13 views

Uploaded by Anonymous 7BQxlt8c

paper

- Erin Anderson MSc Thesis
- 79868033 Heat Transfer Enhancement
- Heat Exchanger
- Fluid Power System Dynamics
- With Acumulator
- Convection Process
- 2015 Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Friction Factor of Al2O3 Nanofluid in U Tube Heat Exchanger With Helical Tape Inserts
- Experimental Investigation of Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger for Small Temperature Difference
- Numerical Analysis on Mixed Convection Flow in a Lid-Driven Triangular Cavity
- Finite element analysis of natural convection flow in a isosceles triangular enclosure due to uniform and non-uniform heating at the side walls
- A Step-Forward in the Characterization and Potential
- boundary layer theory
- Chapt5
- 2012 SRI 02Stringe
- sks6
- Overall-Single-Pump-T7-T6.pdf
- hadim1994.pdf
- Heat Transfer in Spiral Tube Coils - IJTS Altac & Altun
- BSME ICTE ID244
- IJEAS0201017

You are on page 1of 13

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhmt

enhancement in the horizontal double pipes tted with modied

twisted tapes

Heydar Maddah a,b, Mostafa Alizadeh c, Nahid Ghasemi b,d,, Sharifah Radah Wan Alwi d

a

Department of Chemical Engineering, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, Iran

Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran

Department of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

d

Process Systems Engineering Centre (PROSPECT), Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

b

c

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 7 January 2014

Received in revised form 15 July 2014

Accepted 21 July 2014

Available online 13 August 2014

Keywords:

Nanouid

Heat exchanger

Twisted tape

Heat transfer enhancement

a b s t r a c t

In this study, uid ow of the Al2O3 nanouid in a horizontal double pipe heat exchanger tted with modied twisted tapes were experimentally studied under turbulent ow conditions. The experiments with

different geometrical progression ratio (GPR) of twists as the new modied twisted tapes and different

nanouid concentration were performed under similar operation condition. Pitch length of the proposed

twisted tapes and consequently the twist ratios changed along the twists with respect to the geometrical

progression ratio (GPR) whether reducer (RGPR < 1) or increaser (IGPR > 1). Regarding the experimental

data, utilization of RGPR twists together with nanouids tends to increase heat transfer and friction factor

by 12% to 52% and 5% to 28% as compared with the tube with typical twisted tapes (GPR = 1) and nanouid. Contrarily, performances were weakened by using for IGPR twists 0.6 to 0.92 and 0.75 to 0.95. The

thermal performances of the heat exchanger with nanouid and modied twisted tapes were evaluated

for the assessment of overall improvement in thermal behavior. Generalized correlations were developed

for the estimation of Nusselt number, friction factor and thermal performance factor under turbulent ow

conditions. Satisfactory agreement between the present correlations and obtained experimental data

validate the proposed correlations.

2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Understanding and improving heat transfer rate are the main

concerns at different industries, including chemical processes, heating and cooling processes and micro-sized applications. Several

techniques have been carried out to reduce operating cost. The most

signicant variables in reducing the size and cost of a heat transfer

equipments are heat transfer coefcient and pressure drop or ow

resistance. The main concern for the equipment design is to minimize the ow resistance while enhancing the heat transfer coefcients. Therefore, it is vital to develop techniques to enhance the

performance of heat exchangers. It has been commonly understood

that the performance of heat exchangers can be improved by many

augmentation techniques. Among them, utilizing nanouids and

Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran. Tel./fax: +98 8633670017.

E-mail addresses: n-ghasemi@iau-arak.ac.ir, nahid@cheme.utm.my (N. Ghasemi).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2014.07.059

0017-9310/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

passive augmentation techniques like inserting turbulence promoters are considered as the effective ones [1].

Nanouid, a suspension of nanoparticles in a continuous and

saturated liquid, has been found capable to get considerably higher

thermal conductivities than their respective base uids resulting to

better convective heat transfer coefcients [2]. The use of nanoparticles in the uids possess a number of potential advantages such

as long suspension stability, no clogging in systems and little

pressure drop. These benets are because nanoparticles are used

at very low concentrations and nanometer sizes. Types of nanoparticles and base uid have vital roles in the enhancement of thermal

conductivity of nanouids [3]. Although nanouids offer some

advantages, they may have high pressure drop penalty compared

to the base uid ows which is unfavorable in practical

applications.

Probably Choi [4] was the rst who suggested the addition of

solid particles in nanometric size into a base uid and reported

enhancement of thermal conductivity compared to base uid.

Many studies have conducted to evaluate the heat transfer

H. Maddah et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 78 (2014) 10421054

1043

Nomenclature

Cp

di

f

h

K

L

m

_

m

n

Nu

Pr

DP

Q

Re

T

TR

w

y

inside diameter of the test tube, m

friction factor

heat transfer coefcient, W m2 K1

thermal conductivity of uid, W m1 K1

length of the test section, m

ow consistency index, s1

mass ow rate, kg s1

ow behavior index

Nusselt number

Prandtl number

pressure drop, Pa

heat transfer rate

Reynolds number

temperature, C

twist ratio

tape width, m

tape pitch length, m

q

l, N

g

V

/

uid dynamic viscosity, kg s1 m1

thermal enhancement index

shear rate

volume concentration

Subscripts

b

bulk

nf

nanouid

np

nanoparticle

w

water

NE

non enhanced

E

enhanced

Abbreviation

GPR

geometrical progression ratio

IGPR

increaser geometrical progression ratio

RGPR

reducer geometrical progression ratio

Greek letters

d

tape thickness, m

the laminar and the turbulent ow regimes [425]. Results of these

studies proved that the inclusion of nanoparticles improves the

thermal conductivity compared to the conventional uid and

increases heat transfer rate with the nanoparticle concentration.

Although lots of investigations manifested the thermal conductivity contribution toward the enhancement in the convective heat

transfer coefcient of nanouids, other potentially affecting factors

described in some review articles [2627] must be considered.

Nguyen et al. [28] have performed extensive measurements of

dynamic viscosity for the Al2O3water nanouid considered hysteresis phenomenon concerns on the reliability of using nanouids

for heat transfer enhancement purposes. Hojjat et al. [21]

conducted an experiment on convective heat transfer of nonNewtonian nanouids with three kinds of nanouids under laminar ow regime and proposed a correlation to predict the Nusselt

number of non-Newtonian nanouids as a function of the Reynolds

and the Prandtl numbers.

