Questions And Answers Series 1

Questions And Answers Series 1
By Sayædaw Dr. Sunanda

First Edition: 500 copies (Apr 2009) Second Edition: 1000 copies (Jan 2010) The book is for free distribution only. You may copy and redistribute any texts from this book, provided that you abide by these two basic principles: 1. You may not sell any texts copied or derived from this book. 2. You may not alter the content of any texts copied or derived from this book. (You may, however, reformat them)
Buddhist Hermitage Lunas Lot 297, Kampung Seberang Sungai, 09600 Lunas, Kedah, Malaysia Tel:012-4284811



Questions And Answers Series 1

The contents of this book was transcribed from the Dhamma talks at Buddhist Hermitage Lunas which were recorded between December 2008 and January 2009. It is published here with some amendments. Special thanks to Sayædaw Dr. Sunanda for his tireless work in propagating the Dhamma at Buddhist Hermitage Lunas. He is praised for his metta, compassion and patience. We yogis are very grateful to have him answering all kinds of our questions. He tried his best to understand our mind and answer them to our satisfaction. We are very grateful for his skillful way in delivering the Dhamma and in solving our meditation problems. That is why we transcribe his Dhamma talks and Question & Answer sessions for other Vipassanæ yogis so that they will have a chance to learn from him as well. The compiler 15th April 2009


Transcription Project
General Editor: Sayælay Cælæ English transcription : Bro Chia Chin Leong, Bro Kang Phee Ho, Bro Teoh Chin Siong English editing : Sayadaw Jotika, Vajira, Barbara Grey, Klaudia Information and Computer assistance : Janaka and Cetanæ

Special thanks to the people involved in this transcription project. And all devotees and donors who have contributed and supported this project. May All Beings Rejoice in the Merits of this Dhammadæna.

*The Gift Of Dhamma Surpasses All Gifts* *Sabba Dænam Dhammadænam Jinati* dænam Sabba Dænam Dhammadæna


Questions And Answers Series 1

The Biography Of Sayādaw Dr. Sunanda

Venerable Sayādaw Dr. Sunanda was formerly a medical doctor by the name of Dr. U Than Naung. Bhante is of Chinese-Burmese descent and was born on 29 September 1933 at Ahtaung Village, Kyonpyaw township, Ayeyarwaddy division, Myanmar. His parents who were devout Buddhists enrolled him for his primary education and Buddhist studies at the village monastery. From 1947 to 1951, he attended St. John’s Diocesan School in Yangoon (Rangoon). He enrolled for higher education in 1951 and was admitted to the Institute of Medicine. In 1958, he was conferred with the Bachelor of Medicine and the Bachelor of Surgery. He served in various hospitals for ten years before furthering his studies in Dermatology and Venereology at the Vienna University, Austria. He returned to Myanmar as a Consultant DermatoVenereologist at the Rangoon General Hospital for another eight years from 1969 to 1977. During his service in 1972, he started to practise vipassanā meditation at the Mahāsī Meditation Centre under the guidance of the Most Venerable Mahāsī Sayādaw U Sobhana Mahāthero and his chief disciples, as a part time meditator in the evenings. In 1977, he resigned from the government service to devote more time to Vipassanà meditation and the propagation of the Dhamma. He assisted meditation teachers of the Mahāsī Meditation Centre as an interpreter and translator for foreign meditators.


On 29 September 1995, he renounced the household life and was ordained as a monk at the SasaNæmalavisodhani Sīma in the Mahāsī Meditation Centre. He was given the name ‘Sunanda’ which means “a delightful son”. Later, Venerable Sunanda accompanied the meditation masters as a translator and interpreter on foreign missions to Europe, USA and Asia. In 2004, Venerable Sunanda was invited to the Buddhist Hermitage Lunas, Kedah as its resident meditation teacher. Bhante is a sincere, dedicated, active and approachable Dhammaduta.


Questions And Answers Series 1

of Contents Table of Contents
1. More Arahants and Easy Enlightenment…................... 2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Old Age……….… 3. The Meaning of Renunciation ……………………… 4. Dealing with Pain…………………...…….…………. 5. Difference between Samatha and Vipassanæ……….. 6. Difference between Mindfulness and Concentration Appendix 1:Mind-matter Appendix 2: Four Great Elements, 12 Bases (Æyatana) Appendix 3:Summary of Four Foundations of Mindfulness (Satipa¥¥hæna) 10 14 20 26 34 40 55 56 57



Questions And Answers Series 1



More Arahants and Easy Enlightenment

More Arahants and Easy Enlightenment
Question : Why were there more arahants in the Buddha’s time and why did people gain enlightenment easily? Answer : This is due to the maturity of perfections or in Pæ¹i, it is known as paramittas. There are ten paramittas that one has to fulfill before gaining enlightenment. The people who gained quick and easy enlightenment during the Buddha's time were due to the maturity of their perfections or paramittas. This is because they had been cultivating these paramittas or perfections for many existences and aeons , for example like Venerable Særiputta, Agga-Sævakas (Chief Discip le) and Mahæ Sævakas (Great Discip les). Hence, when these paramittas mat ured, t hey o btained enlightenment easily. The ten perfections or paramittas to be fulfilled are:1 Dæna (Generosity) 2. Søla (Morality) 3. Nekkhamma (Renunciation) 4. Paññæ (Wisdom) 5. Viriya (Effort) 6. Khanti (Patience) 7. Adit hæna (Determination) 8. Sacca (Truthfulness) 9. Mettæ (Loving-kindness) 10. Upekkhæ (Equanimity)


Questions And Answers Series 1 Those whose paramittas matured during the Buddha's time enabled them to gain quick enlightenment. This was because they had been practising for many existences. Those who had not yet started or those who had started but their paramøs had not yet matured were left behind. Nowadays, the reasons maybe attributed to social, economic, cultural, moral or you may call it as ethical standard. For example, in this retreat how many meditators are there compared to those who are assembled at the resort areas? You can just compare the numbers. This is due to moral degradation as people have lost interest in sp ir itual progress and mat ur it y. They emp hasise more o n enjo ying o r indu lging themselves in sensual pleasures. So these are the present causes of late attainment.


More Arahants and Easy Enlightenment


Questions And Answers Series 1

Of Old Age


Advantages and Disadvantages of Old Age

Advantages and Disadvantages of Old Age
Question: As we grow old, we experience more suffering of old age, sickness, inconveniences or discomfort. All these are due to longevity (long life). So, what are the advantages and disadvantages of longevity? Answer: In the first Noble Truth i.e. the Truth of Suffering, the Buddha expounded the various types of dukkha (unsatisfactoriness or suffering) that we all experience in our daily life.

