I

1.1

r a ': Ll

i.6
t.6

3.6 6

7.?
1.2

6161'

6 l0
8.7r 1 0

:)

11

ll

0.0

ll

1.6

.10

1.2

60

1l

In Ccrmanl no longcr uscd irnd thercforc not includ.d In VDE sLrndJrdi


:'" Onil fo( paper-insuhlrd cablcs (e.g. !o IEC i5). Not commonl].' usd in Csrmlrn!

7i

and b-'ncc nol includcd in

Dlr" \'DE 0:i-i

oper- C Systems which in the event of a fault remain in


earthed: operation for a longer period than described under
B. with one phase earthed.
these are networks with an insulated star point
Systems, which. under fault conditions, are
ated for a short time only with one phase

or alternatively having earth fault compensation.


According !o iEC 183 this duration should not
exceed one hour unless longer durations are speci-

in the relevant cable standards dependent


upon the t\ pc of cable construction.

fied

l rlE

Voftages Stresses in the Event of Earth

Table

17.3

Fault

17.3

Selection of medium-voltage cables according to stress types B and C under earth'fault conditions

Cable
rated
voltage

Cable type

Operation with single earth fault to


Stress type B

Stress type C

Single earth fault 8 h


Sum of earth fault
durations per year 125 h

Cable must be selected


have rating voltage Uo/U

UJU
KV

Non-radial field cables


with PVC or EPR insulation
Belted cables with paper insulation

permissible
3.616

6/10

8.7lls"
.{adial field clbles with insulation
of paper, PVC. PE, XLPE or EPR

3.6t6
6/ 10
8,7/1 5 ' )
12120

18/30

!'

kv

permissible
permissible
permissible

616tt

or 6i10

8,7/10 ')

permissible
permissible
permissible
permissible
permissible

6,110

8.7i 15
12 r20

" or 12.'20

18i 30

Cables with correspondingly


reinforced insulation are required
(not covered by IEC- and VDE
standards)

VDE slxndards
-_o Ionger uscd in Ce.many and thcrcforc no longcr includcd in

Selection of Cable

iVI e clitn t- V o tt ag

Stress type A: All cables rre suitablc


Stress type B and C: See Table 17.3

which comply rvith VDE or IEC standards are suitable for stress type B providing any individual earthfauh duration does not exceed approximatel.v- 8 h and
the total sum of all earth-tault times in one -"-ear docs
not ekceed approximatel)- 125 h. If earth-fauh durations are to exceed these values substantially, cables
of the next highest voitage grirde must be used (e. g.
instead of L;olLr=6i10 kV use L'o'1.':12120 kV) or.
in the case of belted cirbles, a cable rvith higher belt

iglrl'oItage

Cab|a.s v'irh Papt'r Insulutinrt

(Uo'U>liJ,30kr'),
rvhich have been tested to VDE or IEC stlndards
a.are suituble lbr stress tl pe B providing any individual
:arth fault does not exceed a duration of approximately 8 h and the total sum of all earth-fault durations per year does not erceed 125 h approximately'.
fhese cables. however, are not designed for operation
under stress type C. When it is required to install
cabies in a network oF plant where longer earth't'ault
durations are to be expected. the cable insulation lvill
require to be appropriately dimensioned and tested.
High-Voltage Cables *ith PE, XLPE
or EPR Insulation ( UolU> 18130 kV)
are normally dimensioned and tested for use in netrvorks or planc with stress type A. If it is required
that these cables will be opercted lor a limited time
or longer rvith an errth fault on one phase. this must
be taken into account rvhen dimensioning and testing
the cable.

Ca

b Ie s,

insulation must be used (e. g. instead ol


tis|L':6t10 kV use cable UolL-:8.7710 kV) (see
Table 17.3). This type of belted cable is not used in
Germany and there for no provision is made for it
in VDE standards. For cables having rated volrages
greater lhan lLolU:13'30 kV the insulation rvall
thickness must be dimensioned appropriately.
For medium- and high-voltage cables it must be noted that their service life is affected if for frequenr
short periods and/or for longer periods the cables
are operated with an earth fault on one phase.
Low.l/oltage Cables,
rvhich comply rvith the VDE and IEC standards are
suitable for stress type C rvithout limitation.
149

l8

Current-Carrying Capacity in Normal Operation

18 Current-Carrying Capacity in Normal Operation

18.1 Terms, Delinitions and Regulations


Basically the terms definitions and regulations laid
down in DIN VDE 0298 Part 2 and DIN VDE 0289
Part 8 apply.
Load Capacity
is the short term to express current-carryins capacity.
With load capacity the permissible current f. is being

pregnated cables, in addition, the remperature lise


is limited to avoid the formation of voids in the insulation (Table 18.1).

Conduc tor C ross- Se c tional Areu


must be selected such that in normal operation the
loading 16 does nor exceed the load capacity 1.
-eiven

t'lR 1e\

Ihs 1,.

defined under certain operaring conditions.

In addition to compliance with the above reeularions


the following is also relevant:
The lalues of current-carrying capacity for the reference operating conditions which are given in Tables
18.2 and 18.4 are rated values. These reference operaring conditions (in DIN VDE 0298 Part 2 named

as "normal" operating conditions) are in the same


sense rated data to DIN IEC 50 (1 51).
The followine equarion applies

1,=

I,nf,

(18.1)

*,here fI/ is the producr of all factors


',r'hich must
be considered. For electricity utility operarion or
other cyclic rypes of operarion the maximum load
corresponds to load capacity which is defined as /,
or 1..

ls the short term for current loadinc. Loading relates


to lhe currents uhich a cable be required to mav
carrl under specific operational conditions.

In normal operation loading is lhe operating currutt


/0. in electricity utility operations or other cyclic
types of operation the max. value of the loading is
the operating current.

le O p era t ing

Te mp

er

atur e

is the maximum permissible temperature at the con-

ductor under normal operation. This value is used


in the calculation ol load capacity for normal operation. This is included in DIN VDE 0298 pari 2 in
respect of load duration (load factor). For mass-im-

li0

Tentperature Rise

of a cable is dependant upon construction, characteristics of materials used and operaring conditions. An
additional temperature rise must be considered where
grouping u ith other cables or heat input from heating pipes. solar radiation etc. occurs.

.\'onntl

O pcratiott

Normal operation includes all

t1.pes

of

operation.

such as. continuous operarion, short-time operation.

Loadirg

P ernt iss ib

Decisive for this are the most unfavourable operaring


conditions at any point along the whole cable ' ''
durine operation. This ensures that the conducosr
is not heated at any time and at any point above
the permissible operating temperature.

intermittent operation. clclic operation. utility s,


plv operation, providing the permissible operatiig
temperature is not exceeded.

OL'eruIran!s
include both overload currents and short-circuit currents (DIN VDE 0100 Part 430 and Parr 200). These
can cause, for a limited period, conductor temperatures u hich are higher than the permissible operating
temperature. The cable in these cases must be protected against detremental temperature rise by overcurrent protection devices. If necessary the conductor
cross-sectional area may have to be dimensioned to
satisf)' the conditions of short-circuit stresses as discussed in Secrion 19.3.

Terms Deflnitions and-Regulations

Table

l8.l

l8.l

Permissible operating temperatutss and thermal resistivities

Type of
construction

Standard

Permissible

Permissible temperature rise

Thermal

operating

installed in

resistivities

'c

Ground

Air

l\

l\

KmiW

XLPE cable

DIN VDE
DIN VDE

0272,
0273

90

J.)

PE cable

DIN VDE

0273

70

3.5,'

PVC cable

DIN VDE
DIN VDE

0265,

70

6.0:'

DIN VDE

O]55

Iass-impregnated
cablc

0271

Belred cable

I kv

80
80
65

'3.6 6 kV
rl^0.6
, 6l0kv

of

insulation

temperature

65
65

))

45

55
35

6i

))

65

55

6.0
6.0
6.0

Single-core cable,
S.

L.

and H cablc
0.6 1 kv
61

10

80
80
10

kv

3.6.6

kV

kv
18, i0 kv
l

6i

2,20

" Aiio roDlics

:r .\lso

60

45
35

.10

JI,,

for rll ou(cr rh\:rths ot PE

applics fo.

!ll

outcr shc:rrhs of PVC irnd proLcerirc co\crs ol jurc rcr!inS

lterloa

turrelrtr ciln occur bv operational overloadhat is otherrvise a fault-free circuit. For these
conditions permissible temperatures have not yet
reen defincd. These rvill be dependent on borh duration and frequencv of the overload occurances: these
again at-fect the heat deformation characteristics and
ing in

j-i

6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0

rr

accclerate a-seing.

Short-cirait currents flow when a fault of neglegible


tmpedance occurs betrveen active conductors which
in normal circumstances have different potentials.
The permitted short-circuit temperatures are acceptable only for a duration of up to 5 seconds. In systems *ith an insulated neutral and in compensated
networks, a line-to-earth short-circuit current is
tcrmed earth-fault current. Such earth-fault current

c:ruse voltage stresses

in the fault-lree conductors (see


Secrion l7). to an ertent thirt temperatures erceedins

\irh

bitunrinous compound

the permissible operating lemperltures cannot

be

permitted.
Entergent'v Operation

is a type of operation quire common in USA and


some other countries. Here currents are permitted
which are higher than the load capacity in normal
operation. The conductor "emergencv operating
temperature" which may on some occasions signihcantly exceed the permissible operaring remperarure
are limited in duration for the individual faults both
during any one year and during the service life of
the cable. A definition and the question of what
values of emergency operating temperature are acceptable for the differenr tvpes of cable and also rvhat
reCuction in service lit'e is to be agreed is currently
under discussion in the relevant IEC rvorking sroups.

l5l

IE Current-Carrying Capacity in Normal Operation


Type of Operation
describes the temporal characteristics of the load capacity and the loading.
Continuous Operation

is an operation with constant current for a duration


sufficient for the cable to reach a thermally stable
condition but is otherwise not limited in time.

18.2 Operating Conditions


and Design Tables
To assist in preparing a clear basis for design, regulatory and operating conditions are discussed under

tr type of operation,
tr conditions of installation,
tr ambient conditions.

Utility Supply Operation


is described in Section 18.2.1.

Short Time and Intermittent Loadinp

18.2.1 Operating Conditions


for Installations in Ground

is described in Section 18.6.

Type of Operation

The values included in rhe tables for installation in


ground are based on the type of operation commonly
experienced in electricity supply networks (supply
utility loads). This load is defined by a 24 hour lc^4
diagram which illustrates maximum load and lu.-a
factor (see Fig. 18. t ).

Load,har load
100

en
--1

0.6

---Fig.

12

16

20 hours

24

Time-......*

Relation of load to maximum load in %


Relation of average load to maximum load

l8.l

Daily load plot and determination of load factor rr


(Example)
I

-sl

Operating Condirions installed in Ground 18.2

Ivlaximum load and load lactor of the given load


are determined from the daily load plot or reflerence
load plot. The daily load plot (24 hour load plot)
is the shape of the load over 24 hours under normal
operation. The reference load plot is the average load
shape of selected, similar daily load plots.
The highest value of the maximum load read from
the daily load plot is taken as operating current .Ib.
If the load fluctuates within time bands which are
less than 15 minutes, then the mean value ofthe load
peak over a 15 minutes period is taken as maximum
load, i.e. a mean value must be determined over the
range of time which contains the peak, this being
then termed maximum load.

'

he load factor nr is determined by plotring the load


erpressed as percent of maximum load on squared
^

paper (see Fig. 18.1). The load facror nr results in


total area belorv the curve which is equal to the
'-\e;er of the rectansular shape. By counting squares
belorv the load curve the area can be determined reasonably accurltely. This arca should be entered on
the diagram. thus enabling direcr reading of rhe relationship between average load and ma.rimum load
and hence load factor rn provided thar, as in
Fi_q. 18.1, the scale is selected such thar 100% load
is equal to unity on the load lactor sclle (see example
18.1, page 180).

The average load is the mean valuc ol'rhc daily load


plot; the load factor being the quotienr from the avcrage load divided b-"" the maximum load.

For this calculated load factor the given maximum


load /o must not excced thc Ioad capLrcity 1..

the commonly used depth of lay for low-voltage and


medium-voltage cables (0.7 to 1.2 m) it is therefore
assumed that the necessary slight reduction in load
capacity is compensated for by the slightly more favourable conditions.

For these reasons when the depth of lay varies within


that range any variation in load capacity is ignored.

The quantities for cable load capacity are for the


arrangements shown in Table 18.2 for one multi-core
or one single-core cable in a d.c. system or for three
single-core cables in a 3-phase system. With larger
numbers of cables a reduction factor from Tables
18.15 to 18.21 must be applied. These reduction factors were derived for cables of equal size arranged
side by side in one plane and loaded identically with
the same maximum load and load factor. For cables
of different construcrions and,/or operaring with different load factor it is necessary to form appropriate
reduction factors for erch form of construction and/
or load lactor for the toral number of cables in the
trench and thus establish the lactors most unfavourable for all cables.
Crossing of cable runs can cause difficulties especially
rvhen these are denselv packed. At such points the
cables must be laid rvith a sufficiently rvide vertical
and horizontal spacing. In addition !o this the heat
dissipation musr be assisted by using the mosr far ourable bedding material. A calcularion ol conductor heat output and temperaLure rise is adlisable

ll

8.11.

In situations of great grouping and rvhere there is


limited space, a sufficientll large bricked pit can eleviate heat build-up. This pit can enable the cables
to cross in air and the resultant temperature rise of
the air in the pit and also the temperature rise of
conductors can be calculated as indicated in Section 18.5.

Installation Conditions

The depth oJ luv ol a cable in ground is generally


taken as 0.7 m rvhich is the distance below the eround
surface to the axis of the cable or the centie o[ a
bunch oI cables. If one calculares the load caoacitv
of a cable laid in the ground it is found this reduces
as depth increases. assuming the same temperature
and soil-rhermal-resistivity. With increasing depth of
lav horvever, the ambient temDerature is reduced and
so. normally. is the soil-rhermal-resistivity since the
deeper regions of the ground are more moist and
remrtin morc- consistant thirn the surtirce llvers. For

The load caytcitt, oJ' tnuki-core PVC cfules is calculated by multiplying rhe load capacity for 3-core
cables in Table 18.5 by the rating factors for laying
in the ground given in Table 18.25.

In the -eround, cables are normally embedded in

layer of sand or a layer ol sieved soil and are covered


with either bricks or tiles of concrete or plastic. Tbese
bedding and covering arrangemenrs (see Table 18.2)
do not affect the load capacity. When inverted
'U'-shaped cover plates are installed, air may be
trapped and therefore it is advisable to use a reduction trctor of 0.9 in the c:rse.
I

)J

18 Current-Carrying Capacity in Normal Operation


Table

18.2

Operating conditions, installation in ground


r)
S ite operating conditions

Refe r e nc e op er ating c on dit ions

to evaluate the rated currents

and calculation of current-carrying capacity

.f.

L-r,nr
Type of operation

Load factor of0.7 and maximum Ioad from tables for insrallation
in sround

Rating factors
/, to Table 18.1 5 or 18.1 6
, to Table 18.17 to 18.21

I ns t a I lat ion conditions


Depth of lay 0.7 m

For depth of lay up to 1.2 m no conversion


necessary

Arrangement:

/n
\v

multi-core cable

1 single-core cable in d.c. system

Rating lactors
for multi-core cables to Table 18.25
for grouping or bunched

t.l

3 single-core

cables in 3-phase system


side by side rvith clearance

ol/cm

/,
/,

to Table 18.15 or 18.16


to Table 18.17 to 18.21

Calculation refer Section 18.4.4

single-core cables in 3-phase system


bunched 2)

Rating factors for

Embedded in sand or soil backfill and if necessary


with a cover of bricks, concrete plates
or flat to slightly curved thin plastic plates

' U '-shaped cover rvith trapped


I

air/=

0.9

nstalled in pipes/= 0.85

Calculation refcr Scction 18.4.6


.4nbient conclitiorrs
Ground temperature at installation depth ?0 "C

Rating factors

Soil-thermal resistivitl of moist area

1Km'W

./, to Table

18.1-5

./r to Table

18.1 7

or I 8.1 6
to 18.21

Cclculation refer to Section 18.J.3


Soil-thermal resistivitv of dry area
1.5

Km W

Protection from external heating

e.

g. from heating ducts

See

Section

16.

Table 16.1

Jointhg and earthnrg of metal sheaths or screens at both ends (see Section 21)
t'

Sire operarin8 coDdirions

for installarion in ground musl alwlys be calculrred using the two rating fcclors

thc specific grouDd thermrl resislivity nnd on thc .aring factor:


'?' Cabl.s touchiog io lrianSular

1<1

formation are classed

as

n/=r.4

"bunched"

/,

aod

since both faclors dcpeod on

Operating Conditions insulled in Ground 18.2


When laying cables in pipes the heat insulation effect
of the air layer be[ween cable and pipe must be
especially considered [18.2]. For installations in pipe
systems a reduction of load capacity by a lactor of
0.85 is recommended where an accurate calculation
is not justifiable (see Section 18.4.5).

Ambient Conditions
The ground temperature SE is taken as the temperature at installation depth with the cable under no
load condidons.

Figs. 18.2 and I 8.3 a indicate mean values of meaI red ground temperatuces belo',v a surface containing vegetation. The temperature at a depth of one
meter belorv a concrete or asphalt surface which is
s_ubjected to solar radiation (Fig. 18.3 b) may, during
. ) summer months, achieve a level 5 'C higher than
-rese measured values. Calculations rvith lower temperatures than 20'C as given in the tables should
not be made unless such a quantity is proved by
mcirsurements during thc summer months. In dcscrt
areas the temperatures can be somervhat higher than
those as shown in Fig. 18.4.
The soil-thermal-resistit,itv is largely dependant on
density and water content of the rclcvant typc of

[iIMXI

'c

:-;:';i:;:

UXUXXqI

c) Below grass roots

[ &[ xs

xv xwuu

b) Belorv asphalt surface


f ig. 18.3

Ground tcmperature in Erlungen 1966 (months I to XII)

6fcufd lemoerarure

Grcurl
,n

iJE

l)a

--

Extreme value
Mean value over 10 years

Fig. 18.2
Ground temperalurc at a depth of I m, extrente values
irnd mern value measured in Stuttgart-Hohenheim.
.lS0 m lbor e sea lcvel, rncdium soil

fu1ar.

April llla,r June July Aug Sept. 0cr.

Nov

Fig. 18.4
Ground temperatures ar virrious depths in Kurvlit
155

l8

Current-Carrying Capacity in Normal Operation

soil. With differing types of soil and the effect of


climatic conditions on water content (precipitation,
ground temperature) the level of the water table as
well as variations in cover of the surface and vegetation, both local and seasonal must be considered (see
Fie. 18.s) [18.3].
Due ro heat loss from the cable neighbouring cables
and other heat dissipating items the soil may dry
our. For the calculation of quantities in the tables
and to simplify tabulation the region surrounding
the cable has been distinguished between a moist area
and a dry area.

The reference value of 1.0 Km/W was selected for


the soil-thermal resistiuity qs of the moist region. This
quantily applies for normally sandy soil in a warm
moderate climate (see DIN 50019) with a maximum
ground temperature of 25 oC. Lower values are experienced in the colder seasons with sufficiently high
precipitation and more favourable types of soil.
Higher values must be selected for zones u'ith higher
ground temperatures, extensive dry periods or with
almost zero precipitation. If detailed data are not
available IEC 287 recommends quantitics which
should be used and these are reproduced in Table 18.3. Lower values of ambient can. where desircd,

Sci

i iir:rnal.resisiivit,i
l1

10

09:
0.8

be used for the calculation of load carrying capacity


for the winter period or during seasons of high rainIall.

Tables 18.15 to 18.21 provide rating factors for the


individual soil-thermal resistivity of the moist region. In ground which has a content of rubble, slag, ash,
organic material or waste etc. one must expect very
much higher values of soil-thermal resistivity. In such instances it may be necessary to take measurements
or to replace the soil in the vicinity ol the cable.

For areas of built-up ground of normal types of soil which are not compacted and where increase of density is not to be expected for a considerable time
the next higher value of soil-thermal resistivity from Tables 18.15 to 18.21 should be selected. The same
applies where a cable run is situated in the rooting
area of hedges or trees.

soil-thermal resistit'it'of 2.5 KmllI' \,as selected


.[or the dr;'region taking into consideration that. d is frequently used as a bedding material. For ceFain
types of soil or thermally stable bedding material
with compacted dense soil lower quantities can be achieved. For individual cases quantities of resistivity
and the resulting current-carrying capacity must be
calculated separately (see Section 18.4.6).

Prointitl' to or the crossing of district heating Iines


often results in a dangerously high temperature rise
in the cable. especially if the heating pipes are insufficiently insulated [18.4 to 18.5]. The continuous heat
loss from the heating pipcrvork can causc drying out
of the soil. Because of this. sufficiently larqe clcarances must be maintained betrveen cables and pipes

_
_

and also between cables.

District heating lines situated near to cables should


be insulated on all sides. Minimum clearances u-., h
are given in [18.6] are estimated on the basis that *
rhe cable is loaded to approximately 60 to 70% of
the load capacity and there is little grouping as is
common practice in utility suppll net$ orks. At crossovers or at areas of parallel runs rvith district heating
iines the current-carrying capacity will be reduced.
lnstalling the cables in sufficiently large pits at these
areas will increase their load capacity.

If insulation is arranged between the district heating


lines and the cable, this is not fully elfective and

*
-

tends to reduce the heat dissipation of the cable.

Fig. 18.5
Soil-thermal resistivity of virgin soil showing
seasonal varittion
(mcasured at various locations) [18.5]
1_56

To arrive at the measures required it is necessarl


ro refer to the questions in Table 16.1, Section 4.4.2
as *eil as to Fig. 16.1.

Operating Conditions, Installation in

Air

18.2

18,2.2 Operating Conditions, Installation in Air

Table 18.3
Recommended calculation quantities to IEC 287 [18.2]
a) Ambient temperatures at sea level

Climate

Ambient temperature
of ground at 1 m
depth

oI air

troplcal
subtropical
temperale

Type of Operation

Mini-

Max!

Mini-

Maxi-

mum

mum
"C

mum

mum

'c

25
10

55

25

40

25

15
10

.C
40
30
20

The quantities given in the table for installation in


air apply for continuous operation. Because of the
significantly shorter heating and cooling times compared with installations in ground in a public utility
type o[ operation the highest load must not exceed
the load capacity at continuous operation.

The load capacity in intermittent operation with


shorter duty cycle times can be calculated by reference to Section 18.6.
Installation Conditions

b) Soil-thermal resistivities

Soilthermal
resistivities

Km/W
continuously moist
regular rainfall
seldom rains
Lirtle or no rains

0.7
1.0

2.0

The quantities one obtains for the rated load capacitl1. apply for the arrangements shown in Table 18.4
for multicore cables and lor systems o[ three single-

core cables installed in free air. The quantities are


based on installation in free air with unhindered hear
dissipation by radiation and convection and with the
exclusion of external heat sources in an ambient air
temperature rvhich does not rise significantly. The
requisite practical conditions lor this are illustrared
in Table 18.4. Rating facrors for other installation
conditions and for grouping of cables are given in
Tables 18.2i and 18.24.

Thc load capaciries of multicore PVC cables can be


calculated by taking the quantities lor three core
cables from Table 18.6 and applying the rating factors iiom Table 18.25.
Where a cable is installed directly on a wall or on
the floor. the load capacity.. must be reduced using
a factor of 0.95. Factors for grouping are given in
T.rbles 18.11 and 18.11. Where applicable in these
tables the reduction factor ol 0.95 for installation
directl,'- on a rvall has rlready been taken into account.
The thermal resistance of the air in respect of a cable
installed in free air can be calculated by ret'erence
to Section 18.4.2. 81' using the design data to Section 18.2 it is not necessarl,to know the air-themalresistance.
Ambient Conditions

The quantities given in the tables for installation in


air are based on an air (emperature of 30 "C. For
other air temperatures the raiing factors in Table

t57

l8

Currcnt-Carrying Capacitf in Normal Opcration

Table

18.{

Opcrating conditions. installed in air

Rcfcrcnce opcrating condit iotts


lo elaluate the rated currcnt /,

Sit

c opcroting cottrJitiorts

and calculation of current-carrying capacit)'

I.: I,nf

Type of operation

Continuous operation from tables for installalion in air

I us ta I lo

iott condit ions

Arrangement:

o
e

singie-core d.c. cable

3 single-core cables in

3-phase system side

by side u'ith clearance equal to cable dia.

3 single-core
bunched

cables

Rating factors for

/n
\9

1 multi-core cable

Load capacity in intermittent operal.lon


to Section 18.6

multi-core cable to Table 18.25


grouping to Tables 18.2i and

18.2-1

YM
tdldl

in 3-phase sl"stcm

"

Installation in frec air i.e. unhindcrcd heal


dissipation by:
cable spaced arvay from u all. floor or ceiling
cables side by side with
spacing minimum twice diamcter,
cable runs above one another
\'ertical spacing twice cable diamcter.
minimum between layers of cablcs 30 cm
Arnhient conditions

Air temperature

30

Rating factors for

'C

Sufficiently large and ventilated rooms in which


the ambient temperature is not noticeably increased
by losses from the cables

differing ambient tcmperatures


to Table 18.21
grouping to Tables 18.13 and 18.24
Load capacity whcn installed
in channcls or tunnels to Seclion 18.5
Load caoacitv to Section 18.4.2

Protected from direct solar radiatron etc.

Jointing and earthirrg of metal sheath or screens at both ends (see Section 21)
rr Cablcs touching in triangular formalion arc classcd

158

as

"bunched"

'

it is neccssary to assumc an ltnbicnt dir temperirture for installing cables in air. provided that
Where

18.2.3 Project Design Tables

no higher valucs are known tiom expcricnce or fiom


mcasurcment. the tbllorvins are uscd:

The Tables 18.2 and 13.4 with the reference operill.ing


condirions and other diflcring conditions can be uscd
as a guide lor project design.

"c

Unheated cellar rooms

20

Normal climate rooms


(unheated in summer)

25'C

Factorv bavs- work rooms ctc.

30'c

The above ambient temperatures are typical tor mid


Europeln locations.

Pr6ject Design Tablcs 18.2

Tables 18.5 to 18.14 give quantities o[ load capacity


ofcables, i.e. rated currents f, based on specific operating conditions.

For conditions other than these specific operaring


conditions the rating factors for these are included
in Tables

8.1

5 to 18.25.

Temperaturcs exceeding the relerence calculation


o'antity of l0 "C may well be experienced in rooms
:,.
-.h inadequate protection tiom solar radiation, insut'ficient ventil3tion or rooms contlining machincs
or plant having a high heat dissipation erc.

1er

_
^
-

certain conditions the heat loss from clbles


i..oy itself lead to an increase in ambient air temperature. This applies mainly to cable trenches. ducts.
channcls or tunnels (see Section 13.5).

If the air temperature in encloscd rooms is incrcuscd


by the heat loss from the cables (e.g. in cable
trenches, cable trays etc.) the rating llctors in Table
18.22 for different air temperatures, together with
the factors for grouping must be applied.

Other heat inouts. e. s. solar radiation. must be considered or prevented by the use of covers (sce Scction 18.4.2). Ifcovers are used, however. the air circulation must not be hindered. A calculation of load
capacity under conditions of solar radiation can be
made by reference to Section 18.4.2.

159

l8

Currcn t-Carrying Capacity in Nornral Opcration

Table

18.5

uolu:0.6lt k\'

Load capacity, installcd in grorrrrl

Insulation material

l\{ass-imprc!natcd papcr

Metal sheath

Lead

Designation

N(A)
KBA

Standard

DIN VDE

Pvc

XI-PE

Aluminium

Lead

N(A)KLEY

N(.4.)K.A.

N(A)YY
N(A)YCWY

N(A)YY

DIN VDE O]7I

O:Js

NYKY

N(A)2XY

DIN VDE

DIN VDE

0272

0265
30

Pcrmissible conductor temperature

'c

70
I'

Arrangement

t_7\,

\1r., ir\:,r9

.o- J\:,)('
(:,(.

'c

:)

"c

90

f_7\e

&

an z':\

l1

11
35

:l

t-/t, o

q7\:r'

&

c)(

Copper conduc!or
nominal crosssectional area

nml

Load capacitl in A

il

t6

70

5l

1.1
.++

90

68

56

1.5
l.l

t0
t6

l5
l5

50
70

95

;.-

:,,

161

175

191

201

ll0

110

t0l
3.15

rtl

.
t

:0i

t5r

150

t8J

199

i_r1

t9

-167

379
.1:6

.10:

115
533

r168

468

603

6r 0

571

665

603

i9i
194

507

567

400

602

6-s4

500

Alu

til

237

387

571

:00

162

:94

43'l
533

169

r06

r85
300

i*o

192

150

:40

i:s

i2

160

.t

364

111
?81

t8l

l6
68

7i

90

ll6

9?