The basic principle of the passive technique is to require no

direct employment of the external power and includes coated surface, rough surface and ow manipulation such as swirl ow and

modied ow [29]. Twisted tape is one of the most favorable

members of passive techniques utilized in many heat exchanging

systems. One of the most favorable passive techniques is generating swirl ow by insertion of a twisted tape because the tape is

inexpensive and can be easily employed to the existing system.

The effects of twisted tape insertion have been widely studied for

both experimental and numerical simulation works. The presence

of twisted tape directs toward redeveloping the thermal boundary

layer and inducing swirl ow leading to greater convective heat

transfer. To upgrade the existing compact heat exchanger, utilizing

twisted tape can provoke interests because of its low cost, ease of

maintenance and installation. However, heat transfer enhancement reected concurrent friction loss in the process [30]. Consequently pumping power may increase signicantly resulting in

performance factor at the same pumping power under unity and

ultimately the higher pumping cost high. Therefore, to achieve a

desired heat transfer rate in an existing heat exchanger at an

economic pumping power, the design of twisted tape with a proper

geometry is required to obtain a desired heat transfer rate in heat

effects of twisted tape insertion [3141]. Recently, some new types

of investigators developed utilization of twisted tapes along with

nanouids [4244]. Results of these investigations showed that

the heat transfer coefcient of nanouids was found to be higher

than the conventional uids and, compared to heat transfer coefcient in a plain tube under same operating conditions; further

enhancement was gained when twisted tape was inserted. For

instance, Fakoor-Pakdaman et al. [25] conducted an experimental

investigation on the thermo-physical properties of MWCNTs/heat

transfer oil nanouids and the overall performance of the vertical

helically coiled tubes. They reported that the application of nanouids and helically coiled tubes led to high overall performance

index of almost 6.4.

To the authors knowledge, although all the literatures have put

supreme efforts into enhancing the convective heat transfer in

double pipe heat exchangers, the thermohydraulic performance

and optimization of tubes with utilization of twisted tapes and

nanouids needs to give more attention. Since twisted tapes with

different geometries results in different thermohydraulic performances, it is interesting to assess the potential of the novel

designed and modied twisted tape with effective geometry to recommend recurrent change of swirl direction along the test tube,

which is expected to provide better mixing than the typical one.

In present research, the turbulent heat transfer and ow friction

behaviors in a double pipe heat exchanger tted with modied

tapes twisted which the pitch length varied along the twists and

Al2O3 nanouid as a working uid. All previous works have used

Newtonian uids as the base uid. In this study, the nanouid

was considered as a non-Newtonian for a wide range of Reynolds

number between 5000 and 21,000. Experiments were conducted

at nanoparticles concentration of 0.21, twists ratio of 310 and

geometrical progression ratio between 0.6 and 2. The experiments

with and without typical twisted tapes and nanouid were

performed under similar operation condition and validated with

existing well established correlations to verify experimental setup.

The thermophysical properties like thermal conductivity of Al2O3

nanouid was evaluated through experiments at different

conditions and validated. Using the experimental results, new correlations were proposed for the prediction of the Nusselt number,

1044

H. Maddah et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 78 (2014) 10421054

with nanouid and modied twisted tapes.

2. Experimental

2.1. Sample preparation

In order to prepare the nanouids by dispersing the nanoparticles in a base uid, proper mixing, and stabilization of the particles

is required. Basically three different methods are available to attain

stability of nanouids. The methods are listed as follows: (1) acid

treatment of base uids (2) dispersants addition, (3) use of ultrasonic vibration. All of these techniques intend at changing the

surface characteristics of a system and suppressing settlement to

obtain stable suspensions. In the present study, Al2O3 nanoparticles of size 2022 nm were mixed with distilled water and stabilizers and then sonicated continuously by ultrasonic vibrator

(Toshiba, India) generating ultrasonic pulses of 100 W at

36 3 kHz for 5 h to break down agglomeration of the nanoparticles, prior to being used as the working uid. The desired volume

concentrations used in this study were between 0.2 and 1. The

PH value of the uids showed that solutions chemistry were nearly

neutral. For each test a new nanouid was prepared and used

immediately. To examine the stability of the nanouid dispersions,

the density of some nanouid samples was measured before and

after the experimental test. No signicant difference in measured

density was observed. The distribution of the primary Al2O3 nanoparticles at nano-scale can be observed under a transmission

electron microscope (TEM) and SEM . Fig. 1(a) shows the SEM

images of the Al2O3 produced when the current was set at 75 A.

The approximate particle sizes of the produced Al2O3 are measured

Fig. 1. (a) SEM photograph of Al2O3 particles (b) TEM photograph of AL2O3 particles.

measurement system. Furthermore, the fabricated nanoparticles

shown in Fig. 1 have good roundness and size uniformity.

Fig. 1(b) is the TEM image of the nanoparticle suspension. As

shown in Fig. 1(b), the Al2O3 nanouids prepared by the proposed

synthesis system indicate good nanoparticle dispersion with a

mean particle size of 2022 nm. For this experiment, the relation

of the current towards the nanoparticles can be analyzed by using

different currents.

2.2. Twisted tapes

The twisted tapes were made from aluminum sheet with tape

thickness (d) of 0.8 mm, and width (W) of 48 mm and length of

800 mm. The tape thickness of 0.8 mm was chosen to avoid an

additional friction in the system that might be occurred by the

thicker tape. To produce the modied twisted tapes, the typical

twists became changed by changing twist ratio and geometrical

progression ratio along the twist. Twist ratio is considered as twist

length (twist length) to tape width (w). Geometrical progression

ratio is the ratio of pitch lengths along the twist. The tapes were

prepared at seven different geometrical progression ratio (GPR)

of 2, 1.5, 1.2, 1, 0.85, 0.75 and 0.60, respectively. Whilst twists with

GPR less than one (reducer GPR) were shortened along their own

length (RGPR), twists with GPR greater than one (increaser GPR)

were lengthened along their own length (IGPR). The geometric

details of tapes are demonstrated in Fig. 2.

