Community Psychology

…voices of persons with disabilities

Community Rehabilitations

Submitted By: Submitted To:

Muzamil Kousar Miss Humaira Murtaza

Content Table Introduction
• • Community Rehabilitation

Community Rehabilitation Dimensions of Community
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Technological, Economic, Political, Institutional (social), Aesthetic-value, and Belief-conceptual.

Primary Objectives of Community Rehabilitation
• • • • • • • • Physical Rehabilitation Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Rehabilitation (neuropsychology) Drug Rehabilitation Alcohol Rehabilitation Outpatient Rehabilitation Occupational Rehabilitation Land Rehabilitation

How to Improved quality of life for persons with disabilities in a Community References

All Human achievements are first thoughts before they become things. So the creations of communities such as cities, governments, armies, as well as communal achievements such as conquests and discoveries everything that goes to make a community must spring from a community's thoughts.

A "community" in some senses may not even have a physical location, but be demarcated by being a group of people with a common interest. In the training material here, however, the "community" which is the object of a mobilizer's attention, is usually one with a physical geographic location. Not only is the concept of a community a "construct" (model), it is a "sociological construct." It is a set of interactions, human behaviors that have meaning and expectations between its members. Not just action, but actions based on shared expectations, values, beliefs and meanings between individuals.

The word comes from the Latin "rehabilitare" meaning to make fit again. The process of restoration of skills by a person who has had an illness or injury so as to regain maximum self-sufficiency and function in a normal or as near normal manner as possible. For example, rehabilitation after a stroke may help the patient walk again and speak clearly again. Rehabilitation is the process of assisting someone to improve and recover lost function after an event, illness or injury that has caused functional limitations.

Community Rehabilitation
Community rehabilitation in mental health facilities helps patients with developmental disabilities and behavioral problems integrate back into the general population. Patients may receive individual counseling, medications to control their illnesses, and vocational training. Mental health professionals, caseworkers, and psychologists facilitate interactions between patients, their families, and members of their community. When patients show significant progress and demonstrate the ability to care for themselves, rehabilitation centers often make arrangements for them to move into halfway houses or independent living settings. (Jeffress, (200).

There are some dimensions of community through which we can understand that how to rehabilitate a community.

Dimensions of Community:
When we say a community is not the same thing as a human being, we say it does not have emotions, a head, thoughts, legs, or a hobby. It does, however, have different parts to it that apply to social organizations and culture rather than to individual human beings. One important way to analyze a community, break it into different parts, is to use the six cultural "dimensions." We use "dimension" because these are analytical categories, made by us human beings, rather than being based upon observable parts (like parts of the body: head, arms, legs). These dimensions of community include: 7. Technological, 8. Economic, 9. Political, 10. Institutional (social), 11. Aesthetic-value, and 12. Belief-conceptual.

Community Change

Each of these dimensions of culture is transmitted by symbols (not genes) and consists of systems of learned ideas and behavior. They are not "aspects" of culture; they are dimensions. Cultural dimensions may vary in size but, by definition, permeate the whole.

The Technological Dimension of Community:
The technological dimension of community is its capital, its tools and skills, and ways of dealing with the physical environment. It is the interface between humanity and nature. In a community, communal technology includes its facilities such as public bathrooms and water points, roads, markets, clinics, schools, road signs, parks, community centers, libraries, sports fields. Privately owned community technology may include shops, factories, houses and restaurants.

The Economic Dimension of Community:
The economic dimension of community is its various ways and means of production and allocation of scarce and useful goods and services (wealth), whether that is through gift giving, obligations, barter, market trade, or state allocations. In any community, we will find various forms of wealth distribution. It is important for us to learn what they are, and what things can be given, what exchanged and what bought and sold. In many societies some kinds of wealth may not be allocated by purchase, such as sexual favors’, spouses, hospitality, children, and entertainment. It varies. Learning how they are distributed and

under what conditions and between whom (because these differ) is part of the research we need to do.

The Political Dimension of Community:
The political dimension of community is its various ways and means of allocating power, influence and decision making. It is not the same as ideology, which belongs to the values dimension. It includes, but is not limited to, types of governments and management systems. It also includes how people in small bands or informal groups make decisions when they do not have a recognized leader.

The Institutional Dimension of Community:
The social or institutional dimension of community is composed of the ways people act, interact between each other, react, and expect each other to act and interact. It includes such institutions as marriage or friendship, roles such as mother or police officer, status or class, and other patterns of human behavior. Every time a new role is created, with its duties, responsibilities, rights, and expected behavior patterns, then the society becomes more complex. If we encourage the formation of a new development committee, with its official positions and membership, then the community has become that much more complex.