1)'l

1]l

11'l

l _'17

r6l

57

165

t95

137

:96

l3i
t:8

195

:i0

222

19:

l-:9
ts7

?32
136

)72

l-i6

t82

175

428
483

4t9

J99

l5l

561

6i7

lt6

166

199

143

529
986
1125

{64

18l

561

514

542

6i2

600

621
698

730
823

il3

l3l

t6l
:31

ili

-161

lq

30

5',

55

6l

]]7

1ts

l7i

)l

ls

t06
:J9
:i65

s2

101

107

.10

53

98

151

l8
6l

:te

86

ed

ll1

I 1,i

r.1l

1.19

t7s

175

:05
:51

-'i:7

.r02

t0i

J8l

ll

2i9
i10

109

rl
11

r:il
l1

l0
-16

i50

-i.16

l-il

618

i90

i96

.16

701

141

419
521
587

61,-

175

,109

Ito

sl9

-i-13

931

i80

60i

1073

663

t123

669
748

689

78r
38'

inium conductor

nominal crosssectional arca


Load capacity in A

mm2
25

103

35
50

124

135

'70

1.18

l6t

182

197

95
r20

?18

150
185

281

249
320

240
300

400

48r

500

Table for
rating
factors

"
tt

17'l

lll

118

\27

r5r

:12

112

151

r79

r53

r32
t51

16J

:82

176

r86

218

r9t

t0l

l3r

:1r

::i

t6r

1.10

325

339
388
435

361

494

308

406
446

5?8

363

412

178
421

49r

654
165

4't 5

196

529

873

104

99

1gz

r25

r35

155

I9

119
184

160

::9

r95

r84
222

236
268

2t'3

22r

213

ioJ

i09

252

265

301
141

345

283

389

322

297
335

398
449
520
58?

119
503
573

313

388

421

435
496
552

r,

158
188

4E3

2't0

562

18.15
18.10

18.17
18.18

r8.19

18.20

:54
:85

:8r
3l

332
316

479
543

299
340

308
350

.108

637

40t

408

41

494

72r

162

53

512
@9

832

455
526

531

61

601

699

949

18.18

18.19

18.20

18.21

18.20

18.17
18.18

36

r-

18.r5
1E.19

Cablc ia 3-phas. oDcratron


Load capaciry in d.c. sysrerns

Reference operaring conditions and guide for site operating conditions see Table 18.2.

r60

271

18.15

't8.t7

19

r66

311

297

l6

r8.21

18.20

| 8.20

18.17

t8.t8 l8.l

Load Capacity Installcd in GroundiAir 18.2

18.6 Load capucity.

installed in air'
PvC I'

.ttion material

\llss-i

rl shefth

Lcad

Aluminium

Inallon

N(A) N(A)K,\
KBA

N(A)KLEY

prcgnirtcd pirpcr

Jiard

DIN VDE O:5J

rissible con_ortempcfirturt:

s0

XLPE
Leud

N(A)YY

N(A)YY

NYKY

N(A)2XY

DIN VDE

DIN VDE

N(.{)YCwY
DIN VDE (]:7I

O]72

0265

"c

ngemqnr

t\e
.nat

=0.61t kv

L'ol U

r-0 "C

.,I

&

:r

^,,-\| @

\9\:,/\:

"c

90
,:I

t-v\e

\:

/n/iL
(, A/.n
\-7\-r' \, \_7\e \: :./

\,

\119\'

)ss-

.onal areir
Loxd cirFrci!y in A

t6

i5

t0

t;
_i;

i't
tl0

t;s

169

203

:ll

t59
:99

;., ;,,

r68

t55
3r2

io:

{3

i9

00

l.l0

ltJ

l0i

li9

166

r99

r68

:00

ti9

251

199

:69

306

36r

ll0 tl i
173

JT

.li9

i0+

5.1

.ll2

,:.13

415

500

.103

.163

397

1t'9

57i

150
+02

570
654

6i8

.r7.1

533
611

/JJ

912
10:3

893

53

712
628

522
5.r5

594

6r9

o)/

126

134

309

786

lrl
ji

S9

l;6
:;l
{61

61:

i0'l

Jt

60
s0
r06

Irr

359
1000

:0

t5

t0

27

3.1

2'1

t5

.17

3'7

.ls

51

66

7S

l0i

s9
r13

:06
:61

il.1

)il

i6l

19.l

+l
jj

.l-+

51

7l

1)

1i

96

l;l
:ll

72

96

l-r0

l0l
li9

160

r70

166

r9i

i38

211
305

108
265

159
202

361

.ll2

lr3
.11

ll

ll

111

2ll

i6

t53

::3
;0{

132

.137

i5i

381

3:l

559

J07

438

6.13

+69

_\07

779
902

551

606
697

7.19

1070
t2.16

116

816
933

10r8

131
163

l]]

13r

r63

106

l.r7

t6l

:00

139

:05

li.l

323

231

t5l

ilJ

3'7'7

210

196

308

34r

366
:1:0

395

-136

.ri 6

-t3-l
5.19

590
673

+i6

181

560

657

3r7

563

7J9

940

492

57

til

211

t:3

t5

ll

r06

l.l5

1t-6

-ll

:.1

t3

169

t:.1

ll

l2

60
50

159

S.5

oo
s9

D7

:01

tsl

i36

il

13.5

:i
i1
ll

6.i8

ill
364

inium conductor
inal cross-

ioru

t'

rea

Load capacity in A
39
103

lJl
165

130
157
193

120
488

33

I tJ

136

t.l0

t66

r95

231

I r-6
221

ri8

102

2'7

ll0

294

l7l

:0:

190
221

210

119
291
333
384

153

238

lE4

2'1'1

323

390
450

272

116

328
370

361

23r

252

131

Jl+

363

112

3:0

239

320

5i5

3i2

489

.184

5r5

733

194
589

548
627

548

623

428
503

ltt

3i9

613

669

06/

for

666

't'16

18.22

tl 18.24

18.23

18.24

iablc id 3-phas4 opemaion


capacily in d.c. syslcms
-)ad
tlucs up to 2l() mrnr harmonizcd

160

I -.18

23'7

718

)les
nq

l7-l

343

366
I

9l

1.15

283

201

233
267
310

l]3
113
155

| 5.r

191

33
107
130

157

377

433
523
603

t00

502

460

605

{35

530

699
830

501

642

592

966

749

t8.22
1E.23

18.24

r8.23

548
647

i35
6i5
798

916

18.22

18.24

18.24

18.23

'r f^'.i. r.--.--,.tr for grouping


io CENELEC

lerence operating conditions and guide for site operating conditions see Table 18.4"

161

l8

Currcn t-Carrying Capacitl,in Normal Opcration

Table
I

18.7 Load capacity. installcd

nsulation matcrial

in ground

uol u =3.616

Mass-impregnated paper

kv

PVC

\,1etal sheath

N(A)KA

Designation

DIN VDE

Standard

N(A)K

N(A)YFcY,J
N(A)YSY,)

EY

DIN VDE

0255

70

Permissible

0271

"c

conductor temPerature
Artansement
Copper cortductor

nominal crossiectional area (mm:)

Load cupacity in A

l5
l5

140

,\0

198
:.13

to/

'70

)91

95

175
?01

t< I

170

1J+

239

162
191

191

)37

l0l

)u+

184
123

t45

120
150
185

371

13'7

438

192

1.10

.+90

i08

561

300
400
500

550

7'l

oJl

655
732

6t9
i09

705

t6i

ji2
600

to/

106

;;;

t26

1i9

158
187

::l

]79

130

lo

ll9

16,1

3 t'9

,r00

275
JIJ
J)!

137

391

.188

,18

541

i2:

60'l

56-1

666

603

"12

11A

780

lwttinium cottduct or
nominal crosssectional area (mm2)

1.16

-'r

190

r89
t28
166

i6.+
396

460

rl78

505

518
587

536
605

560
610

,1

Load capacity in A
108

25
35
50
70

103

182

189

95

118
250

-JO

270

221

)51

301

307
343

J+l

385

398
449
520
588

447

388

501

434
495
552

129

156

125

85

149
184

185

320

226
256
291
329

240

312

384

300

4t9

400

481

110
150

281

500

503

570

226

:68

)t!
638

283
321

135
160
196

5.1

11't

147

178

174
213

18:
220
260

165
297
335

292

243

337

310

Tables for

225
256
286
324

287
116
355

409

425
488

457

509

18.1 5

raung
factors

"

three

corc

18.19

tr

single corc

Reference operating conditions and guide for site operating conditions see Table 18.2.

to/

Load Capacity Installcd in Ground/Air

Table

18.8 Load clpacity,

Insulation material

18.2

LtnlU=3.616 kY

installcd in arr

ivlass-impregnated paper

Metal she'.lth

N(A)K.\

Designation

Standard

DIN VDE

(A)K LEY

N(A)YFGY
N(A)YSY:'

DIN VDE

0255

70

Permissible

"

O27I

"c

conductor temperature
Arrxngement

l' .per conductor


nomlnal crosssecrio nal arel 1mm:)

2\

Loud caprLcity in A
5

1ll

I +_)

157

173

ll0

297

t97

222

toJ

-i55
+06
+56

271

Ji

217

3rl

170

+lJ

l5

1i9

164

r33

r6l

105

t52

170

t00

t67

196

tJl

l0l

tJo

153
03

)0

169

132

20.1

70

212

22'l

257

95

259

!to

173

_t

301

lr0

lt-i

_o+

l:0

i 6.r

+31
491

t0i

_.t,i6

_r49

10.1

565

100

163

-5ll

150
185

240
300
400
500

1t1

305

J++

l9.r

:+15

465

.191

570

669

>rl

554
653

654

i63

+/J
5i9

5+5
611

731

900

622

7)3

-122

740

892

1016

308

783

608

6.1

|i9

Alutninium conductor
nominal crosssectional area (mm:)
5

Ib)

q5

1ll

i6l

588

127

480

6.15

,13

)+/

565

643

109
133

t29

152

158

157

8.l

t22

176

t99

t67

t97

23'l

153

249
283

183

205
737
27?

240
278

215

3t7

280
323
365

324

373

JIJ

364

414

283

384

432
494
587

483
539
618

335

520

447
514
619

597

7t7

668

684

290

201

.)

234

150
185

268
308

240

365

300
400
500

5.r

.r06

))J
bi)

1tl

97

t17

131

70

Jlo

Load capacity in A
89
109

,{

I 7.1

436
485

385
413
529

372

tU)

!') \

723
828

498

Tables for

101

187

246

384
450

135

lo+

1i8

205
210

25r
290

217
318

327

315
444

319
434
)l /

505
587

18.22

rating
factors

18.23

"

lltcc

coae lr singlc core

!r

tcapcraturc 'l for grouping


Reference operating conditions and guide for site operating conditions
for air

see

Table 18.4.
163

lo \-ulrcrlL-\_ilIIy

Table

lg \-<11-,dLrL-\ t i\uIllldr \./l,utdLloIl

18.9 Load capacity.

uolu = 6lt0 kv

installcd in grorrrrrl

lnsulation matcriul
Metal sheath
N(A)YSEY

Designation

''

N(A)2XSY

N(A)2XSrY

N(A)YHSY,'

Standard

DIN VDE

DIN VDE

0255

O27I

DIN VDE

0273

DIN VDE

0273

Permissible concluctoa temperature

Arraneement

Coppcr conductor
nominal crosssectional area

Load c!prcir) in A

mm:

:i
li

15r
166

I7._

]l

195

tt0

70

lt3

169

-t0.

95

ls6

110
150

-il5

161

-1ln
.10J

164

JO5

50

:.1()

.19-.-

r8i
155
512
581

140
300
,100

528
593

:,,

665

56i
62(
61(

7i9

500

,lluninium conductor
nominal crosssecttonal arca

Load capacity in A

mml
25

91

l5

110

50
70

r32

130
155

150
178

174

r50

r69

181

165

r90

1r7

211

183

:07

2:0

v)

100

727

259

)49

19

229
259
295

259

291

2't9

:-18

146
173

16l

r20

296

l8l

308

217

i06

125

i6i

316
358

420
468
514
572

116
469
532
599

150
185

240
300
400
500

Tables
ratrng
factors

190

329

370

343
389

384
433

428

449

50r
566

546

179
610

107
?37
166
302
350
395
451

3.r3
395

387
464

408
465

490

501

for

rr thrcc core
2' singlc core

Reference operating conditions and guide for site operating conditions see Table 18.2.

164

t6l

151

177

111

19.1

:19

l3F
313
35(
394
.15

_
i

50?

55!

62:-

18.15
'18.1

!'

Load Capacity Installed in Cround/Air 18.2

',c

t8.10

uolu=6lt0kv

Load clpacity, installed in oir'

aoon malen:rl

\lass-imprcgnated papcr

.rl sheath

N(A)KLEY

3natron

N(A)2YSY

N(A)2XSY
N(A)2XS2Y

DIN VDE O:7J

DIN VDE O:73

N(A)YHSY:'
DIN VDE

DIN VDE O]7I

O]55

nissible con-

lr

temperature

lngemenl

ninal cross-

.!onal

area

Lord capacity in A

t9l
r70

:7'l

tl

_r.15

l-ss

lt3

29"1

J31

.130

ilt

-i

6ll

l5i

'116

+90

811
901

571

37

ls6

1006

ninium conaluctor

Illinal cros5-

.tional area
Load capacity in A

lcs

ll3

l17

168

141

i5

irt

211

t71

168

190

2-s

:16

219
249

i00

l-19
28.1

205
231
268

286

394

326

307

334

.169

386

382

536
639
729

522
592

336

365

385

418
196

156

173

178

lr

165

222

:69

:00

:69

:31
162

ll0

l0r

398

1ru

for

31'l
3 t-7

3.18
.135

469

513

53.1

652

603
680

'141

838
18.22

ung

Lhtcc

ll3

corc

singlc corc

tmperaturc
-t rr ai!
grouping

efe:ence operacing coodirions and guide for site opcratrng condtnons

rc!

aadte

id.r.
165

l8

Curren t-Carrying Capacity in Normal Operation

Table l8.l

Load capacity. inst:rllcd in groattrl

Insulation material

url

Mass-impregnated paper

u:

t2120

kv

LPE

Metal shearh

Standard

N(A)KLEY

N(A)KA

Designation

DIN VDE

N(A)2YSY

DIN VDE

0255

N(A)2XSY
N(A)2XS2Y
O:73

DIN VDE

0273

90'c

Permissible

conductor temperature
Arrangement
Copper conductor

rominal crosssectional area lmmr)


,t)
35

50
70
95
110
150

Load capacity in A
123
148

126

r39
166

151

151

r84

118
165

I /O

175

180

196

119

191

108

?:0

221

264

168

:98

10.1

JJO

143

185

380

388

240
300
400
500

140
496
559

<:

169

287

i6i
i66
1<r

r8l

179

519

156

511
591

5i9

i78

618

650

661

689

505
563
615

lutniniuttt cotlduct or
nominal crosssectional area (mmz)

102

119
155
399

_1S

22.3

liO

273

104

3t5

t?5

i73

368

-10I
.107

410
.160

463

,r9 8

196

534

569

556

601

692

674
750

633
686

520

556

189

ia_1

.1t0
478

198

156

Load capacity in

25

97

35
50

tr7
140

70
95
120
150
185

205
233

:o1
298

240

346

300
400
500

391

448

208
237
267
304
355
403
471
534

,{

r28
152

127

139

151

loo

Ol

181

.."
I t.t

irt

186

185

203

197

??1

211

231

250

221

240

tJ)

trtJ

252

28.1

250
280

270

_o/

182
3?0

291

198

358

Jl)

):>

365

373
406
450
489

223
185

323
377

425

463

407

491
555

529
588

462
513

JOZ

l5l

196

391

123

421

440
499
567

473

474

521

538

566

579

606

630

Tables for

rating
factors

Reference operating conditions and guide for site operating conditions see Table 18.2.

166

327
369

287
320

511

18.15

18.19

Load Capacity lnstalled in Ground/Air 18.2

T.rble

uolu=t7l20kv

18.12 Load c:rplcity. installcd in trir


Nlass-impregnated paper

lnsulation material

X LPE

Metal sheath

.\luminium

Designation

N(A)KLEY
DIN VDE

Standard

0255

N(A)2YSY

N(A)2XSY
N(A)2XS2Y

DIN VDE 027]

DIN VDE O]73

Permissible

90

"c

conductortemperature
Arransement

pper condltL'tor
nominal cross-

sectional area (rnm:)

Load capacity in A
106

109

119

ll6

t):

l+5

165

JU

ll8
l5l

1i8

/)

199

70

t9?

196

218

l-19

I5

2-+0

95
120
150

232

li8

16l

ls9

272

l5r

299

i09

:66
i08
i50

10.1

_or+

66

l8l

185

3.+0

152

.101

+i6

i00
3i9
i87

+11

438

240

397

5i6

4,\ 3

.+70

300
400
500

149

171

5.13

608

515

513

552
623

645

510
592

517
627

671

733

198

199

l9

172

661

lJ+
161

16.1

193

199

19.1

t91

ti0

li8

,,:;

137

t96

-i.17

58

.+:0

tl9
_t

295
3.10

-]

J3i

198
.166

5.r0

504

)Jl

6ll

5r5

589

627

718

586

665

715

dlJ
904

817

319
921

757

101

Ahuniniutn conductor
nominal crosssectional area (mm:)

Load capacitv in A

J)

,J

l0l
:0
70

123
153

136

2
170

118
155
194

l]6
152
189

tt,
189

179
223

it,
210

ll0

185

207

237

230

271

2t2

239

274

2b:

tb)

3l?

150
185

273

.)

l:.

295
JJ+

299

351

275

.5+2.

400

485

248

sz)

)/J

300
400
500

371
440

5t2

503

589

654

lll

358

425
484

/)

360
410
483
546

388
495
547

128
378

406

471

.+oJ

535

652

536

604

740

olL

683

838

Tables for

18.22

ratlng
factors

18.23

It for

afu

EmFcralurc .r

for groupiog

Reference operating conditions and guide for site operating conditions see Table 18.4.

167

l8

Currcnt-Cqrrying Capacitl in Normal Opcration

Table

uolu:

18.13 Load capacity. installed in ground

8/.30

kv

XLPE

M rss-rmprcgnatcd paper

Insulation material

Metal sheath

N(A)KLEY

Desisnation

DIN VDE

Standard

N(A)]YSY

DIN VDE

0255

N(A)2XSY
N(A)2xSrY
0273

DIN VDE
90

Permissible
conductor temperature

0273

"c

Arrangement

.--opper contluctor

nominal crosssectional area

Load capacity in A

mm'

207

112
169
109

li2

11'l

152

35
50

138

i0
9i

16-1

156
187

168

155

t0l

18i

196

150

tl9

140

180

l0l

2i1

18.1

1tl

120

28r

187

il9

1i0

Jlo
Jfo

3?4
-10 /

i58

-18

-104

,1t5

'168

501

516
603
612

557

185

.128

210
162

300
400
500
A

luntittiurtt

521

483
,i

58

otrJ
con ducl

,.1

627

686

t88

6.1

ll0

-: -1+

l:6

151

257
106

18.1

116

tl9

-i06

_r37

319

341

-j81

i53

t86

+lo

366

135

4i0

503

_t

6,.j

.11

-1.19

165

415
468

532

54'l

576

-i03

.r90

463

56-1

546
594

50i

608
684

641

o-1j

541

703

toz

768

697

or

nominal crosssectional area

Load capacity in A

mm:

110

128
182

178

154
19t

163

r80

110
157
195

199

)22

211

lJ)

215

226

238

264

t56

219

r68

256

270

299

290

130
371

1)t

355

366

400

426

161

394

4'19

516

438
476

545

)l-!

614

638

121
145

35
50
70

107
127

110

lol

95

193

163
196

120
150
185

219

252

279

302

240

J..t

287
336

Jlo

J9J
399

308
355

285
319
JOI

300
400
500

366

380
445
504

415
480

448

396

510

541

)b/

419

131

368

274

449
498

341
396

Tables for

factors

Reference operaring conciitions and guicie for site operating conditions see Table 18.2
168

527
587

t75

196

ll8

1.,

322

18.1 5

18.19

Load Capacity lnstallcd in Cround'.\ir 18.2

Table

l8.l{

LInlL'= l8/30 kv

Load Capacity. installcd in atl'

lnsulation material

XLPE

N{ass-imprcgnatcd plpcr

ivletal sheath

N(A)K LEY

Designation

DIN VDE

Standard

0255

N(A)2YSY

N(A)]XSY
N(A):XS2Y

DIN VDE 027]

DIN VDE
90

Permissible

O]73

"c

conductor lemperature
Arrangemcnt

Copper contluctor

nominal cross-

*\tional

area

Lord crpucity in A

.l_

119

35
_i0

li5

150

161

132

16t
100

199

ll2

t"l3

lttS

to-)

100

j.18

1la

199

J++

+00

.)t+

I i.+

i88

+o

+:)
.169

640

,<.ll

t6

603

t79

183

l0l

213

95

216

721

-:+o

2'77

120
150
185

246

t< i

?78

188

115
366

313

370

+lJ

i85

437

48.1

199

543

591

610

300
400
500

470

512
576

1+tt

ll0

70

240

-\+

ll8
i6l

t17

t'9

199
362

il3
.18i

510

507
590

416
469
516
630

161

590

666

71'7

526
572

b/)

823

812
904

929

1011

763

821

t't

5-10

615
713

Aluminiunt conductor

nominal crossctional area

Ain'

Load capacity in A
95

35
50

110

v)

140
168

1't2

120
150
185

192
217

224

240

289

9?.

'0

300
400
500

lo

115

ll5

r39

177

1i6

Lt)

llo

139

209

249

218
747

-t) I

221
252
289

239
269
303

302

343

384

393
469
538

517
588

198

283

t32

351
377

392

501

450
499

137

iu

232

2 t'0

111

281

rt8

268

JIJ

)!)

378

302

351

365

346
408

.101

418
494

485
577

535
605
ooJ

564

649

180

654
835

Tables for

18.22

rating
factors

18.23

'r

for air

tcmpcalurc r, for grouping

Reference operating conditions and guide for site operating conditions see Table 18.4

t69

l8

urrcnt-Carrl,ing Capaciti in Nornlal Opcration

Table

18.15 Rating factor.^ for installation in ground (nor applicable to PVC cablcs with {.;n'U:6/10 kV)

Pcrmissible

Cround

con-

alulc

Soil-thcrmal rcsistivity

tcmpcr-

Kn

0.7 Km,W

1.0

Load factor

Load factor

1.5 Kmi \V

?.5 KmTW

Load factor

Load factor

ductor
tsmper-

aturc

'c

'c

0.50

1.24

r0

1.23

l5

1.21

:0

90

.19

0.60 0.70
1.11
I .19

1.17
1.15

0.85

0.50 0.60 0.70

1.13

Lt6

1.1 I

1.08
1.06

1.l l

1.03

1.09
1.07

1.09
1.07
1.05

r.00

r.05

r.0l

1.01

1.00

1.07
1.05

25

i0
i5
t0
1.!'7

i0
10

1.li

t0

1.13
1.10

li

0.85

0.50 0.60 0.70

0.35

1.00

'.00

l.l8
l.1

1.00

r.07

| .03

1.00

1.05
1.01
1.00

L0l

0.98

0.99
0.96

0.9 5

0.9s
0.95

0.9.1

0.91

0.90
0. s8

0.90 0.ss 0.s7 0.8i 0.3.1


0. s7 0. s6 0. s.1 0.81 0.8l
0.3: 0.30 0.7s

0.78
0.75
0.12
0.68

1.00

0.99

0.83
0.85

l.:3 1.:0 1.14 1.0s t.1l t.t0 1.07


l.l 7 1 .11 1.06 I .10 L07 1.0i
t.t9 1.1 5 1 .09 1.0i 1.07 r.05 1.01
t.l7 l.l 3 L07 1.01 1.05 1.0_'i 1.00
1.11

t.0l L00

:5

l0

ti

0.97
0.95

1.0-l

0.9i

0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96


0.97 0.96 0.95 0.93
0.95 0.93 0.92 0.91
0.92 0.91 0.90 0.88

0.89
0. s6

0.99
0.96

0.9 5

0.94

0.9:

0.91

0.93

0.39
0.s6

0.

ti8

0.8 7

0.

s6 0.8.1 0.32

sJ

0.

s-l

0.

s0

.01

0.91

0.9'l 0.97

0.s5

0.

0.95

0.89

0.86
0.84

0.98
0.95
0.91
0.90

0.97

0.94
0.91

0.91

0.91 0.91 0.91


0.92 0.90 0.33
0.s9 0.37 0.85
0.31
0.'17

0.7s
0.75

.t9

Ll:

10

.2'1

15

r.25

:0

1.18

.19
1.17
I .1.1

r.09

1.rl

1.03

t.0J

t.00 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.95

1.06

t.

1.08

t.06

t.0l

0.97

1.10

I .0_'l

1.08

1.06

1.0r

r.06

l.0l

0.99
.00 0.96

0.9.1

1.08

t.0l

1.00

0.91

0.9i 0.38 0.it7

0.9-1

0.89

1.t5

:5

i0

.0-l

0.91

0.35

0.85

0.61

0.84 0.81 0.80


0.77

35

1.:3

1.21

10

1.:9 114 t.:0

r5

1.26

l0

1.r6

l.1l

1.09

1.09

l.

l.09 1.06

1.02

1.09
r .06

1.06

0.98

r.03

1.03
1.00

r.03

1.00

0.97

1.22

1.18

1.1 I

06
1.04

l.:0

r.1 5

1.08

1.01

l0

0.9

0.82 0.79
0.78 0.76
0.7 4 0.72

25

l0
l5

\-

0.68

0.

ti6

0.1).
0.68
0.63
0.59

0.96 0.95

0.91

0.89

0,82

0.38

0.8 5

0,78

0.9 5

0.91
0.90
0.86

0.84 0.82

0.74

0.92

0.37

0.86 0.8.4 0.83


0.It2 0.1{ I 0.79

0.30
0.71

0.73

0.70

0.75

0.12.

0.70

0.9J 0.s9

0..s

0.93

0.91

0.90 0.88

0.65

40

20

0.71

0.97
0.94
0.90

35

5
10
15

0.75

t.04 r.00 0.99 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.92 0.85

25

60

0.s2
0.7s

0.96 0.9i 0.9l 0.9l 0.E9 0.83


0.93 0.9: 0.9l 0.38 0.s6 0.79
0.90 0.s9 0.s7 0.s5 0.s3 0.76

40
65

0.8 r

0.6-l

JO

70

0.5 ro 1.00

0.60
0.55

1.30
1.28
1.25

l.:8 t.:4
1.26 l.l1

1.1'l

l.:J
1.2r

1.19

t.l

1.0,1

t_to

r.09

1.01

.l0 l.t5 1.r2

L07

1.12
1.09
1.06

| .09

l 0l

1.09
1.06
1.03
1.00

1.03

1.00

0.9'l 0.92 0.s6 0.85

1.06

0.93

1.05
1.02

0.9'1

0.98
0.95

0.93
0.90

0.88

1.00

0.82

0.99
0.96
0.92
0.89

0.81

0.98 0.96
0.94 0.91
0.91

0.87
0.83
0.19

0.39
0.86
0.82
0.78
0.71

40

0.94 0.92
0.90 0.88
0.87 0.8.1
0.83

0.80

0.19
0.75
0.70

0.76
0.72
0.67

0.8.1

0.80
0.7 6
0.72
0.67

0.62
0.57
0.51

For mass-impregnated cables in line with Section 18.1 for temperatures below 20oC, an increase of load capacity
is only permitted under certain conditions in line with the quantities for the permissible temperature rise in Table 18.1 .
The radng

170

factor,

must only be used together with factor

f,

in Tables 18.17 to 18.21.