2.3. Heat transfer experimental set-up and procedure

The experiment to investigate heat transfer characteristic of

nanouid were carried out using the experimental apparatus as

shown in Fig. 3. It mainly consisted of a test section, receiving tanks

in which working uids are stored, heating and cooling system,

temperature, ow meter, rota-meter, pressure measurement

system and data acquisition system. The working uids were circulated through the loop by using variable speed pumps of suitable

capacity. The test section is of 1.5 m length with counter ow path

within horizontal double pipe heat exchanger in which hot nanouid was applied inside the tube while cooling water was directed

through the annulus. The inner tube was made of smooth copper

and has inner and outer diameter of 50 mm and 60.2 mm while

the annulus was stainless steel with inner diameter of 74.2 mm

and wall tube thickness of 6 mm. The section was thermally isolated in order to minimize heat losses to surrounding by plastic

tubes. 10 T-type thermocouples with 0.1 C precision were taped

along the inner tube wall at equally space to measure the

Fig. 2. Geometries (a) typical twisted tape (b) IGPR twisted tapes (c) RGPR twisted

tapes.

H. Maddah et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 78 (2014) 10421054

1045

were calibrated before xing them. The inlet and outlet temperature of the uids were measured by calibrated RTDs. All of the

temperature data were recorded by data logger. To measure the

pressure drop across the test section, differential pressure transmitter was mounted at the pressure tab located at the inlet and

outlet of the section. The nanouid ow rate of were measured

by a magnetic ow meter which were placed at the entrance of

the test section.

For each test run, it was essential to record the data of the

temperature, volumetric ow rates and pressure drop across the

section at steady state conditions. Two storage tanks were made

of stainless steel at capacity of 50 lit to collect the uids leaving

the test section. The cooler tank was of 4.5 kw capacity with a

thermostat to keep water temperature constant. The provision

of thermostat helps to achieve steady state conditions faster.

The temperature of inlet water was maintained around 25 C

and the ow rate of the water was kept constant at 500 l/hr. Similar to the cooling tank, a 4 kw electronic heater with a thermostat was installed to maintain the temperature of the nanouid

constant at 40 C. Hot nanouid was pumped from the uid tank

through the inner tube included twisted tapes at different Reynolds number between 5000 and 21,000. To ensure the steady

state condition for each run, the period of around 2030 min

depending on Reynolds number and twisted tapes was taken

prior to the data record.

After the experimental setup was assembled, the reservoir

tanks lled with working uids. Initial experiments were conducted to validate the system. These have done with water and

Al2O3water nanouid, with and without twisted tapes. In addition, thermo physical properties of the nanouid were evaluated.

The thermophysical properties (density, specic heat, viscosity

and thermal conductivity) measurements of the nanouid were

needed to apply for the practical applications. The appropriate correlations to evaluate density of nanouids were presented by Pak

and Cho [5] which were dened as follows:

equation:

nanouid was measured using quick thermal conductivity meter

QTM-500 apparatus supplied by KEM JAPAN under steady state.

The obtained experimental data of thermal conductivity was

compared with those estimated from well-known theoretical

models and depicted in Fig. 4. The models used to compute thermal

conductivity for comparison were:

(a) Maxwell model [42]:

K w 3

1K

np

1 2u 2 K w 1

6

7

K np

6

Kw 7

Kw4

5

1K

np

1 u K w 1

2

K nf

K np

thermal conductivity of the nanoparticles, and Kw is the thermal

conductivity of the base uid.

1046

H. Maddah et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 78 (2014) 10421054

showed non-Newtonian shear-thinning rheological behavior. For

these uids, it is conventional to dene the relationships between

the shear stress and shear rate in case of two-dimensional motion

as follows [50]:

dv x

dy

N = l. Lots of empirical methods have been proposed for the nonNewtonian viscosity function N. The simplest empirical method

is the two-parameter power law of Ostwaldde Waele model

for g

for a non-Newtonian shear thinning uid [50]:

(a)

mc_ n1

(b)

Fig. 4. (a) Comparison of the thermal conductivity between measured data and

calculated value from the other correlations. (b) Thermal conductivity as function of

temperature and volume fraction.

following form [46]:

K nf K w

K np n 1K w un 1K w K np

K np n 1K w uK w K np

4

n 3=W

In which, n is shape factor and W is the sphericity dened as

surface area of a sphere with a volume equal to the average surface

area of the particle.

(c) Yu and Choi model which was dened as follows [47]:

K nf

"

#

K np 2K w 2u1 b3 K w K np

K np 2K w u1 b3 K w K np

original particle radius as it normally assumed to be 0.1 to calculate

the thermal conductivity of the nanouid.

(d) Bruggeman model [48]:

K nf

K w p

1

3u 1K np 2 3uK w

D

4

4

the type of nanouid used. Here m is ow consistency index with

units of N m2. Sn and n is the ow behavior index (n). In general,

nanoparticle concentration cannot strongly affect the ow behavior

index where as it has direct relation with temperature and increases

when the temperature increases. It can be attributed to the fact that

increasing the temperature increases the intermolecular distance

and decreases the interactions between the molecules. Flow consistency index shows completely different behavior with temperature

and concentration variation. It increases when the temperature is

decreased and volume fraction is increased. The reason for the rst

case is related to the higher energy of molecules and intermolecular

distance at higher temperatures which causes the inuences of

molecules on each other decrease. The reason for the rst case

can be attributed to the interactions between nanoparticles and

water molecules [22]. The quantity c_ , here taken to be positive, is

called the shear rate. It is to be noted that for a shear thinning uid

the value of n is less than 1 [50].

DV3T rheometer (supplied by Brookeld) with accuracy of

0.1% of range and repeatability of 0.2% was employed to investigate rheological behavior of Al2O3. The constant temperature bath

has been connected to the rheometer control the temperature. At

least 8 measurements were made at desired concentrations and

an average value was calculated to evaluate the parameters. To

our knowledge, only Santra et al. [17] have presented experimentally the relation between the shear stress and shear rate for

Al2O3water nanouid. Using this data, Santra et al. [17] has calculated the values of m and n for 0.5% to 5% solid volume fraction.

Their results have been employed to validate obtained experimental results. The results were shown on Fig. 3 along with values

obtained from Santra et al. [17] study and Einsteins equation.

Einsteins equation for calculating viscosity, which is applicable

to spherical particles in volume fractions less than 5.0 vol.%, and

is dened as follows:

lrapp

lnf

1 2:5u

lw

10

"

2

#

K np

K np

D 3u 12

2 3u2 2 2 9u 9u2

Kw

Kw

(e) Effective medium theory introduced by Timofeeva et al.