The Aesthetic-Values Dimension of Community:
The aesthetic-value dimension of community is the structure of ideas, sometimes paradoxical, inconsistent, or contradictory, that people have about good and bad, about beautiful and ugly, and about right and wrong, which are the justifications that people cite to explain their actions.

The Beliefs-Conceptual Dimension of Community:
The belief-conceptual dimension of community is another structure of ideas, also sometimes contradictory, that people have about the nature of the universe, the world around them, their role in it, cause and effect, and the nature of time, matter, and behavior. This dimension is sometimes thought to be the religion of the people. It is a wider category, and also includes atheistic beliefs, for example, that man created God in his own image. It includes shared beliefs in how this universe came to be, how it operates, and what is reality. It is religion and more. When we drop a pencil onto the floor, we demonstrate our belief in gravity. When we say the sun comes up in the morning (it does not; the earth turns) we express our world view.

Primary Objectives of Community Rehabilitation
The primary object is to promote services for people with disabilities through government and non government organizations, so that they are encouraged to become functionally independent and productive members of the nation through opportunities of education, vocational training, medical rehabilitation, and socio-economic rehabilitation. Emphasis is also placed on coordination of services particularly those related to health, nutrition, education, science and technology, employment, sports, cultural, art and craft and welfare programs of various government and non-government organizations. (Meena, R. (n.d). Rehabilitation is a huge field within health, promoting recovery for people after events such as; • Physical Rehabilitation

Physical rehabilitation is a common form of this restoring process. Often utilized after major surgery, an accident, or any event that robs the individual of mobility or function, this form of rehab pairs the patient with trained personnel who help him to recover as much of his former physical prowess as possible. In some cases, the physical therapy used as part of the process is aimed at rebuilding the strength of limbs that may have been damaged in an accident, but are now healed and in need of physical exercise. At other times, the physical rehab may be focused on helping people who have lost a limb learn how to function effectively by expanding their use of the remaining limbs. • Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation

Cardiopulmonary rehabilitation (CR) is a medical program that helps patients with various cardiac and pulmonary conditions to achieve optimal physical function. Like other branches of rehabilitation medicine, CR consists mainly of exercise, but also provides comprehensive care. In addition to physical exercise, a cardiopulmonary rehabilitation program may include evaluation of the patient, risk factor modification, diet and medication, stress management, blood pressure control, and diabetes management. A cardiopulmonary rehabilitation program is led by a case manager, who may be a physical therapist, a cardiac nurse, or an exercise physiologist. Cardiopulmonary rehabilitation usually begins after the patient has suffered a major cardiopulmonary event, such as a heart attack, or has undergone some sort of heart surgery, such as valve replacement, a coronary bypass, or placement of a coronary stent. However, CR may also be recommended for patients with certain cardiopulmonary diseases, including angina or chest pain, asthma, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema, even if there has been no major medical event. CR aims to improve the patient's physical function after major injury or surgery, and to prevent future complications. Like other forms of rehabilitation, CR helps the patient make life changes for better health, and,

hence, does not only consist of office visits. For example, the patient must also follow an exercise and diet regimen outside of the physical therapist's office. Foster, N. (n.d). • Rehabilitation (neuropsychology)

Rehabilitation of sensory and cognitive function typically involves methods for retraining neural pathways or training new neural pathways to regain or improve neurocognitive functioning that has been diminished by disease or traumatic injury. Three common neuropsychological problems treatable with rehabilitation are attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), concussion, and spinal cord injury. (as cited in Wikipedia, (2010). • Drug Rehabilitation

Drug rehabilitation is a term for the processes of medical and/or psychotherapeutic treatment, for dependency on psychoactive substances such as alcohol, prescription drugs, and so-called street drugs such as cocaine, heroin or amphetamines. The general intent is to enable the patient to cease substance abuse, in order to avoid the psychological, legal, financial, social, and physical consequences that can be caused, especially by extreme abuse. ( as cited in Wikipedia, (2010). • Alcohol Rehabilitation

Alcohol rehabilitation is the treatment for the physical and psychological addiction to alcohol. It begins with a physical detoxification to rid the body of alcohol, and then uses counseling sessions to get to the root of behavioral or mental issues that contributed to alcohol dependency. The final part of the rehabilitation process is aftercare to help individuals acclimate into society without falling back into their addiction. Treatment can take place on an outpatient or residential basis. An outpatient alcohol rehabilitation treatment is conducted during the day at a treatment center, then patients return home in the evening. It is usually for people with an alcohol problem that has not become lifethreatening. Those with a severe, life threatening alcohol addiction may require residential rehabilitation. They live at the treatment center in order to receive constant care. The first thing to expect when you check into an alcohol rehabilitation center is the immediate detoxification process. You won’t be allowed any alcohol, in order to give your body the opportunity to remove all the toxins from the excessive amounts of alcohol. Since your system is used to having alcohol, you will most likely experience physical withdrawal symptoms during the first three days, such as sweating, chills, depression, mood swings, or even blackouts. Depending on the extent of your alcohol addiction, it may take from one to two weeks to completely cleanse your system. Boelcke, (n.d). • Outpatient Rehabilitation

Outpatient rehabilitation or outpatient rehab is a form of rehabilitation therapy in which patients travel to a clinic, hospital, or other facility specifically to attend sessions and then leave, rather than remaining hospitalized for the duration of their therapy, as is the case with inpatient rehab.