Rating Factor

Table 13.16 Raring

llctor/,

round

Arrxn,.lemcnt

a lb

!cmpcrature

lc

Numbcr of

^t^.,
)ys(ems L 3ores
I

'c
)

l0

li

t0

ll

for Installation in Cround

for installation in sround (rrrrt applicablc to PVC cablcs with L'oi Li=

6;

18.2

l0 kV)

Soil-thermill rcsistivity

0.7 Km W

1.0 Km.

Load fac(or

Lord facror

1.5 Km

Load factor

Load factor

to l.0

0.3 5

1.00 0.50

0.60 0.70

0.35

1.00 0.5

1.17 1.23 1. t6 1.09 1 . 1.+ l.l l r.09 r.0i


l.:9 l.t5 t.2l
1.07 1.12 L09 1.06 r.0l
1.17 l.2l l.l8 l.l I 1.0.1 r.09 r .06 1.0i 0.93
| .:.r l.:0
1.15 1.03 l.0l 1.06 1.01 1.00 0.95

1.00 0.99
0.97 0.96
0.9,1 0.93
0.90 0.39

0.98
0.95
0.91

0.96

0.94

0.9: 0.35

0.s7 0.36

0.3'l 0.33 0.30

0.50 0.60

0.70 0.3 5

1.00 0.50

0.60 0.70

l.lt

t.0-:

1.00

J;
i5
l0

0.97 0.9l
0.9.1 0.s9

1.5 KmTW

0.91

0.39 0.31
0.37 0.8 5 0.7'1
0.38 0.3 6 0.3+ 0.31 0.73
0.9 3

0.90

0.71

0.69

0.3i 0.82 0.30 0.79 0.76 0.7i 0.6-l


0.i5 0.11 0.t0 0.i9
0.51

l.tl
l.:l

t0

l.:9
l.:6

t0

l.l9
t.:l Ll7

-l

ti

.20

1.17
1.15
l

1.11

l.l

1.08

.1l r.05

r.06 Lll
1.0i l.03

1.03

r.05

l.01

0.96

1.0i

r.0l

0.93

0.91

1.0i

L 0-j

0.9 5

0.97 r.03

0.99

0.99
0.96

0.99

0.96

0.91

0.

1.00

:5
t0

0.91
s3

0.90 0.3l

0.9i

0.9-l 0.9
0.92 0.91 0.39
0.90 0.s9 0.s? 0.36
0.36 0.8 5 0.8{ 0.3l

0.32
0.79 0.78
0.3

0.90

0.

0.3 7

0.3J 0.1

0.3l

0.31

s3 0.31

0.79

0.30 0.73

0.76

0.7l 0.61

0. ?6

0.7.1

0.71

0.70

0.67

0.68 0. i9
0.61 0.-ij

.15

0.r7

.10

l0

1.16

L:1

l0

l.l.l

l.l3

1.1J

t5

t0

l.ll l

.19

l6

r.0s

1.05

l.0l

0.9 7

1.00 r.05
0.96 L02
0.91 0.99

l.0l

0.99

0.9.1

l.l7 Ll0 t.0i

l.t{

1.07

1.11
1.09

1.01

1.0.1

0.96 0.9 r
0.96 0.9,t 0.lt7
0.99

0.96 0.9i

t5

i0

0.s9 0.31
0.36 0.30

0.91
0.39 0.33
0.36 0.3 5
0.9.1

0.90 0.39
0.87 0. s5

0.36
0.3 3

0.3+ 0.76
0.30 0. /-l

0.33

0.31

0.'79

0.7 6

0.31

0.79

0.17

0.75

0.71 0.6.1

0.78 o.'t'1
0.11 o.13

0.75

0.71
0.69

0.70
0.66

0.68 0_53
0.61 0.52
0.53 0.J6

0.3 2

0.71

0.64 0.61

35
.1{)

r0

r.l9

1.21

t5

1.

t3

t.lo
r.

r3

l.l5 l lt

| .07

0.99 1.05

t.0:

0.99 0.9+ 0.89 0.33 0.36

0.35

0.32

0.80 0.72

l.1 l

L04 0.96 r.02 0.99 0.96 0.91 0.85 0.34 0.83 0.31 0.78 0.'t6 0.67
1.09 r.0l 0.9i 0.99 0.96 0.9: 0.37 0.32 0.31 0.79 0.71 0.74 0.12 0.63
1.06 0.98 0.90 0.96 0.9: 0.89 0.3.1 0.78 0.1'l 0.7 5 0.73 0.70 0.67 0.57

:5

0.92

0.39

30

0.35 0.30 0.71 0.73


0.32 0.76 0.70 0.68

35

0.71

0.69 0.66
0.66 0.64 0.61
0.60 0.56

0.61 0.52
0.5 7

5
10
15

0.:9
t.22

1.17

1.19

r.l5 1.10
l.l2 l.07

1.17

:0

r.09

l.l_t

r.05 0.98 L03


1.02

0.99
1.04 0.96

25

t.00 0.91
0.97 0.9.1
0.9.1 0.90
0.E8 0.94 0.90 0.87
0.94 1.00
0.9r 0.91

0.92 0.37 0.86


0.89 0.33 0.32
0.35 0.79 0.78
0.81 0.7 6 0.74

0.90 0.37 0.33 0.73


0.79 0.?3

30

0.71

0.8,1

0.3

0.79
0.71 0.75
0.73 0.11
0.81

0.70 0.68
0.66 0.63

35

0.66
0.61

0.56

0.80

0.73 0.69

0.'16

o.'t3 0.65

0.72
0.68

0.69 0.60

0.63
0.58
0.52

0.60

40

0.65 0.54
0_.18

0.5.1

0.48
0.22

Arrangemcnt a

Arrungcment

- :e'"ooo or e*te
All

0..15

0.51 0.i3

.10

r0

0.68

0.38

t0
20

t-

0.71
0.71 0.63

@@

Arrangcment c

/:\ /n

/'a\
\, N' \-/

lTcm

clearances 7 cm

The rating

factor/, must only

be used together wirh rating

factor, in Tables 18.17 to 18.21.

t7l

l8

urrent-Carryrng Capacitl in Normal Opcration

18.17 Rating factor.t for installatiorr in ground.


Single-core cables in three-phasc systcm. bunched

Tabte

of

T-vpc

N unrbc

construction

0.7 Kmi

1.0

0.5

0.6i 1 ro

l8

30 kV

0.7

1.09

1.04

0.99

1.1

0.97
0.88
0.83

0.90
0.80

0.84

0.98
0.89

0.7 5

0.69

0.3J

0.19

0.71

0.65

0.7 6

0.6:

0.80
0.11

8
10

0.12
0.69

0.68
0.64

1.5 Km,

0.'l

r .05
0.91

1.13
1.00

2.5

Load factor

r.06

0.S.1

0.'t1

0.98
0.89

0.75

0.69

0.8.1

o.i 6

1.05
0.91

0.82

0.79

0.7l

0.6i

0.s0

0.1)

0.7 6

0.63

0.61

0.12
0.69

0.6.1

0.53

0.6 r

0.,i6

0.11
0.71
0.69

0.69
0.65
0.61

1.09

L03

r.02

0.90

0.t6

0.1'l

0.70

0.92
0.32

0.87
0.76

0.8i

0.94
0.81
0.78

0.7 3

0.66
0.61
0.59

0.81
0.78

0.56

0.70

0.56

0.70

0.73
0.70
0.66
0.63

0.67

0.i9

0.80
0.11
0.73

0.70
0.65
0.62

0.11

t.07

1.01

1.11

1.09

r.0l

l.00

0.s6

L02

0.94

0.87

0.75
0.70

0.90

0.91
0.82
0.17

0.76
0.70

0.92

0.33

0.76

0.s6

0.78

0.71

0.66
0.63
0.59
0.56

0.30
0.71

0.71
0.70
0.65
0.62

0.66

0.s2

0.71

0.67

0.6l

0.78

0.6J

i9

0.7.1

0.56

0.70

0.70
0.66
0.61

0.si

0.7i
0.70

0.

1.01

r.02

0.99

1.0.1

r.05

1.00

1.07

r.06

1.01

1.1 I

0.89
0.79
0.75

0.s4

0.97
0.89
0.84

0.91
0.81

0.s5

0.99

0.

0.90

s6
0.76

1.01

0.7 5

0.91
0.83

0.91

0.76

0.70

0.&5

0.1'l

0.71

0.86

0.73

0.71

0.65

0.61

0.71

0.58

0.^12

0.59

0.78
0.73

t0

0.68

0.61

0.5-i

0.69

0.71
0.70
0.65
0.62

0.64

0.66
0.63
0.59
0.56

0.81

0.68
0.64

0.11
0.69
0.65
0.62

0.66

0.7 5

0.80
0.77

0.s0

0.56

0.70

Mass-impreg4ated

0.94

r.00

1.06

0.91

0.85

0.6/l lo 18r30 kV

0.8.1

0.8r

0.7 5

0.97
0.90

1.04
0.92
0.82

r.01

0.88

0.99
0.93
0.87
0.84

0.99

0.95
0.88
0.79

0.97

cables

0.86
0.76

0.76

0.70

0.85

0.7'l

0.71

0.79
0.76
0.72
0.69

o.'12
0.69

0.6i

0.80

0.63
0.58
0.56

0.'11

0.73
0.70
0.65
0.62

0.69

0.82

0.65

0.71

0.70
0.68
0.64

0.68

0.6 r

0.5 5

0.78

0.7i

10

Load factor

All

0.8.1
0.7.1

0.62
0.58

0.64
0.61

Load fac(or

0.85

1.0

0.8 5

1.0

0.17
0.73

0.69

0.72
0.69

Load factor

0.94

0.87

0.?

0;t'l

0.67
0.62

0.56

0.67
0.62

0.6r
0.55

0.68
0.62

0.11
0.61

0.52
0.50
0.46
0.44

0.58
0.55
0.52
0.49

0.52
0.50
0.46

0.58

0.52

0.56
0.52
0.49

0.50
0.46
0.44

172

0.51

0.49

0.44

1.02
0.67

0.91

0.93
0.83

0.86

0.78

0.11

0.66

0.31

0.63

0.78
0.73
0.70

0.73
0.70
0.66
0.62

0.61
0.64

0. -i9

0.56

Load factor

0.52
0.50
0.46
0.44

0.87

0.7'l

8
10

r.08

r.01

0.59
0.56

0.93

0.71
0.61

0.58
0.55

r.l5

0.87

0.87

0.'71

0.64
0.60
0.57

0.94
0.78
0.68
0.63

0.93

0.56

l.0l
0.87

0.70
0.66
0.63

1.0

i9

0.57

0.7'l

0.85

0.

0.83
0.78

1.0

of

1.08
0.93

0.85

construclron

types

0.59
0.57

Lt0

0.9-l
0.86
0.82

0.69

0.6J

1.00

0.7.1

0.71

0.8 5

2
3

PVC cables
0.6/1 to 6 10 kV

0.7

1.1'l

0.61

0.99

0.6

1.01

0.66

r.02

0.5

0.86

0.69
0.65
0.61

0.90
0.80

0.7

1.07

o.'72

1.01

0,6

Km/w

0.91
0.82

0.70

10

r.00

0.'t 6

0.9 5

0.88
0.81

0.5

0.82

0.61

0.69

0.'l

0.8 5
0.7 5

0.i8
0.i6

0.7 2

Load factor

0.6

0.5

i0 kv

0.6

2
3

PE cables
6/10 ro 18

Km/W

Load factor

Load factor

XLPE cables

/cm

Soil-thcrmal resisli\ it]-

of
systcms

--

0.52
0.49

0.?r
0.61

0.56

0.7'l

0.76

0.59

0.56

Ratine Factor

/. tbr lnstallation in Ground lli.2

Table 18.18 Rating llctor/. for installation in ground.


Sinsle-core cables in three-phase s1-stem. bunched
T;"pe

of

Numbcr
systems

Soil-thcrmal rcsisnritv
0.7 KmlW

1.0

Load factor

Load factor

0.5

XLPE cables

!o i3ij0 kV

PE cables

i-

PVC cables

I to 6i 10 kv

Loird factor

0.7

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.5

0.6

0.7

1.09
0.98

0.91

1.0.+

1.05

1.00

l.l

t.0'1

l.0l

| .17

0.9.1

0.99
0.39

l.tI

.01

r.02

0.9i

t.0.1

l.06

0.9,1
0.91

0.37

0.31

0.9

0.3s

0.97

0.3:

0.31

0.73

0.91

0.

0.79

0.99
0.95

0.90

0.31

0.97
0.39
0.s5

0.90

.l

0.39
0.31
0.73

0.36

0.;9

0.33

0.39

0.s

0.75

0.90

0.91

0.3i

0.:6

0.1?

0.3 7

0.7 3

0.

0.;0

0.

0.70

0.s5

0.31

0.7-l

0.63

i.l

0.63

0.31

0.7

0.18
0.76

0.:l

t0

0.39
0.8fi
0.31

0.tl

0.s.1

0.71
0.70
0.68

0.s I

0.19
0.76

0.32
0.30
0.11

0.7 5

0.36

0.30
0.79
0.76

0.7J

0.99
0.89
0.s l
0.73

1.01

1.0?

0.97

0.91

s-l
0.31

0.

s.l
1

0.91

s8

r.0l

0.69

1.06

1.0i

l. t0

|.01

r.0l

0.97

r.01
0.90

t.09

0.39

L0l

l.li

0.9

1.00

r.00

t.06

0.93

0.91

0.9

0.3.1

0.3s

0.3l

0.97

0.

s9

0.sl

0.99

0.91

0.s.1

0.r3

0.9i

0.3 5

0.79

0.9 5

0.90
0.s6

0.39
0.37

0.sr

0.;5

0.75

0.91

0.3

0.;6

0.89
0.36

0.3 |

0.:.1

0.3 5

0.s0
0.7'l

0.7i

0.3.1

0.7l
0.;0

0.90
0.33

0.32

0.;9
0.;6

0.tI

0.63

0.32

0.71

0.68

0.31

0.75

0.73
0.7 6

0.99
0.39

1.0.1

r.05

I.00

1.07

t.06

1.01

l.t1

r.03

l.0l

0.96
0.33

0.90

r.0.1

0.91

1.06

0.98

0.91

0.3l

1.00
0.9?

0.3:

0.El

0.98
0.95

0.90
0.37

0.sJ

0.76
0.74
0.7 |
0.69

0.91

0.83

0.17

0.89
0.36
0.8+

0.31

0.i5

0.78
0.76

0.12
0.70

0.91

0.37

-l

0.9t

0.3.1

0.33
0.36

0.

si

0.30
0.79
0.76

0.7J

0.31

0.7.1

0.7:
0.;0

0.70
0.63

0.sl

0.:9

0.69

l.0l

1.02

0.97
0.94
0.9r

0.95
0.33

0.31

0.

r3

0.92

0.s5

0.79

0.97
0.93

0.91
0.39
0. s6

0.38
0.36

0.81

0.7 5

0.16

0.90

0.32

0.7.1

0.83

0.3.1

0_17

0.71

0.32

0.8:

0.75

0.69

0.38
0.35
0.83

0.81
0.73

r0

0.73
0.70
0.69

0.30

0.79
0.76
0.15

0.39
0.37

0.82

I
2

0.9,1

0.95

0.99

r.00

l.06

1.0.1

t.0l

.15

t.03

r.02

0.91

0.9i

0.9.1

0.39

r.00

r.05

0.91

0.91

0.37

0.3l

0.95

0.96
0.33

0.39

:l

0.91
0.33
0.30
0.76

0.99

0.90
0.37
0.36

0.3r

0.83

0.77

0.91

0.33

0.77

0.97
0.92

0.39

0.39

0.90
0.32
0.73

0.79
0.71
0.71

0.73

0.86
0.34

0.79

0.73
0.7 r

0.39
0.86

0.11

0.79

0.71

0.68
0.65

0.30
0.78
0.7 4
0.'12

0.7 r

0.81

0.37
0.35
0.82
0.80

0.73

0.i7

0.68
0.66

0.33
0.31

0.31
0.73
0.75
0.73

I
2

kV

0.6

Load fJctor

'les
tre 1 ro 18i30

0.5

2.5 KrnTW

L09

Mass-impreenated

0.7

I.5 KmTW

ro 13,30 kV

0.6

Km W

r0

0.6i

oI

construction

0.611

25cm

0.84

0.8 3

8
10

0.30
0.78

0.36
0.32

0.71

0.71

0.67
0.65

Load lactor

Load factor

Load lactor

0.85

1.0

0.85

l_0

0.85

1.0

0.85

1.0

0.37
0.75
0.67

0.94
0.82

0.94
0.83
0.14

0.87

0."14

0.87
0.75
0.67

0.64

0.70

0.64

0.71

0.&

0.60
0.59
0.56
0.54

0.67
0.65
0.62

0.60
0.59
0.56

0.67
0.65
0.62

0.60
0.59
0.56

0.61

0.54

0.61

0.54

constructiou

0.93
0.32

0.87

0.93

0.15

0.74

0.67
o.64

0.82
o.74
0.70

0.70
5
8

10

0.3.1

Load factor

Alle typcs of

0.76

0-79

0.67
0.65
0.62
0.60

0.60
0.59
0.56

0.54

o.67
0.65
0.62
0.60

0.30

0.7.1

0.72
0.68
0.66

u.t)
o.67

tt)

18 Currcnt-Carrying Capacrty in Normal Opcration

oooooo
Table

18.19 Rating factor/r for installation in eround.

--?g'
All Clcaranccs 7 cm

Single-core cables in three-phase systems side by side


Type of

Number of Soil-(hermal rcsisti\it!

con5truction

s,vstcms

0.7

Km/w

1.0

XLPE cables
0.6/ 1 to 18130 kv

0.7

0.6

0.1

0.5

1.01

1.00
0.87

I .18

0.94
0.85
0.80

1.05

0.'17

0.9i

0.73

0.90
0.87
0.34

1.08

r.05

0.99

1.01

0.9 3

0.86

r.03

0.92

0.34
0.80

0.i1

0.93

0.73

0.89

0.76
0.71
0.69

0.69
0.67
0.64
0.61

0.3

t0

0.84
0.82
0.79
0.7'l

1.04
0.98
0.93
0.89

0.7l

0.71
0.75

0.70

0.80

0.7 |

0.81

0.73

0.69

0.6i
0.6i

1.01

r.00

l.l

0.9.1

r.02

0.85

0.37
0.71

0.s0

0.7l

0.87

0.78

0.t1

0.68
0.65

0.3i

0.16

0.3

0.7 2

0.69
0.65

0.6.1

0.i9

0.70

0.6i

0.3i

0.1'l

0.33
0.30
0.73

0.7 5

0.91

0.8l

0.70

0.s6

o.'t'l

0.r0

0.

s7

0.s.1

0.7 5

0.6s

0.3

0.78
0.76

0.7

0.68
0.65
0.63

0.8 r

0.7l

0.7:

0.6i

0.70

0.65
0.63

0.31

0.78

0.79

0.70

0.61

1.01

1.00

t.07

.05

1.01

1.01

0.3 7

1.00

0.9 5

0.97

0.85

0.78

0.8 r

0.11

0.95
0.90

0.86
0.82

0.88
0.19
0.74

1.16
1.05

Lt0

0.94

0.96
0.91

0.8 7
0.8 2

0.39
0.79
0.75

0.85

0.11

0.?0

0.87

0.87

0.7 5

0.84

0.19
0.76

0.70

0.69
0.65
0.63

0.8

0, ?8

0.68
0.65
0.63

0.78
0.76
0.72
0.70

0.71

0.83
0.80

0.95
0.E6

1.00
0.95

1.00
0.8?

1.09

1.06

0.1'l

0.95

0.96

0.73

0.90
0.88

0.78

0.80

0.7,1

0.9r

0.95
0.86
0.82

r.01
0.88
0.19

1.

1.01

0.84

1.00
0.93
0.85
0.81

0.7.1

0.91

0.8 2

o.71

0.70

0.86
0.83

0.78
0.77

0.71

0.68
0.65
0.63

0.87
0.85

0.7 r

0.'l4

0.80

0.71
0.75
0.'12

0.70

0.81

0.78

0.70

0.87
0.85
0.82
0.79

0.96
0.91
0.88
0.86

0.9'l

0.98

1.01

0.89
0.84
0.80

0.

s6

0.96

0. t'7

0.91

0.7i

0.89

0.16
o.74

0.;0

0.84
0.82
0.19

t0

0.'l'l

0.69

0.68
0.65
0.63

Mass.impregnated

cables

0.94
0.89

0.6/1 to 18/30 kV

0.93
0.89
0.86
0.84

6
8
10

0.7 t

0.69

0.t3

0.71

0.69

0.7 2

0.68

0.65
0.63

0.81

0.19

0.3 r

0.79

0.78
0.16
0.?3
0.70

0.69
0.66
0.64

i3

0.81

0.

0.79

0.7

t9

1.05

0.19
0.76

0.71

0.73
0.71

0.85

1.0

0.85

1.0

0.85

1.0

0.85

1.0

0.91

0.85

0.93

0.85

0.71

0.71

0.'19

0.71

0.62

0.69

0.65

0.58

0.65

0.62
0.58

0.92
0.78
0.69
0.65

0.85

0.77
0.69

0.92
0.78

0.85

2
3

o.62
0.58

0.69
0.65

0.62
0.58

0.61

0.62
0.50

0.55
0.53

0.57
0.55

0.51

0.62
0.60
0.57
0.55

0.55

0.59
0.57
0.55

0.55
0.53

0.6 r

l0

0.51

0.49

0.55

0.49

0.49

0.69
0.66
0.61

r.03

Load factor

0.55
0.53
0.51

0.'71

0.89
0.79
0.75

Load factor

0.60
0.57

0.69

.10

Load factor

0.11

7._

0.91
0.87
0.81

Load fac(or

174

0.,'-0

0.7.1

0.61

constnrction

0.78
0.75
0.71
0.70

0.61

AII typcs of

0.8:

0.8

0.69

0.91

0.90

0.71

0.7-l

0.9 5

0.69
0.67

0.96

0.81

1.01

0.76
0.71

0.86

0.38
0.79
0.?1

0.s8
0.70

0.84
0.81
0.79
0.77

1.03

0.96
0.36

t.r1

0.34
0.30

PVC cablcs
0.6/1 ro 6, 10 kV

l.1l

r.06

0.96
0.86

0.89
0. s7

Ll9

1.06
0.96

t0

1.01

0.88
0.78

1.19

0.s6
0.77

1.09
0.9 5

0.6

s7
0.73

0.99

0_92

0.5

1.01

0.93

0.9 3

.1

0.78

0.'l

0.7

0.

0.98

to 13,30 kV

0.68

Load lactor

1.0'l
0.95
0.86

6110

1.5 KmlW

0.6

0.81

PE cables

Load factor

0.5

0.6

0.8 8

1.5 Kmi

Load factor

Load factor
0.5

Km/w

0.53
0.51

0.49

0.6.
0.6.+

-Ratinrr Factor

Table

L for

lnstallation in Ground 18.2

18,20 Rating factor/r lbr installation in -sround.

Type

Numbe r

of construction

oI
cables

0.6i

I and 6110 kV

PE cirbles
I

PVC cubles r'


0.6i

I and 3.616 kv

Mass-impregnated
cables:
ted cables

U{l;3.6i6kv
. caoles

3.6i6; 6i 10 kv

0.7 Km,W

1.0

Load lactor

Load factor

types

of

3 phasc

0.7

0.5

r.06

l.0t

t.tI

1.07

0.92

1.01

0.94

0.

0.31

0.86
0.71
0.7 r

0.92
0.36

0.8.r
0.73

0.i1

0.73

0.31

0.7 3

0.7l

0.67

0.70
0.66

0.79
0.11

0.71

0.6i

0.61

0.71

0.66
0.61

0.60

0.70

0.61
0.6.r
0.60
0.57

0.31

0.73

0.7

0.5
1 .09
0.99
0.90
0.85

1.03

0.99

1.06

1.0i

r.00

0.3J

0.98
0.39

0.9r

0.35

0.s1

0.7 5

0.3.1

0.;6

0.70

0.7:

0.66
0.63

0.6

0.6

0.7
1.02
s7

0.3l

0.73

0.71

0.6

0.7i

0.68

0.71

0.6.1

0.6i
0.i9

0.30
0.77
0.71

l0

0.63

0.61

0.56

0.69

I
2

0.99

r.00

0.99
0.3+

l.0l

r.0l

r.00

1.08

:.06

1.01

1.03

l.0l

0.91

0.96

0.91

0.3 5

0.92

0.36

l.0l

0.9.1

0.3 7

0.7.1

0.39

0.3 r

0.7 5

0.33

0.1'l

0.9:

0.31

0.i'7

0.69

0.3J

0.;6

0.t0

0.99
0.90
0.35

0. /-3

0.71

0.36

0.73

0.

0.65
0.63

0.80

0.l:

0.66

0.31

0_61

0.3:

0. ?.1

0.67

0.7'l

0.6-l

0.73

0.i9

0.7

0.71

0.71
0.69

0.71

0.66

0.6,i
0.60

0.61

0.56

0.70

0.63

0.61
0.60
0.57

0.79

0.i9

0.69
0.65

0.71
0.70
0.66

0.71

0.6i

0.-i7

0.97

1.00

l 0+
0.97

r.0l

1.01

t.tJ

1.07

1.0:

0.36

0.93

1.01

0.76

0.91

0.El

0.94
0.34

0.71

0.36

0.7s

0.87
0.77
0.72

0.38
0.73
0.71

0.

s6

0.71
0.69
5

0.3 5

0.8:

0.39
0.30
0.75

0.78

0.7 r

0.7 5

3
10

0.71

0.63
0.6.r

0.63

0.61

0.-<6

I
2

0.91

0.92
0.87
0.30
0.76

0.9.1
0.3 5

0.36
0.32
0.30

0.78

6
8

0.'t 6

10

0.12
0.69

0.69
0.65
0.61

i9

0.56

0.7

0.7i
0.70

0.3.1

0.90
0.31
0.11

0.'t2

0.66

0.31

0.73

0.67

0.31

0.71

0.69
0.65
0.62

0.6{

0.77
0.73

0.70
0.66

0.6.1

0.73

0.7 |

0.68
0.65

0.60

0.74

0.67

0.61

0.70

0.63

0.5 7

0.71

0.6.+

0.53

0.95
0.89

1.00
0.39
0.35

1.00
0.92
0.31
0.73

0.59
0.57

0.92
0.37

0.19

0.32
0.79
0.75
0.7 r

0.75

0.72
0.67
0.64

i:

0.68
0.65
0.61

0.i3

1.06

1.05

l.0l

I.07

1.02

1.01

0.94

0.38

0.12

0.36

0.93
0.31
0.19

0.87

0.7'7

0.99
0.9r

0.73
0.73

0.92
0.37

0.35
0.E0

0.79
0.71

0.63
0.65

0.76

0.69

0.6'l

0.61

0.30
0.75

0.73
0.68

0.66
0.62

0.71

0.64

0.58

0.69
0.66
0.62
0.59

0.83

0.74

0.82
0.19
0.75
0.72

0.75

0.7 |

0.72

u.o)

0.59

0.89

0.84
0.82

0.31

0.97
0.35
0.76

0.'t'l

0.71

0.30

0.67
0.65

0.7.r

0.1'7

0.79

0.73
0.70

0.73
0.70
0.66
0.63

0.E1

0.61

0.53

0.94

0.12
0.68
0.65

Load factor

Load factor

Load factor

Load facror

0-85

1.0

0.85

1.0

0.85

1.0

0.85

1.0

0.94
0.71
0.68

0.89
o.72
o.62
0.57

0.94
0.78

0.89

0.94

0.89

0.72
0.62
0.57

0.78
0.69
0.63

0.'72

0.95
o.79

0.62
0.57

0.69
0.64

0.89
0.72
0.62
0.57

0.53
0.51

0.59
0.56
0.52
0.50

0.53
0.51

0.59
0.57
0.52

0.53

0.60

0.51

0.47

0.57
0.53

0.50

0.44

0.50

o.47
0.44

u._

1.00

0.94

0.59
0.56
0.52
0.49

0.;:

0.86

0.68
0.63

.]'' 1;.j i_.r.3bl:s ,).6/1 k./ ri! : J or


qu:rouues aiso rppry for singleiorc cabla fo! 0.6/ t kV

srstsn: .he:e :,,anrilie5

0.

0.97
0.91
0.E6

Lnc

0.6

Load facror

0.39
0.80
0.75

5
o
8
10

Io d.c. systehs

0.5

1.02

0.63

tr [u

7cn

2.5 Km,W

Km,W

Load factor

0.9 5

''

0.7

1.5

construction:)

0.6

Krn.W

t0

All

Soil-thermal resisti\ it)'

0.5

XLPE cables:)

\-/

Three-corc rr cablcs in three-phase s!stems

0.47
0.44

0.53
0.51

0.47
0.44

ccDductcil

175

l8

Cu

Table

rrcnt-Cerrying Capacity in Normal Opcration

A
/\
!. t, t. .,

18.21 Rating factort for installation in ground.

7cm

Three-core cables in three-phase systems


Tl pe of

Number

con5trucl,on

of
cables

PVC cables 0.6/1 kV


PVC cablcs 6/10 kV
Mass-imprcgnated-

H-cables 6/10 to

Km W

0.7 KmlW

1.0

Load factor

Load factor

0.6

0.7

0.5

0.6

0.90

0.91

0.85
0.80
0.77

0.85

0.79

0.93
0.85
0.78

0.99
0.92
0.36

0.71

0.14

0.98
0.93
0.87
0.35

0.70
0.67
0.63
0.60

0.84

0.75

0.75

kV and

0.71

0.'t3

Mass-impreganated
S.L. cables

0_73

0.69

l0

0.71

0.66

18730

Soil-thermal resislivit!