[49]:

K nf 1 3uK w

with volume concentrations of 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7%. During the test,

cold water absorbed heat from hot nanouid. The heat transfer rate

from the heating uid was calculated from the following equation:

_ nf Cpnf T out T in nf

Q nf m

11

_ nf is the

where Qnf is the heat transfer rate of the nanouid and m

mass ow rate of the nanouid. The heat transfer rate into the

cooling water was calculated from the following equation:

1047

H. Maddah et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 78 (2014) 10421054

(a)

(a)

(b)

Fig. 5. (a) Comparison of the viscosity between measured data and calculated value

from the other correlations. (b) Viscosity as a function of shear rate and volume

fraction.

(b)

Fig. 8. Validation of plain tube with twisted tapes and water: (a) Nusselt number

and (b) friction factor.

mean Nusselt number of the nanouid are evaluated as the

following:

_ w Cpw T out T in w

Qw m

12

In this study, the supplied heat by the hot nanouid was found to be

3% higher than the received heat. This deviation can be interpreted

by convection and radiation heat loss along the test section. The

average heat transfer rate is:

Q av e

Q w Q nf

2

13

qav e

hnf

T wall T b;nf

Nunf

hnf D

K nf

14

15

stations lined between the inlet and outlet of the test tube.

1048

H. Maddah et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 78 (2014) 10421054

T wall

X T wall

10

16

Tb,nf is mean bulk nanouid temperature:

T b;nf

T in T out

2

17

ow rate at the inlet of the test tube. For purely viscous nonNewtonian uid, the Reynolds number is dened as follows:

Re

n

qnf v 2n

nf di

mcn1

18

the tube.

Friction factor can be calculated from the following equation:

F nf

DPnf

L=di qnf v 2nf =2

19

where fnf is the friction factor of the nanouid, DPnf is the measured

pressure drop of the nanouid and L is the length of the tube.

The Prandtl number and Peclet number of the nanouid can be

evaluated from the following equations:

Prnf

Penf

mcn1 Cpnf

K nf

v nf dp

anf

hE

hNE

To validate the ATS apparatus to measure the viscosity of nanouid, the obtained results at different shear rates were compared

with Santra et al. [17] results. Fig. 5(a) shows the comparison of

evaluated data with presented prediction model. As the gure

indicates, the experimental results were in close agreement with

calculated values using Santra et al. [17] results. However, there

is a deviation between the measured values and predicted results

of Einstein model since viscosity the linear uid assumption is

not satised. As shown in Fig. 5(b), the results showed that the

viscosity of nanouids increases with increasing particle volume

concentration and also increases with decreasing shear rate.

20

3.3. Validation test with water

21

diffusivity of the nanouid.

The performance evaluation analysis (g) is dened as the

enhanced convective heat transfer coefcient (hE) to the nonenhanced one (hNE) at the same pumping power.

shown in Fig. 4(a) along with the calculated values from stated

well-known correlations and models. As the gure indicates, the

results showed a good correspondence between the measured

value and Yo and Choi model. However, the evaluated experimental results were slightly greater than those of other prediction

models. Fig. 4(b) shows the experimental value of Al2O3 nanouid

thermal conductivity as a function of temperature and volume

concentration. It can be found that increasing temperature and

volume concentration of nanoparticles will increase the thermal

conductivity of nanouid considerably.

with water was conducted using empty tubes over targeting

Reynolds number in turbulent regime. Qualication of the heat

22

2.6. Uncertainty analysis

A detailed uncertainty analysis was made to estimate the errors

associated with experimenting using Coleman and Steele method.

The individual uncertainties related to different instruments

involved in the experiment were rst evaluated to calculate the

maximum possible error in Reynolds number, Nusselt number

and friction factor. The maximum uncertainties of Nusselt number,

Reynolds number and friction factor were found to be 0.26%,

0.14% and 0.42%, respectively. More Detailed on uncertainty

analysis can be found on Appendix A.

(a)

Prior to the assessment of the Al2O3 nanouid and modied

twisted tapes performance, the experimental facilities reliability

were veried by conducting experiments with and without nanouid and twisted tape, then the results compared with the results

given by the well-known correlations under a similar condition.

3.1. The thermal conductivity of nanouids

In order to validate the experimental data of thermal conductivity obtained by QTM, the thermal conductivity of nanouid was

measured at temperature 35 C and various particle volume

(b)

Fig. 9. Validation of plain tube with twisted tapes and nanouid: (a) Nusselt

number and (b) friction factor.

1049

H. Maddah et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 78 (2014) 10421054

the results with those obtained from the Dittus and Boelter

equation [51] for water. The correlations was dened as follows:

Dittus and Boelter equation:

Nu 0:04Re0:75 Pr0:4

23

employed:

Blasius correlation:

f 0:316Re0:25

24

gave reasonably good correspondence with those from mentioned

correlations for both Nusselt number and friction factor for turbulent ow regime. The deviations of the evaluated experimental data

from the correlation values fall within 5% for Nusselt number and

1% for friction factor in case of empty water.

3.4. Validation test with twisted tapes

To verify the experimental procedure with twisted tape inserts,

the tests with empty water and Al2O3 nanouid were conducted at

two different twist ratio and results compared with the estimating

correlation results as shown in Figs. 8 and 9. The verifying correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor of single phase like

water were proposed by Manglik and Bergles [32] for the plain

tube tted with twisted tapes under turbulent ow as the following form:

!

0:769

1 y

Nu

00

10:8 0

p A @

p 4d

p

di

6

B

40:023Re0:8 Pr0:4 @@

10:2 13

2d

d

7

i A C

A5 25

p2

4d

di

1

y 2 !0:74

A

f @1 2:06 1 2 w

11:75 0

6

40:079Re0:25 @

p A

p 4d

di

11:25 3

2d

d

i A 7

5

p2

p

4d

di

26

ow in a tube with twisted tapes inserts were compared with the

predicted values given by Syam Sundar and Sharma [42]

(a)

(b)

Fig. 10. Effect of geometrical progression ratio on Nusselt number (a) RGPR (b) IGPR.

1050

H. Maddah et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 78 (2014) 10421054

phase uid:

0:06281

H

Nu 0:0366Re0:8204

Pr0:4

0:001

0:001 u0:04704

nf

nf

D

on heat transfer in terms of Nusselt number was presented in

Fig. 10. For all the case, general trend found in Fig. 10 was that

Nusselt number was increased with the rise of Reynolds number.