Jætipi dukkhæ or birth is suffering. Jaræpi dukkhæ or aging is suffering. Mara a pi dukkha or death is suffering. Vyædhipi dukkho or illness is suffering. Appiyehi sampayogo dukkho or associating with persons
who are not conducive to our nature or comfort is suffering. Piyehi vippayogo dukkho or to be separated from persons or friends whom we like is suffering. Yampiccha na labhati tampi dukkha or to hanker after something that we cannot obtain is also suffering. Finally, the Buddha concisely formulated that “Sa³khittena Pañcupædænakkhandhæ dukkhæ”, the five aggregates of clinging is suffering. We experience all kinds of suffering because we cling to the five aggregates as “I” and “mine”. Clinging constitutes pain and suffering. Strictly speaking, the five aggregates consist of one material group and four mental groups. That is why, in meditation, we have to contemplate the five aggregates as meditation objects.


Questions And Answers Series 1 This body is impermanent and is subject to suffering and sickness. This body is prone to assault and physical injuries. We can meet with accident or diseases that even medical science is at a loss to give ideal treatment. In spite of this, there are also advantages of longevity. The advantages of longevity are that we can extract the four kinds of essence from the present life. 1) Dæna essence from one’s possessions The first essence we can extract is from one’s possession or wealth. Everybody is striving day in, day out, from morning to night to gain prosperity and wealth. If we do not keep well this prosperity and wealth, they are prone to destruction by five enemies (water, fire, tyrants, robbers, unscrupulous heirs) and are impermanent. Just like if a house is on fire, we salvage the most precious things that are beneficial to us. Before we run, we pick the best that is advantageous to us. These inanimate properties are prone to destruction. But we can use the inanimate property to do dæna (charity or generosity). It is like putting it in the saving bank to gain future interest or benefits. 2) Søla essence from the body Our body is prone to diseases and decay. So, we must choose to salvage the best from this body by doing good deeds and observing søla (morality). By observing søla means prevent from wrongful actions and speech and try our best to do meritorious deeds. 3) Bhævanæ essence from the mind This body is just mind and matter or Næma and rupa. Næma is subject to arising and passing away. As mentioned just now, from rþpa (body) we can extract søla (morality). Now, from Næma (mind) we can extract Bhævanæ (mental cultivation). 15

Advantages and Disadvantages of Old Age There are two types of Bhævanæ or meditation: Samatha Bhævanæ (concentration meditation) and Vipassanæ Bhævanæ (insight meditation). By Bhævanæ meditation, we put our mind on the meditation object. From this impermanent mind that is passing away from moment to moment, the Buddha said we must extract the essence from the mind by noting the arising and passing away of the Næma.

Nibbæna 4) Nibbæna essence from Sæsanæ (Buddha’s dispensation) We cherish and nourish the body. Every morning, we clean and wash the body. We take a lot of trouble to keep the body in good shape. But when the so-called jøvita (life span) is spent, the constituents of life, Næma and Rþpa will also dissolve.
The Buddha taught eighty-four thousand things or dhamma themes during his 45 years of ministry according to the Theravæda Buddhist tradition. This is recorded in the Tipi¥aka. The main essence has only one taste. Just like the water in the ocean, there is only one taste, the taste of salt. The essence of the eighty-four thousand things that the Buddha taught is vimutti-rasa or deliverance from sa særic suffering. The Buddha’s teachings are like a mountain full of precious stones. So one has the option to choose to be free from the four woeful states, gain human existence, gain heavenly existence or gain liberation (Nibbæna). The advantages of this life as a human being is that we can extract these four essences from whatever we possess from this life. With long life, we have a chance to make good for deliverance. We need longevity, if we live long, we can practise wholesome or good deeds. When a person is sick, he needs to seek help. If we die young, we do not have a chance to practise Dhamma. But with a long life one may suffer from aging, sickness etc.


Questions And Answers Series 1 Just like a house on fire, we salvage the most precious things from destruction. Out of this suffering long life, we can practise good actions to support us in our strive for deliverance from suffering of sa særic existence.


Advantages and Disadvantages of Old Age


Questions And Answers Series 1


The Meaning of Renunciation

Renunciation The Meaning of Renunciation (Nekkhamma)
The Pæ¹i word “Nekkhamma” – is translated into English as renunciation. It means “to renounce” and in simple usage, we use it as “letting go. So here it means “letting go of craving or attachment”. Craving in Pæ¹i is ta¼hæ. When this craving becomes very strong, then you hold on or cling to an object very firmly without letting go. Grasping or clinging in Pæ¹i is Upædæna. The opposite of this is Nekkhamma or letting go of this craving and clinging. There are four types of upædæna. These are: 1. Sensuous clinging (kæmupædæna) 2. Clinging to views (ditthupædæna) 3. Clinging to rites and rituals (sølabbatupædæna) 4. Clinging to personality belief (attavædupædæna) i) Sensuous Clinging (kæmupædæna)

Kæmupædæna is made up of 2 words, that is kæma + upædæna; “kæma” means sense object or sense pleasure. These sense objects are called kæmagu¼a because they give sensual
pleasure.. Strong attachment to sense pleasures or sense objects is kæmupædæna. Like with the eye – want to see pleasurable, pleasant sights. Then with the ear – want to hear and then to enjoy and delight in pleasant sounds. Then with the nose – want to enjoy good scents, with the tongue – to enjoy good tastes, and with the body – to enjoy tactile impressions. As such, letting go of these kæmupædæna is one of the nekkhamma.