0.5

belted cables 6/10 kV

0.7

1.5 Km,W

2.5

Load factor

Load factor

0.5

0.6

0.7

1.04
0.95

0.90

1.01

0.86
0.82

0.80
0.75

0.95
0.90

0.71

0.36
0.81
0.73
0.75

1.00

1.05

0.89
0.80
0.75

0.98
0.93
0.89

0.71

0.8 5
0.8 2

0.i7

0.68

0.11

0.71
0.71
0.70

0.6.1

0.77

0.14

0.67

0.61

0.74

0.70
0.67

0.81

0.81

Km;W

0.5

0.6

1.01

0.63
0.6.1

0.61

1.09
0.96
0.87
0.32

Load facror

0.8 5

1.0

0.8

1.0

0.s5

1.0

0.s

0.91

0.61

0.97
0.32
0.73
0.68

0.96

0.91

0.96

0.91

0.97

0.91

constfuction

0.31

0.3:

0.76
0.66

0.8:

0.76
0.66

0.12
0.61

0.76
0.66

0.61

0.63

0.57

0.60

0.55

0.56
0.51

0.51

0.61
0.60
0.56

0.,18

0.54

10

'r Tuo- and lhrec{ore PVC cabics for L'o,U=0.6t1kV in singlc-phasc

.l

/o

0.71
0.67

1.0

0.76
0.66

0.61

0.73
0.68

0.i7

0.63

0.

i7

0.64

0.55

0.61

0.55

0.61

0.5?
0.55

0.51

0.i 7
0.54

0.51

0.57

0.51

0.r3

0.48

0.,s4

0.48

a.c. and in d.c. slstcms

0.76

0.6.1
0.61

0.67

Load lactor

All t)pes of

0.81

0.11

Load faclor

1.04

0.90

0.7:

kv
Load factor

0.7

0.78
0.75

12r20 and

13j30

,,-n
(. .,

0.61

0.69

Rating Factors for Differing Air Temperrturcs 18.2


Tabelle 18.22

Rxting facrors
T1-pe

/;

of

construction

for differing

temperatures

Pcrmissible

Pcrmissible

Arr temperatuae

conductor

temperature

tempcrature

rise
K

ro"c I 15.c l:0"c l?s"c

'c
XLPE cables

lir

ljo.c ll5.c l10"c I rs.c

l_.0"c

Ratins factor

90

l.t5

1.1:

1.03

1.04

1.0

0.96

0.91

0.3 7

0.32

70

r.tl

Ll;

l.l2

1.06

t.0

0.9.1

0.37

0.19

0.71

0.31
0.76

D.65

PE- and

PvC cables
I{ass-rmpregnated
cable5

Belted cablcs
'r.6,1 to 1.6,6 kV

r0

kv

Singlc-core.
S.L. and H-cables
\0.6i I ro 3.6,6 kV

.,10 kv

-.:,:0 kv
13,30

kv

80

))

r.05

r.0i

r.05

1.0_i

65

1.0

0.95

0.39

.15

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.93

0.3 5

80

l)

1.0-i

1.0i

1.0

r.06
t.0

r.05
r.06

o.i9

0.;l

1.0

l0

r.0

|.0

t.0
t.0

0.89
0.37

0. t''l

r.06

0.95
0.91

0.31

l5

1.05
1.06
1.0

0.35

t.0

0.76

0.5i

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.93
0.91

0.3l

0.71

0.-r s

'70

65
60

0.;7

171

l8

urrcn t-Carryi4g Capacrtf in Nornral Opcration

Table

8.23 Rating factors.[1 for

groups in air

'

).

Singie-core cabies in three-phase syslems

Arrangement

of
cables

Numbcr
of cablc
fays or
cable
racks

Inst allation irt huncltcs

Inst allcd in one planc

distance from wall > 2 cm

Clcarancc = 2rl
distance from wall > 2 cm

Number
of systems

Number
of systems

Clcarance

cable diamctcr r/

On the

fioor

.zcrn d d
t^
^ ^ ^ ^ ^
L!Z--9--2-t:--Sl-Sl-

22ctn
0.9 5

0.90

0.

0.9l 0.89 0.88

0.95

0.90

0.88

0.90

0.8 5

0.83

0.91

0.39

0.88

r.r 6\
loa
3n

22.!t1 2d

0 87

0.84

0.83

0.8.1

0 81

0.81

0.88

0.8 3

0.E1

0.8l 0.80 0.79

0.s6

0.s1

0.19

1.00

0.98

0.96

-:91

,l

On
cable

racks

.00

0.97

0.96

0.91

0.94

0.93

I .00

0.95

0.93

0.96

0.93

0.92

.00

0.94

0.92

0.94

0.91

0.90

.00

0.91

0.90

l6ir ni

0.89

(9_!L

zd

,a

rfi!
sl

1
"|&__e__e-Ei
IAA-o.

_,r*?_ _r1,9J

'lo

.ltrJ

.11

0.91

_2d

6a)

lra
6\
lnii rlai

:2-,
1Lr
0.94

rn

*it\ -+r /:vl ;r

F:rl_

On supporls
or on the
wall

r:\

6ri

20

lcr
/i
r---T

tra\s
1

Zd

s8

On
cable

2d

0.89

0.86

sr

0.84

^l

:1

I r:\

,EO

Arrangement for
which a reduction
is not required r)

ln installations in one plane $'ith increased


clearance the increased sheath or screen
losses counteract the otherwise reduced
temperature rise.
Therefore indications as to reduction-free
arranqements cannot be made here.

t'

-ll;

=2cm

.4d

2d

^r-l;l-

,o____@____ap,:

1,rt

r.r

r.r l
1@____@____mdr

):L
!l-!}\: :/_ _ _-\:1r:, __ __sagJ
4

Io cotrfined spaccs cr \{hcrc much grouoing occurs the iosscJ of thc cabies increasc the aia tcmpraLure snd thtrcforc addiaional raling fictors for
diffcriog air lcmprrarures tiom Tablc lE-:: mus! bc applicd

178

Rating Factors for Croups in

Table

Air

18.2

18.2{ Rating factors/11 for groups in air "'

cubles in d.c. sy"stcms

\lulti-core cables and single-core


Arrrnge-

-vumbcr

menl

ol

of cables

cable

cables

Side by side rvithout clcarancc

Clcilrlnce: cable diamcter r/


distance from rvcll > 2 cm

lnd touching wall

rll-s

or

Number of

Number of

cable
mck5

cables

caoles

On the

IIoor
0.9 5

0.90 0.s3 0.3

0.9i

0.90

lr.v\,n
N-^.U-Z-

0.90 0.3:1 0.30 0.75 0.71

0.31

{'
On

:ry
I

0. s3

0.35 0.3-l

0.9-i

0.sl

0.80

0.9 5

0.30 0.16 0.7l 0.69

0.90 0.s5 0.31 0.31

0.30 0.75 0_73

!1-w.v\-rv:v--v:

Ri

-?\.:rs-?\.:s-:N.:s.:r-1rl

0.3s 0.3l 0.s

0.36 0.31 0.;9 0.7'1 0.76

0.f-i 0.7s 0.71

0.79 0.78

0.70

0.63
{

On
cable

r.00 0.98 0.96 0.91 0.92

racks

)
3

1.00 0.95 0.93 0.90 0.39

L00

0.9.1 0.91

0.39 0.88

1.00 0.93 0.90 0.87 0.86

dd
:Jy
,ti
I
,liA cr i3l

r;
i:-^-i

-i

He_rsr_\.2._J

0.76 0.72 0.68 0.66

0.95 0.8.1 0.s0 0.75 0_71

0.90 0.87 0.86

26;
|--l
6-\

Yry.rv.'v.vn,?vi',7n

i<L

0.95 0.7s 0.74 0.70 0.68

F-&S:-\JSA2.
:)

-- - J

0.95 0.76 0.7l 0.68 0.66

,l^
:|)K
0,95 0.78 0.7.1 0.68 0.66

:tx
'l2i

:)

.r"

.l\-t
Arrangemcnt for
which a reduction
is not requircd r)

f**

0.30 0.76 0.71 0.69

]'(1 i
1.00 0.91

*g

l-,'v.vrv-..vrr.rvrvryi
k

0.9 5

-.l:sr

supports
or on the

.,all

0.9 5

Number ofcables

Number of cables

arrangd abo$e each


other is nol .estricted

arranged side by side


is not restricted

>2cm

T.
-r-E+Yr---v'---Fr--.=l.
.22d

fe---e---e--51
+a__-@---@--.

::-.rna:idspaccs.:?hcr.nuchgroupingoccuGlhe:osscsofthEc.tblca:ncrcas.lhcairrcmpemturclodlhereforcddirional
olllenog air tcmpcrarurcs faor! Iublc 18.22 musr bc applied

r3dDg fac(o6 for

179

l8

Current-Carrying Capacity in Norn:al Operation

Table 18.25
Rating factorsr), multi-core cables with conductor
cross-sectional area of 1.5 to l0 mm2. Installation in
eround or in air

18.2.4 Use of Tables

If the transmitted power is knorvn the operalinq current

1b

(loading) can be calculated using the equations

from Table 18.26 where Uo is the operating voltage


Number of Ioaded

lnstalled in

of the network and cos

the oower factor.

co

cores

Air
5

7
10

t9
1A

0.70
0.60
0.50

0.75
0.65
0.55

0.45

0.50

0.40
0.35

0..15

0..10

0.30

0.35

0.25

0.i0

5'Thcse facrors arc to bc applied to ratings in Tablc 18.5. multi-corc cables


in rhc ground and to ratings in Tablc 18.6. multicore cabls in air.
bolh in 3-phasc operation

Table 18.25
Equations for the calculation of operating current /o
from the transmitted power
Type of

Apparen t

Active

Network

Power S

Power P

P
II

Direct current

s
tl

Single-phase
a.c.

Reactive
Power Q
var

U" cos,/

Uo sin

s
Three phase

V3un

=o-

J L hsln

q4

From the 24 hour day load diagram and as referred


to in Sections 18.1 and 18.2.3 the maximum load is
also the operating current /0. Where the installation
is to be in ground the 24 hour load diagram is to
be used to determine the load factor nr. Where the
installation is to be in air this is not required.

\/
Example

l8.l

. In a three-phase network with Ub= l0 kV an apparent power of l0 MVA is to be transmitted. The


operating current /b is determined from
f-

10

106

vA

V)vt fxl0x103V

577

A.

From the 24 hour load diagram (Fig. 18.6) with the


maximum load equal to operating current I6-- 577 A,
the average load is first calculated. This is done by
taking the area below the load curve plotted from
current and time values and calculating an average
value over the 24 hour period:
180

Calculation of Load CapacitY 18.3

+h

-100

-\ + 160 A

+-l

260A+577A

577

A+400 A

.100

+-+ h

A +450 A

450

A+300 A
= +01 .{.

From this the load lactor becomes ,' =

9=
J/l

O.t.

The load capacity of two cables

NA2XSzY

185

SE/25 6i l0 kV

Load

is required to be determined when installed in ducts


under the following operating conditions:

577

500

Load factor m= 1.0


Soil-thermal resistivity

400
300

Ground temperature

Qs

9E

1.5

Km/W.

30 oC.

-10

The rating factors for these conditions:


r00

12

16

20

Hours 24

Time-=_

Schematic daily load diagram

Fig. 18.6

The load capacity per cable becomes

The calculated operlring current /o:577 A rvith


the load factor nr:0.7 is to be transmitted using
XLPE cables type

NA2XS2Y

x .../...

6110

KmAV and nr:0.7, the rating factor


r.om Table 18.15:/, = 1.6,
rating factor from Ta_.'lr 2 cables, the group
-

1g.20,

1.0

f.:0.85.

In order ,o rnut. a direct comparison with the tabur"ted currents I. the calculation is made with a Iicti.-.rus value of operating current /br. With N:2 parallel connected cables

'br

(where
tors).

- .,\i n/
fI/

Jt/
2x1.0x0.85

fac-

From Part 2, Table 5.6.5 two cables with A.luminium


conductors and a cross-sectional area of 185 mm2
will be adequate.
The load capacity for one cable is:

1.0 x

,= I ,nJ'=

1.17 x 0.8

I x 0.72 x 0.3 5:

172 A.

0.85-

295 A.

18.3 Calculation of Load Capacity

A cable is heated by

losses generated by current in


the conductors and, when on a,c., by losses generated

in the metal coverings as well as by dielectric losses


in the insulation. The dielectric losses can be ignored,
however, in PVC cables up to Uo/[.r = 3.5i6 kv, in
mass-impregnated cables up to Uolu = 18i30 kV and
in cables with PE or XLPE insulation up to U olU
= 6ai 1 10 kV. Under steady-state conditions the dissipated heat is equal to the sum of all losses in the
cable. Heat losses are conducted to the surface of
a cable and thence, when a cable is in air, transmitted
to the ambient by convection and radiation (Sec-

= 339 A per cable

is the product of all relevant rating

I.: I,ttf:347

kv

under the specified operating conditions in Table 18.2. From Part 2, Table 5.6:5 it is found that the
largest cross-sectional area is not sufficient to carry
577 A: therefore 2 cables in parallel are required:

For gr=

from Table 18.15


li =0.81.
and for trvo cables from Table 18.20 l:.=0.72.
for laying in pipe from Table I 8.2
/R = 0.35.

tion 18.4.2). Where a cable is installed in the ground,


the heat loss is conducted from the cable surface
through the surrounding soil to the atmosphere (Section 18.4.3). The difference between conductor temperature and ambient temperature is approximately
proportional to the total losses. The law of heat flow
is analogous to Ohm's law, where the heat flow @
corresponds to electric current I, the temperature dif' ':ce 4 ^ --rresr.."'1" to ''-llrge dit::ene lr ^
the lotal thermal resistance 2. ./ corresponds ao elestn181

l8

Current-Carry ing Capacitl in Normal Operarion

in the analogy by currents ied in at

cal resistance R thus:

U: IR

fro m

A3.=rP1;r

the analog)'

18.r)

The heat florv @ (losses) is the sum of the heat losses


Pi attributed to load current and the losses Pi related
to the supply voltage. For heat to be transferred from
its place of origin to the ambient it must overcome
the thermal resistance ( of the cable and the thermal
resistance d to the ambienr. In considering heat
transfer from a cable surface to the ambient 7l may
be the thermal resistance of the air 7i' or the thermal
resistance of the ground 7i.
Using the analogy between the florv of heat and the
flo*'
of electric current (Equation 18.2) an aquivalent
.
, :ircuit dia.gram can be dra*n (Fig. 18.7) for heat
from a cable and the resulting temoerature rises produced. Heat transfer by radiation and
convecrion from a cable installed in free air is represented by two resistors connected in parallel u'ith
,.'each
other but in series rvith the thermal resistances
of the cable. When installed in the ground the tl'o
resistors are replaced by a single resistor being the
soil-thermal resistance.
losses flou inq

The heat losses Pj which are related to load current


arise in the conductor, in the metal parts and in the
armour, rvhereas the dielectric heat losses P! are generated in the insulation. These losses are reoresented

Conductor ienperature

appropriate
points. Due to these losses the conductor temperature
3'- is increased by A3. and the surface temperature
of the cable So is increased by A3o relative to the
ambient temperature 9u.

For a cable with current flowins in n conductors the


to current are

losses due

P'i: n I2 R*,
and the dielectric losses (see Section 22) are
/ II \:

P;=nuc'b\f3)

equatron

R*. = Ri, + A R' =

R.:,(

+r',-:i

o)( I

+i.

+i,:) ( 3V
I

rvhilst the d.c. resistance at permissible operating tenrperatu re 3.. is

R'"= R':o

Il

+ r.o (J1. _ l0)].

and the additional resistance

AR',:R;.-R;

r8.6)

is

(18.7)

Conductor lempetature

Thermal resistance

ol insularion

Condunor losses
Thernral resislance

lr'l,

of insulation

Sheath losses

Iiin

Sheath losses

Ihermal resislancc oi

Thermal resistance ol

inner Iayers

inner layers

Il

Ar,'rour iosses
Thermal resistance
oi ourer shearhs

du

Thelmal resistance,
of the ground

Ij

I;

Toral losses

Amour iosses

fj

Thermal resistances
corresponding ro
convecfl0n ano

radiation

fj

Thermal resistance
oi outer shearhs

Ij

P,'+ PJ

Toral losses

Ambient lemperature

Ambienl temperalure

a) Cable in free air

b) Cable in ground

182

(l 8.1)

tan a.

The effective resistance (a.c. resistance) R! (see Section 20) is practically constant at the permissible operating temperature and can be expressed by the

Conductor losses

0ielecrric

(18.3)

P,'+ Pj

Fig. 18.7
Equivalent circuit
for heat flow
in a cable

Calculation of Load Capacity 18.3


measurable rise in conductor resistance
caused by current dependant a.c. losses. These losses
lrise in each conductor due to skin effect and proximity eifect (-v. and.r,,) and by induction and eddy currents in the metal sheath (,i,) as well as by eddy currents and mxgnetic reversal in the armour (1..). If
these factors are incorporated in equation 18.2 for
rhe temperature rise of each conductor the following
.^"" rinn r nnlicc'

giving

LlL=lrz Rr+ejlf ri+


+urR;(l +)-,)+Pol
+ U'r R;( I + ). | +

).2)

rrlj+

P',r)n( Tj

{13.3)

+ 7l).

:lne

actual thermal resistance of the cable (see also


Section 18.4.1)is given by:

TK=(Tiltr)+I!+1r:.

(t8.9)

The partial resistances of the insulation are represented by I/ and for the inner and outer protective
covers as ?j and Tj respectivelv. (The tliermal resistances of the metallic elements are small enoush to
be ignored).

To make the equations clearer and to simplify their


application in design work, fictitious thermal resistances are introduced. The fictitious thermal resistance lii for heat losses due to the current. resuits
from equation 18.2 and equation 18.8 with

lL+r
rKi-

tl

+ ).,) Ti

l+i.r+).-

+T:

Where the individual thermal resistances. Ioss lactors.


or effective resistances are not given. tlrey can be derived using the methods provided in the literarure
referred to later It8.2, 13.7 and 13.3].

In the following the effective resistances are calculated or derived for the permissible operating temperature 91,.

If the operating voltage Uo is liable to deviate significantly from the rated voltage U of the cable then
the dielectric losses must be calculated usinu Li. rather than [.I in equation 13.-1.
The thermal resistance of the surroundings Ti is governed by operating conditions described in Secrion
13.2. For ittstallution in J)'ee air the thermal resistlnce
of the air T,- is calculated as shown in Section i3.J.2
lnd has been used to determine the load capacity
in air under specilied conditions rvirh an ambient
temperature of j0'C. as can be seen in the tebles
and text in Section 13.2:
I-

31,-i0-A3,r
r R",(7ir+

(13.11)

TL")

The load capacity for installation arrangements other


than in free air or lor groups, is calculated using the
rating lactors (Table 18.23 and 18.24). Rating factors
/for ambient temperatures I, other than 30"C are
calculated by using equations 18.2 and 18.14, assuming constant effective resistance and. thermal resistance (see also Table 18.22) with

(18.r0)

3. -ln-43.

-,d the lictitious thermal resistance fKd relating to


the dielectric losses from equation 18.4, assumes that
these originate at a mid point in the insulation. with

(1s.r5)

r,i":ft+r;+r!.

(r8.ll)

From these relationships the load capacity 1" can be


found for a permissible operating temperature 3Lr
and an ambient temperature 3u

Normally the dieletric temperature rise A3o in cables


up to U: 30 kV is neglegible apart from PVC cables
rvith rated voltages of U>10 kV. For these cables
however it is common practice when calculating rating factors in air to neglect the dielectric heat rise
which with the exception of a few cases is little more
than 2 K.

For installations in the grountl Ij represents the thermal resistance of the soil. As indicated in Section
18.4.3 the equation 18.12 has to be extended because

In

R'*,(7-r, + Ij.)

with the temperature rise due to dielectric

Aid:4(7id+I4).

(18. r 2)

losses
(18.13)

of drying out of the soil and cyclic loading Values


for load capacity can be taken from the tables in
Section 18.2. The load capacity for non-specified operating conditions must be calculated according to
Sections 13.4.3 to 18.4.5 or alternarively by the use
of conversion facrors in Tables 18.15 ro 18.2t.
183

l8

Curren t-Carry ing Capacirl in

Normll Opcnrtion

18..{ Thermal Resistances

0uter shearh

fj

lvletal shealh or screen

18.4.1 Thermal Resistance of the Cable

The thermal resistance of the cable ft takes into consideration the thermal insulating effect of electrical
insulation and cable sheaths (Fig. 18.8) and must be
calculated by using construction data and thermal
resistivities [18.2, 18.7, 18.8].

For single-core cables with a metal sheath for example:

ri=
=

Qt
O:
dL
_ lr
d,
d

T;+

l':j

jrr"**9r"*
:n aL :it

dtr

(18.r6)

thermal resistivity of insulation


thermal resistivity of outer sheath material
cond uctor diameter
diameter over insulation or under metal sheath
or screen
diameter over metal sheath or screen
overall diameter

The thermal insulating effect of metal covers is very


small and can be ignored. Values for the thermal resistivity of materials used in cables can be found in
Table 18.1. These values are assumed to be constant
over the temperature range up to the permissible conductor operating temperature and so is the resulting
thermal resistance.

The fictitious thermal resisiances 7ii to equation


18.10 and Qo to equation l8.l I for commonly used
- cable types of constructions are shown in Fig. 18.9.

184

Fig. 18.8
Thermal resistances

Iianddofa

single-core cable

Thermal Resistance of the Cable 18.'l

Example 18.2
The cable data mentioned in the examples are taken
from Part 2 (English version is in preparation). These
values were calculated on the basis of the latest constructional design of the relevant cables and there[ore
they may slightly deviate from the data indicated in
the Tables 18.5 to 18.14 in resDect of the currentcarrying capacities.

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3

0.7

Ibble

05

The conductor resistances for the cable selected for


lhe example

04

NAIXS2Y I x

0.1

rre taken from Part

PVC

150 Rlvl/25 12/20 kV


2. Table 5.6.6 a and b:

Direct current resistance ol conductor


ar 20

'c

Rlo=0.106Qkm

Eflective resistance at 90'C


- bunched installed
in ground or air
- side by side installed
in sround

A
02

Rl".=0.169 a km

R",=0.185Okm

The specific details of construction are:


-,1
qL

Diameter of aluminium conductor

r-.J< rrrlr
-- r.t
--

Thickness of inner conducting layer

0.7 mm

Thickness oI insulation of XLPE

5.5 mm

Thickness of outer conducting layer


including the protective cover under
the screen

0.8 mm

Diameter under the screen

r/r = 28.5 mm

Diameter of single screen wire

0.-i mm

Increase in length due to helically wound construc:=OOS tiY" t


tion of screen wire

:0.2 mm
b:5.0 mm

Thickness of transverse helical tape


?5

70

95

120 150

185 240 500 400 500 mmz

Conductot cross'sectional araa

q--

Cables with or without common screen


Cables with individual core screens
Single-core cables

Fig. 18.9

Fictitious thermal resistances of commonly used cable


constructions. 7ii, from equation 18.10 and ?xo for
PVC-cable tor U6lU:6110 kV from equation 18.11.
Cables with XLPE insulation have been calculated
with PVC sheaths

rJ

Width of transrerse helical tape


Increase in length due to helically wound construc::0.30 (i0%)
tion of transverse tape
Geometric cross-sectional area of screen4r:25 mm2
Electrical conductivity of screen,
mean value

Diameter over screen

z:56.

106

dv= 299 mm

Thickness of protective layers and


separating layer above the screen

sheath
Outer overall diameter

I Qm

0.-1

Thickness ofouter PE

mm

2.5 mm

d:

35.7 mm

185

l8

Curren t-Carrying Capacttl in Normal Opcration

Using the thermal resistivities given in Table I 8.1

rve

18.4.2 Thermal Resistance of Arr

Horizontal Installation in Free Air

-" "._=0.176'i':', {lg.16)


_ " - In
I,, = sr ln
"' "r
W
dt 2n "- 14.5
2n

/,

15

157

Km

ri=irlni=iln]=0099
- ./7t dM Jlt /9.9
T

K= ri + lrj =

*-,
W

0.376 + 0.099 = 0.475

(18.t6)

Km/w.

Heat from cables installed in air is dissipated by convection and radiation. In the equivalent circuit,
Fig. 18.7, the thermal resistance Tt" ofair is indicated
by trvo thermal resistances in parallel representing
convection and radiation. The thermal resistance of
air can be expressed by [18.7; 18.9]:

(18.16)

For the calculation of the fictitious thermal resistance


l'*, of rhe cable, the sheath loss factor /., must be
used in the calculation according to [18.7]. zl., and
T', are zero since armour and protective cover beirveen screen and armour are missing. For a trefoil
installation in the ground this gives:

A+(l +r.,)?l
,l
(1+i.r + /-:)

rj

0 176

(18.10)

= r-::;0.01 60
- -0.099--0.{69
-

tt

Consider a cable which is not influenced by other


sources of heat (solar radiation) and rvhich does not
increase the temperature of its surroundings. If such
a cable is arranged horizontally in free air, so that
it dissipates its losses into its surroundings by natural
conlection and unhindered radiation, the coefficient
of heat transfer z*, in dry air at an atmospheric p sure of l01J hPa. is:

0.0185 ,,,
1l: /i,,
+ ri
kij

Km.w.
u

These values. together with values for other types


of insrallation, are shown for comparison in Table 18.27. Values for the fictitious thermal resistance
of the cables l'i, differ from one another due to their
dependance on the magnitude of the sheath loss factor i-r.

(18.17)

dlftz*+ f,t,)

108(*)r

ith

k':0.919

+J.
JOv

30+3u

k"=1.033-#,
A3o=

3o-3,

/tR rq\

(18.20)

and the rhermal transfer coefficient:. for radiation


co a[(273 + 3o)a

Table 18.27

Comparison of fictitious thermal resistances ?ii between


calculated lalues from equation 18.10 and graphical results from Fig. 18.9

Arrangement

)-\ to

I8.71

7ii to
equation
18.10

In ground,

0.0160

0.469

0.0163

0.601 ,)

0.0116

0.448

Tiii to
Fig. 18.9
l)

bunched

In free air,
bunched

In ground,
side by side
"

1r

valucs for cabks with PVC shlath


Calcularcd to Scciion 18.4.2

186

:0.545

-(273 + 3u)*] ,

A9o

(t8.ll) -

where o:5.67 x l0-E W/m2 Ka (Stephan-BolzmaYn


constant) and eo the emissivity of the cable surface.
With the factors k' and k" for the mean temperature
account is taken to tbe variable quantities of the air.

Fig. 18.10 [18.10; l8.ll] facilitates the selection of


auxiliary values forf,/* and k for the arrangements
selected as specified operating conditions (Table 18.4)
[18.7; 18.10].

The cable shown in Fig. 18.10a radiates freely in all


directions. The heat is transferred by radiation from the cable surface to the walls of the room in which the cable is situated. A decisive factor in the temperature rise of the cable surface at a constant rate of loss is the temperature of these walls which normally
one would expect to be at ambient temperature.

{hermal

/,=1

Resistance of

Air l8'{

Fig. 13.l0d illustrates free heat dissipation by conlection. The heatcd air initially florvs around the cable
(laminar limiting layer) then rises uprvards in laminar
form mixing with cooler air from the surroundings
in an area of turbulence. A decisive factor in the temperature rise of the cable surface is, in this instance.
apart from the cable diameter and amount of losses,
the temperature of the surrounding air. The selected
clearances shown in Fig. 18.10e which are equal to
the cable diameter do not obstruct the heat flow since
the thickness of the {lowing lir stream is comparatively small.

for one outel cable:


/.=t arc sin {d/2a}/180",
ior the cenlle cable:
[=1-2 arc sin ldl| ali180'

Heat dissipation by radiation

In the bunched arrangement the cooling area of the


cable is reduced to approximately t$o thirds. Bi/ reducing the cooling surface area the thermal flow rvithin the cable is also hindered and because of this the
thermal resistance of the cable is effectively increased
[13.10]. This restriction in heat florv was taken lnto
account rvhen calculating the \tlues shorvn in

OJ

itr v{fir

6 6665 uf
f -1t'l

Fi-s. 18.9.