This inuence was because of turbulence intensity which leads to

the heat transfer improvement. At the same Reynolds number, the

results revealed the increase in heat transfer rate with small geometry progression ratio (RGPR) and vice versa. Small geometry progression ratios (GPR) will generate tapes with pitch length and

twist ratio which reduced along the tapes. Justied by the data

trend, decreasing twist ratios along the tape can raise swirl ow

intensity which promote mixing of uid. Beside this, additional

turbulence along the tube wall resulted in efcient reduction of

boundary layer in the vicinity of heat transfer sources and thus

yielding to a great transfer performance. Moreover, the application

of reducing GPR twists produced an increase in the residence time

of ow as a result of longer ow path. Therefore extending duration of heat exchanging between the heat reassures (tube wall)

and uid gave a superior heat transfer improvement rather than

increasing GPR tapes.

At a given Reynolds number and GPR ratios, the heat transfer

coefcient of nanouids was enhanced with a raise in the

27

0:004815

H

f 2:068Re0:04330

1 u0:01 1

nf

D

28

showed satisfactory agreement with those from mentioned

correlations for water but slightly greater the estimated values for

nanouids with twisted tapes. The deviations of the evaluated

experimental data from the correlation values fall within 6.2% for

Nusselt number and 12% for friction factor in case of water with

twisted tapes, and within 20% for Nusselt number and 22% for

friction factor in case of Al2O3 nanouid in a tube tted with twisted

tapes.

The effect of inclusion of inserting twisted tapes in the ow

path can be understood in comparing Figs. 8 with 6 and 9 with

7. It can be observed that the heat transfer associated by the

application of nanouid and twisted tape is more effective than

those offered by the individual techniques.

(a)

(b)

Fig. 11. Effect of geometrical progression ratio on friction factor (a) RGPR (b) IGPR.

H. Maddah et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 78 (2014) 10421054

enhancement due to the nano particles presence, pseudo-plastic

behavior of the nanouid would be responsible for improving heat

transfer. Increasing the shear rate will decreases apparent viscosity. Higher shear rate near the wall tends to decrease the apparent

viscosity of the nanouid, which results in preventing the development of thermal boundary layers close to the transfer surfaces and

therefore will be associated with enhanced heat transfer rate.

Collision and random motion of nano-particles and particles movement from high to low shear rate region were other contributing

factors in heat transfer enhancement of nanouids.

Effect of modied twisted tapes on friction factor characteristics

was presented in Fig. 11 at several nano particle concentration and

GPR.

As seen, friction factor considerably increase with decreasing

Reynolds number. Similar to the Nusselt number as Fig. 10

showed, friction factor tended to increase with using reducing

GPR tapes. This is owing to the extent of turbulence due to the

presence of shortening pitch length tapes and the increase of

surface contact area which lead to higher viscous loss nearer

the tube wall. It is noteworthy that the higher nanouid concentration may provide penalty in pressure drop due to the rise of

working uid viscosity.

1051

benets of enhancing devices usage, was evaluated from Eq. (29)

at the same pumping power. The variation of thermal performance

factor with Reynolds number was depicted in Fig. 12. As the gure

shows, the factor was decreased with increasing Reynolds number.

At the same Reynolds number, the reducing GPR twisted tapes provided higher performance factor than the typical and increasing

GPR tapes around 20%. Declining performance factor with increasing Reynolds number implied that the use of reducing GPR tapes is

viable to save the energy. It must be noted that the performance

factor was increased with a rise in nanoparticles concentration.

This means that application of both nanouid and modied

twisted tapes results in higher thermal performance than others.

Over the range considered, the factors were in the range between

1.5 and 2.56.

3.6. Correlations

The empirical correlations developed for the present experimental results of the nanouid ow in double pipe heat exchanger

equipped with modied twisted tapes in a range of Reynolds

number between 5000 and 25,000. The validation of the correlations for Nusselt number, friction factor and performance factor

(a)

(b)

Fig. 12. Variations of thermal enhancement index with Reynolds number for (a) RGPR (b) IGPR.

1052

H. Maddah et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 78 (2014) 10421054

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 13. Validation of empirical correlations for (a) Nusselt number. (b) Friction factor. (c) Thermal performance.

1053

H. Maddah et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 78 (2014) 10421054

experimental data and evaluating errors.

The empirical correlations from experimental results and using

nonlinear regression for Nusselt number and friction factor are as

the following:

Nu 0:056Re0:72 Pr0:4 1 pu2:75 1

f 0:375Re0:24 1 3pu0:6 1

p 1:1

2TR

p

1:4

TR

GPR0:75

GPR0:35

No

Name of

instrument

Range of

instrument

Variable

measured

%

Uncertainty

Thermocouple

Wall temperature

0.1 C

29

2

3

3

Mass ow rate, m

Mass ow rate, m

Pressure drop

0.1

0.5

0.075

30

Flow meter

Rotameter

Pressure

measurement

Digitizer

60 to

1370 C

110,000 l

1600 L

010 bar

and pressure drop between the empty exchanger (not enhanced)

and tube tted with tapes (enhanced) can be written as follow:

V_ DPE V_ DPNE

Table A-1

Uncertainties of instruments and properties.

31

5

6

RTD PT 100

thermocouple

QTM-500

7

8

DV3T rheometer

Properties

200 to

500 C

0.02312 W/

mk

0.1250 RPM

Density,

specic heat

Temperature

indicator

Temp. of inlet/

Outlet ow

Thermal

conductivity

Viscosity

0.5 C

0.3

1.0

0.1

and friction factor:

3

3

fRe

fRe

E

32

NE

Applying Eqs. (25), (31), the Reynolds number of empty tube can be

expressed as function of enhanced tube Reynolds number:

ReNE 1:0611 3pu0:281 1

p

TR

1:4

0:363

GPR0:127 Re1:01

E

33

Using Eqs. (24), (25), (31) and (33), the thermal factor can be

expressed as follow:

p 1:1

1 2TR

1 pu2:75

GPR0:653

0:272

0:163

1

3

p

u

p

1 TR1:4

g 1:4Re0:04

34

values from correlations.

4. Conclusion

An experimental study of Al2O3water nanouid turbulent ow

through double pipe heat exchanger quipped with modied

twisted tapes has been performed for a range of Reynolds number

(5000 to 21,000) with a wide range of solid volume fraction (0.2%

to 0.9%). The behavior of nanouid has been considered as nonNewtonian in nature. The mathematical concept of Geometrical

Progression was used to prepare modied twisted tapes. Pitch

length of the proposed twisted tapes and consequently the twist

ratios changed along the twists with respect to the geometrical

progression ratio (GPR) whether reducer (RGPR < 1) or increaser

(IGPR > 1). The inuences of the geometrical progression ratio,

twist ratio and volume concentration on the heat transfer rate

and friction factor characteristics have also been investigated. A

geometrical progression ratio shared with a twisted tape has

signicant effects on the heat transfer enhancement and friction

factor. Depending on the geometrical progression ratio, the heat

transfer rate and friction factor in the double pipe heat exchanger

with twisted tape and nanouids, were respectively 1.03 to 4 and

1.4 to 2.8 times of those in the plain tube. The thermal

performances were calculated to assess the overall improvement

in thermal behavior. The empirical correlations for the Nusselt

number, friction factor and thermal performance factor based on

the present experimental data were also presented.