Questions And Answers Series 1 ii) Clinging to views (di¥¥hupædæna)

Ditthi is wrong view, such as what is Anicca (impermanent) we understand or take as permanent, what is Dukkha (unsatisfactoriness) we take as sukha (pleasure), what is Asubha (loathsome) we consider as subha (beautiful). These
are the wrong views according to our spiritual development and spiritual practice. We are strongly conditioned from our past existences to grasp at these views very strongly and firmly. So to let go of them, we need to practise renunciation or Nekkhamma Pæramø. iii) Clinging to rites and rituals (sølabbatupædæna) During the Buddha’s time in India, there were many people practising some forms of rites or rituals with the view that these would lead them to deliverance. It was quite a common practice in India at that time. For example some people would go to bathe in the Yamunæ river or some other rivers. Even if you were an assassin or you had done wrong, you could become pure simply by doing that. Without practising any moral virtues, they could just go in the river and bathe to wash away their sins. Some were behaving like cows, some were behaving like dogs, believing that through such practices they could gain deliverance from the sa særic suffering or gain some heavenly bliss. They would walk on all fours like dogs and eat like dogs. Or they made some fire to offer something to their god in heaven. All these kinds of wrong practices with the aim of achieving some deliverance from suffering and gaining some heavenly bliss are called rites and rituals. To let go of these rites and rituals is the second Nekkhamma Pæramø. 21

The Meaning of Renunciation

iv) Clinging to personality (atta) (attavædupædæna)

Attavæda means personality-belief or ego-belief. What is
evident in this being that we call a human or a person, is a psycho-physical complex, commonly called Næma-Rþpa or mind and matter. Sometimes the Buddha, according to the maturity of his audience would elaborate mind or Næma into four categories, so with rþpa, a being is made up of five aggregates (pañcakkhandhæ). Pañca means five, khandhæ means aggregate. Pañcupædænakkhandhæ, these five aggregates we cling to or grasp as “I” or “mine” and that is why it is called Pañcupædænakkhandhæ, the five aggregates of clinging. We cling to this body as “I” or “mine”, and our memory, or feelings, or sensations as “I am feeling”, “my sensation”, “my memory”. All these are mind-and-matter, or the five aggregates, but we cling to them as “I’ or “mine”. And that is what is meant by attavædupædæna, the clinging, the grasping or firmly holding to the atta (self). What is in ultimate reality is just Næma and Rþpa but not “I” or “mine”. So why and how are we to let go or to renounce the grasping as this is the second Noble Truth of the cause of the suffering. The first one is the Noble Truth of Suffering, Clinging or grasping to these sense objects or pleasures are the causes of suffering. So we have to practise the renunciation or Nekkhamma Pæramø from time to time, and if possible, completely overcome them. First we try to suppress the gross form of clinging and gradually to eradicate it completely. This is the first type of Nekkhamma, we have to practise letting go of sensual objects. That is why during a meditation retreat yogis are required to observe eight precepts because it is part of the


Questions And Answers Series 1 Noble Eightfold Path training. This training has three parts. They are Søla (morality), Samædhi (concentration) and Paññæ (wisdom). The morality group or Søla Magga³ga has right speech (Sammæ Væcæ), right action (Sammæ Kammanta) and right livelihood (Sammæ Æjøva). By observing Søla Magga³ga we are practising this renunciation of sense objects and sense pleasures and fulfilling the training of Søla Maggangæ (morality group). This upædæna (clinging) to some objects has three levels. One is latent level, the second is obsessive level and the third one is transgression level. How to let go of them? i. By carrying out the basic practice of søla (moral virtue) or dæna (generosity), we will renounce and let go of the transgression level. ii. By practising samædhi or concentration is letting go of the obsessive stage, that means just suppressing mental defilements. iii. By practising Vipassanæ Bhævanæ, or insight meditation, one can completely renounce, “let go” or annihilate even the latent defilements.


The Meaning of Renunciation


Questions And Answers Series 1


Dealing with Pain

Dealing with Pain
Question: When noting the sound as “hearing, hearing”, it is easy to see the hearing passing away (one sound after the other). When noting the sensations like pain, hardness, softness, heat and cold, especially pain, it lasts long and does not disappear easily. In that case, how does one see the impermanent characteristics of the object? Answer: If you mindfully watch the pain, though the pain has not disappeared, it would have changed. Nothing in this world is constant or permanent. The Buddha once said “Ya kiñci samudayadhamma sabbanta nirodhadhammanti”. “In this world, anything that arises will pass away immediately. ” The only thing is for us to see it. In Vipassanæ meditation, we have to note all phenomena. Regarding the above question, pain can change in three ways. The first way: Change in its intensity When noting the pain, the mild pain does not disappear, it gets stronger and stronger. Or stronger pain will fade away. Or it does not fade away nor disappear, but it changes in its intensity. The second way: Change in its character It starts with a sharp pain or a penetrating pain. As you go on noting, the pain will change in its character, maybe to hardness, to heat and so on. The third way: Change in the site The site of the pain will change. At first the yogi notes the pain in the back (i.e. back pain). While noting the pain, it shifts to the neck, like stiffness. Or now there is the feeling of


Questions And Answers Series 1 hardness at the buttocks or pain at the ankle. That means the site of the pain has changed. Anything that changes is impermanent. Because of impermanence, it changes. By observing and realising the change, we can realise aniccanuppasanæ ñæ a (the perception of impermanence). That is how we can realise Anicca (impermanence), Dukkha (unsatisfactoriness) and Anatta (non-self). PATIENCE It is easy to see the change in the phenomena, especially when one is noting unpleasant sensations. Please be patient. As the saying goes, “Patience leads to Nibbæna”. When noting the pain, one needs to have patience with the pain. When facing any unpleasant experience (this includes pain), our inherent tendencies are usually wanting to push it away and wishing it will disappear. That is a mistake for a meditator to do in intensive meditation. Pain is our teacher. When we note the pain, note with the idea of understanding the pain, just like taking a lesson. Or like when we are doing a research. We have to study from all angles and get all the information from the subject. If you can note the pain patiently, you can see that the pain will change in the three ways as explained just now. You can clearly see that it will change in its intensity, character and site. By understanding these changes, the mind realises the impermanent characteristics of the pain. Unpleasant sensations arise due to the imbalance of the Four Great Elements (Mahæ Bhþta) (earth, water, fire, wind) that


Dealing with Pain constitute our physical bodies. They are not in proper proportion. As such, sensations like heat, hardness, softness or pain could arise in the body. So, in the beginning of the meditation practice, a yogi should be patient with the pain. TWO STRATEGIES TO DEAL WITH PAIN A meditator can choose between two strategies to deal with the pain or sensation. The first method is the confrontation method. It means to take up the pain as a meditation object method. and watch it patiently (as mentioned just now) in order to understand the characteristics of pain. The second method is to change the meditation object to a stronger object. Of course, after some time when the pain is so excruciating and you have borne it to your utmost, you can adjust your position to ease the pain. However everything must be done mindfully. Start with the intention to change, note “intention to change, intention to change” and change the body posture slowly. Be aware of changing the posture and then how the pain fades away and the pain eases. In this way (by doing everything mindfully), your mindfulness and concentration are not disturbed. The Story On Applying The First Strategy During the Buddha’s time and at the beginning of Buddha Sasana, there was no proper meditation centre or monastery except for a few at Savatthi and Rajagaha. Most of the meditators, after taking meditation instructions from the Buddha, went for seclusion. They had to go to a few recommended places by the Buddha, like to the forest, go