The temperature rise of the cable surface is:

,-'l

tLrLr-rU-rrt,d,
-----;;---;irl(if ,Lu

a ,to

Heat dissipation by convection

rLu

,
-1-

D'

'r'

(l 3.12)

and the temperature rise A3o of the conductor caused


by dielectric losses is:

Fig. 18.10 Heat dissipation, installed in free air

A 3d

= P;{7id + Ti,).

(18.23)

The thermal resistance of the cable Tiu can be calculated e.g.:

'- -e emissivitv of a cable surface can be taken


^0.95.

as

The same considerations also apply for the arrange.-ents 18.10b and 18.i0c. However any obstruction
.- the thermal transfer must be considered. In
Fig. 18.10b three single-core cables of a three-phase
system are shown where only the thermal radiation
from the centre cable is indicated. It is seen that the
neighbouring cables obstruct heat transfer to the surroundings in the areas shown shaded. The reduction
in heat dissipation is approximately directly proportional to the part of the cable surface embraced by
the shaded angles.

In

Fig. 18.10c three single-core cables are shown


bunched in trefoil. The obstruction in this arrangement is greater than that ofFig. 18.10b since approximately one third of the cable surface considered does
not radiate heat to the surroundines.

tr

Calculation of temperature rise A36 to equation


18.22 and 18.23 with Tr_"=0.5 KmrW;

tr

Calculation of thermal resistance l"r, to equation


13.17

to

18.21

the calculations must be repeated n times until


the difference between (?f,)" and (7t.)"-t is suffiently small.

For a multi-core cable without dielectric losses and


with a 30'C ambient temperature, the external thermal resistance can be reasonably accurately obtained
from the curves shown in Fig. 18.11a. Where the dielectric loss can be ignored one obtains from equation
18.22

AgL,_

?ii+?i.

A3o ri"

(18.22a)

By a graphical method, assuming a cable having a


fictitious thermal resi":: '! " . . i KmAM with
187

18 Currcnt-Carrying Capacity in Normal Operation

0uter diamerer d

)ter

dr-

i\m

-24
26.
28

l0

45
50

80Temperature iise of cable


40

20
20

30

J0

40
Temperature rise of

-i-

a9"
.c60
+

50

60

5U

0ri
i

'l

02-l

\___________
Temperaturd rrse

ol

cable surlace

ior
20 Jo
30

50
510

50

Temperature tise of conduclot

odJ

061

700

r50
__

A3o-

"c

60

d8gl-_
|

\^

081

, Km

|(m

lwl
12'

1.0

r;-rili0us Thermal resislance 0f cable

Fig. 18.1I

/ii

Thermal resistance of air for a cable instailed horizontally in free air


(3u= 30'C; o = 0.95)

188

lFicririous Thermal resistance oi cable I'i,

\v'
Fig. 18.11b
Thermal resistance of air for three cables bunched in
free air installed horizontally
(9u=30'C;

so

= 0.95)

Thermal Resistance of

--.1:-.--_
';i a ir

$_" "

ii,

Air

18..1

l8

a permissible temperature rise of A3.. = $Q K. entering these values as coordinates in Fig. 13.lla gives
the point P. Through point P a straight line must
be drawn such that point P', rvith the thermal resistance oI air Tt" and the temperature difference value
A3o as coordinates, lies on the curve corresponding
to the cable diameter d=32 mm.

20

The following values are obtained from the graph:

0uter drametet

0l
I

mm
to

22.

t":0.7

24
26

KmrW,

A30:40 K

28

For bunchetl single-core cables [18.10] the thermal


resistance of the insulation and the outer sherth is
increased due to obstructed heat dissipation. For
cables to Fig. 18.8 without a thermally conducting
metal sheath one derives:

Temperature

5r0

20

510

20

i0

t),
:n dt

tl ,
L' = f i-L ln l-L
' '-

rise ol cable surface

40

50

f,,

rise oi conducror A $L

02

,/rr

_:_+_

0.6

us15)

(18.26)

T'r-f*tf-t-,.
Jtt'l
'l

JlltM

^.1
rl:+ln+,
:JT AL

0.8

13.27)

r\t

1.0

-fiorlr{s

'..

( 13.2.1)

:ft

For cables rvith metallic covering and hence improved heat dissiparion the follorving applies rvith
additional reference to Table 13.29:

0.4

rm

,).
:-Ltn ,l

*S,.''"(f)
':f

40

J0
Temperature

T: = f
' "'

lhermal fesislance of cable

Il,

Fig. 18.1I c
Tr"ermal resistance of air for three single-core cables
.-.-talled side by side in free air

914 o 11.otr,
'vv

gtt dt 'i
f,n

+X

0 3.28)

"ry1

The thermal resistance of the outer protective covering Ij is calculated using equation 18.24 with equa-

tion

18.25.

The thermal resistivity gM of the metallic covering


has to be taken into account and mav be selected
from Table 18.28.
Table 18.28 Thermal resistivity

Material

g'

Thermal resistivity

9,,,

KmAv
Copper

Aluminium

l04.8 . l02.7.

28.7. 10-

3
3

19.1 '1-3

t89

l8

Current-Carrying Capacityjn Normal Operation

Table 18.29 Valucs required for the calculation of the effcctive thermal thickness of a sheath or screen
Sheath-. screen factor

Thermal effective thickness of sheath or screen

Mean diame ter of


metal shcath or
screen

Metal sheath

du-du

,)r,
7r

n Tapes with spacing

dn.
+:)

d"-J

nb(1

Wire screen with a 570 increase tn


length due to the helix and with n
transverse helical taPes
Tape overlapped
(as roof tiles)

tdu.

l-

nb(l +:)

t1-7

{=

,i)t'

dn-

-.t

dM-l(t

-t ---ubtr + =t
0ll f.| ------:

d"

applied rvith:=0.05

Two tapes aPPlied without


3pacing.

+:'

rT,,/r'

- l,)

rr Ar approximatc consideralion hcal dissipation lhrough thc \\'ires

Expression:

r.lq

b
rr
z
d
6"

Diameter over the metal sheath or screcn (lransversc hclical tapc) ,){ : <)
Width of tape (transverse helical tape)
Number of tapes (transverse helical tape)
Increase in length, due to the helical wound construction of tape {transverse helical tape)
Thickness of each tape (transverse helical tape)
Thickness of metal sheath

Example 18.3

For three single-core cables NA2XS2Y I x 150 RM/25 12i?0 kV bunched in free air, the lollowing app'fiEi
(Dimensions see example 18.2, page 185):

it tt
/d,\ ft 1r
/ 14.5 \
*==-=)=arcsin{--l=--p-2rcsinl-l=0.7:8.
-'--"'\2x35.7J
'
' 6 l8f
6 l8CP

(18.15)

y.= ft = !^rr =1.392,


ft-E
7t-V.t.:6

(18.25)

(18'16)

\2d)

Tr=gr l"

dr

' 2n"'dy-

3.5

2,r

di:6=0.2(Table

rM:
190

ndu-

---:-:_------: =

nb\L

+:)

t,.
"'

28J

K.

-., "".
14;=0376;'

18.29)

*r'oo-o1\

z(dv - dl
---:----+
= i'''J;i i:^=,:14.35 (Table
n0\t +:) I x )(l 1-u.JU,

18.19),

Thermal Resistance of

Air

1E.J

2.7x10-rx28.5x10-r
4x0.2x 10- l

2.7

x 10- r x 23.5 x l0-

rr

; T*
J,)tl

-+-:

u.J

/ol

-l

: ,l.o+oT_,
',.Km
lll
1''
-=
'Ir

tl

4x0.2x 10- l

13.13)

t- T'

J.\l ' sI

i.302 x 0.376

I
14.35

(13.:6)

0.480'

1.646

K.

^ ,.,^
lr=u.+duT-.

(
l^

i57=n,.,oK'

-tt=J"r_ln
-,Q,,^'l I

l.JUj
-,',..,-.,-t-]',.
=
\.r agg=v.r-7T:-.

r',
0:+10
Ti,:,
IT.
- l-i0.Ul6i-o.r:s=o.oor
"""'W'
''' l+).t -rr=,

(rs.ro)

For the three single-core cables bunched in free air one arrives after several iterations

- 9u) T',L, _ (?0 - i0) 1..06 = 38.1 K.


Tii+ f'1, 0.601+ 1.06

(31.

A rto

3o= A$o4 $,= 38.3 + i0= 63.3 K,

( 18.22

^ 3o+Ju A3o-l3u i3.3+2 x 30


2
2
2
r
Jq rs

/<':0.919

+fr=
r

k":1.033-ffi:

O.etl1

p' 99185 .''.;." r.o8

kd

e^

o r!

^
li9\'=
/e
f

\ rri4 /

'":--=----3o-

-, f

l.-||-.--=-.=:-.=:----

-.' ::iic

(r 8.1e)

213, fk:
=')/

z")

0.0r8s
r nsi-III9XY
-

zx )).t x tu

\l

:ri

3i8.3

x J:=':
lx
). =-

rlw

5'366

'b-J-=

+ 68.3)a -(273 + 30))n'l


:7.229

"106

:,no
,
tu -{.i
G5.366+17.229)

9t,-9u icsses

1.08 | ^

0.95 x 5.67 [(273


_0
=--------

x
n:.
?fJ)./

18.19)

zl3

3sJ

nd(|, ar+f,

(13.20)

Jg r5

oll273 + 3^lt -(27


273+3u)'l

Ir__=-=-

a)

JOv

f
rrding to Fig. l8.l0c and1f.b=)
f

,.=

"--'

-#:oss'

r.033-

13.r2)

Kn='

(18.13)

A.m-

18.21)

-,
Km

w'

(18.17)

(18.14)

ienored.. see Section 18.3.


191

l8

Current-Carrying Capacirf in Normal Operarion

Vertical Installation

Atmospheric Pressure

All knoln melhods of calculation and descriptions

The heat dissipation by convection decreases rvith


decrease in atmospheric pressure [18.9]. For high al-

of values for load capacity relate to cables installed


in the horizontal plane. For lertically installed cables
neither theoretical nor experimental investigation is

titudes the thermal heat transfer constant for convection must be modified as follows:

known.

Whether the mounting is verrical or horizontal has,


in principle, no influence on the heat dissipated by
radiation.

The heat dissipated by convection from a vertical


cylinder oi length / and diameter d is, with all other
conditions equal, more favourable than that of the
cylinder in horizontal position. provided that

->
d

2.'17

refer [18.12; 18.13]. Since this relationship is always


;atisfied in respecl of cables installed in a vertical
plane it follows that they can normally \\'ithstand
heavier loads than when they are installed horizontally. Thus the same load capacity can be applied to
both conditions.

10t

'.

r'

o'?f

t"'," (S, (-#-J*,


Jt
(l8.l8a)

*ith k'and k" to equation 18.19 and k to Fig 18.10.

.{rritude ml 011000120001i00011000 _
Armosphericlllll
pressure

hPal l0l3

899

795

701

614

Altitudes up to 1000 m create a negligible reduction


in Ioad capacity.

Thermal Resistance ol'

Air

18.{

Example I $.J

Ar alritudes of j000 m above sea level an atmospheric pressure of 701 hPl is used for the calculation.
For the cable

NA2XSIY I x

150

RlvV25 l2l20kv

this gives. after several iterations and, using dimensions from example 18.2 (page t85) and 7*, from example
18.3 (page 190)

Ti,
IKt + Tr,

{31,-3u)

30 = A 30

3.:

(90-30)
0.601+

39.22 +

1.131
(

l.li.t

i0 = 69.22 K.

1s.22)

l3.ll

a)

*,irh P; = 0

i9.21+lxl0
^ Ato+23u
)1
*

=o.r'r*$=o.srs+
JOv

a' =

r.033-#=

a:11
JOv

-#

r.o::

= r osl+.

(ls.l9)

:o.s;s+.

(ls.r9)

\i
*, / \d"J-=

o
_+k,',.,.^^/a36\i/
,(k:(,0.0135
*|,
w

o5il

0.01 35

0.973-l x
-+

iX-)l./^ltl

r08(---i9!'?

(l8.l8a)

+ 3o)r
A

(273 +

J,

9r)1] _ 0.95 x 5.67[(273 +69.22)]-{273 +10)*l

l9.ll lo!
x

T:

r d(f, zn+f"2.)

\i
)'( l0li/
701

-l

irR
=J '--Km: '
eo o [(273

13.:0)

R;, (Ti$ +

7t

Ii")

35.7

x l0-r

(3 4.,s?8

+3

7.26

...

1.134)

K;:

(13.21)

Km

l)

I x0.269x l0-r (0.601+

_",.,
i :o I

:159 A.

(I

3.17)

(r3. r2)

The load capacity at this altitude is therefore reduced by a factor

I= j:'J:o.gsr.
t. Joo
1SO

ltt

l8

Currcn t-Carrying Cxpacit! in Normal Operation

Table 18.30

Ambient Temperature

The thermal resistance of air around a cable varies


only to 3 smallextent 3t conslant conductor temperature and rising ambient temperature. Normally it is
suflicient therefore to use equation 18.15 for the cal'
culation of load capacity for other ambient temperatures. This formula was used to obtain the values
ln I able l6.li.
Example 18.5

Absorotivitv of cable surfaces to solar radiation

Material of the outer


protective cover

Absorptivity

Asphalted jute
PVC
PE
Polychloroprene
Lead

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.8
0.6

For an ambient temperature deviating from 30'C


e.c. 3, =.1i'C the conversion factor ts

'- 90-i0 =oR7

r-T-

(13.r5)

and the load capacity

I,=f I,=0.87

x 366= 318 A.

Solar Radiation
Cables subjected to solar radiation are subject to an

addirional temperature rise

A3r=

1o,igt'

(18.19)

and the cable surface temperature rise in relation to


ambient temperature is
ll

(3.,

3u

'-tOS

+ ro d E]'ii)
Ti(i + Ia

-A

3a

Tl.. ot

! d 'r'
rs.
(r8.30)

The load capacity 1, is found from


/i^--------;;-j-

AJd-Alts
/0t,'oUr,, _-t
- |y/ -------;----.-=-'
,l^wr{r1;tr5l

(18.31)

and the thermal resistance { of air, taking into account rhe solar radiation, by iteration using the equations 18.17 to 18.21. For this the term 7i" in equation
18.17 must be replaced by I and in equations 18.18
to 18.20 the calculation is made using A9or from
equation 18.30 instead of A9e and 9es instead of 3q.

The absorption coefficient zo of solar radiation for


the cable surface can be found in Table 18.30 fl8.2l.

194

The intensity of solar radiation E on a horizontal


plane is 1.35 kW7'm: maximum (solar constant). Normally the actual values are less and depend on the
degree of lattitude, season, weather conditions, time
of day etc. [8.1a; 18.15]. Should local values not
be available tbe value of E: I kW,'m: can be used
in calculations ! 8.21.
\v.

Thermal Rcsistrnce of

i\ir

18.{

Example 18.6
Three single-core cables bunched in free air

NA2XSIY I x 150 Rlvt/25

l2120 kV

are exposed to solar radiation with intensity

The calculation of thermal resistance

I(

E: I kWim:.

is made by iteration:

{31,-9u+aodETki)T! (90-30+0.4x
-rtt'r'
! Ki-T''

3o: .\ llor;3, :

-13.39

i5.7 x l0-3 x l.0 x 10-r x 0.601) 1.035 :13.39


K. (13.22)
0.601+ 1.035

+ 30:73.39 K,

,. J3e5.-2ilu 13.39+2xi0

(18.20)

,rd = -------

A',=oele-5:se1e*i!]
Jdv
Jov
{

ft" = 1.03r
z. =

= 1 65e1.

(r8.l9)

3
Sr7
-ffi : r.033 -ffi =0.e761.

(18.19)

0.01s5 ,,, , ^^ /A30r\'


(',, II-11
a 1" I 0s

(-j!I)':

| 05el

.++:^=..o

e76r

x'

or

(;j#m-)::

r*

S
(

- (27] + i0)"1 :
,*'_ co a [1273 + 9o)+ -(273 + 3r)'] _ 0.95 x 5.67 [(273 + 73.39)'
x

A9o,

|
T::
t t:
i,tf, o, +f. t):@
LSr:

7o 4

I(:0.4

x 35.7 x l0-3 x

lOs

'11.39

I
1.0

::to'r-K'
u:)
V'

x iOr x

1.035

7.408

14.3

K,

;--.
K.m-

l 3.13)

(l3.ll)
(18.17)

(18.2e)

(18.r2)

e load capacity

with solar radiation intensity E:1.0 kW/m: is reduced by the factor

lrn

f:]:3=o.st.
rr Joo

195

l8

Current-Carrying Capacit) in Nornal Operation

In Fig.

Arrangement of Cables

Heat dissipation of cables is affected rvhen they are


in contact with surfaces (rvalls, floors, ceilings). At
the point of contact the flow of air is hindered and
therefore the heat dissipation by convection is reduced. Heat dissipation by radiation is influenced by
the emissivity and the temperature of the adjacent
area in contact, should this differ from ambient. In
direct contact heat may also be transmitted by conducrion, so that the thermal conductivity of the adjacent area is important (Fig. 18.12).

i-

Quanrities of load capacity for cables in contact u'ith


surfaces established by experiment are normally less
than for installations in free air. in the VDE specifications this t) pe of installation is taken into considerarion by use of a reduction factor of 0.95.

,.

Grouping cables can also hinder heat dissipation as


has been shown in the calculations of thermal resistance of air for three single-core cables (Fig. I 8.10).

18.13 various arrangements ofcables and rhe


relel ant rating factors to DIN VDE 0298 are shorvn.
On the left hand side it can be seen that by arranging
cables close together or by mounting on a solid surface the convection reduction is made worse. Similar

comments apply to the vertical arrangement of


cables. The reduction is however relatively greater
than that for the horizontal arrangement since the
upper cable lies in the path of warm air flow from
lower cables. The chimney effect (improvement of
heat dissipation by convection through moving air
flons) is somewhat reduced. The greatest reduction
occurs in densely lilled trouqhs or racks as can be
lrequently found in cable trenches of large power installations (Table 18.23 and Section 18.5).

2d
.]-f
')':i
:1-o---r--ti
d,

.l

10

o_
a-

l^
lto

1.0

z 2cm

leat dissipation by radiarion

c)

,M

0.96

z2cm

082

)l

0.73

Heat dissipalion by conveuion

Fig. 18.12

Fig. 18.13
Reduction factors for various arransements of

Obstruction of heat dissipation by adjacent surfaces

multi-core cables in air

196

Thermal ResGtance of the Soil 18.4

18.4.3 Thermal Resistance of the Soil

Temperature Field of a Cable in the Ground

The heat loss P' generated in a cable flows through


the surrounding soil to the surface of the ground
where it is then dissipated into the atmosphere. To
depict the temperature field of the cable in ground
one normally assumes a constant ground temperature 36 and a soil-thermal resistivity gr rvith a negligicie rhermal transfer resistance at the ground surface.
.\lso ir is assumed that the total heat loss generated
in the cable (source) is directed to zero in an imaginary cable situated as a mirror image in relation to
the ground surface- The temperature rise at the point
i- :lative to the temperature of the ground 96, speciflically the surface of the ground (Fig. 18.14), is obtained from [18.16]
(18.32)

The isothermal lines are determined by the condition


A3p:ssn51.., and therefore the relation ci,'c" must
also be constant.

,cp

(18.33)
Cp

Fig. l8.l{
Temperature field of a cable of diameter

11=

r lnd

dcpth of lay /r.


Furthcr cxplanations in the text

For a given heat loss P'and temperature rise A9o


one obtains from (18.32) and (18.33) the geometric
constant for the isotherms
(

l 8.34)

expressions for determining the isothermal line


^e
tnrough point P for a cable with a diameter d:2r

cable) run parallel to the cable axis. The depth of


this line source is ho and the isothermal lines are
eccentric to this by a distance e".

For the deoth of the line source

and a depth of lay h (Fig. 18.14) are as follows:

lo -

lius of the isotherm

13.38)

and the eccentricity of the cable


,

2hokP

- ;-;---,
r(F_t

18.35)

+\l&i_\:ho+
- \=

6-y' 1rz -rz.

(13.39)

",,

18.36)

the depth lro and the radius r, of the isotherms


are known, their geometric constant can be found
from

eccentricity of the isotherm


eP= zhol(ki

1to=

If

depth of the isorherm


hP= ho(k?

t = 6-

h?-ho.

,. _hs* hp-rp
"P- h"- hp+ rp

(18.40)

ho=

(18.41)

(18.37)

One can visualise a temDerature field comprising a


series of lines which at distance e (eccentricity of the

with

197

l8

Current-Caryi4g Capacitl in Normal Operation

For a point P on the surface of the ground becomes


the temperature rise by definition is
ci,,''c, = I

"n6

If a point A at a distance a from the cable axis and


ir from the surface of the ground is imagined the tem-

perature rise at this point can be determined from


equation 18.32 and equation 18.38:

A{t!: r t

ln

/ia

18.41

with the geometric constant for mutual heating

\h+Vh2-r2)2+a2.
th

-l/

h2

b) Isothermal line through


point P,
i'i. to equation 18.46

a) Cable,
l"i to equation

r2)2

(18.11)

a2

Definition of Soil-Thermal Resistancc


The temperature rise of the cable surface is obtarned
by putting a:r in equation 18.42 and, after some
manipularion as well as putting d = 2 r, to

ase=r'ftnt

Fig. 18.15
Soil-thermal resistance (the range considered in
formula is shaded in each case)

t"l
lnl

ll
i;-lr /i\

----l a a.l
.."l

(18.13)
(18.47)

rvith the geometric constant for rhe cable

(18.44)

/2

i,\'

^=#* \7/

(r8.r4)

or

,=#

(18.49)

This also defines the soil-thermal resistance of a cable,


that is the thermal resistance between the cable surface and earth (Fig. 18.15a):
a)

1E=:-ln,i
!ft

%,

lzh

:ft

t2h\2

\a -')

(1 8.45.1

r gp

= ;-

III d9,

(18.46)

,/.7t

where the geometric constant of this isothermal line


is determined using equation 18.32 and equation
18.40.
198

b) Single-core

c)

Single-core

cables,

cables,

bunched

side by side

'-'

Fig. 18.16
Soil-thermal resistance for continuous operation
rn

Correspondingly the soil-thermal resistance between


the ground surface and the isotherm through a point
P is established (Fig. 18.15b):

Multi-core

cable

= 1.0 without drying out, qE:constant

For three single-core cables in a three-phase system


- producing equal losses in all three cables -:

rr=fi$"*+zt"t

(18.47)
"),

with the geometric constant k of one cable as in


Fig. 18.16. In bunched installations - arranged in tre-

Thermal Resistance of the Soil 18..1

foil

the geometric const:rnt kr for grouping can be


found approximatelv from
k"

ll

ri.

r3.18)

Normally the depth of lay is very large in relation


to the radius of the cable. The eccentricity of the
cable then becomes neglegible and one obtains simplifications of the equation in Fig. 18.16 for continuous operation rvithout drying out of the ground. This
means the load is constant in time and also the soilthermal resistivitv is constan t.

For a relationship rvhere hltl>5 the value found by


calculation using equation 18.-19 deviates by less than
; ',0 from the value given by equation 13.44.

{aily

Load Curre and Characteristic Diameter

r./,

, . ith cyclic opcrurion rhe lord capaciry is grelrer


than for continuous operation.

ln continuous operation (Fig. 18.17) one obtains.


after a warm-up period iollorving rhe switch on, a
constant temperature distribution in the ground
which falls in a near logarirhmic manner from rhe

Continuous operation

cable surfacc to the ambient temperxture. For a cyclicly changing load over a long period. after the
switch on period one sees - between fixed temperature limits - r temperature curve va.rying aeainst
time. Near to the cable the temperature change is
most extreme but this decreases with increase of distance from the cable.

If one considers the thermal field of a cable in rhe


ground (Fig. 18.18) the areas within rhe isothermal
Iines can be depicted, for calculation purposes. by
partial heat resislances and capacitors so that a chain
of RC components is developed. A calcularion of
temperature rise and also of the load capacity is possible utilising this equivalent diagram. Accurare results. however, can only be achieved bv very involved
calculation.
For dcily load curves including the partern for urban

utilily supply nerworks, a merhod is used which provides a sufficiently accurate result wirh a reduced
amount of calculation and is suitable for the load
factors ransinq nl :0.5 to 1.0. This t.v-pe of operation
is described in more detail in Section 13.2.3.

To simplify calculations rhe so called characreristic


diameter ri, is inrroduced (Fig. 18.19). The tempera-

Cyclic operation

l"*
\

100%

Time._

Tite-.-..........-

Time-

Titt

lealrnq

J00%

Fig. 18.17
Heating of the ground

by continuous
operation and cyclic
operation
199

'

l8

Currcnt-Carrying Capacitl in Normal Operation

the daily load cbaracteristic curve. Ourside the characteristic diameter a conslanl temperature exists (i.e.
the thermal capacitors are cbarged up during rhe
warm-up phase and do not enter into the calculation
for the steady state condition).
The loss factor p for the determination of the mean
current heat loss is

p=0.3 m+0.7

(18.s1)

m2.

The characteristic diameter d. is dependant upon the


thermal characteristics of the ground, the frequency
of rv equal fluctuations over 24 hour period and on
the loss factor p.
Fig. 18.18
-Theoretical development of isothermal lines in the

-round and substitution of lalers between the


individual lines by a chain of R, C components

For the characteristic diameter d" in irr rvith a load


factor to satisfy 0.5 <,r < 1.0 and for a sinusoidal load
variation:
0.205
n
gE

,/ -t I

"

\0..1'
I

\Kmfvi

[or rectalinear load variation

,:
'

'r "

0..19i

1/

ni

V\!

-:-------------=_:.

O"

(18.53)

\"'

\Kmlw/
for an average shape of load variation which is neither sin usoidal nor rectalinear
O.lO3+0.246VG
(

i U
idv
-ig.

Distance itom

Lc(#)"'

cable-_

18.19

rleating of the ground in cyclic operation

Table 18.31
Loss lactors and characteristic diameters for a
soil-thermal resistivity of 1.0 KmiW and daily Ioad
curve wi!h maximum load
Load factor

Loss factor

p from
equation
18.51

ture dse outside the characteristic diameter is determined by the average loss with dependance on the
load factor however, the highest degree of temperature rise within the area embraced by the characteristic diameter is dependant on the maximum value of
load. Within the characteristic diameter the temperature varies with rime to a curve which closely follows
200

18.s4)

Characteristic diameter d, in m
Sinusoidal Rectalinear
load from load from
equation
equation

Mixed
load from
cquation

18.52

18.53

18.54

0.5

0.325

0.205

0.281

0.243

0.6

0.432

o.1
0.8
0.9

0.553

0.105
0.205

0.:05

0.324
o.367
0.409

0.205

0.451

0.265
0.286
0.307
0.318

0.688
0.837

Thermal Resistance of the Soil

The geometric c()nstant k" of the circle rvith the characteristic diametcr ,i, is obtained from the an:rlogY
oI equation I 3.-l-l:

, lh
*r:7]*

.+

Ir

18.'1

Temperatute

.T1

Cable suriace remperature

80:ll

(18.55)

Dr-ving-Out of the Soil and Boundary Isotherm d.

40

By reference to Fig. 13.10 it rvill be seen that at a


certain load. rvhich is limited only by the maximum
permissible operating temperature, the surface of
cables of different types of construction rvill assume
d'o:renr surface temperatures. While the surface tempj,ature of a mass-impregnated cable may be approximately .+5 "C, the surface of an XLPE cable can
reach 7i "C (at 20'C ground temperature, degree of
l^{ing 1.0 and assuming the soil does dry-out). The
c _jrence is significant. It is knorvn that sandy soiis
tend to dry-out rvhen the cable surface temperature
is approximarely 30"C installed in a 20oC ground
temperature. The danger oI drying-out is higher
rvhere XLPE cables are used than where mass-impregnated cables are installed. This danger also increases rvith increasing load lactor.

JO

20

r0

0.J

0.4

0.5

0.6

0i 0.8 0.9 m
axis-*

1.0

Disrance ifom cable

a
b

Three XLPE cables

\A2XS2Y I x 150125 Rll I 2,':0


One mass-impre gnated clble'
NAEKEBY

150

R!{

kV

12/20 kV

Fig. 18.20

!laximum heating of the ground by different

cables

This drying-out area (Fig. 13.2t) is indicated by an


isothermal line excentric to the cable - the boundary
isotherm - having a diameter d,.

on the stipulations given in DIN vDE 0298


Part 2 the limiting temperature rise A3, can be deBased

rived from the equation

ar - 15-(l-nr) 100
-''
l

(r

s.56)

and this results in

'

A3,= l5 K forcontinuous operanon


with

rn:

1.0,

A 3.