Table A-2

Uncertainties of parameters and variables.

1

2

3

Variable name

% Uncertainty error

Reynolds number, Re

Nusselt number, Nu

Friction factor, f

1.4

0.26

0.42

The uncertainty table for different instruments used in experiment is given in Table A-1. The maximum possible error for the

parameters involved in the analysis are estimated and summarized

in Table A-2. It must be noted that the estimated uncertainties are

based on the manufacturers specications and not on a calibration

of the instruments.

Reynolds number, Re:

_ U Re

4m

Re

;

pDl Re

2 2 !1=2

Ul

U m_

1:4%

_

l

m

_ nf cpnf T out T in nf ;

Q nf m

!

2

U

2 1=2

U m_

UQ

U cpnf 2

T out T in

nf

nf

cp

T out T in

0:17%

_

m

Q

nf

nf

nf

_ w cpw T out T in w ;

Qw m

2

!1=2

U cpw 2

U T out T in 2

UQ w

Uw

0:5%

_w

Qw

cpw

T out T in

m

Nusselt number, Nu:

Nu

hD

;

K

U Nu

Nu

2 2 !1=2

Uh

UK

0:26%

h

K

Friction factor, f:

DP

f

2 ;

qV

l

D

Uf

2 2

2 !1=2

Uq

U DP

2U V

0:42%

DP

q

V

References

Conict of interest

None declared.

[1] A.E. Bergles, Techniques to augment heat transfer, in: W.M. Roshenow et al.

(Eds.), Hand Book of Heat Transfer Applications, second ed., McGraw-Hill, New

York, 1985.

1054

H. Maddah et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 78 (2014) 10421054

enhancement in a two-dimensional enclosure utilizing nano-uids, Int. J.

Heat Mass Transfer 46 (2003) 36393653.

[3] W. Duangthongsuk, S. Wongwises, Heat transfer enhancement and pressure

drop characteristics of TiO2water nanouid in a double-tube counter ow

heat exchanger, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 52 (2009) 20592067.

[4] S.U.S. Choi, Enhancing thermal conductivity of uid with nanoparticles, in:

D.A. Siginer, H.P. Wang (Eds.), Developments and Applications of NonNewtonian Flows, FED-V.231/MD-V.66, ASME, New York, 1995, pp. 99105.

[5] B.C. Pak, Y.I. Cho, Hydrodynamic and heat transfer study of dispersed uids

with submicron metallic oxide particles, Exp. Heat Transfer 11 (1998) 151

170.

[6] S.U.S. Choi, Z.G. Zhang, W. Yu, F.E. Lockwood, E.A. Grulke, Anomalous thermal

conductivity enhancement in nanotube suspensions, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79 (14)

(2001) 22522254.

[7] Q. Li, Y. Xuan, Convective heat transfer and ow characteristics of Cuwater

nanouid, Sci. China E 45 (2002) 408416.

[8] Y. Xuan, Q. Li, Investigation on convective heat transfer and ow features of

nanouids, ASME J. Heat Transfer 125 (2003) 151155.

[9] D. Wen, Y. Ding, Experimental investigation into convective heat transfer of

nanouids at the entrance region under laminar ow conditions, Int. J. Heat

Mass Transfer 47 (2004) 51815188.

[10] S.M.S. Murshed, K.C. Leong, C. Yang, Enhanced thermal conductivity of TiO2

water based nanouids, Int. J. Therm. Sci. 44 (2005) 367373.

[11] S.Z. Heris, S.G. Etemad, M.N. Esfahany, Experimental investigation of oxide

nanouids laminar ow convective heat transfer, Int. Commun. Heat Mass

Transfer 33 (2006) 529535.

[12] S.Z. Heris, M.N. Esfahany, S.G. Etemad, Experimental investigation of

convective heat transfer of Al2O3/water nanouid in circular tube, Int. J. Heat

Fluids Flow 28 (2) (2007) 203210.

[13] A.K. Santra, S. Sen, N. Chakraborty, Study of heat transfer augmentation in a

differentially heated square cavity using copperwater nanouid, Int. J. Therm.

Sci. 47 (2008) 11131122.

[14] C.T. Nguyen, G. Roy, C. Gauthier, N. Galanis, Heat transfer enhancement using

Al2O3water nanouid for electronic liquid cooling system, Appl. Therm. Eng.

28 (2007) 15011506.

[15] B.H. Chun, H.U. Kang, S.H. Kim, Effect of alumina nanoparticles in the uid on

heat transfer in double-pipe heat exchanger system, Korean J. Chem. Eng. 25

(5) (2008) 966971.

[16] W. Duangthongsuk, S. Wongwises, Effect of thermophysical properties models

on the prediction of the convective heat transfer coefcient for low

concentration nanouid, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 35 (2008) 1320.

[17] A.K. Santra, S. Sen, N. Chakraborty, Study of heat transfer due to laminar ow

of copperwater nanouid through two isothermally heated parallel plates,

Int. J. Therm. Sci. 48 (2009) 391400.

[18] P.K. Namburu, D.K. Das, K.M. Tanguturi, R.S. Vajjha, Numerical study of

turbulent ow and heat transfer characteristics of nanouids considering

variable properties, Int. J. Therm. Sci. 48 (2009) 290302.

[19] I. Gherasim, G. Roy, C.T. Nguyen, D. Vo-Ngoc, Experimental investigation of

nanouids in conned laminar radial ows, Int. J. Therm. Sci. 48 (2009) 1486

1493.

[20] W. Duangthongsuk, S. Wongwises, An experimental study on the heat transfer

performance and pressure drop of TiO2water nanouids owing under a

turbulent ow regime, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 53 (2010) 334344.

[21] M. Hojjat, S.Gh. Etemad, R. Bagheri, J. Thibault, Convective heat transfer of nonNewtonian nanouids through a uniformly heated circular tube, Int. J. Therm.

Sci. 50 (2011) 525531.

