Development of a MATLAB/LabVIEW model for optimal tilt angle and
maximum power generation of a PV module

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Development of a MATLAB/LabVIEW model for optimal tilt angle and
maximum power generation of a PV module

© All Rights Reserved

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maximum power generation of a PV module

Siva RamaKrishna Madeti

Zameer Ahmad

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Uttarakhand, India

ramakrishna.iitroorkee@gmail.com

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Uttarakhand, India

conventional energy sources to the renewable one. Within the

available alternative sources photovoltaic energy shows huge

potential, contribution of solar energy generation has been

increasing very fast as a result cost of solar energy/kWh is falling

rapidly. Solar radiation is one of the important parameter, power

generation vary almost linearly with solar radiation incidence on

active area of PV module. Interception of irradiance on module

depends on two important factors tilt angle and position of modules

which effect the performance of both stand alone and grid

connected PV system. It becomes indispensable to install the PV

panel at optimal tilt angle to harness the maximum energy. In this

paper Matlab/Simulink model is developed to determine the optimal

monthly tilt angle to translate the monthly average global solar

radiation on a tilted surface and also a comprehensive literature

survey for evaluation of estimated models are investigated. The

solar radiation corresponding to optimal tilt angle is fed as input to

LabVIEW model for power generation and indicated on PV curves.

The variation of average monthly solar radiation with tilt angle

from 0 to 90 degree is demonstrated. The developed model can be

helpful to estimate the maximum power generation of a particular

place before installation of a PV system, to satisfy the load demand

since over sized system increases the cost linearly. The effect of

temperature is also incorporated in LabVIEW model.

in Figure. 1.

sunshine will be present will affect the capacity of solar energy

generation. Due to this uncertainty, accurate estimation of solar

radiation is very difficult [2]. In literature various estimation

methods are derived and listed in literature survey section. In this

paper an anisotropic model is developed in MATLAB

environment for estimation of average monthly global solar

irradiance on tilted surface at optimal tilt angle. The

corresponding power generation design was developed in

LabVIEW, using simulation interface toolkit to fetch the data

from Matlab. Firstly, a model is developed for translation of

horizontal solar radiation on tiled surface and determine the

optimal tilt angle at specific location (29.8749 N, 77.8899 E),

India. Then, monthly optimal tilt angle for a PV panel was

extracted using aforementioned model. Lastly the monthly

average global solar radiation on horizontal surface, solar

radiation on tilted surface and corresponding maximum power

generation were calculated and compared.

This paper is organized as follows: Section I presents the

Introduction, Literature survey was given in Section II, Section

III & IV mentioned the methodology (mathematical and

software model ), Section V & VI discusses simulation Results

and Conclusion respectively.

energy estimation, solar radiation.

I.

INTRODUCTION

energy sources to the renewable one. Within the available

alternative sources photovoltaic energy shows huge potential

contribution of solar energy generation has been increasing

very fast as a result cost of solar energy/kWh is falling rapidly,

the most dominant Distributed Generation (DG) source of new

generation power system. The annual solar energy reaching on

earths surface is 1.51018 kWh [1]. India lies in the northern

hemisphere at latitude 21 deg N and 78 deg E, which has huge

potential to generate electricity to supply the increasing energy

demand.

There are fluctuations in the solar radiation that travels from

extraterrestrial to earth surface due to scattering, absorption,

cloud cover, reflection, and climate result in a diffuse radiation

which is more dominant on tilted solar panel over direct and

reflected radiation. The net solar radiation will be given by

978-1-5090-0076-0/15 $31.00 2015 IEEE

DOI 10.1109/CICN.2015.336

1493

II.

LITERATURE SURVEY

unit area normal to outside atmosphere at mean sun-earth

distance.

solar radiation estimation and power generation, a number of

earlier works have been investigated and summarized in Table

I.

III.

C. Diffuse Radiation

Due to presence of dust particles, water vapors, gaseous

molecules, clouds in the atmosphere the solar radiation get

scattered, reflected and refracted before reaching to the earth

surface is called diffuse solar radiation and is more dominant

on tilted solar panel over direct and reflected radiation which

need more attention for estimation of power. As per the

literature the anisotropic is the more accurate method for solar

radiation estimation as part from aforementioned Rays model

is widely used [28], since it is precise and easy to use.