A 9,

= 32 K for daily load curve with

25 K for utility load operation


with rn = 0.7,
m

= 0.5.

Within the boundary isothermal line the soil-thermal


resistivity can be taken as 0!= 2.5 KmfV representlng the almost completely dried-out sandy soil or the
sand used as bedding material. Outside of the boundary isotherm rhe value ae= 1.0 Km/W is used which
rePresents almost all natural types of soil in European

Fig

18.21

Heating. of. the grour

20r

l8

Current-Carrying Capacitf in Normal Operation

'2., li,r'/ / /, /.//

Fictitious Soil-Thermal Resistanccs T', and Ti"

/./////./.
"

6.fr

trnr+{p-r) tni,l 0av)

r=9tni
" tJt
a)

0s.5s)

Muiti-core cable

a>.

6=fr trnr+{p-r) rn*r+p2lnk

l 0&59)

r,!#(lnr+2tnt")

(18.60)

b)

18.63.

Single-core cables side

bl

side rvith d.<2a

,'. ., y,/./,/././,/,,.,,/,/./,//.///

Load Capacity

///,/,//

* iln i+3 (p-1) l,-2In tal 08.61)


(1s62)
i,'*(tnt*ztni")
c) Single-core cables d) Single-core cablcs sidc
by side rvith d, >24
bunched
I,y-

The fictitious soil-thermal resistances T'. and Ii,


take into account the cyclic performance of a daily
load curve and drling-out of the soil. These can be
calculated using the equations in Fig. 18.22 but can
also be taken, for some arrangements, from
Fig. 18.23. For the calculation of load capacity these
resistances are to be incorporated into equation

ln

and k" to Fig. 18.16, k, to equation 18.55

Fig. 18.22
Formulae for calculation of the fictitious soil-thermal
resistances 7,, and T', with daily load cycle nr< 1.0
and drying-out of the soil

Previously the values for load capacity in the ground


rvere calculated using the rules for continuous operarion but did not take account o[ drying-out of the
soil, which rvas permitted only for defined public utiliry load type of operation. For continuous operation
the recommendation was to use either the factor 0'5
or a factor which corresponded to a sufficiently \a
selected soil-thcrmrl resistivity.

Load capacity is norv - as explained in the previous


section - (DIN VDE 0298 Part 2) calculated using
a method which takes into account drying-out of the
soil together rvith maximum Ioad and load factor,
$ hich is derived from a daily load curve.
Load capacity can be found from

Fu-gr- PitT'** T'.\ *[(qJoE)- l]43.

'":/@
,

l6.oJl

q,ith the individual terms or values determined


follows

as

Load factor nr to Fig. 18.1,


loss factor I to equation 18.51,
\r,
characteristic diameter d, to equation 18.54 or
Table 18.2 for the thermal resistivity (,e: I Kmllv,
limiting temperature rise A3, to equation 18.56,
geometric factors A', k" and k, to Fig. 18.16 and equa-

tion

18.55,

thermal resistances Ti and I',, to Fig. 18.22 providing


it is established, where necessary, that d">24 or

dr<2a.
The diameter of the dry area d, is not essential for
the calculation but it must be verified whether the
assumption that the soil is drying-out does apply,
that means d, > d respectively 96 > 9. :
9o=

9r'-Pi Tit-

9.=3e+A9'.
)n)

PiTi.d,

(18.64)
(18.65)

Thermal Resistance of the Soil 18.'l

Fig. 18.23
Fictitious soil-thermal resistance f. at
nr= 1.0, l'ly at nr=0.7 relative to outer
diameter d of cable and depth of iay /r
for a soil-thermal resistivity of
s. = 2.5 Km/w and pE = 1.0 Kmiw

1.0

---70mm.

6.0

(9 q/ i9

5,J
4.0
3.0

1.5

1.0

2.5
2.0

ta

1.0

08
0.6
0.5

40 50 50 80 100 150
Outet diameter

200mm

oi cable d

The ohmic losses in equation 18.64 must be determined using the load capacity calculated for dryingout the soil. If the surface temDerature is found to
be less than the temperarure of the boundary isotherm, the calculation for load capacity must be rePeated but under the assumption that the soil does
not dry-out. The calculation routine described above

To simplify this calculation the characteristic diameter is to be determined using the thermal resistivity
of the moist area. A comparison of diameters is therefore avoided and the result is on the safe side since
the lower thermal resistivity results in a maximum
value for the characteristic diameter.

ior capaclly Jo < J! must be satlslied.


203

l8

urrent-Carry ing Capacitl'in Normal Operation

Example 18.7
Three single-core cables

\A2XS2Y I x

150

RM/25 12/20 kV

are installed in ground under different oPerating conditions.


Dimensions and thermal resistane of the cable can be taken from example 18.2 on page 185

or from Part 2, Table 5.6.6a.


Bntched installatiotr for the speciJied operatittg conditions to Table 18.2.

Type of operation: Supply utility operation with nr=0.7 or any equivalent load variation
(Fig. 18.6) rvith a frequency of load cycles x: 1.
u

= 0.3

rrr

+0.7 rnr: 0.J x 0.7+0.7 x 0.7tr = 0.553,

r/i n o\o '

,'

:0.186

(18.51)
m

(18.51)

Krn

2x0.7
35.7x 10-3

(13..14)

-l

, )h 2x0.7 JT
"^".Kt
ir ft-'
^" = 7= lstlo.l:
T:,=

*[lnk+
ts

=f

3(p-

ttn 78.42+3

^
r',: h]nk*z

1)

(1

lnk"+2 lnk,]

15

fr

[n

8.18)

(18.61)

l tn q 6q+) ln ta ttt= -..


I aas
.- Kt
(0.553-1/...
w

tn,t"J =

13.55)

78.+2+2ln

Km

39.:3]:4.656;.

(18.62)

{l-07) 100-25K.
t3_:tr, (l-rn)3 100=15
'- r

(18.56)

is made with t ,: specilied operating conditions to Table


gives in equation 18.63 the rated value ,f the load capacity /. with
P: = 0. f'Kt = 0 469 KmTw as in Sectio 18.4.1
and R*.:0.269 Q/km as in Part 2, Ta : 5.6.6a.
Since the calculation

18.2, this

o3-.
A,
,,:t,/ry4+''r
'' V
nR*,(T'11;+r',,) t@=
/ txo.z6ex l0-3(0.469+3.445) '--"'
320

30=91.-Prfli: St,-n Il R-,- =90-1

(18.63)

x3202 x0.269 x10-3 x0.469=77'1 "C'


(18 64)

with

P::
3,:

0 and Pi to equation 18.3


Se

+ A9, = 20 +25 =

45'C.

The assumption that 90> 9, is


204

there:

(18.65)

verified.

Thermal Resistance of the Soil 18.'l

Btutchetl tnstulltrtiort

For

rn: I

then

4:

rlitlt lr =

The same vrlue is obtained using the rating factors


of Table 18.15 (/i =0.93) andTable 18.19(/::0.3,i)

I and T'." = 1'

l'=i

rl-lllon

A3.:t5-" ;""":15K.
ao,
. - F*-Wfr.,tsll____;r*tr,.,*nrl _
,,=

(18.s6)

(18.63)

For nr: 0.7


3o=

The current-carrying capacity 1.:120A is identical


to rhe ouantitv siven in DIN VDE 0298 Part 2 as
ti )e seen in Table 18.11From the quantities for /, and I. the rating factor
is

90- I x 353r

:74.1"C.

90-10+[(].5,1]-11 l5 _1(q l
_r/
!1'
=
[/ lro%9.10=l{0..t69+4556)--ra

xf 2= 0.93 x 0.35 = 0.79.

i = lOr- ?5 = 45 oa
and for

rrr:

1.0

3o= 90- I x 277: x 0.285 x


= 80.2 'C,
.'l =1n-! I\= ltoa
3o

l0-r

x0.'l-18
(

13.64)

> 3, .

159

The same value is obtained


Table 18.l5 Ur

f: f, f.:
x

by using

factors from

0.93) and Table 18.171/,=6.371 t";,1t

Calttltttiotr of diunterer d, untl tlepth of lay h, of the


tlrr areu Jbr u bunclrcd installatiott und lor m= 1.0
Assuming: r/, > d,

0.93 x 0.87 = 0.8

1.

ho=tn

The individual thermal resistance can also, in this


case, be calculated using the equations in Fig. 18.16
and Fig. 18.22. It is however easier to take these from
the graphs in Fig. 18.23 and 18.9 or Part 2, Table
5.6.6 b giving

= 0.448 KmAV.

ls

-"r
=.I/rn

h. = ho

For R;.:9.235Q/km (according to Part 2, Table


nr

l0-i l)i

,
| 2rA3, l
k,:expl;_r*l

r/,

T',:3.794Kmlw,
T'.r: 2.583 Km7-W,

",'.6 b) and

ltl-r::VO;,-(:S.l

=0.7 m,

(18.41)

Insrallatiott in Ground Side by Side

'l'kr

x l0-3 x 0.448
(13.64)

In both cases therelore

.1 . l,
,t1,3:o

. '.

x 0.285

with

= 0.7 is

dy

Qr.

l3 x

lx

1.0x1592 x0.269x l0-r_l

/.
570
;''
, = 4x0.7 ;i=la;-l
)./u--l
;

(Fig. l s.la)

I r;)

= 0.51 m, (13.66)

t,2-Ll
< -nz Ll
^4J,M:--:-_-:0.7
0.74
=
;:i ;
K;-t
).iu--l =

m.

13.67)

= 0.286 m the assumption d, > d, is proven.

go-20+[(2.trt-lJx _.r,.r
,__r/
' t* 0.285 x l0-r10.4-+3+2.583)
^
v

and for

rz:

t.o

_,1 eo-2GtdtD-lJts

,-

r x0.285x t0-r(0.lt48+3.794)

(18'63)

^--.
(18.63)

The two quantities give a resulting rating factor of

277
)i!

205

l8

Curren t-Carry ing Capacity in Normal Operation

Diameter of the Dry Area

tI-:/+ll^-

The diameter of the dry area rvith respect to the characteristic diameter can be determined once the load
capacity is knou'n. For this calculation the necessary'

the depth of the boundary isotherm is given by

/',:ro#

geometric factors k, for a multi-core cable as well


as for three single-core cables are shown in Fig. 18.24.
The diameter for the dry area is obtained from

G^,

d.,dv

',,="'pl::*l

t'

k,=exp

d,'dy

- d,.dy
,-

1"9

[(?

i,=exp

d|.dr.2a

d..22'd,
k,=exp

lzrat

/5aE

r o\ Pov
0t>0,>G \//o
\
lJ._',
t,=e,o

{tff

v/

-tr-r, ) (tn

k,) /

lFJfl))

+(r-p

1'tn

t,)rf 4+g)]

) P,tn kt)

lil

lP'+

Fi

{pPJP;)l

2a-d^t

d,t

r,,=",p

t(ff

?a-d,r-da

dr.\a-d,1

-(t-r,)

@r
t({p

r,="'olffii)

'

d,t

- (p4 = P)

2 tn k

"l

tpl! ftll

t@{::,

d,1

rv- (P,+{) 2ln

n J$, ;+3 Gpl 4ln


rrl=expL-----:--+E-r
,

/p

t.,

.,2r!t|,/pp+(1-p)frlnit-(pPJff)2lnt.'
k1=ex9t_________FE-|

Fig. 18.24
Geometric constants of the dry area for one three-core cable and three
single-core cabies
206

(18.67)

and the depth of the line source /to is derived from


equation 18.38.

/6\--4

d,<dy

(r 8.66)

Croupirlg in Ground 18.{


The cable ly-ing in the centre is heated most and is
the reference cable designated l. In most instances
the eccentricity of the cable is neglegible. For trvo
cables (Fig. 18.25a) the grouping factor is

18.{..1 Grouping in the Ground


Fictitious .{dditional Thermal
Resistances -\

Ij

and A

Ii,

due to Grouping

Cables grouped in a common cable trench or installed with insufficient spacing from one another result in mutual heating. Thus the load capacity is subsequently reduced. Reduction lactors for the normally used spacings are shown in Tables 18.17 to 18.21.
The load capacity for large spacings, lor groups of
cable etc. must be calculated for the individual situa-

rt. , L ,2
l/ \tt|'r ttl) 'ru
-:

''

-.

t/ trt.

(13.73)

- h,t' + a'

independant of rvhich cable is heating the other. If

trvo cables are arranged at the same

depth

(Fig. 18.25b) then according to equation 18.50:

rio ns.

For the calculation of load capacity the superposirion


of-temperature fields is considered here also. Interferd : with ground heat conductivity, due to variations
in homogeneiry caused by the cables, is neglected.
Because of the commonly used ciearance of 7 cm bet'ryeqn cables this can be done rvirhout introducing
$ .ficant error.

For the fictitious additional thermal resistances ATj


and dTi" of multi-core cables (calculated rvith g,)
due to grouping, the follorving are applicable rvhen
considering daily load variations

6 T_,

:flfir,*u
-" L:

rr

rn

r"].

Y".l

(l 8.68)

Considering dielectric losses and continuous operation with rn = 1 in equation 18.68 4 must be made
equal to I and this gives

ar;:fri;,
-'"

\a I

13.7+)

For six cables as in Fig l8.2ic then

f ; =r,n1,{t'f,*,*2'n

MuI

-ln

fi'',

':
l/(r) *'*
(18.75)

In groups of bunched single-core cables the distance


betrveen centres of bunches b can be used to simplily

l r'*,.u. - r)rr -

y;=1,ftlf*,=1n*.

18.69)

calculation. Since in equation 13.77 the number of


loaded cores per cable is considered with n= l. to
take account ol all losses the ligure 3 must be introduced into the group factor. If in Fig. 18.25c for example the six cables are replaced by six three-phase
systems each comprising three bunched single-core
cables this {:ives.

lE
r
) d,=Jli
I

2.

^
Similarly
for three single-core cables in a three-phase
system:

fi) A,
rn

/(-6)*'*t'"

tffi;*
(

18.76)

AT:":

Values for grouping factors for a cable laying at the

A.::*Tr,

end of the group may be taken also from Fig. 18.26.


For a cable on the inside the group factors for the
number of cables laying to the right and to the left
must be summated.

i 8.71)

N, is the number ofcables within the circle ofcharacteristic diameter dy.

With the aid of equation 18.64 and equation i8.65


it must be verified whether the soil actually dries out.

The grouping factor Ed, is for a number of cables


1,2, 3 ..., i, ...N (Figs. 18.14 and 18.25):

I6t:Th::

(18.72)

207

l8

Currcnt-Carrying Capacity in Normal Operarion

Load Capacity

For N cables of the same t.vpe. having the same ioading and the same losses installed in the same trench
the load capacity is

, _-, I or,- Ju-e;1r;o


"-/

ri +a r;+ (p2r1-

r1

aq
-

(18.77)

Extension of the Dry Area

.{s described in Section 18.41 the dry area mal be


represented in special cases by a circular or nearly
circular area with a diameter. equal to the diameter
d,. More accurately the boundary of the dry area
can be determed by calculating the temperature rise
in all points P (.x, y) which accurately correspond \\'i'\
rhe temperature rise of the boundary isotherm
This is effected by inserting to the relationships gilen

l\n

in Fig. 18.27 in the formula

43,= I(riPii+P:i)
x

ln
]:
zn

- x)2
(.v
- h' + eJz + (-r' -.r):

11'+ /r,

e,): +

1.r,

(18.78)

e. g. y and .r is altered continuously


given
values for losses Pi; and P;i the
until, with the
calculated value of temperature rise at the point
P(-r, _r') exactly corresponds with the given value of
A9,. In most instances the eccenlricity e can be neglected (see Section 18.4.3).

a fixed coordinate

In Fig. 18.27 the cables 1,2.,... i... N are shown u


their mirror images to the ground surface. The .r aX
is located at the ground surface. It is assumed that
the circles with the characteristic diameter lay u ithin
the dry area. Since the characteristic diameter based
on the lower value of thermal resistivity of the moist
region will be somewhat too large, the results will
be on the safe side, The same applies if the extent
of the dry area becomes smaller than the circle with
the characteristic diameter.

With the aid of equation 18.78 the isotherms in the


moist area can also be determined (Fig. 18.28).

Fig. 18.25

For this A9, must be replaced by the temperature


rise of the selected isothermal line. The isotherms in
the dry area can not be established using this relative-

Groups of cables referred to in the text

ly simple method.

208

Crouping in Cround
Massing faclor

E,i

Number

of

cables

18...1

og=1.0 KmM

r0

20

7
b

15

---s,=2.5

KmM

Qe

1,0 Km; W

3u=10'C

Ail.=li

-2

J 4 56 8 t0 t5 20 25J0
Rario j-_

rrr

Fig. 18.28
Temperature ficld of trvo cablcs

= 0.7

Nyy I x l j0 0.611 kV

Fig. 18.26
Crouping factor Id relative ro depth of lay fi and to
spacing distlnce .r. and rhc numbJr o[ cabies in rhe
trench in relation to a cable on the end of the rorv

Example 18.8

Four circuits
t)pe

of bunched single-core

NA2XS2Y
are arranged

150

in the

cables

of

the

RMi25 t2l20kv

same trench. The clearance is

cm. The cables are to operate to the specified conditrons in Table 18.3.
7

The centre spacing of two bunches is (Fig. 1g.29)

b:2 d+70 mm:2

x 35.7 mm+70 mm= I41.4 mm.

The electrical and thermal data for a single bunch


was calculated in example 18.7 (see page 204, Section
18.4.3). The calculation for a group of such cables
is made in respect of a bunch laying in the centre
(cables 1, 2 and 3):
Fig, I8.27
Heating of a point p(.r, y)
by cabte

i:

l, 2,3, ..., N

a, +1iv,- tl1s- t; tnt,].


#
-" fir'.r"t,
12
rv+ t

(lE.6g)

l8

Current-Carrying Capacity in Normal Operation

/7/////777.. t, r.,.//,, //////////./,

///L ////////z z//,' /.

12.

the outermost bunch. The factors for the cables,{


to 6 as u,ell as the factors for cables 7 to 12, in each
case relative to cables I to 3. must be determined
and then summated. For bunches of three single-core
cables the value established in this way must be multiplied by 3.

h 0.7m
-'-'b
Fa\r-:-:1
0.14 m
9

) di :JXjxiJ:lJ.J,
l:

l:

:-"t

:-'

lo

.-Ti.:.
l r1qi - 1il=Jqi
|
-'
1--t

rr

Fig. 18.29
Arrangement of installation for cxample

18.8

R'*, (T'*, +

_-r/L

I x 0.169 x

I;,

+A

]"l')

I0 - ' t0.169

(18.i7)

3.+45 + -1.1r'>.

= 223 A.

\earl)
The characteristic dianreter r{:0.286 nr is greater
rhan 26 = 0.130 m. Therefore u ith ,V" :9 and with
equation 18.72 as well as equation 18.76 one obtains
19

^
-:-t)
1rl"
1.5

I a,+(9-3)(ir-l)lnt,lJ
' +u' sTr

f. x.J ln

;-lJ
:tt L

+p3xr

4hl

+te-3Xr-r)ln4l

+0.553 x 3ln

- l) ln:*-ql
u.l86l

:fr?( [tr.as+0.s53 x 4.89-6.12]


=

Two three-core cables type

NYSEY

x 185 RM/25

6i 10 kV

are arranged in the same trench \t ith a clearance b''.


tween them of 7 cm and are to be operated to the
specified conditions in Table 18.1.

The other cables in Fig. 18.30 are not loaded. The


following electrical and thermal values are available
from Part 2, Table 5.1.18: Ri",=0.121 O,&m,
I, = 394 A,
Pi = 3'7 win'
= 68.8 mm,
(reference diameter)

= 0'364 KmAM'
Iica=0'253 KmAil'

The grouping factor E 61 can also be determined from

210

Example 18.9

Ih

4. 15 Km,AM.

Fig. 18.26. The factors

from Part 2 Table 5.6.6a: /,:320 A.


from Table 18.1 5 : /, = t.O,
from Table 18.17 : fr=Q.l ,
and I,: J,xf' x.[ :320 x 1.0 x 0.7 = 224 A.

(18.68)

nffi.t.

+ 6(0.553

the sarne result can be obtained by reference


to Section 18.2 and Part 2 using the following:

in this figure are given for

4r

Ti

= l'071 KmAv'

=La74Km[w.

Crouoins in Ground 18.{

with

.\,:2

|{.2

IJt:tJr:2.31

and

)2

,'
)i
ll"j=i:fd,:i
x2.31
)fr

{t8.6e)

:O.S19 rmAV;

| _ | / 10 -

20

- y

3.7 (0.253

J x 0.121 x

9)+ [(2.5 1.0]- rl :s


10.36.tt 1.071 +0.j15)

1..r74 +0.91

l0-r

:331 A.

Fig. 18.30
Arranseme nt of insrallarion for erample 18.9

Current-Carrying Capacity of Dissimilar Cables


The load capacity of one cable

is

, _., /l+,-}r-P:(T;d+T.)-[(q./qJ- l] AJ,

nRi,(fi.,-

f',")

,lR 61r

_1/ ta-jo-J.7(0.251+ 1.474)+ [(].5/ 1.0)_ ll


3 x0.12[ x l0-](0.364+ 1.071)
V

25

=394 A

z1=

AS,,=

70 mm +

a; 0.7 m
__j.=_=504
a

Apart from the ,V cables being similar to each other


(indicated by the index i), as shown in Fig. 18.29,
there are orher M cables being similar to each other
(indicated by the index j) accomrnodared in the same
trench (Fig. 18.30). If the loading of these M cables
is the same this results in mutual heating, for instance. the trefoil-arranged single-core cables indicated by 1,2.3 are heuted by:

f;,

d:70 mm+69 mm= 139 mm

+qj{*ft'r,,+pjtyij+
i

0.139 m

\-"1I

From Fi-e. 18.26

The grouping factor for

Irt:2.31.
I

For m: 0.7 from Table 8.31


I = 0.553 and
d" = 0.286 m.

ia,,

4,: *l

*r i a,+1ru,- l)tu;-l) rnk,l


Mv'l
I

=0.515 KrnrV.

\\.,

(h,-

M multicore

!')',+'i:
h,)z + al,'

J)
cables is

(18.80)

three-phase conditions the ratins factor becomes

: ) \ [2.31 +0+(2-

in

ti,+.\ryiitti-rrrnr,l}
I

for N bunched single-core cables operating under

From example 18.7 kr:9.69 and hence

^ r.Y,
ia,
-"L2

(r 3.79)

frfa,,+

(i8'58)
l)(0.ss3

1)

ln e.6e]

1u,-tir"fffi.

(18.81)

If all N

cables are loaded at the same level the


current-carrying capacity of the trefoil-arrangement
(or cable) in question is:
271

l8

Current-Carrying Capacity in Nonnal Operation

''

l/

(r 8.82)

R*,i(T;ji+ rl,,-ATl,r)

If the load capaciry of the M cables is to be investigated in respect of the heating from the group of N
cables the indices in the equation above need to be
interchanged.

Mr;; is the number of cables in group j, whose circle


with characteristic diameter drl embraces the cable
considered of the group i. Since it must be assumed
that all cables N and ,'11 are situated in the same
dry area the boundary isotherm must be determined
by using the larger of the trvo load factors al; or

The loading of the 10 kV cables is now to be 200 A


each at a Ioad factor of nt:0.7 and d":0.286 m (Table 18.27). drl2 is therefore less thin the smallest
spacing /rt-ft,:0.3 m at aii:0 in Fig. 18.30 and
hence ,l1r;1 :0. Using equation 18.80 in relation to
the axis of the bunched cables 1, 2 and 3 with a', : 0
compared with a;1:0.14 m (example 18.9) we get

v
,4r n-,-n 7r.:-0:
't--'..
f ;.=1n17t'"-"
; ' / (1.0-0.7)'+0'

rrl (eQuation 18.56).

Using equations 18.64 and 18.65 the assumption that


the soil is drying out must be verifled. Should this
not be the case then in all equations g! must be re;laced by gu.

*ln

(1.0+0.7):+0.1.11
(1.0-0.7):+0.1.1:

(r8.80)

_ 1 1-7

With the quantities from erample

18.9

rle

get \-/

Pij:,r/i R;,,
The cables from example 18.8 (Fig. 18.29) are installed at a depth of i': I nt 1Ot=. 18.30) but otherwise are operated under the sanre conditions.

From Fig. 18.23

it is found for li:1.0

m. nr:0.7

and d:35.1 mm

f":3.7

43,,-' = 3.7

have simplified (see example 18.8) in

(18.79)

6,

,,.\

ld,:3

(2.65

195

A.

(18,,_,

Additionally, it must be ascertained that the 10 kV


cables are not heated excessirely by the 20 kV cables
thus

P::rI?

P'

(18.3)

=1x1952x0.269x10-3
:10.23 Wm.

L2

+4.62):21.81,

Also in this example drl2 is less than the smallest


0.553 x 11.81 = 4.80

KmfV

and

,-@

1x0.269 x 10-r(0.469+3.7+4.80)
(18.77)

)11

-r 14.52= 10+0.553 x 3.37+01


ln

from Fig. 18.26 the values 2.65 for two cables and
4.62 for three cables are found. For the load capacity
rf N= l2 single-core cables with a depth of lay increased to I m, but still ignoring the influence of the
two three-core l0 kV cables M situated above, we

)fi

?i

3.37

,.@txo.:69 x lo-r(0.469+3.7+4.8)
=

1Il,'!ft=

and the load capacity

0.140 m

)i -

:15.7

1.0 m

16,:

14.52 Wi m.

The temperature rise caused by the trvo 10 kV cables


is therefore

Km/w'

For the ratio

lr'
b

(18.1)

: 3 x l00r x 0.121 x l0- r:

Example 18.10

distance

hi- ht:9.3

and therefore lr'r;; = 0'

Installation in Ducts and Pioes 18.4

(18.3r)

A9;;= 0+ t0.23

?<

;[0+0.553

x 19.34+0] = 43.53 K.

(r

, - 170-20-3.7(0.253+ 1.474+0.919)+[(2.5/l)- l] :5-43.53


3 x0.l2lx t0-r(0.364+1.071+0.515)
v

Since the loading with 200 A is smaller than the load


caoacity of 120 A, the 10 kV cables are not heated
i .:ssively. The interdependance of load capacity of
a group of cables on loading of the other group can
be seen by reference to Fig. 18.31. At the point of
\ersection of the curves the temperature of the con, tors are at their maximum values of 90 'C and
7u"C respectivelv.

1.,=331 A at

(18.82)

18.-1.5 Installation in Ducts and Pipes

As rvell as the thermal resistances descnbed earlier


additional thermal resisrances are involved
(Fig. 18.i2)

the thermal resistance ?l of the space between


the cable surface and the inner rvall of the pipe
and

.-;:--

the thermal resistance f{ of the pipe (with metal


pipe ( is insignificant).

Thermal Resistance

{=0

8.79)

I(

of the pipe

The thermal resistance 1.x of the pipe is derived from


the specific thermal resistance ofp" ofthe pipe material. the outer diameter d* and the thickness 6* of the
pipe wall with

Qn,
/ R = :In -------.
zIt , l)p,
I

(r

8.83)

'-4

Thermal Resistance

Ii

of the Internal Space

The thermal resistance 7i of the space whether filled


rvith air or gas is determined by iteration [18.42,
18.431:

(18.84)

1,,=211 Aar I,=0


(10 tV

100

A9": T' ,*

cable '

150

200

250

1r'

(18.85)

"r.

The equivalent diameter ds in m for cables with diameter d is

Currenl Ir

Fig. lSJl
Load capacity interdependance
o[ two groups of cables
trom example lg.9

for
for
for
for

one cable in a pipe

aE- ut

two cables in a pipe


three cables in a pipe
four sables in ri pipe

de:1.65d,
de= 2-15 d
'
de= 2.3Qd.

zt)

l8

Current-Carrying Capacity in Normal Operation

The mean temperature 9. of the air space for n*


cables is celculated by approximation

r- =1s.. -,r, - r

s.

+($ - r)a s,l


\tE/)

Conducto. lemperalure

t1-

Conduclor losses
Thermal resistance

'

ol insulalion

lossesPJ

l'l,
Shearh losses

"-(?*n*t:,)
]"ki +

nR

(1.; + i';r +

Ij

T; J*

r;l',"($+ rl+ r:,)

Armour losses

l.

t'-(*-')""
"l

Thermal resislance
ol inner layers

Thermal resistance
of ourer shearh

fj

(18.86)
Thermal resislance
of air space

I;

is obtained from equation 18.3. Pi is obtained

from equation 18.4 and the dielectric temperature rise


lrom

A3o=P' [Ti.o+n*(Ti'+Ii + T:)].