Questions And Answers Series 1 under a big shady tree and far away from busy places like villages or towns. They had to go in groups. As such, a group of 30 monks, after taking up meditation instructions from the Buddha, went to a forest nearby a village. The village was the place where they could easily obtain alms food. They practise in that forest. Each night, as they were practising meditation, a big tiger came and attacked a monk from the back and took him away and ate him up. One day the elder monk (the senior monk, who is like a father to the other younger monks) said “Our population seems to decrease day by day. What is the matter?” The younger monks reported, “At every night time, a tiger comes to take away our brother bhikkhus.” It is said that though the monk was taken away by a tiger, this monk did not make any noise in order not to disturb the other bhikkhus who were meditating. Then the senior bhikkhu gave admonishment. “Once a bhikkhu is taken by a tiger, you must warn and shout for help. We will try to chase away the tiger.” That night, when the tiger came, the young victim monk made noise, “Oh venerable sirs, the tiger has come to take me away. May you chase after it and the tiger will run away. ” The Bengali tiger (Bangladesh tiger) is very big in size. When it takes away a human being, it is like a cat taking away a rat. When a tiger is eating a human being, it is afraid to see the face of the victim. So, usually it starts to eat from the foot of the human victim.


Dealing with Pain The tiger jumped from one hilltop to another so that the other bhikkhus could not follow him. Then, the tiger started to eat its victim. If you think of it, it was very painful for that bhikkhu as he was eaten alive. However, that bhikkhu took up the pain as the meditation object. He meditated on the pain and saw the characteristic of the changing nature of pain. It is recorded in the Tipi¥aka, when the tiger had eaten him up to the foot, he had gained the first enlightenment of Sotæpatti magga-phala. When the tiger had eaten him up to the thigh, he gained the second enlightenment of Sakadægæmi maggaphala. Finally, when the tiger had eaten him up at the heart and he was about to die, he gained Arahatship and became an arahant. This is the confrontation method (taking up the pain patiently and watching it as the object).

The Story On Applying The Second Strategy During the Buddha’s time, there were two brothers born of rich parents. When their parents passed away, they inherited the parents’ riches. They each shared half of the wealth. The elder one was a bachelor and the younger one was married. They stayed together and carried on the family business. The elder brother, probably because his parami was mature, handed over all his share of wealth to the younger brother and went to the village outskirts and was ordained as a monk. So, he renounced the worldly life and practised meditation. However the wife of the younger brother (i.e. his sister-inlaw) was tormented by greed. She thought, “if he is not


Questions And Answers Series 1 happy as a monk, one day he will return to the worldly life and we will have to give him back his share. ” Out of greed, the woman hired some thugs to kill the monk (the elder brother). On that night, the thugs came to catch the monk. Then the monk said, “Why do you catch me? I am a harmless person, I am just meditating.” The thugs replied, “Yes, we know. But your sister-in-law wants to kill you, we are paid to kill you. “The monk requested of them, “Give me one night to meditate as I have not achieved anything yet. Please give me a chance.” The thugs said “We cannot wait the whole night. If you run away, we will miss the opportunity of getting the money from your sister-in-law.” There was a big rock near the monk. He lifted up the rock and smashed both of his legs with this rock. He said, “This is my guarantee that I will not run away as I cannot run away now”. Both legs were crushed by his own effort. The thugs gave him permission to meditate. They waited nearby. The pains from his two broken legs (i.e. physical injury) were excruciatingly painful. He could not note the pain and he could not meditate. Later, he thought of his purity of virtue. He reflected that from the time he was ordained as a monk, he had stainless purity of virtue and observance of the Pætimokkha. Then Pøti (rapture) arose in him. He took up Pøti as the meditation object. Pøti is one of the Jhænic factors and it appears at the access concentration (upacæra samædhi). He took up Pøti and ignored the pain. Contemplating on Pøti, he became an arahant. Next morning when the thugs came to kill him, he was already an arahant. 31

Dealing with Pain

This is the second strategy (substitution of the meditation object). Here this monk substituted the pain with the rapture.

Conclusion Though the pain has not disappeared, you can use the first strategy, the confrontational method. You can take it up as object of meditation and note it patiently, just like the bhikkhu in the first story. As the saying goes, “Patience leads to the Nibbæna. ” However, if the pain is excruciatingly long, you ignore it and choose any other prominent objects that you can meditate on. Like the second story, the monk with both broken legs was facing the physical injury pain. The pain was very excruciating and very long. It would not disappear in a short while. This is the second strategy, to substitute the pain with another object.


Questions &Answers – Series 1


Difference between Samatha and Vipassanæ

Difference between Samatha and Vipassanæ
Most meditators are still confused and they do not have a clear understanding about the differences between Samatha Bhævanæ and this Vipassanæ Bhævanæ. There are two types of meditation. One is called Samatha Bhævanæ. Samatha (in Pæ¹i) means tranquility or serenity or concentration or calm meditation. The main emphasis of the practice is to develop concentration. Please remember that. However, Vipassanæ Bhævanæ which is unique to the Buddha’s teaching, is to develop wisdom. These two are not the same and one must have a clear understanding of their differences. Many meditators do not clearly understand what they are practising. The practice of Samatha Bhævanæ is universal and common all over the world. It is not only a religious practice. Some psychiatrists also use some form of tranquility meditation to heal patients. Some practise Samatha Bhævanæ for health reasons. Thus Samatha meditation is a common practice. What is unique to the Buddha’s teaching is this Vipassanæ Bhævanæ or insight meditation. We practise it to develop wisdom. What is this wisdom? Wisdom to realise the Four Noble Truths or to gain enlightenment. In order to have a clear understanding of the differences between the two types of meditation, we need to study, compare and contrast between these two. In Samatha Bhævanæ, being able to establish concentration is the main emphasis. The object of meditation is conceptual i.e. it is using concepts as objects of meditation. This is the

Samatha Bhævanæ


Questions &Answers – Series 1 first important point. The second important point is that it is a single object meditation. The Buddha prescribed 40 subjects or 40 objects which can be taken as an object in Samatha meditation. (a) Ten types of Kasi¼a object Earth, water, fire, wind Colour (blue, yellow, red, white) Ækæsa (space) and Æloka(light) (b) Ten types of Asubha (dead body contemplation) Note: What is meant here, are ten stages of decomposition of a corpse, not ten dead bodies. (c ) Ten types of Anussati Bhævanæ (reflection or recollection meditation) (d) Ten others: 4 Arþpa Jhæna 4 Brahma vihæra Æhære Pa¥ikkula Saññæ (Loathesomeness of Food) Catudhætu Vavatthæna (Mahæ Bhþta or 4 great elements contemplation) Altogether there are 40 subjects and they later arise as conceptual objects to be meditated on. So Samatha meditation uses conceptual object and only single object for meditation. Supposing a person uses the red colour kasi¼a for meditation. He uses a disc which is painted in red. He looks at the disc with open eyes seeing ‘red’..’red’..’red’. After some time, even when he closes his eyes, the image of the disc will remain in his mind. This is called conceptual image. Then he goes and sits down in a secluded corner and continues to meditate on the conceptual image watching ‘red’..’red’.. nothing but ‘red’. Remember this is a single object meditation.