According to this model diffuse radiation H d can be

formulated as:

MATHEMATICAL MODELING

There are fluctuations in the solar radiation that travels from

extraterrestrial to earth surface due to scattering, absorption,

cloud cover, reflection, and climate result in a diffuse radiation

which is more dominant on tilted solar panel over direct and

reflected radiation. Thus its needs to be calculated the solar

radiation on tilted surface. The net solar radiation H will be

given by adding up all the three forms of solar radiations i.e.,

beam radiation Hb, Diffuse radiation Hd, and Reflected

radiation Hr. So, hourly collected soar radiation estimated over

tilted surface can be workout as follows:

3.108Ki3

Where Ki is ratio of global solar radiation to extra terrestrial

solar radiation which is also called clearness index.

= + +

Where Ht, Hd, H, Hb represents the global solar radiation in

tilted surface, diffuse radiation, global solar radiation in

horizontal surface and beam radiation respectively; R d, Rb, Rr

are termed as the diffuse, beam, and reflected radiation tilt

factor respectively; while represents reflectivity of ground.

The declination of the sun can be defined as the angle

ecliptic and equatorial plane. An approximate formula for

finding out declination of the sun is given by

360

= 23.45 sin

365

D. Beam Radiation

A part of global solar radiation reaches directly to earths

surface is termed as direct radiation or beam radiation. The

equation for calculating the beam radiation is given by

following particular equation.

Hb = (H Hd )

E. Ground Reflected Radiation

(284 + n)

and inclination of module; it is an isotropic and can be

computed as

path across the sky whereas working with hour angle is easy,

since it is measured in the plane of the "apparent" orbit of the

sun as it moves across the sky. On the horizontal surface the

sunrise or sunset hour angle (hs) depends on latitude of

particular place and declination angle,

hs = cos

1 [tan

(6)

=

Where Rr is reflected factor

=

1

2

tan]

F. Translation of Solar Radiation on Tilted Surface

While beam solar radiation measure on horizontal surface

can be easily converted into tilted surface by using simple

geometrical relations, but in case of diffuse radiation it is very

difficult to calculate, since these radiations are comes all

around the points of the sky. A number of earlier works have

been investigated and summarized in Table 1. Diffuse and

beam radiations have been translated into tilted surface by

models given in equation 1 and 2 respectively and monthly

variation of different components of solar radiations over

tilted surface is shown in the Figure 2.

termed as extra terrestrial solar radiation. The approximate

extraterrestrial irradiance is 1367 W/m2 with the variation of

3% as the earth rotates around the sun.

=

24

1 + 0.033

360

365

[ +

1494

1

0.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

4

3

2

1

5

Ht vs S

Hrt vs S

Hdt vs S

Hbt vs S

4

3

2

1

JUNE

7

Hbt vs S

Hdt vs S

Hrt vs S

Ht vs S

6

5

4

3

2

1

30

40

50

Tilt angle

60

70

80

90

10

20

30

40

50

Tilt Angle

60

70

80

0

0

90

30

40

50

Tilt Angle

60

70

80

90

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

Tilt Angle

60

70

80

90

10

20

30

40

50

Tilt Angle

OCT

6

Ht vs S

Hrt vs S

Hdt vs S

Hbt vs S

20

SEPT

AUG

6

Hbt vs S

Hdt vs S

Hrt vs S

Ht vs S

10

4

3

70

80

0

0

90

10

20

30

40

50

Tilt Angle

60

70

80

90

10

20

30

40

50

Tilt Angle

60

70

80

90

10

20

30

40

50

Tilt Angle

60

70

80

90

10

20

30

30

40

50

Tilt Angle

60

70

80

3.5

Hbt vs S

Hdt vs S

Hrt vs S

Ht vs S

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

90

40

50

Tllt Angle

60

70

80

90

DEC

20

4.5

Ht vs S

Hrt vs S

Hdt vs S

Hbt vs S

0.5

0

10

NOV

Hbt vs S

Hdt vs S

Hrt vs S

Ht vs S

60

20

10

JULY

Ht vs S

Hrt vs S

Hdt vs S

Hbt vs S

0.5

MAY

2

1.5

3.5

Ht vs S

Hrt vs S

Hdt vs S

Hbt vs S

2.5

Ht vs S

Hrt vs S

Hdt vs S

Hbt vs S

Hbt vs S

Hdt vs S

Hrt vs S

Ht vs S

APRIL

MARCH

FEB

5

4.5

JAN

4

3.5

3.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

10

20

30

40

50

Tilt Angle

60

70

80

Ht vs S

Hrt vs S

Hdt vs S

Hbt vs S

3

2.5

90

10

20

30

40

50

Tilt Angle

60

70

80

90

Fig. 2. Different components of solar radiations (Hb, Ht, Hr, H) over tilted surface