Thermal resislance

oi pipe I,{

18.87)

The constants a. b, and c rvhich depend on the type


of pipe and arrangement can be taken from Table 18.i2. The pressure p for cables in pipes is I bar.

For a temperature dillerence of A3"= 20 K between


pipe inner wall and rhe cable surface for cables in
an air filled pipe and Agp:10 K for gas pressurised
cables taking account of a limited range of diameters

Thermal resislance
oi qround

Ij

Ioral losses P.'-

&

PJ

Ambienr lemperalure

Fig. 18.32
Equivalcnt circuit for the thermal florv from cables
installed in a pipe in the ground

de= 15 mm to 100 mm for cables in pipe

d:=

75 mm

to

125 mm

Table 18.32
Constants a, b, c,

for gas pressure cables

A,8, C for the calculation of thermal


resislance di for installation in ducts or pipes "

the simplified equation [18.a2; 18.2]

I + 100

(B+Cg-)

(18.88)
dE

is used with constants A, B and C to Table 18.i2.


In addition iteration using equations 18.86 and 18.87
is required (d, is to be applied in m). A rough calcula,ion is possible rvith Fig. 18.33

Typc of pipe and


arrangemcnt

Cablc in mctal pipe

11.41

15.63

0.2r96 5.2

.4

0.01

l0

Cable in hard iibre pipe


(fibre r) duco

in air
in concrete

l.4l

4.65 0.1163 5.1

11..11

5.5 5

I l.4l
11.41

11.11

0.r808 5.:

0.83 0.0061
0.91 0.0095

Cable in asbestos

ln atr
in concrete

0.1033
10.20 0.2067 5.2

t.2
1.1

0.0055
0.0110

Cable in eanhenwarc
1.87

Prpe

Gas-pressurc cable
in stcel pipe (14 bar)

l.4l

15.63

0.46 0.0036

0.2r96 0.95 0.00 0.0021

High-prcssurc oil-lillcd
cable in stcel pipc

0.26 0.28 0.0026

r) For plastic pipcs valuc! not yal incorporalcd in IEC

rr

214

28?. It is rccom_
mcndcd to usc lhe valucs fot hard fibrc pipc as an aPProximalc calculatior|. For inslallation of thc pipcs in ground $c constanls for piPcs
Hdcd in concrctc :nay bc uscd
Bitumcn imprcgnatcd wood fibrc

Installation in Ducts and Pioes 18.{

1.2

1.0

08

08

(,

0.6

oz

1.5

3 4 5

Equivalent diametet d

7 cmt0

E-

a) Hard fibre pipe in concrete


(as an approximation also for
plastic pipe in concrete
or in the ground)

t.t

3 4 5

[quivalent diameter

e-

cm10

b) Asbestos-cement pipe
a

in conclete or
in the ground

l_t

3 4 5

Equivalenr diamerer

7cmi0

d.-....-........-

Earthenware duct

in the ground

Fig. 18.33 Thermal resistance of rhe air space between a cable and a pipe

?t

- 18 Current-Carrying Capacir; in Nonnal Operation


Load Capacitl for an Installation
of Pipes in Ground or in Air

The load capacity for cables laying in the ground


can be calculated from

91.-9E- P; [Tid + rR(T;+ T;i+ 4)+A 4] +[(q'iqJ- l] AS'


rr R*,ITi, + rr*(?"i + ?i + I:y)+ A 71"]

18.8e)

The number of cables in the pipe is n* and n is the


number of loaded conductors in each cable. Tlre thermal resistances of the soil Ti and Ti, are calculated
as in Section 18.4.3 using the diameter of the pipe
'*. The additional thermal resistances A7l and Al"
taking account of grouping are calculated as in Sec-

tivity does not exceed a specified value qu in the driedout stale. Normally qo<g.. For concrete. in cases
rvhere a specific quantity is not knorv it is normally
satisfactory to use gB: L2 Km. W. The drl ing out
of the soil outside of the block is the onll lactor
* hich may reduce load capacitl'.

tion

In duct banks the power cables are to be arranged


only in the outer ducts as indicated in Fig. 18..''
[18.aa]. The heat dissipation from the inner piper'
of a duct bank into the ground is signilicantly less

13.4.4.

If the load capacity in air is required the quantity


I thermal resistance '1"., for an installation in air
as in Section 18..1.2 must be inserted rvhile the ther'
mal resistances I , 4,., Aq and Ad, are omitted.
Load Capacitl' for an Installation in Ducts Banks

In some industrial installations the cables are installed in duct banks at 0.6 m depth or greater
(Fig. 18.3a). The ducts are firstly installed in layers
with the aid of distance pieces and then bedding or
filler material is compacted after each layer is positioned. The clearance between ducts must be selected
wide enough to ensure proper filling. If normal sand
is used for this the load capacity to equation 18.89
r appropriate. Horvever a thermally stable bedding
material (see Section 18.4.6), e.g. a suitable concrete
mix mav be selected provided that the thermal resis-

favourable by comparison to the outer pipes because


ol the obstruction caused by air in the outer pipes.
If porier and control cables are to be run together
the power cables. because of the better heat dissipation. are preferably arranged in the upper layers.

It

must be assumed that the soil dries out around


the pipe block rvith dimensions,r and y and the equivalent diameter do to equation 18.90. In the zone em'
braced by the equivalent diameter du and the diameter of the boundary isotherm d,, therefore, one must
calculate the corrective thermal resistances fi- and
7f,r'. using the thermal resistivity 9..
Outside the diameter d, calculations are made using
the thermal resistivity 3s for moist soil, rvhich is intrc
duced through the correction term in the top line. ''-

77V 7v-/2 VZV ZVZ 7772-T


l>o.sm

lool loool lool loool looool


lool
lo@@ol
lool lo@ol
loool lool
lool lo@ol
lo@ol looool
loool
leel
lgSl
lool
@ unsuitable for power cables

Fig. 18.35
Fig. 18.34 Arrangemenr ofducr banks
)1A

Examples of arrangement of pipes in duct banks

Installation in Ducts and Pipes

The equivalent diameter r/o of the duct bank with


dimensions x and _u is (Fig. 13.16) [ I8.2]
I I.r /+ .\\ . /. t:\
.ls=lexpl;;(;-;)ln(l+,)+ln;1,

[quivalent radius

18..1

rl

r"
cm

.rl

60

(13.e0)

70

L- -, \,"

whereby one has to select ,r < y and I

.I

60

< 3.
)u

The geometric lactor is

40

r"=]*1f$-,
ds V \us/
i

(r8.9 r)

30

20

assumed that ./,>

/B therefore drying-out of the

soil occurs and for the corrective thermal resistances


for multi-core cables and d*> dy> dB
.V

a--s':qrl.vornko+ f
ln
L

.,

j,

(18.92)

l.

.t*, I

-,''.
T;;:a-'u|.Volnku+4
f
t.,

o,

-.V,t4-l) rn r"];
(

multi-core cables and d,> dB>

dy

['

irom equation I 8.92,


tBv=IttB;

single-core cables and d,> d.!>

13.93)

(I
(

20 30 40 50 60 80 100, cm 200

Fig. 18.36
Equivalent radius r, = r.lrl2 of a duct bank rvith dimensions r and _r' in Fig. 13.3.1, where ;s 4 -1' provided rhat

,r'-rSl

Lastly it must also be investigated rvherher the assumption r/, > ri u applies:
J,

18.93 a)

.l lrs

L.

;;f-:,

(18.66a)

rvit h

dB
(

'ir!,', from

(l 8.93 b)

equation 18.93;

18.92b)

k, = exp

2r /3,
q, N, (p Pi+ Pi)

(18.e4)

and Pi to equation 18.3 as well as Pj ro equarion

".ngle-core cables and d,> dR> d"

18.4.

from equation 13.92.

r*: Pri

l0

8.92 a)

?'i,* from equation 13.92

Tf

r0

(I

8.92 c)

(18.93c)

If d,<dB the soil does not dry-out and in all equations qr must be replaced by qr.

For the load capacity an extension of equation 18.89 is used


3..

- ji

+ rR + T;)+A rB + rii] +A0, l(eJ e e)


n R*. [Ti.1+ n* (I; + Ii + ?"By) + A T;.r + T'l
[Ti<a + n*

(ft

a
(

18.95)

The thermal resistances Ti, Ti, and A!i, are calculated in line with Section 1g.4.3
and 18.4.4 with g, replaced
by pg. This corresponds with'the assu#ption that rhe thermal resistivity outside the pipes
has the uniform
quantity qu.
217

l8

Curren t-Carrying C4pacity in Normal Operation

18.4.6 Soil-Thermal Resistilitv

Backllll

Cable in the Ground

To avoid

An accurate knowledge of the thermal resistivity of


the soil and the bedding materials not only allows
optimum utilisation of the cable up to the permissible
operating temperature but also prevents early aging
or destruction due to excessive heating [18.18 to
18.201. High soil-thermal resistivity - as a consequence of drying-out of the sround - are particularly
dangerous for highly loaded cables in continuous operation in unfavourable ground conditions.

If

the slightly rvider surroundings of the cable are


included in the consideration. three areas can be de(Fig. 18.37) which under certain conditions
-scribed
i, .nay have different thermal resisrivities. The three areas can be distinguished as follows:

damage to a cable construction good


ground, free of ingredients such as building rubble.
clinker, etc., should be used for backlill and should
be sufliciently compacted [18.6; 18.21]. Normally the
excavated soil is suitable for this purpose. The physical and thermal characteristics can be approximately
equal to those of the virgin soil (Area l).
Bedding Material
Bedding materials. in line with the requirements discussed earlier [18.16; 18.21] should be free of stones

and should comprise sand or other compacrable type

of soil rvith a maximum particle size of l0 mm. This


should be Iaid in layers of l0 cm and compacted by

Virgin Soil

' -,f this is undisturbed and is ri ithout significant inclusions of humus (moorland) the soil-thermal resistivity

is normally, for European latitudes. no more than


I Km lV. Care must be taken u,here the ground is
made-up and is only partially consolidated rvith a
mixture of slag, ashes and the like. included. In such
it is advisable to measure the thermal and ohvsical orooerties of the soil.
cases

Table 18.33 Quantities of soil components

Dry density

Thermal

t ml

resistility
KmrW

Cranite

2.5 to 3.0

0.32 to 0.25

Basalt

).9

0.6

Feldspar

2.5

0.43

Basic
ele

mcnt or

ma t cri:L

Glimmer Mica

1.7

Gneiss

0.19

Limestone

2.5

0.78

Quartz

2.5 to 2.8

0.ll

Sandstone

1)

0.54

Slag

0.3 ro

Organic

l.l

to 3.5

materials,

molst
Area
Area
Area

I
I
3

Virgin soil
Backfrll
Bedding material

Fig. 18.37
Thermal-resistance areas surrounding a cable laid in

ground
218

Organic

materials,

dry
Water

Au

1.68

40

Soil-Thermal Resistivity

18..1

hand compactors up to a cover of 30 cm above the


cable. Below the cables hard parts such as rocks or
boulders should be replaced by filler material. Bog,
peat, ash and building rubble as well as chemically
contaminated earth should be replaced to a distance'
of 20 cm by liller material. Here also the previously
excavated soil can be used providing it has suitable
characteristics.

Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Soil

Soil comprises three basic components. It consists


ot-granular particles of material rvhich differ in their
d ,nical and mineral constituents. size and form of
particles, parlicle size distribution, density and moisture content. Between the more or less compacted
pn(ticles there are cavities, or pores, which may be
, d with either rvarer or air. The air contained in

Soil parricie

2 Skin of water
3 Hygroscopically bound wxter
4 Pore filling water
Fig. 18.38
Fine granular particles and water Iayer

the pores may itsell contain rvater vapour depending


on the temperature.

Heat is transferred in such amorohous materials bv


conduction.

comparison of the thermal resistivities in Table 18.13 indicates the extent to which the total thermal resistance is related to the constituents of the
soil.

The individual soil particles have molecular like


powers of adhesion and attract a layer of condensed
water. This hygroscopically bound water does not
move and can be removed only by changing it into
vapour, for example by heating to above 105 to
)'C. Fine granular soils bind in this manner more
than coarse grained soils- The amount of
^Ier
r/!,und water also depends on moisture content as
well as pressure and the temperature of the air in
"-: soil.

Ifsuflicient water is present in the soil, the hygroscopically bound water is covered with an additional concentric skin of water (Fig. 18.38) which connects
neighbouring particles as pore filling water. This improves heat conduction since, in comparison with air,
water is a good conductor of heat and the pores become heat bridges. The amount of skin water is subject to great variations which are caused by storage
of penetrating water and its evaporation. Especially
ln the temperature zone of cables a reduction of water
content is to be expected even up to completely dried
out. Even in this case it is important that the thermal
resistivity remains sulliciently low. To meet this requlrement it is necessary that the conrent of solid

material relative to the content of pores rr is Iarge.


Such mixtures with reduced caviries have a high resulting dry density 70. The thermal resisrivity reaches
a minimum when all pores are filled with water i.e.
at maximum water content Ie.
The above mentioned values can be determined by
reference to DIN 4016 or from an information sheet
prepared by Forschungsgesellschaft ftr das StraBenwesen [ 18.34], e.g. using the Ddrr-Wiige-Method.
The following relationships exist :
Water content

,r=i-

Pore content

n:l-!

ia

(18.96)

(18.97)

where

73

particle density,
i.e. the relationship of dry weight of solid material to the pore-free volume (in non- or weak binding soils y"=2.65 tlm3),

y6

the dry density,


i.e. the weight of the dry soil relative to the unit
volume.

the density of moist soil,

i.e. the weight of the moist soil relative to the


unit volune.
219

l8

Curren t-Carrying Capacirl in Normal Operatiqn

To obtain the most densely compacted soil the pores


bets een the larger particles should be filled with particles of a smaller group such that a less porous mixture is developed. Such an ideal grain distribution
is shown on the distribution diagram as a parabolic
cun,e (Fig. 18.39 curves I and 2) and can be treated
analrricallv with equation
p

= (dld-",)'.

(l 8.e8)

oniy a small variety of particle sizes (cun'e,1 in


Fig. 18.39). Well graded soils, in rvhich the smaller
particles fill the pores between larqer particles have
a more flat or parabolic shape of curve. The relationship is expressed by
U = d6sld

16

with du6 the particle diameter with 60%

18.99)

passing

through the sieve and d,o the particle diameter with


this p represents the part of the weight of sieved
material rvhich passes through a mesh u'idth of
"equivalent diameter" d, ci.", the diameter of the
largest ,eranule of the mixture, r=0.5 according to
Fuller. .r = 0.25 to 0.4 according to Talbot and
::0.11 to 0.514 according to Jahn 18.221.

ln

The particle size distribution curve can be derived


according to DIN 4016 or can be found in a paper
of the Forschungsgesellschafi fiir das Stra8enrvesen
_l8.ja], in $hich the sieved material is treated using
a series of mesh widths. The point A in Fig. 18.39
on curve number 4 signifies that 739lo of the total
mass of sieled material has a sranular diameter of
< 0.63 mm.

The steeper the particle size distribution cune the


more uniform is the material i.e. it is rnade up of

l0%

passing through.

Soils having U < 5 (steep curve) are classed as uniform


whilst soils having U>51flat curve) are classed as

non-uniform.

From the parlicle size distribution curve the ease of


compaction can also be recognised. Easily compactable grades normally comprise well graded. ueak or
non-cohesive sands (also sand gravel mixtures) \vith
U> 7. Soils are classified as non-cohesile rvhere !l;
have a low content of silt and clay (approximately
< l0%), do not tend to form clods and therefore remain loose and flowing. They permit cavitl,-free fillinu
of the trench and especially in the vicinitl' of the cable.
In mildly cohesive soils lhe individual particles adherc to one another and form a modular mass. they
are therefore less suitable as a beddine material and

Besidue
in

sieve

%weiqht

10-

t-1*

t*

i'i'

*l-F
qn

40.i-

*t+I

4n

170

--l
l-

{eo

t"
I

10

^l
UT

0001 0002

r10

Particle size distribution curve

to equation 18.98 with

x:0.3

Crushed limestone (residue

from splitting opelation)


Probe No 6 from Table 18.35

Building sand
Probe No I from Table 18.35
Sand-loam-mixture

+100
20 mm 63 100

6.3
l\4esh sire

220

Particle size distribution curve


to equation 18.98 with .r = 0.5

Fig. 1839
Particle size distribution curve

Soil-Thermal Resistivity 18.4


require a more intensive compacting. Furthermore

Ory

density;o

some kinds oi soil, depending on water content, tend


to srvell and shrink which can lead to the formation
of cracks and cavities in the vicinity oi the cable

where rvater content alters due


field of the cable.

to the temperature

The ease of densifying or compacting depends very


much upon the water content during compacling. By
use of rhe Proctor apparatus [18.34] the most favourable water content and the highest dry state density
for compacting can be determined by sample investigation. For this test a probe is applied to several
samples of soil, each having a different water content.
F.ch sample is compressed in three layers in a cy,.,.dn:al test vessel of say, l0 cm diameter and 12
cm hright. The apparatus eives o. consistant compacting effort, relative ro rhe volume (60 Mpm/m3
kJ/mtr) - known as rhe Proctor effort. This
^588.4
)rt is derived from a weight of 2.5 kg falling
through 30 cm with 25 blows for each of the three
layers. The resulting dry density is depicted in curves
shorvn in Fig. 18.40. This investigation shorvs rhe degree of compaction achievable depending on the type
of soil - degree of non-uniformity - and materials.
With a content of approximarely 5 ro 20% of silt
this not only fills the pores between large granules,
thus ensuring a higher dry density but also in conjunction with water acts as a lubricatine asent when

0510%15
Waler conlent

I
I
i

i,,/

Sand
Sand and silt

Gravel, sand and powdered stone

-1 Gravel. sand and silt

Fig. 18..{0
Proctor curves ;o =fru) of various types of soil

comPacting.

The particle shape also inlluences the dry density.


Round particles result in higher values in comparison
to flat or crystaline shapes.

A marked influence of chemical-mineral composition


on thermal resistivity is noticeable at high values of
7 density and low water content. Sands and eravels
containing quarrz are, because of their reducei thermal resistivity (Table 18.33) preferred. Where soil
contains, apart from large gravel and sand particles,
sulficient silt, the water binding capacity and also the
good adhesion of the larger parricles is noticeable.
I ests have shown an improved heat
conductivity for
this mixture. Because oi its surface tension thi silt
forms a film over the larger granules and draws itself
mto the pores. Heat conducting bridges are formed
lrom the solid constituents which remain present
even
when the soil is completety dried out.
This phenomena can, however, only be readily
obsenid when
pnor to drying-out a certain
minimum water content
ls present.

A large number of

tests have been conducted to establish an analytical relationship between the physical properties ofsoil and its thermal resistivity [18.23
to 18.27]. Direct measurement of thermal characteristics is however preferred to all other methods, since
this provides the most accurate values. For the interpretation of beat conductivity processes in soils, it
will be inevitable even in the future to occasionally
make these thermal investigations.

The relationships between thermal resistivity, density


and degree of humidity for two types of soil are
shcwn in Fig 18.41.
221

l8

Curren t-Carrying Capaciri in Normal Operation

llhermal conduclivrry i-l

l"url-J
#:

llnermal conduclivily i.r

| fiiil
i

ll,l

3.0-.--r--------r:--

2.5

I
I

I
I

l
I

Moisture
Volumelric content

in%

20

010

30

40 50 60 VoF% 80
PorositY....-.-..........-

2.5 tlnr 2.0


__0ensiry
a)

1.5

2.0
.-2.5 r/mJ
Densrty

1.0

b) Soil

Sea sand

Fig, 18.41
Thermal conductivity l"u and thermal resistivity ofsoil

g.= lli.p relati'te to density

and materials at

20'C 18.401

-lnfluence of Moisture Content

The moisture content of soil is dependant on

number of natural factors [18.30]:

F
))')

Diflerent types of soil have dillerent capacities to


absorb water and to retain it. The smaller the
pores the better the water retention. Loam, i.e.
clay containing soils dry-out much slower than
sandy soils [18.28]. Crushed stones, gravel or
made-up slag have no water holding capacity.
The water table can re-wet the soil where the soil
has sufficient suction [8.29]. The moisture con-

tent of the upper layers is dependant upon the


water table level. In large-particle poor soils the
suction can be zero but in coarse sands it can
be 0.03 m to i.0 m and in loam I m to 30 m.
The surface contour can provide either a drainage
(hill) or containment (valley) effect.

Roots of shrubs and trees dry-out the soil during


periods of low precipitation. Sandy soils are affected more so than Ioam.

Road surfaces or other coverings Drevent

free

Soil-Thermal Resistrvity l8.J


evi.rporation of rvater from the surface so that the
moisture content below (hem mav be present
higher than in the non-covered surroundings.

tr

Precipitation provides a major proportion of


moisture input to the ground.

tr

Solar radiation, both duration and intensity together with wind, surface characteristics and vegetation influence evaporation.

tr

The moisture content of the soil and hence its

thermal resistivity follows an annual cycle which


is controiled by the influences mentioned above
and also depends on the tlpe of soil and deprh.
moisture content can also result from pret -High
eding $ecther conditions. Heavy rainfall or tharv
can also influence deeper lavers and can cause
a rapid change of moisture content parricularlv
,;in sandl soil. To predict moisl.ure content is mosl
lifficult and cxn only be considered as a rough
. -approximation.
It requires observation and experience or er many years.

In the vicinity of a cable (area 3. Fig. 13.37) rhe temperature field influences the water holding capacity
whereas in the more distant surroundings (areas 2
and l) the natural variations of water content described above are mainly related to the climate of
the soil. The temperature {ield of the cable causes
the vapour pressure in the vicinity of the cable to
rise and the water vapour held in the air contained
in the pores of the soil to move awav from the cable.
This action causes the capillary suction in the soil
C 'e to the cable to increase so that the water returns
!p.,{he cable in liquid form. If the remperarure of rhe
, ,le surface exceeds a critical value of 30"C for
sandy soils or 50 "C for loam at ambients of approximately l5"C to 20'C, this circulation cycle is inrerr. - ied and the cable surroundings dry-out up to rhe
critical isotherm. As tests have shown [18.18, 18.23
and 18.311 rhis cycle is mainly time dependant and
can be suddenly interrupted by rainfall and may even
be reversed. In some instances the dried-out zone extends only a few centimeter but can, in unfavourable
conditions cover the total area of the beddinq material and beyond. The selection as well as coripaction
of the bedding material is therefore of significant im-

I Precipiration

l''l

j50--

mm

-r---"1

50
0

.lnbie

renperal!re

?0

"c
15

i0

speciiic soii rhermal resistance p,

-..--.---

(hnffsglsd ground
d1s3 within a diameter of 30 to 60 cm
Area within a diameter of l0 to 30 cm
Area within a diameter of l0 cm

portance for the temperature rise and the load capacity of the cable.

Fig. 18.42 illustrates how weather conditions combined with a typical cable loss of 82 Wm can influence the drying-our -:ress.
F

Fig. 18.42
Load test in open country (Erlangen 1968).
Influence of climate and cable heat loss on drying-out
of the soil
:J)

l8

Current-Carrying Capacitf in Normal Operation

The cable has a diameter of .10 mm and a depth of


lay of 0.9 m. The made up soil consisted of a sand
loam mixture l'ith a unilormity index U = 144 and
was used as back fill as rvell as bedding material
(curve 5, Fig. 18.39). The drfing-out process commenced in July as a (delayed) consequence of increasing duration of sunshine and soil temperature with
reduced precipitation. The re-wetting commences approximately mid-November.

r\n equal distribution of moisture u,ithin a partly


dried-out test sample can be achieved by heating for
a sufliciently long period rvith the vessel closed
(Fig. 18.a3 b).
Apparatus which can be used on site in open country
to measure thermal resistivity is commercially available with variable expenditure of measurement and
time [ 18.32].
Basic Quantities for Calculation

To facilitate the calculation of soil-thermal


Measuring

- Measurements [18.3. 18.30] are only truly meaningful


i if next lo the lhermal resistivity the moisture content,
density and erain size distribution curve are also mea-

sured. Measurements in open country at depth of


lay need to extend over seleral years to determine
the annual differences of moisture content relative
- to l'eather conditions. These can be on a Iarge scale
and are therefore very costly and quantities gained
from experience are normally used instead. A quantity specified in DIN VDE 0198 Part 2 of 1.0 KmTw
is normally used except for areas such as

f
tr
tr

suspected slag, waste or peat,


continuously loaded high-voltage cabled or if
basic investigations for general application are to
be conducted.

The thermal resistivity can be measured e.g. by use


of a needle probe. In Fig. 18.43 apparatus for laboratory measurements [18.33] is illustrated. The sample
of moist sorl is compacted, using one third of the
Proctor force (200 kJ/m3) (Fig. 18.43a), together with
the measuring probe. The reduced Proctor force is
used in order to take account of the hindered compacting which is often the case in a cable trench.
The probe is heated by means of a heating element
wire (Fig. I 8..13 d) while the increase in temperature
is measured by means of a sensing resistance wire.
Thermal resistivity is calculated from the temperature
nse.

Measurements need to be conducted on a moist, partially dry as well as on a totally dried-out sample

whilst the warer content rv as well as density 7 need


to be determined in each case. The graphical representation of the measured values (Figs. 18.44 and
18.46) characterises the type of soil investigated.

To dry or completely dry-out the soil sample,

the
vessel must be rearranged (Fig. 18.43c) and placed
open in a heating cabinet at 105 "C.

resis-

tances (Section 18..1.3) and to establish the load capacity tables (Section 18.2.3) the relevant quantities

for ambient conditions had to be aqreed as a basis.


-fhe thernal resisriL'it.;,, of rhe soil wvlfected br heat
fi'otn u cable -the moist area - s'as fired at 1.0 KmW.
Measurements made previously in Germany rar
produced quantities in excess of 1.0 KmlW u ith tH
exception of very dry sandy soils, made up arels.
or in areas which contained industrial wastc e.g.
building rubble [ 8.3 ], 18.i5]. A large number of the
quantities measured were below 1.0 KmrW due to
the relatively high loam content within the soils having good water retention capacity, or due to a preYailing season of high precipitation at the time of measurement. If quantities of less than 1.0 KmAV are to
be used these should be verified by sufficiently long
periods of measurement and should embrace at least
one dry period. It must be considered aiso that when
the cable is installed the ground is disturbed. This
means that the bedding material surrounding the
cable and the back llll in the trench up to the ground
surface is not so highly compacted as the original
soil and the favourable characteristics of the und;
turbed soil will not be fully achieved. Backfill ar\l
bedding material can, depending on the selection
made, have characteristics inferior to those of the surrounding soil.

'fhe thennal resisliuity oJ the dried-out soil was agreed


as 2.5 KmfM. Laboratory measurements made on
test samples which had been dried-out at 105 "C indicated, depending on the type of soil and degree of
compaction, quantities between 1.5 and 3.0 KmflV.
Contaminated soils have much higher quantities
[18.33]. The permissible operating temperature in
modern cables ranges between 60'C for 30 kV massimpregnated cable and 90 "C for cable with insulation
of XLPE. The surface temperature of such cables is
however less than these quantities even after taking
into consideration heat from neighbouring cables or

Soil-Thermal Resistivity 18.4

End plare

Hearing and
measuflng pr00e

Ram plare
End plale

Fallinq weight

0l Vessel closed at both ends to equalise


moisture distribution while in heatine cabinet
Cuide iube

Thermal

Extensron cylinder

insulalion

fu1easu(inq cylinder
Ram plare

Soil sample
Probe

Suppon plare

Thermal

6askel

insularion

End plare

fnd pla{e

Apparatus for compacting the soii sample

c) Sample prepared for measurements

Magnesium or

Ease of cast resin

Varnish layer

Insularion (pliable resin)

h,-,stance wi

lnsulation ring

Shrink lube

Suppon ring (metal)

l\reta I rube staioless sreel

Healing wirs
Heat conduclinq shealh
Solder seal

d) Cross section through heating and measuring probe

Fig. 18.43
ApDaratus for Ceter:nining thermal :esistivity, water ccnrent and J:nsity
225

l8 C urrent-farrying Capacit-"- in Normal

Operation

groups. Under practical opcrational conditions the


surface temperature of the cable would alNays be less
rhan 105"C and drying out rvould be reduced such
thar it rvould appear permissible to use 2.5 KmfV
as a standard quantity for the dry area.