Difference between Samatha and Vipassanæ

So while looking “red’..’red’.. if he feels pain, he ignores it, if he hears something, he ignores it. In fact everything must be ignored. He just notices ‘red’..’red’ nothing else but ‘red’. This is how Samatha meditation should be practised to make the mind be one pointed. One pointed means focusing on one single object so that the mind is concentrated into a single object. This is how the object has to be contemplated. Please remember that to practise Samatha Bhævanæ or tranquility meditation, you can choose one of the 40 objects. Though you start with the real object, you have to change to the conceptual image later on. Please remember this mechanism. Now let us study about Vipassanæ Bhævanæ.

Vipassanæ Bhævanæ Vipassanæ Bhævanæ or insight meditation emphasises on the
development of wisdom. Wisdom means the realisation of the Four Noble Truths. The object of meditation is Paramattha Dhamma ie the truth of reality or ultimate reality. In Abdhidhamma, there are just four ultimate realities. They are 1. Rþpa (matter) 2. Citta (mind) 3. Cetasika (mental concommitants)

4. Nibbæna

Nibbæna cannot be taken as an object of meditation. It is the result of our meditation. When we realise Nibbæna, magga citta (the path consciousness) will take Nibbæna as its object and we realise Nibbæna at that time.
For practical purpose of meditation, we have to take only three ultimate realities as object of meditation. These three Ultimate realities are Rþpa (matter), Citta (mind) and


Questions &Answers – Series 1

Cetasika (mental concommitants). These three are to be taken
as objects of meditation and we have to contemplate on them. A Comparative Study Between Vipassanæ Bhævanæ and

Samatha Bhævanæ Samatha Bhævanæ takes conceptual image as the object of
meditation. It is also a single object meditation. In Vipassanæ Bhævanæ or insight meditation, the ultimate realities of Rþpa (matter), citta (mind) and cetasika (mind concommitants) are the objects of meditation. So it has multiple objects. For example, you begin by noting the rising and falling of the abdomen. When you hear something, you have to note “hearing …hearing..”. When sensation like pain, ache, stinging, numbness, stiffness arises, you have to take it up as your object and note. When thoughts arise, you have to note the thoughts. Hence Vipassanæ Bhævanæ uses multiple objects and the objects are all ultimate realities and not concepts. At the beginning, we use conventional terms like “rising, falling” or “sitting, touching” but what we are really contemplating on is Paramattha Dhamma (ultimate realities).

In brief, a being is made up of two parts namely the physical body which is Rþpa and the mind which is Næma or to elaborate, a being is made up of the Pañcupædænakkhandhæ (5 groups of clinging or 5 aggregates of clinging). The truth of the ultimate reality is that a person or a being is just a psychophysical complex, a compound of mind and matter or 5 aggregates which we attach to and grasp as “I”, “mine”. That is why they are called Pañcupædænakkhandhæ in Pæ¹i. (Pañca means 5, upædæna means clinging, khandhæ means aggregates). It is the 5 aggregates of clinging.


Difference between Samatha and Vipassanæ We cling to these 5 aggregates as “I” and “Mine”. That is why we have to take up these 5 aggregates (or briefly just mind and matter) as meditation objects and we have to contemplate on them so as to understand with clear comprehension (Sampajañña). The Buddha gave 3 criteria for a meditator to exert on in Ætæpi, meditation. “Ætæpi, Sampajæno, Satimæ”. Ætæpi means you must make strenuous effort to be mindful. You make effort to be mindful of your object in order to have Sampajañña (clear comprehension) of your object. In clear comprehension, you observe and understand the 3 characteristics (impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, non-self) of the object that you are watching. So, the object of meditation in Vipassanæ Bhævanæ (Insight meditation) is the ultimate realities that constitute a being either briefly just mind and matter (Næma and Rþpa) or 5 aggregates of clinging. In Summary: A comparative study to clearly understand the distinguishing characteristics between the 2 types of meditation.

Main emphasis Object of meditation Type of object Existing period To develop wisdom Multiple objects Ultimate truth (matter, mind, mental concommitants) Only in Buddha Sæsana time (Buddha ‘s dispensation time)

To develop concentration Single object Concept (Paññatti) Anytime, even outside Buddha Sæsana.In other religions too



Differences between Mindfulness and Concentration

indfulness Differences between Mindfulness and Concentration
Question 1: What are the salient differences between mindfulness and concentration? Answer: First, let us understand the meaning of mindfulness (Sati) and concentration (samædhi). It is important to understand them as most meditators are still confused between these two factors. Mindfulness (Sati) Mindfulness is Sati in Pæ¹i language. It is fully active to penetrate the object, or mind is full in its awareness of the object that it is watching. Another Pæ¹i word for mindfulness is Appamæda. ‘A’ is a negative prefix; pamæda means forgetfulness or heedlessness. So, Appamæda means vigilant mindfulness or awareness. To be mindful means one is vigilant, to be aware of its object. It also means the mind is fully understanding or comprehending its object. Mindfulness is important for the Vipassanæ practice. However, nowadays, lots of writers describe concentration or mindfulness indiscriminately, so their readers are usually confused. First of all, we have to ask ourselves. What is the purpose of mindfulness? In the introduction of Mahæ Satipa hæna Sutta, the Buddha has expounded these Pæ¹i words “Ætæpi, Sampajæno, Satimæ”. Ætæpi means strenuous effort. Satimæ means to be mindful, to be fully aware and to establish mindfulness with strong effort. What is the purpose of mindfulness? The purpose is to have sampajæno. Sampajæno means clear comprehension of the object. 40