[22] M. Hojjat, S.Gh. Etemad, S.G.R. Bagheri, J. Thibault, Rheological characteristics

of non-Newtonian nanouids: experimental investigation, Int. Commun. Heat

Mass Transfer 38 (2011) 144148.

[23] H. Heidary, M.J. Kermani, Heat transfer enhancement in a channel with

block(s) effect and utilizing nano-uid, Int. J. Therm. Sci. 57 (2012) 163171.

[24] N. Pelevic, Th.H. van der Meer, Numerical investigation of the effective

thermal conductivity of nano-uids using the lattice Boltzmann model, Int. J.

Therm. Sci. 62 (2012) 154159.

[25] M. Fakoor-Pakdaman, M.A. Akhavan-Behabadi, P. Razi, An empirical study on

the pressure drop characteristics of nanouid ow inside helically coiled

tubes, Int. J. Therm. Sci. 65 (2013) 206213.

[26] X.Q. Wang, A.S. Mujumdar, Heat transfer characteristics of nanouids: a

review, Int. J. Therm. Sci. 46 (2007) 119.

[27] L. Godson, B. Raja, D. Mohan Lal, S. Wongwises, Enhancement of heat transfer

using nanouids an overview, Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev. 14 (2009)

629641.

data for Al2O3water nanouid hysteresis: is heat transfer enhancement

using nanouids reliable?, Int J. Therm. Sci. 47 (2008) 103111.

[29] S.W. Chang, Y.J. Jan, J.S. Liou, Turbulent heat transfer and pressure drop in tube

tted with serrated twisted tape, Int. J. Therm. Sci. 46 (2007) 506518.

[30] K. Wongcharee, S. Eiamsa-ard, Friction and heat transfer characteristics of

laminar swirl ow through the round tubes inserted with alternate clockwise

and counter-clockwise twisted-tapes, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 38

(2011) 348352.

[31] R.M. Manglik, A.E. Bergles, Heat transfer and pressure drop correlations for

twisted tape inserts in isothermal tubes. Part I Laminar ows, Trans. ASME,

J. Heat Transfer 115 (1993) 881889.

[32] R.M. Manglik, A.E. Bergles, Heat transfer and pressure drop correlations for

twisted-tape inserts in isothermal tubes. Part II: Transition and turbulent

ows, Trans. ASME, J. Heat Transfer 115 (1993) 890896.

[33] P.K. Sarma, T. Subrahmanyam, P.S. Kishore, V. DharmaRao, S. Kakac, A new

method to predict convective heat transfer in a tube with twisted tape inserts

for turbulent ow, Int. J. Therm. Sci. 41 (2002) 955960.

[34] P.K. Sarma, P.S. Kishore, V. DharmaRao, T. Subrahmanyam, A combined

approach to predict friction coefcients a d convective heat transfer

characteristics in A tube with twisted tape inserts for a wide range of Re

and Pr, Int. J. Therm. Sci. 44 (2005) 393398.

[35] P. Naphon, Heat transfer and pressure drop in the horizontal double pipes with

and without twisted tape insert, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 33 (2006)

166175.

[36] S. Eiamsa-ard, C. Thianpong, P. Eiamsa-ard, P. Promvonge, Thermal

characteristics in a heat exchanger tube tted with dual twisted tape

elements in tandem, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 37 (2010) 3946.

[37] S. Eiamsa-ard, C. Thianpong, P. Eiamsa-ard, Turbulent heat transfer

enhancement by counter/co-swirling ow in a tube tted with twin twisted

tapes, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 34 (2010) 5362.

[38] S. Eiamsa-ard, P. Seemawute, K. Wongcharee, Inuences of peripherally-cut

twisted tape insert on heat transfer and thermal performance characteristics

in laminar and turbulent tube ows, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 34 (2010) 711719.

[39] S. Eiamsa-ard, P. Promvonge, Performance assessment in a heat exchanger

tube with alternate clockwise and counter-clockwise twisted-tape inserts, Int.

J. Heat Mass Transfer 53 (2010) 13641372.

[40] J. Guo, A. Fan, X. Zhang, W. Liu, A numerical study on heat transfer and friction

factor characteristics of laminar ow in a circular tube tted with centercleared twisted tape, Int. J. Therm. Sci. 50 (2011) 12631270.

[41] X. Zhang, Z. Liu, W. Liu, Numerical studies on heat transfer and ow

characteristics for laminar ow in a tube with multiple regularly spaced

twisted tapes, Int. J. Therm. Sci. 58 (2012) 157167.

[42] L. Syam Sundar, K.V. Sharma, Turbulent heat transfer and friction factor of

Al2O3 nanouid in circular tube with twisted tape inserts, Int. J. Heat Mass

Transfer 53 (2010) 14091416.

[43] K.P. Suresh, P. Venkitaraj, M. Selvakumar, Chandrasekar, A comparison of

thermal characteristics of Al2O3/water and CuO/water nanouids in transition

ow through a straight circular duct tted with helical screw tape inserts, Exp.

Therm. Fluid Sci. 39 (2012) 3744.

[44] K. Wongcharee, S. Eiamsa-ard, Heat transfer enhancement by using CuO/water

nanouid in corrugated tube equipped with twisted tape, Int. Commun. Heat

Mass Transfer 39 (2012) 251257.

[45] Y. Xuan, W. Roetzel, Conceptions for heat transfer correlation of nanouids,

Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 43 (2000) 37013707.

[46] R.L. Hamilton, O.K. Crosser, Thermal conductivity of heterogeneous two

component systems, I&EC Fundam. 1 (3) (1962) 187.

[47] W. Yu, S.U.S. Choi, The role of interfacial layers in the enhanced thermal

conductivity of nanouids: a renovated Maxwell model, J. Nanoparticle Res. 5

(2003) 167.

[48] D.A.G. Bruggeman, Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer konstanten von

heterogenen substanzen. I: Dielektrizitatskonstanten und Leitfahigkeiten der

Mischkorper aus Isotropen Substanzen, Ann. Phys. 14 (1935) 636664.

[49] E.V. Timofeeva, A.N. Gavrilov, J.M. McCloskey, Y.V. Tolmachev, Thermal

conductivity and particle agglomeration in alumina nanouids: experiment

and theory, Phys. Rev. 76 (2007). E76, 061203.

[50] R.B. Bird, W.E. Stewai, E.N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, second ed., John

Wiley & Sons, 2002.

[51] F.P. Incropera, P.D. Witt, T.L. Bergman, A.S. Lavine, Fundamentals of Heat and

Mass Transfer, John-Wiley & Sons, 2006.