There are a number of different types of outpatient rehab, along with a wide variety of approaches to the rehabilitation process. This type of rehabilitation tends to be less expensive than inpatient rehab, because there are no costs for hospitalization and associated expenses. (Smith, (n.d)). • Occupational Rehabilitation

Occupational rehabilitation helps people who have been injured or have suffered an illness to get back, both physically and mentally, in working shape. There are many rehabilitation clinics that address different needs, but all are designed to increase the patient’s maximum independent functions. Many employers pay for their employees to use these programs in order to maintain performance, as well as keep up with safety standards. An occupational rehabilitation therapist develops a plan of action for the injured worker by assessing his or her needs, and evaluating what the areas in which he or she requires help. Other specialists can also be enlisted to aid in such a program, including nutritionists, physiotherapists, and psychologists. Sometimes a rehabilitation team must consider whether the worker will return to his or her job or, if that is not a possibility, the team may help a patient regain function in order to seek a new job. ( Zaimov (n.d)). • Land Rehabilitation

Land rehabilitation is the process of returning the land in a given area to some degree of its former state, after some process (industry, natural disasters etc.) has resulted in its damage. Many projects and developments will result in the land becoming degraded, for example mining, farming and forestry. While it is rarely possible to restore the land to its original condition, the rehabilitation process usually attempts to bring some degree of restoration. Modern methods have in many cases not only restored degraded land but actually improved it, depending on what criteria are used to measure 'improvement'. (as cited in Wikipedia, (2009).

How to Improved quality of life for persons with disabilities in a Community:

In order to claim their rights persons with disabilities and their families must 1. Be empowered and know their rights 2. Have opportunities and tools to express their claims 3. Be able to take action against violations and to make complaints to a mandated body

In order to fulfill their obligations duty bearers such as government officials and professionals must 1. Understand and accept their responsibility towards persons with disabilities 2. Be afforded the authority to carry out their obligations 3. Have the capacity, e.g., access and control over financial, human and institutional resources required, to carry out their obligations

Improved quality of life for persons with disabilities

Civil society organizations fighting for the rights of persons with disabilities must
1. Have the financial and managerial capacity to sustain

and develop their operations 2. Have a clear vision about their role, their objectives and their strategies to achieve these objectives 3. Have the communication skills to advocate and influence duty bearers

Bartle, P. (2009). WHAT IS COMMUNITY? Retrieved on 24 May, 2010. From http://www.scn.org/cmp/whatcom.htm Boelcke, A. (n.d). What Should I Expect from Alcohol Rehabilitation? Retrieved on 24 May, 2010. From http://www.wisegeek.com/what-should-i-expect-from-alcohol-rehabilitation.htm Foster, N. (n.d). What is Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation?. Retrieved on 24 May, 2010. From http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-cardiopulmonary-rehabilitation.htm Jeffress, D. (2003). What Is Community Rehabilitation? Retrieved on 24 May, 2010. From http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-community-rehabilitation.htm Smith, S. E. (n.d). What is Outpatient Rehab? Retrieved on 24 May, 2010. From http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-outpatient-rehab.htm Wikipedia The free Encyclopedia, (2009). Land Rehabilitation. Retrieved on 24 May, 2010. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_rehabilitation Wikipedia The free Encyclopedia, (2010). Rehabilitation (neuropsychology). Retrieved on 24 May, 2010. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rehabilitation_(neuropsychology) Wikipedia The free Encyclopedia, (2010). Drug Rehabilitation. Retrieved on 24 May, 2010. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drug_rehabilitation Jeffress, D. (2003). What Is Community Rehabilitation? Retrieved on 24 May, 2010. From http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-community-rehabilitation.htm Wikipedia The free Encyclopedia, (2010). Rehabilitation. Retrieved on 24 May, 2010. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rehabilitation Zaimov, S. (n.d). What Is Occupational Rehabilitation? Retrieved on 24 May, 2010. From http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-occupational-rehabilitation.htm

Civil society organizations fighting for the rights of persons with disabilities must
4. Have the financial and managerial capacity to sustain

and develop their operations 5. Have a clear vision about their role, their objectives and their strategies to achieve these objectives 6. Have the communication skills to advocate and influence duty bearers

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