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Science Project

Plant World

Tap Root
Plant name : Echinacea
Tap root - the taproot is the largest, most central, and most dominant root from
which other roots sprout laterally. Typically a taproot is somewhat straight and
very thick, is tapering in shape, and grows directly downward.

Fibrous Roots
Plant name: green onion
Fibrous roots - A fibrous root system is the opposite of a taproot system. It is usually
formed by thin, moderately branching roots growing from the stem. A fibrous root system is
universal in monocotyledonous plants and ferns.

Storage Roots
Plant Name: Sweet Potato
Storage roots - A tuberous root or storage root, is a modified lateral root,
enlarged to function as a storage organ. The enlarged area of the root-tuber, or
storage root, can be produced at the end or middle of a root or involve the entire
root.

Prop Roots
Plant name : Banyan tree
Prop roots : Here the plants have tap roots system. the horizontal branches of the stem of the plant gives
rise to aerial roots. These aerial roots hang vertically downwards. These roots on reaching the ground,
they grow and act like pillars. They provide mechanical support to the plant. Example Ficus bengalensis.

Stilt Roots
Plant name: Sugarcane

Stilt roots: These plants have their own roots system like in screwpine. They are not strongly anchored
tothe soil. Hence, these plant develop adventitious roots from near the base of the stem. These roots
grow obliquely downwards. They act like stilt and they provide mechanical support to the plant. Example
- the maize plant produces adventitious roots form the lower nodes which also act in a similar way.

Underground Stem Modification


The underground stems, by being situated below the surface of the soil, protect themselves against unfavourable
conditions of weather and the attack of animals, and serve as store houses for reserve food, and in vegetative
propagation. Their stem nature can be distinguished by the presence of nodes and internodes, scale leaves at
the nodes, axillary buds in axils of scale leaves and a terminal bud. Further, the anatomy of the underground
stem resembles that of an aerial stem. The underground stems are of four types namely rhizome, tuber, bulb

Tuber
Plant name: Potato

Rhizome
Plant Name: Ginger

Bulb
Plant Name: Onions
Leaves
Leaves can be in colors other than green, they can be red, yellow, purple or a combination of these colors. The
size of a leaf can so large that it can hide a cat or small that they can be hardly seen. They may be smooth or
covered with hair. There are a lot of different varieties of leaves; most of the leaves are green, flat and they carry
out food production for the plants. A few kinds of leaves are modified in such a way that they do not resemble the
typical leaf at all.

Simple leaf

Compound leaf

Leaf tendril
Plant Name: Glory Lily
Leaves are modified for support (tendrils,hooks)

Leaf spine
Plant Name : Holly tree - Leaves are modified for defense (spines),

Scale Leaves
Onion

Leaves are modified to minimize the amount of transpiration (scale leaves)


Hooks
In this the leaves are transformed into hooks and aid the plant to climb the
support. In Cats Claw Climber, the three terminal leaflets of the compound
leaves become rigid, curved and have claw like hooks.

Hooks
Plant Name: Cats Claw Climber

Leaf Modification by Insectivorous plants

Venus Flytrap Leaves are modified to trap prey (Insectivorous plants)

Picture of a bi-sexual flower (Hibiscus) showing petals, sepals, anther &


stigma