The boundarlt isothernt which separates the moist


from rhe dry area is aflected by many influences such
as type of soil, water retention capacity under local
conditions. weather conditions, soil temperature as
well as time related heating of the cable surface relative to soil temperature.

lf all these effects are considered it appears possible


to approximately double the temperature rise limit
, at nr :0.5 relative to the quantity for continuous op-

'

erarion and for intermediate quantities select a linear


increase. The temperature rise limit A3, can therefore
be represented by the equation 13.56 in Section 18.4.1
such that rvith a quantity of l5 K for continuous op:ration at rrr:1.0 this rvould relate lo 15 K for a
pubiic utility load at rrr=0.7 und .ll K for a daily
load cvcle rvith rr:0.5.

In Great Britain for lorv- and medium-voltage cables


for both continuous operation and cyclic operation
the quantities given in Table l8.3tl are used. These
are extracted from an E.R.A. report 69-30 Part I
"Current rating standards for distribution cables",
[8.36]. Where drying-out o[ the soil is expected and
where a more accurate assessment of load capacity
is necessary quantities are used as, e.g. in [l8.37]
for the moist region 1.2 KmflV, for the dry region
3.0 KmlW and for the boundary isotherm in loam
50 "C or sandy soil 35 "C where both these temperatures relate to a 15 'C soil temperature.
In [18.38] consideration is given to the different conditions prevailing in summer and rvinter and their
effect on Ioad capacity. For the rvinter months ihe
quantities 0.9/3.0 Km;W aI l0 oC anibient temperature and for lhe summer months 1.2/3.0 Km,1V at
l5 'C ambient temperature are recommended. The
quanlity of the boundary isotherm in both instan.
is 50 'C. These quantities are supported in I I 8.].J
rvirh the e\ception of the soil-thermal resistir.ity of
the unloaded soil s hich is given as an increased quan-

tity for the *inter period oi

1.05 Km7W.

18.34 Soil-thermal resistivities from "Elcctric Cablcs Handbook- ll8.36l


(Quantities in brackets where the ground surface is impen'ious to watcr)
Table

Type of soil

Soil-thermal resistivity in
equally over u'hole

Km/$ at maximum loading

year,
the
summcr

therefore also during


dry period in the

.l

I
I

in summer (Mar.7'April to
mid.-Nov.), however outside
the dry periods; also fceder
cables which are only used

ln wtnter
(mid.-Nov. to
Var.i ApriJ)

in emergency

1.5 (1.2)

l.l

1.0)

1.0 (0.8)

bog

1.2 (r.2)

r.r (1.0)

1.0 (0.8)

Clal bearing soil

1.5 (1.2)

1.2 (1.0)

0.9 (0.8)

Chalky soil with crushed


sand as bedding material

1.2 (t.21

r.l

t.2 (t.21

Very stony soil


or broken stone

I.)

l.J

1.2

Very dry sand

2.5

2.0

l.)

Made up soil

1.8

l.tt

1.2

All soils wirh the exception

:f

the following

Peat

.::o

(1.0)

Soil-Thermal Resiitiviiy 18.{

Bedding

)laterial

The investigation and selection of bedding material


is ahva;-s recommended where the cables are to be
operated under continuous load (rn= 1.0). A knolledge of the soil together with the physical and thermal characteristics of the bedding material makes it
possible ro establish a more appropriate load capacity. Generally the excavated soil is more favourable
than the rypes of sand used by the building industry.
Artificially produced mixes are particularly suited for
cable runs which are operated at high thermal srress.
The use of this for longer runs of continuously loaded
high-voltage cable is related to a question ofeconomy
rvhereby ir must be considered that in thermal bottle
r. -ks of short lengths - excessive grouping and crossing of cables or crossing of hearing ducts - the cost
of the marerial could play only a secondary role.
A(here building v,,ork is carried out at a later date
, selected or specially mixed bedding material must
neirher be replaced by material having poorer properIies nor must the volumetric rveight be changed.

Of the types of soil which occur naturally the quartz


containing sandy types have the most favourable
granular distribution, e.g. a high uniformity inder Li
and a reduced pore content n. The thermal conductivity as well as ease of working and compacting are
improved by a content of fine granules d<0.2 mm
and of silt d <0.063 mm. [n Table 18.35 quanriries
are given of a number of measurements.

The highest thermal resistiviry of 5.4 KmAV rvas


found in household waste contained in sample
number 16. Sands wirh a lorv uniformity index
reached quantities of above 3.0 Km;W. The samples 7 to 10 are gravel sand mixtures containine diflerent quantities of silr (powdered limestone). The
thermal resistivities of these mixtures are shorvn in
Fi_e. 18..14.

The particle size distribution curves of sand samples


I I to I 5 are shown in Fig. 18.45 and rhe thermal
resistivities relative to moisture content are shorvn

Thern6l fes:gir!rq lri

lTirernal resisriviry o,

Kr

iff''-NT

lo

w
0.8

'

*rtrro.ontrn,

a) Relative to

dry density
with various levels of silt contenr
Sample

number

(0% SchA) yd:1.975 tlm3


ra:2.015 tlm3
9 (10% SchA) yd:2.03 tlm3
10 (15% SchA) yd=z.M tlrn3
8/1 (5% SchA)

45alol5o/06

"5-i" -6

Waler conlent

b) Relative to dry density


with constant level of silt content
Sample number

8/l

(5% SchA) tr=2i15 tlm3


8/2 (5% SchA) yd= 1.94 tlmt
8/3 (5% SchA) yo = 1.84 t/m3

Fig. 18.14

Relationship of thermal resistivity oE to water content w of a gravel sand


mixture with a silt granular conrent

(JcnA) ol powdered limestone

227

l8

Current-Carrying Capacity in Norm3rl Operation

Table 18.35
Soil ph1'sical key data and thermal resistivitics of (ested samples
Sample

2o.oor

number

d,o
mm

mm

duo

Sand

0.13 5

0.46

la

Sample No. 1 with 4% clay

,1.0

0.1l5

0.42

Basalt wheathered
= 2.75 t/m3)

0.1

0.75

0.1

2
3

(;r.

Crushed limestone
(;'. = 1.75 t/m3)

Gravel, sand in

proportion

l:l

Gravel, sand in

proportion l: I +5% (SchA)


9

10

Gravel, sand in
proportion l: I +

oold tc

tl

r',t

ti

m'

Km/w

0.34

1.7 5

0.05

1.80

0.335

l. /o

0.0

1.35

7.5

0.388

r.685

0.0

2.52

0.75

7.5

0.32

1.87

0.0

1.68

0.085

1.5

17.5

0.247

2.09

0.0

|.22

0.07

1.6

:)

0.218

2.15

0.0

l.t5

0.0t5

l.l

31.5

0.28

1.98

0.0

l.15

0.tl

0.93

0.255

1.975

0.0
6.0

0.96

3.4

0.41

0.:1

.1.0

1Q

0.14

2.015

0.0
6.0

0.76
0.40

0.1

-:.

tl

0.234

2.01

0.0
6.0

0.69

l0o,'o (SchA)

Gravel, sand in

proportion 1:l +

t)

U=

0.40

lt

0.06

1.0

16.6

0.13

1.04

0.0
6.0

0.67
0.39

159/" (SchA)

li

Sand

0.21

0.55

2.5

0.40

l.o

0.0

1.88

I2

San

0.r 8

0.7

3.9

0.37

l. oo

0.0

l.2 t

Sand

l0

0.:l

0.47

2.14

0.42

1.54

0.0

Sand

l)

0.1

0.16

l.o

0.5

14

Sandy loam

to

1)9,

0.38

l.

Waste material

in

0/o

ofgranular size d<0.063 mm {SchA) silt content of powdered limestone


Particle diameter at l07o sieveJet-through

pe.e63 Contflt

lro
"
duo
U
n
ia
7
?"
w
qE

not measureo

Particle diameter at 6070 sievelet-through


Degree of uniformity
Pore content

Dry density
Density of moist sample
Density of solid material
Water content
Measured thermal resistivity

oJ

0.0

3.78

0.0

L77

0.0

5.4

Soil-Thermal Resistivity 18.J

Sludge

Fig.

Grain

Sieved

Sieve
resrdue

lmarefiar

100:

% weiqhr

18..15

Particle size distribution


curves for soil samples
I I to li in Table 13_15

% wsiqht

!0r

10

20
70

30

60

40

50

50

40

60

20

l"^
iou

0-:

100

0.001 0002

20 mm 63 100
6.t

fulesn srze

.--.-

Thernal resisl,;rrv,r,
4

in Fig. 18.46. Sample number l5 contained almost


30% of particles d<0.063 and was found difficult
to compact.

In Great Britain the sand-gravel and

sand-cement

mixtures have become known under the heading of


" thermally stable bedding materials ".
Sand-Gravel )Iixtures

water content

I %10
w_

Fig. 18.46

B:Xtri:'ff.tty

The mixture ratio is intended to be 50:50 but deviations of up to 45:55 are acceptable. The grain size
of the sand should not exceed 2.4 mm but a 5% content of up to 5 mm is acceptable. The dry density
should not be Iess than 1.6 t/m3. No organic or clay
content is permitted. The grain size of gravel should
be between 2.4 and 10 mm. Sharp edged particles
should not be present. The mixture should be delivered with a water content of between 7 and l\yo
and compacted to a dry density of 1.8 t/m3 to obtain
a thermal resistivity of 1.2 Km/lrV in the dried out
state.

The conditions required can also be fulfilled by a

s" for soil samples numbered 11 to

powdered stone-gravel mixture. Crushed gravel may


only be used up to 50% of the total gravel content.
229

l8

Current-Carrying Capacity in Normal Operation

Sand-Cement Mixtures

rvhich is still acceptable. Thc requirement for the mixture described above is approximately fulfilled by the
cun'e A | 8.411.

In the set state the bedding material must be crumbly


so that it will not damage the cable in the event of
subsidence and also should it become necessary to
subsequently remove it. It is recommended to use
sands with a pore content <0.55 which approximate
the particle size distribution curve (18.47, curve D)

Calculation of Load Capacity


The calculation of Ioad capacity, where thermally stable bedding material is used, is made to Section 18.4.6
using equations 18.92 to 18.95. Using the dimensions
of the bedding material, designated ,r, )' and characteristic diameter du, the geometric factor kb as well
as thermal resistances Ti,' and Tirl with gu the ther-

mal resistivity of the bedding material in the driedout state can be calculated. The thermal resislances
Ti, and Il are not used rvhere the cable is buried
directly in the bedding material and does not lay
in a DiDe.

The sand-cement proportions should be l4:l by volume or 18 to 20: I by weight. To achieve compaction

1.6 tt'm3 and a relevant thermal resistility of


'.2 Km7W, a water-cement ratio of approximately
-2:
I by weight is required.

to

18.5 Installation in Channels rnd Tunnels .-18.5.1 Unrentilated Channels and Tunnels

For the development of suitable mixtures the rules


for the manufacture of concrete in DIN 1045 can be
used. since a pore reduced mix and also an ability
for compaction are also required for concrele. To
DIN 1045 the range between particle size distribution
curves A and B result in a particularly good mixture

ln unventilated and covered channels and tunnels, the


heat generated in tbe cables is transmitted in the main
only through the s'alls, base and top of the duct.
Natural ventilation is mostly prevented by the compartmentalization rvhich are unavoidable. These form
heat barriers and cause the air surroundinq the cables

whereas particles between B and C produce a mixture

Sieve
resrdue

96 weiqht

10'

EO

20

10

30

60

40
50

60
70
80

90

0.001 0.002

0.02

0.1

0.063

0.21

0.25

065

6.31

48

100

20 mm 65100

Mesh size

230

Fig. 18.47
Particle size distribution curves
A. B. C for a concrete mixture
to DIN 1045 and curve D

for a sand-cement mixture

Installation in Channels and Tunnels 18.5

in the channel to incrcase itr temperal.urc such that


the load capacity is reduced compared with that oI

CJnducior Iemperature
Conducror losses

lree air.
The temperature rise of the air in the channel depends

upon the dimensions of the channel and the magnitude of the losses of all the cables in it. The number
ol cables generating losses and the locations within
the channel have no influence on the temperature
rise of the air contained in the channel [ 18.45].

Shearh losses

Thermal resislance
of inner layers

Ij

Armour losses

The equivalent circuit for the thermal path of heat


florv lrom a c:rble enclosed in a channel is shown
in Fig. 13.13. Heut is rransmirted from the cable surface by radiation to the inner surfaces of the channel.
Since rhese areas are large compared to the cable
i-..t'ace area. the heat transmission factor for radiation can be calculated rvirh the emission lactor
eo:0.95. as for a cable installed in free air. As op2rqed to installation in free air the follorving addi, :al thermal resistances must be taken into consideiation:

tr

Thermal resistancg
oi outer sheaths

Ij

ihermal lransier
iesistance oi rhe
cable for radiation

Ii.

::.i fiE

Thermal transfer resistance


at rhe qround surface Ilo

the thermal resistance ?}u o[ the channel rvalls

Toral losses

the thermal transfer resistance 7'-io at the ground


surface. respectively channel surface.

o::re

Thermal transier resistance':;


conveclaon on the innr wall
of rhe channel

Thermal resistance
of the channel lvalls and lhe surrounding

the thermal trrnsfer resistance Ti* for conveclion


on the inner wall of the channel.

The thermal transler resistance


at the channel inner wall is

Ii(

Il*

and the surro unding soil,

tr

Thermal transier resistance


cable for convecrion

(*

for convection

Anarent iemperalure

Fig. 18..18
Equivalent diagram for heat flow from a cable
in a channel

(l 8.100)

z.,2lb, + hr)

rqth

the dimensions h1 and b1 to Fig. 18.49. The


-ermal transfer factor r, is selected to DIN .1701 with
7.7 W lKm2 (arithmetic mean from the quantities for
walls, base and top cover) [18.46].

ij* is in series with Q* and both are in parallel


with I,q5. The thermal resistance of air {", of a cable
in the channel is calculated to eouation 18.17 and
the eouations
I

(18.101)

Tir
TL"t

(18.102)

xdf"tr'

h1 Height of channel
br Width of channel

(18.103)

1t

rKK-r ITK

rKS

ri

Thickness of covering

Fig. 18.49 Covered channel in ground


:JI

l8

Current-Clrrf ing Capacity in Normal Operation

The thermal transfer resistance fi. is very smaJl in


relation to the other thermal resistances and can be
ignored in the following cases:

f
tr
f

for three-core cable with d<90 mm,

aginary layer with a thicknes d and a soil-rhermal


resisti'r'ity 08. With a thermal transfer factor r,
= 20 W/Km'z this becomes [18.48]

"l

for single-core cable with d<45 mm,


in channels with a circumference 2 (br+b1)> I m.

a,

(18. 105)
Qe

The thickness of covering

must be increased

the value d

..

The thermal resistance (, takes into considerarion


heat conduction from the inner wall of the channel
rhrough to the ground surface Ii 8.47]. This is affecred
by the channel dimensions tFig. 18.a9) and the soilthermal resistivity gE (to reduce complicarion rhe
hermal resistivity of the channel material is raken

and inserted in equation 18.104.

This results in
T;E + i"io

T:.

l'rr,
| ll/

-1- ,L

-lr+rnl-----=-*
ZI
LV2

trI

,,'ml].,
( I 8.

104)

The thermal transfer resistance Qo at the ground


surface, or *'here applicable rhe channel surface, is
approximated using the thermal resistance of an im-

rslance

[t,',,

lt
rli,

,|
+i.
, I| u-;-r-l
_|t-]-tnt__lQr

+{-

(18. t06)

a^ Qz

also as 0E):

I
,t

by _

V1
(18.

lN< -

With the aid of Fig. 18.50 a quick resuh can be obtained for the two thermal resistances assuminq a
soil-thermal resisriviry of I Km7W. For orher quanrities of soil-thermal resistiviry rhe result from the
graph must be multiplied by
9e

I K"tlV

{f; + fio}

n:
I
2
J
o
10

IJ
20
50

J 4 56

Fig. 18.50
Thermal resistance (fig +
channel relative to
8

dimensions h1,b,

atO-1Km^V
1.t

b'

jlJ-n

and

4.)

of a

The temperature of the soil is dependant on the depth


oi lay, i.e. the measuring depth (see Sections 18.3 and
13.4). The remperature at a depth of approximately
[0 m is constant and is equal to the mean annual
temperature of the air (in Germany approximately
9'C). In smaller depths the temperature follows the
variations of air temperature with a certain time delay. Various depths are affected by seasonal variations whereas close to and at the ground surface the
temperature can vary depending on time of day. The
mean value of these temperatures during the summer
months is higher than the temperature of the deeper
layers. With cables on no load the air in a channel
assumes a mean temperature resulting from the temE,-'ltures of the inner surfaces and the parts of the
irlrrer arers of the channel boundary faces. The base
and rvalls of the channel assume approximately soil
temperature at the depth of channel centre line. The
ftr surface of the channel lid reaches, because of
t'l ,. influence of air temperature and sunshine during
summer months. a higher temperature by a value of
A3, (Fig. 13.51). Thus the mean temperature of the
air in the channel becomes
A/)
ati
JTE=,rEr---;;-----i-

:{3+

(l

8.107)

r'l

\Dr /

and with loaded cables and the summation ol losses


of all cables in the channel as I(Pi + P!)
3r = 3rr +

-5.2

I(4'+

P;)(TiE +

rio)

( 18.

r08)

Arrangement of Cables in Tunnels

The cables are either mounted direct to the walls


with the aid of cable clips or laid on racks or trays.
:. : ventilarion clearance between trays depends on
_
their width; this should wherever possible be not less
than 300 mm to provide for the installation of heavy
cables. On trays and racks as well as where cables
are fixed direct to the walls a clearance between highly loaded cables equal to the diameter of the cable
should be maintained to keep heat transmission from
cable to cable as low as possible.
The height of tunnels should oot be less than 2.2 m.
The width should be chosen such that a free passageway clearance of 60 to 80 cm is maintained. With
trays installed at a vertical pitch of 30 cm their width
should be limited to 50 cm to allow access for cable
installation.

Installation in Channels and Tunnels

10

18.5

20 cm

Covering u

-....* J0

Fig. 18.51
Temperature rise A3, of the inner face oi channei iop
rel:rtire to thickness ii oI thc covcrins

In the design of an installation the iollorving pr.rcedures can apply: initially a first approrimation is
nade of the cross-sectional area for each individual
:able at some,r0 to 50"'6 greater lhan the size required for installation in free air. For high currents
it may be necessarv to use several cables per current
path. Secondly a sketch plan is made of the tunnel
shorving the required height. width. number of tral'.s
and arrangement of cables following the rules mentioned above.
From the proposed arrangement of cables shorvn in
the sketch plan the rating factor for groups installed
in air /s to Tables 13.23 or 18.24 can be selected.
The total losses in the tunnel are next calculated and
the resultant increase in temperature of air in the
tunnel is found from equation 18.108. The temperature of the tunnel air rvith cables under no load must
be increased by this amount and a revised rating factor selected relative to this increased ambient temperature /" from Table 13.22 or from equation 13.15.
When the load capacity /. is multiplied by these factors the product must not be less than the load to
be transmitted.

Ir< I,fnft.

(18.10e)

If this condition is not satisfied

either the number


of cables, the cross-sectional area or the tunnel dimensions must be increased. If these proposals are
not possible or not practical then forced ventilation
must be employed.
The time constant of a tunnel is great compared to
the time constant of a cable, The temperature rise
of the air in the tunnel can be determined therefore
tJ)

!3
I

Rar

Current-Carry ing Capacir) in Normal Operation

iaclor 4,

1.0

5 678910 15 m

25

J0

40

a) Relative io arrangement and number of


cables on a cable tray./1h

Numbet of multi cote cables-..............*

Baring

ror

/H

3 4 5678910 15 20 25 50
Numbet ol muhi.cote cables -.--_

b)

Relative to number ofequally loaded trays


above one another with single layer on each/"

Fig. 1852
Rating factors for grouping of multi-core cables - or bunched single-core cables of one circuit - on cable trays

Installation in Channcls-lnd Tunnels 18.5


by using Ihe root mean square value /u of the currents
producing the losses over 24 hours:

, _.,'/i,r,+Ii,r.+... *Ij1 r,
'"[/ t' +h+... '',-tt

(18. l

l0)

with r,+r,+ ...t;:24 h. Where 10,, 10r... are the


currents rvhich flow during the times tr. t, ...
For groups of larger numbers of cables than is allowed for in the tables rating factors to Fig. 18.52
can be used. These values are also valid for singlecore cables if for each circuit instead of a multi-core
cable the requisite number of single-core cables are
l-rched. In these cases the raring factors for load
capacity /, apply as for bunched cables.
If more than six trays are installed above one another
\ rating factor for six trays may be used in the
. :ulation.
--

An approximation of the rtring factor lor bunching


in air /1r. for cables rouching one another, can be
formed from the raring factor /"n (horizontal component) for groups on a cable tray to Fig. 18.52a and
the rating lactor 1," (verrical component) for groups
of approximately equally loaded cable trays above
one another.

It

is
J

ll-

JHh JHv

with

h,= 0.95

f-":0.93
, ,:0.9

for two cable trays above one another


for three cable trays above one another
for six and more cable trays above one
another.

Where the number of cables and the loadine are not


kno',vn the cross-sectional areas must be delrmined
,ng an assumed total reduction. A final review rvill
then enable a decision to be made as to whether
forced venrilation is required and whether or not the
rating factor applied initially was adequate.

1853

through the channel rvalls is not raken into consideration. [n this rvav fans are not sized too small and
thus some reserve capacity is available for future extenSlons.

The air rate required Q is dependent on rhe total


heat loss generated by the cable t(P|+ 4), the channel length I and the temperature rise of the cooling
air A3*u between entry and exit. This is expressed
by

,(P'!P'\l

(l3.ul)

(p J rKii

co being the specific heat

of air at constant pressure


but is dependent on temperature as rvell as humidity;
rn approximate calculation can be made t irh
c-: l.J KJ/ltm-The air velocity u is determined by raking rhe crosssectional area of rhe channel calculated from heieht
and rvidth (see also Fi_s. 18.53)

f=;.o
If

noise nuisance is

(ls.lll)
to be avoided the air

velocity

musl. not exceed 5 m/s.

The temperature rise ol the cooling air rr{st be chosen giving consideration to the temperature at the
point of entry and the temperature which is permissible at the exit. In most instances the temperature
oi the input cooling air will be identical with the
design ambient temperature 9u. The hottest cable is
considered in respect of permissible operatin-s remperature 3r, in deciding the temperature rise of the
cooling air using the formula

aSKii<31.-tu-ag

(r8.1l3)

rvith

^3:(3,.-30"q(fJ'

(18.1l4)

Since the moving air significanrly improves heat dissiChannels with Forced Ventilation

If natural ventilation

proves

to be

inadequate, i.e.

the air in the channel is overheared and the conductor


temperature exceeds the permissible quantity forced

ventilation is necessary where other means are not


possible e.g. enlarging the size ofchannel.
Mostly the calculation is based on the total heat loss
generated within the channel. Heat dissipated

pation from the cable the rating factor required for


groups/" need not be applied.

l8

Current-Carrying Capacrli in Normal Operation

Example l8.l I

In a tunnel with dimensions 1.2 m x 1.5 m the cables


shown in Table 18.36 are to be installed and be
loaded rvith the currents given in the table. The dura-

tion of operation is first of all planned for 8 hours


full load per day. It is required to operate also at
full load for 16 hours per day when under this condition forced ventilation may be provided. The ambient
temperature 3u of the air is 35'C and the soil temperature 3E at the depth equivalent to the tunnel cenrre,
with cables unloaded, is 25 "C. The soil-thermal resistivit) is 1.2 KmflV. The planned arraneement of
cables is shown in Fig. 18.53

For the 8 hour operation in respect of 24 hours the


f-. oot mean square value of current in the cable
NYFGY is:
/

t rbtl
,,,

' y
-_I/

-t

tr+t2

'.t'

t,./

Fig. 18.53 Arrangement of cables ior example

a^

for the losses

I 8. I

I ,_. -

Table 18.36
Cable types and loading for Example l8.l
for 8 hour operation

8 //t\'
,i-,i,ttl// \: _,,.r\r/
- ''
D'-

'/, /,//. / . .//2.


'

D' ,'ql

205\'

=44qLl
'- 14\ llsl

= 6.34

w/m-

Cable tl pe

NYFGY

u"iu

l50SM

kv 3.6i6

\YCY
4x:40
0.6: I

SN,l

\..EKBY NEKBY
3x70 RM 3xl20RM
17t20

12120

Number of
cables

and

Loading

Pi

= l3 x 6.J4 = 82.4 W'm.

-The sum

ofall

losses

ofall

+ 55.0 + 27.5 +

cables to Table 18.36 gives

37.2

h-

u-

h_t\

:-!=

ii'

|5

))

=ii=
U.I9 Z

"- :7

105

185

l:0

l?0

315

129

r95

211

11.9

53.4

i6.3

40.5

70

70

65

65

Jb

0.65

0.66

6.34

7.86
55.0

0.62

0.63

4.5E

5.31
37.2

Eight-houroperation

P:
2P:

0.192

= 1 KmAV to 0.078 KmflV.

w;m

Itl-r

and

the thermal resistance Tie+Tlo results for

Permissiblc
operating
temprature

+::--= 0.192 m,
ztJ . t.,!

t'S

Ohmic

P'

= 202.1 \N lm.

ii- = il - 6:0.

Load capacity

From the curve, Fig. 18.50 with

/,A

losses

82.4

1b

l3

ps

wrm

WN

f.3
f,gf"

o.79
0.69

A9
A9*o

82.4

16.9

0.79
0.69

t1.7

I E.1

2't.5
0.76
0.66

IJ.J

0;t6
0.66
13.8

t6.2

For grouping up to 5 cabl6 on 7 trays a rating factor /6 =0.87


is to bq applied (scc Table 18.24).

Installation in Channels and Tunnels 18.5

-.1

n1

20
Sum

oi losses in clannel

50
lP

100

200

500Wm

J00

P,l

Air. iocly r/
0.5

m/s

03
0.2

a
u

E(Pi+ Pl)
ASrr
I

Air rate required in mr/s


Air velocity in m/s
Heat loss from all cables in W/m
Temperature rise of cooling air in K
Length of channel in m
Cross-sectional area of channel in m2

The dotted line applies to quantities


in examole l8.l I
Fig.

used

l8s4

Calculation diagram: Cablechannel withforced ventilation


111

l8

Current-Carrying Capaciti. in Normal Operatiqn

With a soil-thermal resisrivity of g, :

1.2

KmflV

rhe

For the cable NYFGY

corrected thermal resistance of the soil including the


lunnel becomes

t'l

Ii,+ rio-ffi

0.078 = 0.094

Km/w.

43.
'l--!----:jL=

"i

1{-

:F+t)
\/_) /

:{-*r)
\1.) I

-T4oa

vith l3i:-S.i K irom Fig. 18.51 and lhe temperature


with the loaded cables is

+ )02.1 x 0.094:45

(18103)

"C.

The rating factor for the deviating ambient remperature is

f tt. -3nlr"=V'ffi=ll

r.

{rs ri}

^_r=o.ts

and the overall rating factor is

f :f H.fs:0.87

x 0.79

:0.69.

The factors IJI, are in each case smaller than the


required reduction factors /, and /r, i.e. the crosssectional areas are dimensioned correctly.
Wben changing

'c-'t

to l6 hour operation

one gets

| 1/'-TG

ll

.A-

and

t6

P' (rb\z
''P, - ''14\/./'
The total losses in the tunnel are therefore doubled
z.

4'

x 202.1 = 404.2 W lm

and rhe temperature of the tunnel air is raised to

%:26+404.2x 0.094:64

"C.

Therefore the tunnel must be ventilated.

.'--

{l3.lr4)

(18.l 13)

^-

I(4',+P,l/
co A

3*o

-104.1 x 10
1.3

x l0r x l0 =

U.Oji

m -,

(l8.lll) and for the air velocity

3r:3rE + E(P; + P;)(4E +'&o)


).6

r0s x.

The quantities for all remaining cables can be taken


from Table 18.36. Wirh an appropriare quanrity of
A9*u: 16 K, length of tunnel l0 m and profile oi the
tunnel of 1.5 x 2.2:1.3 mr the air rate reouired rhen
becomes

(18. 107)

ASxr(70-35-16.9
< l8.l K.

cables is

)O{\ r

\J r)i
^3:(i0-30)l=l

The temperature in the tunnel with no load on the

l--:

(18.108)

0.611

The same results can be obtained from Fis.

(l s.l

18.5-1.

l)