Questions &Answers – Series 1 Hence, a meditator should make strenuous effort (ætæpi) to be mindfully aware (Sati) to observe the object. The purpose of mindfulness (Sati) is to have sampajæno, which means to clearly comprehend your object of noting. This is the salient feature of mindfulness. What is Samædhi or concentration? Technically it is called Ekaggatæ. Eka means one and aggata means one-pointedness of the mind or the fixedness of mind. It means the mind is fixed on a single object so that the mind can become tranquil and calm. At first, the meditator should anchor the mind on the meditating object to gain mindfulness, which can be fully aware of all the characteristics of the object. What is the purpose of concentration? Its purpose is to suppress the niværa as (hindrances). At the beginning of your meditation and if your meditation is not fully mature, you will be distracted by the niværa as. As the niværa as obstruct the progress of the meditation, that’s why, they are called impediments or obstructions. Noble Eightfold Path Mindfulness is the active part and working part. Mindfulness is the cause and the concentration follows later as the result. The noble Eightfold path is: 1. Sammæ di hi (right view) 2. Sammæ sa³kappa (right thought or right inclination) 3. Sammæ væcæ (right speech) 4. Sammæ kammanta (right action) 5. Sammæ æjøva (right livelihood) 6. Sammæ væyæma (right effort) 7. Sammæ sati (right mindfulness) 8. Sammæ samædhi (right concentration)



Differences between Mindfulness and Concentration When we analyse the Noble Eightfold Path, we will find that , mindfulness (Sammæ Sati) is placed in a position before concentration (Sammæ samædhi). In meditation, only when you are mindful can you develop concentration. When you can mindfully focus on the object, then the concentration will arise. Bojjha³ (Seven Bojjha³ga (Seven Factors Of Enlightenment) Bojjha³ga consists of the seven factors of enlightenment. They are : 1。Sati (Mindfulness) 2。Dhamma Vicaya (Investigation of Dhamma) 3。Viriya (Effort) 4。Pøti (Joy) 5。Passaddhi (Tranquility) 6。Samædhi (Concentration) 7。Upekkhæ (Equanimity) We can see find that mindfulness (Sati) is the first one on the list. It is also the main active part and working factor of Bojjha³ga. The concentration that develops later is the result of that Sati. As such, the mindfulness is always first and the concentration comes afterwards. For example, in the modern education system, the students have to attend primary school and then secondary school. Then they go to college or university for further education. At the end of all the studies, they will obtain some educational certificates. So also in meditation, we need to work with mindfulness all the time for concentration to arise later.


Questions &Answers – Series 1 Five Powers (Bala) Then you study about Bodhipakkhiya-dhamma. odhipakkhiyaodhipakkhiya hamma. Boddhipakkhiya means some enlightenment factors. There are five faculties or five powers (bala) of the mind. These are: 1. Saddhæ (faith) 2. Viriya (effort) 3. Sati (mindfulness) 4. Samædhi (concentration) 5. Paññæ (wisdom) In Samatha or Vipassanæ or any type of meditation, a meditator must develop these five faculties or five powers (bala) of the mind. The three former factors of Saddhæ (faith), Viriya (effort) and Sati (mindfulness) are the working factors. The latter two factors of samædhi (concentration) and paññæ (wisdom) will arise as a result of this mindfulness. That is why it is important to be always mindful. In every Buddha teaching, the Buddha always expounds mindfulness first, then concentration. We have to develop mindfulness first in order to obtain concentration. Depending on mindfulness and concentration, only then will wisdom (pañña) arise. These five faculties or five powers must be developed in a well-balanced manner. Out of these five faculties, the first pair of saddhæ (faith) and pañña (wisdom) must be wellbalanced. If one of the factors is in excess and not in balance, then it is not conducive for the progress of the meditation. The second pair is viriya (effort) and samædhi (concentration). They must also be well-balanced. If viriya (effort) is in excess, the meditator will become restless. Uddhacca-kukkucca niværa a (restlessness and worry 43

Differences between Mindfulness and Concentration hindrance) has arisen. If samædhi (concentration) is more than effort, then thøna-middha (sloth-torpor) hindrance will ) arise. That is why during interviews, many meditators report that the mind is murky and cannot see the object clearly. They feel tension, see nothing or feel empty. If the mind cannot see the object clearly, then no wisdom will arise in this Vipassanæ practice. So these two pairs of faculties must be balanced. Whereas Sati or mindfulness is never in excess, it is always lacking. That is why we emphasise Sati (mindfulness) in this Vipassanæ Bhævanæ (insight meditation). If the mindfulness is well-established, then the concentration will also be developed later. As your duty is to eat nutrient food, you do not need to worry about gaining energy. You will certainly get energy from the food. So when your mindfulness is incessantly developed, the concentration will arise by itself. However, as mentioned earlier, in any type of meditation, a meditator must also develop these five faculties. They must begin with mindfulness. The five Jhæna factors 1. Vitakka - initial application 2. Vicæra- sustained application 3. Pøti- rapture /joy 4. Sukha- happiness 5. Ekaggatæ- one-pointedness of the mind or Concentration. In these five jhænic factors too, the mindfulness is first and the concentration comes last.


Questions &Answers – Series 1 Initial application (vitakka) means focusing the mind on your object or applying the mind on the object. Sustained application (vicæra) means continuing to focus the attention towards your object in order to know its characteristic. As such, vitakka and vicæra are similar to the mindfulness in the Vipassanæ Bhævanæ. Mindfulness means the mind can focus and be aware of the object. The commentary gives a bee and flower simile for vitakka and vicæra. Vitakka (initial application) is described as a bee flying down towards a flower. Vicæra (sustained application) means the bee hovering above the flower so that it can suck its nectar. So initial application (vitakka) and sustained application (vicæra) is mindfulness (Sati). First we begin with mindfulness. When the mind is fully observing, fully understanding and clearly comprehending the object, then other jhænic factors like Pøti (rapture) and sukha (happiness) will arise. This leads to the arising of the last jhænic factor, ekaggatæ (concentration). In conclusion, mindfulness in the form of vitakka and vicæra, has to be developed first, then ekaggatæ (concentration) will appear later. However, when the mind is actively investigating, it is not conducive to develop deeper concentration or the absorption concentration (appanæ samædhi). That is why these jhænic factors are to be eliminated one by one. The method is done by making a determination and reflecting of the faults of these vitakka and vicæra. One has to reflect when the mind is active with vitakka and vicæra, and this state of mind is not conducive to calmness of ekaggatæ. So, the meditator starts to eliminate vitakka and 45