- Erin Anderson MSc ThesisUploaded byKarun Nooney
- 79868033 Heat Transfer EnhancementUploaded byShreyas Srinivasan
- Heat ExchangerUploaded byFarisRazzak
- Fluid Power System DynamicsUploaded byKuttappa I G
- With AcumulatorUploaded byFaishal Khairul Umam
- Convection ProcessUploaded byMuzammil Azaiauddin
- 2015 Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Friction Factor of Al2O3 Nanofluid in U Tube Heat Exchanger With Helical Tape InsertsUploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- Experimental Investigation of Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger for Small Temperature DifferenceUploaded byAnonymous kw8Yrp0R5r
- Numerical Analysis on Mixed Convection Flow in a Lid-Driven Triangular CavityUploaded byIOSRjournal
- A Step-Forward in the Characterization and PotentialUploaded bylili100
- boundary layer theoryUploaded byrananicolas
- sks6Uploaded byshisuyang123
- Finite element analysis of natural convection flow in a isosceles triangular enclosure due to uniform and non-uniform heating at the side wallsUploaded bySorbeto
- Chapt5Uploaded bySyahirah Razali
- Overall-Single-Pump-T7-T6.pdfUploaded bypostolache marius
- hadim1994.pdfUploaded byyazenanes
- 2012 SRI 02StringeUploaded byricky.pigazzini
- Heat Transfer in Spiral Tube Coils - IJTS Altac & AltunUploaded byCostynha
- BSME ICTE ID244Uploaded byaashiquear
- IJEAS0201017Uploaded byerpublication
- Chapter 8 CombinedUploaded bytamdinh1411
- SunapwarUploaded byAnonymous mXicTi8hB
- Kim 2001Uploaded byyazenanes
- Heat Transfer in Flow Past ObjectsUploaded byRosalyne Artho-Phan
- File ServeUploaded bymatheswaran a s
- DEs R BronsonUploaded bynaveel
- notes tanUploaded byAnonymous 1VhXp1
- Grupo 10 - Avances en Agitación-convertidoUploaded byKazumy .R
- 6 Heat Transfer to Fluids Without Phase Change (1)Uploaded byRanier Aguilar
- 11 LaminarUploaded bySucker03

- Fluent-Intro_15.0_L07_Turbulence.pdfUploaded bynidhul07
- CFD Simulation of Multicomponent Mixture WithinUploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- ANSYS Advantage Academic AA V8 I1Uploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- PV Danckwersts 2Uploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- Flow Past a Rotating SphereUploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- PV Danckwersts 1Uploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- Neumann - Free Convective Heat Transfer to Supercritical Carbon DioxideUploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- DEM-tutorial.pdfUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- CFD_notes_01[1]Uploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- Problem Set problem_setUploaded byViswa Manoj
- IntroUploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- Homework 2Uploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- Key Cpd Requirements Aug 2014Uploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- WS GradedWordListUploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- Final Year ScheduleUploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- ProcessUploaded byLuis Gustavo Barascout
- allyl-cUploaded byTengku Mohd Imran
- 1-s2.0-S1385894700001340-main_R27Uploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- art%3A10.1007%2Fs00231-014-1489-8_R9Uploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- Enhancement of Thermohydraulic Performance of Turbulent Flow in Rectangular and Square Ribbed Ducts With Twisted-Tape Inserts_R11Uploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- Friction and Thermal Characteristics of Laminar Flow of Viscous Oil Through a Circular Tube Having Axial Corrugations and Fitted With Helical Screw-Tape Inserts_R21Uploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- Heat Transfer Enhancement of Laminar Flow Through a Circular Tube Having Wire Coil Inserts and Fitted With Center-Cleared Twisted Tape_20Uploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- 1-s2.0-S0894177712001331-main_R23Uploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- 1-s2.0-S0894177710000051-main_R12Uploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- 1-s2.0-S0894177707000647-main_R14Uploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- 1-s2.0-S0735193314001596-main_31Uploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- 1-s2.0-S0735193312001145-main_R6.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- 1-s2.0-S0735193311000509-main_30Uploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c

- Eurovent REC01-12 - Sources of Error in Aerodynamic System, Version 2011.03_13089049071Uploaded byDarlon Oliveira
- Final Year Project WorkUploaded byrakhi_chen
- ipu mechatronics syllabusUploaded bybadree456
- The Leading Edge by Goro Tamai - Complete IndexUploaded byBentley Publishers
- Full Text 01Uploaded byJan Gnat
- Sphere ReportUploaded byAero Navi
- Energy RatioUploaded byVinay MP
- CFD Lecture 01Uploaded bySmart Ranjha
- Flow Visualization ExperimentUploaded byPei Shan Choong
- Highlights in the History of Hydraulics ROUSEUploaded byAlberto Polo Cueto
- Technical ReferenceUploaded bycata_alex_munt
- A Handbook of Sound and VibrationUploaded byDan Roy
- CCET syllabus 2014-2015Uploaded byAnmoldeep Bhullar
- Turbulent FlowUploaded byAbhishek Kumar
- Wall y+ Strategy for Dealing with Wall-bounded Turbulent FlowsUploaded byfab1991
- Kuliah 8 Dan 9 Mekflu II 2Uploaded byArianto
- CFD Simulation of VIV.pdfUploaded byPasquale Cutri
- Flow_Basis_of_CAD_Embedded_CFD_Whitepaper.pdfUploaded byShawn Wairisal
- Panel.methodsUploaded bySebastian Cano Campuzano
- New Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger With S-shaped Fins for Hot Water Supplier_Yasuyoshi KatoUploaded byAB Devilier
- Aircraft Design Project - 150 seater passenger aircraftUploaded bysonusingh7867
- Toppers copyUploaded byAbhishek Agrawal
- Chapter15_2009.Hydrodynamic Design of ShipsUploaded byTurgut Arslan
- An Improved Method of Simulating an Atmospheric Boundary LayerUploaded byjohemura
- Mechanics of Fluids Question BankUploaded byanbuvrp
- MEC442_KJM492 (10)Uploaded byafnanhanany
- Development and Testing of Vortex GeneratorsUploaded bysekharsamy
- Wing FencesUploaded byErnesto Sousa
- Introduction to Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics .pdfUploaded byMarcelo Antonucci Cos
- UG Question Papers & Answer Keys 17.01.2019Uploaded bysmcyber