Differences between Mindfulness and Concentration

vicæra from his mind. Then, Pøti (rapture) i.e. an emotional excitement, is to be abandoned. Even sukha (happiness) has to be eliminated., [Sukha is actually a feeling and it is not as exciting as Pøti]. However in order to develop the fourth jhæna, this sukha has also to be eliminated. In the fourth jhæna, the sukha is substituted by upekkhæ (equanimity).
Hence, from the above, we know that we have to develop these different jhænic factors. However most people seldom mention about the importance of mindfulness. They only stress on the importance of concentration regardless of whatever type of meditation they are practising. The Objective of Meditation What is the objective of meditation? If our objective is to ? realise Nibbæna (deliverance from all suffering), then with this aim in the mind, we will make effort to be mindful. Please remember these Pæ¹i words as recorded in the Mahæ Satipa hæna Sutta: “ætæpi, sampajæno, satimæ”. Ætæpi: ardently make effort Satimæ: to be mindful. Sampajæno: clear comprehension What is the purpose of mindfulness? The answer is to have Sampajæno, clearly comprehend your object. That is why we need to be mindful or to understand the things as they are (yathæbhþta). If our goal is to gain Nibbæna, then we must attain enlightenment. However, a lot of people explain enlightenment in their own ways. So, in any type of meditation, not only in our Vipassanæ Bhævanæ, we need to develop mindfulness first.


Questions &Answers – Series 1

In Samatha practice, the main objective is to develop concentration. Whereas in Vipassanæ practice, the main objective is to develop wisdom. In order to develop wisdom, the mind must be fully active, fully observing, fully collecting all the possible knowledge you can get from the object. Hence, in Vipassanæ Bhævanæ it is more essential to be mindful. In Vipassanæ meditation, we are to observe our object in order to have yathæbhþta (to understand things as they really are). are Then only can we really understand the Four Noble Truths. Without understanding the Four Noble Truths, no one can attain enlightenment (Nibbæna). Enlightenment At that time of enlightenment, one will realise the Four Noble Truths. The Four Noble Truths are : 1. Dukkha Sacca (the Noble truth of suffering/ unsatisfactoriness) 2. Samudaya Sacca (the Noble truth of the cause of suffering) 3. Nirodha Sacca (the Noble truth of the cessation of suffering 4. Magga Sacca (the Noble Truth of the path leading to the cessation of the suffering).

Sampajæno (clear comprehension) means to fully understand
the Four Noble Truths, not just theoretical knowing. The first Noble Truth (Dukkha Sacca) must be firmly realised; the second Noble Truth (Samudaya Sacca) must be eliminated; the third Noble Truth (Nirodha Sacca) or Nibbæna must be realised. Through developing the fourth Noble Truth (Magga Sacca), one will realise Nibbæna. 47

Differences between Mindfulness and Concentration So, at the time of first enlightenment, through Sotæpatti magga-phala ñæ a, one will realise the Four Noble Truths. At the time of enlightenment, the mind takes Nibbæna as its object. For any mind (citta) to arise, the mind must have an object. Without an object, no mind can arise. This is the nature of the mind. So at the time of enlightenment, the three events will occur. 1. Realization of the Four Noble Truths 2. Taking Nibbæna as object 3. Eradication of kilesas (defilements) by magga citta. As such, at the time of enlightenment, it is not falling asleep or unconsciousness or mind feeling blank. Actually, the mind is actively taking Nibbæna as its object and the mind is in full awareness. The magga citta will eradicate some kilesas(defilements). Then at the fourth stage of enlightenment, by the arahatta magga-phala citta, all the defilements will be eradicated. Five aggregates All Vipassanæ meditation must rely on

Dhammacakkappava¥¥hæna Sutta (The Turning of the Wheel
Discourse) for the theoretical guidance. In this sutta and in Dukkha Sacca section (the Noble Truth of suffering), the Buddha has expounded various types of dukkha (suffering or unsatisfactoriness). ‘Birth is suffering, aging is suffering, sickness is suffering, death is suffering, to be separated from the loved one is suffering, to be associated with unpleasant object or person is suffering, not getting what one wishes, getting what one does not wish is suffering’ In our lives, we surely encounter the above mentioned sufferings. These gross sufferings are easily understood. Then, the Buddha made a conclusion, “Sa³khittena


Questions &Answers – Series 1

Pañcupædænakkhandhæ dukkhæ” or “ Briefly speaking, the
five aggregates of clinging is suffering’. The five aggregates are: 1.Rþpakkhanda i.e. physical body or material aggregate 2.Vedanækkhanda i.e. feeling/sensation aggregate 3. Saññækkhanda“ i.e. perception aggregate 4. Sa³khærakkhanda i.e. mental formation aggregate or volition 5.Viññæ akkhanda i.e. consciousness aggregate Through these five aggregates of clinging, we would encounter various unwanted experiences in life. We would have both physical and mental sufferings and face unsatisfactoriness in life. So the five aggregates are the cause of all sufferings.

Paramattha Dhamma (Ultimate Reality) When practising Vipassanæ meditation, we must be mindful, fully aware and actively watching the five aggregates We aggregates. have to understand its characteristics and its nature of arising and passing away.
We should not just simply note as ‘rising, falling’ or ‘sitting, touching’ or noting the foot steps. We must be fully mindful and penetrate our objects of meditation. That is clear comprehension (sampajæno) to see the ultimate reality of the object and yathæbhþta (to understand things as they really are). This is real mindfulness. The object of meditation has three characteristics or in other words, there are 3 ways to observe the object.

Lakkha¼æ 1. Sabhæva Lakkha¼æ (natural characteristics) For example, we note this Rþpakkhanda (material aggregate) as ‘rising, falling’ or ‘sitting, touching’. This body

Differences between Mindfulness and Concentration is composed of four great elements, Mahæ Bhþta. They are pathavø dhætu (earth element), æpo dhætu (water element), tejo dhætu (heat element), and væyo dhætu (wind element). Each element has its own natural characteristics. The earth element has solidity. Its characteristics are hardness, softness, lightness, heaviness, rough, smooth. The characteristics of water element are liquidity and cohesion. The characteristics of heat element are hot, warm and cold. The characteristic of wind element is supporting and movement. By clearly understanding the natural characteristics of each object, then we realise its second characteristic. 2. Sa³khata Lakkha¼æ (three phases of a moment) Lakkha¼æ Any phenomenon has three phases (Uppæda, ¿hiti, Bha³ga) or beginning phase, middle phase, ending phase. It means any phenomenon begins to appear, stays for a very short duration, then it will disappear by itself. For example when we are noting the sound, sound begins to appear (uppæda), then brief moment of hearing ( hiti), then no more sound (bha³ga). So, this is also the second method to observe the object of meditation. By understanding these two characteristics of the object, the meditator will realise the third characteristics of the object as follows. 3. Sæmañña Lakkha¼æ ( mañña Lakkha¼æ (Universal characteristics) You have seen the change in the object and recognise it as the nature of impermanence (Anicca). Anything that is impermanent is unsatisfactory (Dukkha). Anything that is impermanent and unsatisfactory cannot be ‘I’ or ‘mine’ or ‘ego’. It is Anatta (non-self). By clearly comprehending the


Questions &Answers – Series 1 object (Sampajæno), you will realise the Anicca, Dukkha and Anatta characteristics of the object. Conclusion As mentioned earlier, mindfulness means clearly understanding the three characteristics of the object. Even though concentration is important, but in Vipassanæ practice, concentration is not the predominant factor to begin with. In the five faculties (indriya) or five powers (bala), there are faith, effort, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom. These are like our hand with five fingers. All the fingers are necessary for the hand to function properly. If one finger is missing, we cannot do things in a normal way. That is why for the proper progress in meditation, we need to develop these five faculties in a balanced manner as well as other good qualities in meditation. For example, we need to develop mindfulness and concentration. However you cannot develop concentration without being mindful. That is why we need to put emphasis on mindfulness in Vipassanæ Bhævanæ. Concentration means the mind is fixed on a single point object, so the mind is non-mobile. This kind of mind cannot penetrate the object or cannot be fully aware of the object. So, we only need momentary concentration (kha ika samædhi) in Vipassanæ meditation. If you want to practise Samatha alone, of course you need strong concentration. You need to establish access concentration (upacæra samædhi) and then appanæ samædhi (absorption concentration). In Vipassanæ, even if you go into this appanæ samædhi, you must emerge from it. Emerge from it means you must eliminate that concentration (or the fixedness of the mind) so that the mind can clearly observe and study the object.


Differences between Mindfulness and Concentration

Question 2: Can mindfulness exist without concentration or can concentration exist without mindfulness?
Answer is no. According to Abhidhamma, no phenomenon can exist alone. They are called Sa³khæra (compounded or Sa³khæra conditioned phenomena). For example, the body is composed of four great elements (Earth, water, fire, wind). However according to Padhæna Padh way), method (predominant way) we can say ‘this is earth element’ or ‘this is water element’. Even the water element has the characteristics of the other three elements (earth, heat, wind). No single element can exist alone. They have to arise together (The Pæ¹i term for this is sahajæta or sampayutta). So also, the five aggregates (material, feeling, perception, mental formation, consciousness) have to arise together. They cannot exist alone by themselves. However at one time one aggregate is more prominent. So, we can say ‘now this is the feeling’, ‘now perception is recording information’ or ‘the volition is working now’. In the five aggregates, the feeling aggregate, perception aggregate and mental formations aggregate are called cetasikas (mental concommitants). These cetasikas accompany all the consciousness (viññæ a or citta). So cetasikas and citta cannot exist alone, they have to mutually depend on each other to exist and they also disappear at the same time. For example, the newspaper mentions that the Singapore Prime Minister will visit Malaysia. That doesn’t mean this Prime Minister will come alone. He will be accompanied by various people like his ministers, army generals and media


Questions &Answers – Series 1 people. As he is the main or prominent figure, the newspaper only mentions his name. In conclusion, by the padhæna method, we will say this is mindfulness or this is concentration. Actually mindfulness and concentration cannot exist without the other.





Appendix One:Mind-matter :
Conventional Ultimate truth concept (Paramattha) (Paññatti) )

Body /matter(Rþpa) þ -Earth (Pathavø) -Water (Æpo) -Fire (Tejo) -Wind (Væyo) Mind (Næma) æ -Feeling (Vedanæ) -Perception(Saññæ) -Mental formations (Sa³khæra) -Consciousness(Viñña¼a)

Sentient beings

Four Great Elements

Mental concommitants (cetasika) Mind(Citta)

Five aggregates(pañcupædænakkhandhæ) 1. Matter (Rþpa) 2. Feeling (Vedanæ) 3. Perception (Saññæ) 4. Mental formations (Sa³khæra) 5. Consciousness (Viññæ¼a)



Appendix 2:
Eements: Characteristics of Four Great Eements: 1. Earth (Pathavø): Hard, soft, rough, smooth, heavy, light 2. Water (Æpo) : Trickling (flowing), cohesion 3. Fire (Tejo) : Hot, warm, cold 4. Wind (Væyo) : Distension (supporting), motion Æyatana 12 Æyatana objects) (6 internal bases and corresponding 6 external objects) Internal External Medium Corresponding base Object Consciousness Eye Sight Light Seeing consciousness Ear Sound Space Hearing consciousness Nose Smell Wind Smelling consciousness Tongue Taste Water Tasting consciousness Body Tangible Touching object consciousness Mind dhamma Mind (mental consciousness objects)



Appendix 3: Summary of Four Foundations of Mindfulness (Satipa¥¥hæna)
the (1) Contemplation of the body (Kayænupassanæ) (a) Watching in-and-out breath (Ænæpæna) (b) The four postures (Iriyæpatha) (c) Mindfulness and clear awareness (Sampajæna) (d) Reflection on Repulsiveness (Pa¥ikkþla-manasikæra) (e) The four elements (Dhætu-manasikæra) (f) Cemetery Meditation (Navasøvathikæ) feelings (2) Contemplation of feelings (Vedanænupassanæ) (a) Pleasant (Sukha) (b) Unpleasant (Dukkha) (c) Neither pleasant nor unpleasant(Adukkhamasukha) mind (3) Contemplation of mind (Cittænupassanæ) (a) Lustful / Not Lustful (saræga/vøtaræga) (b) Hateful / Not Hateful (sadosa/vøtadosa) (c) Deluded / Not Deluded (samoha/vøtamoha) (d) Contracted / Distracted (sa³khitta/vikkhitta) (e) Developed / Undeveloped(mahaggata/amahaggata) (f) Surpassed / Unsurpassed (sa-uttara/anuttara) (g) Concentrated / Unconcentrated (samæhita/asamæhita) (h) Liberated / Unliberated (vimutta/avimutta) mind(Dhammænupassanæ) (4) Contemplation of mind-objects (Dhammænupassanæ) (a) The Five Hindrances (Nøvara¼a) (b) The Five Aggregates (Khandha) (c) The Six Sense Bases (Æyatana) (d) The Seven Factors of Enlightenment (Bojjha³ga) (e) The Four Noble Truths (Sacca) 57


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