= =

1 +

2

(9)

and obtained I-V and P-V curve as shown in Figure 5.

Hbt = Hb R b

Hbt = Hb

sin sin +cos cos sin h s

IV.

SOFTWARE MODEL

monthly global solar irradiance on tilted surface at optimal tilt

angle and the LabVIEW simulation model is developed for

maximum power generation corresponding to optimal tilt

angle by using basic equation as mentioned above and

depicted in Figure 3 & 4 respectively.

Sr.

No

Parameters at STC

(S=1000W/m2, Tc=300K, A=1.5)

Values

1.

2.

3.

4

5

6

7

8

Maximum Power Voltage (Vmpp)

Maximum Power Current (Impp)

Open Circuit Voltage (Voc)

Short Circuit Current (Isc)

Max System Voltage

Temperature Coefficient of (Voc)

Temperature Coefficient of Isc

26.3V

7.61A

32.9V

8.21A

600V

-1.23 10-1 V/C

3.18 10-3 A/C

tilted surface

Average monthly global solar radiation data on horizontal

surface have been taken from metrological department of

India, feed as an input to the LabVIEW model and derive the

solar radiation data on tilted surface, variation with tilt angle is

shown in Figure 6.

Fig. 4. Block Diagram of LabVIEW model for power generation

Monthly Avg GI on tilted surface(kWh/sqm/day)

V.

A. Model Validation

To validate the LabVIEW model, using the existing PV

module by KYOCERA- named as KC200GT datasheet

JUNE

JULY

SEPT

OCT

AUG

FEB

4

JAN

2

10

NOV

15

20

DEC

25

30

35

40 45 50

Tilt angle (s)

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

1495

JULY

AUG

SEPT

OCT

NOV

DEC

generation vary almost linearly with solar radiation incidence

on active area of PV module. Interception of irradiance on

module depends on two important factors tilt angle and

position of modules which effect the performance of both

stand alone and grid connected PV system. It becomes

indispensable to install the PV module at optimal tilt angle to

harness the maximum energy. In the course of mathematical

model analysis, it is found that optimal tilt angle is different

for every month as depicted in Figure 7. TABLE III shows the

optimal tilt angle for the location Roorkee.

40

30

20

10

3

0

Month

July

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

4

10

14

20

30

40

5.27

5.25

5.32

4.96

3.90

3.26

5.04

5.07

5.27

5.12

4.24

3.68

5.27

5.25

5.32

4.96

3.90

3.26

5.37

5.25

5.40

5.14

4.31

3.71

1.86

0

1.48

3.50

9.51

12.12

E. Estimated Power

In order to harness the maximum solar energy optimal tilt

angle is one of the important parameter. Improper installation

of solar module can cause loss power by the of power and

economy. The variation of generated module which is

installed at both horizontally and optimal tilt angle is given in

TABLE V and Figure 9 shows the maximum power

generation corresponding to optimal tilt angle.

50

45

5.27

5.25

5.32

4.96

3.90

3.26

Month

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

5.27

5.25

5.32

4.96

3.90

3.26

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

6

7

Months

10

11

Month

Day

of

year

(n)

Average

montly

H on

horizont

al

surface

W/m2

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUG

SEPT

OCT

NOV

DEC

15

45

75

105

135

165

195

225

255

285

315

345

131.6

184.6

244

284.5

307.2

269.3

234.7

224.2

220.3

213.6

159.6

133.79

12

angle.

As shown in Figure 7 the optimal tilt angle is different for

every month. So it is crucial to analyze the amount of solar

irradiation loss occurs owing to improper tilting of PV panels.

As per the literature it is concluded that the most suitable

yearly tilt angle can be the latitude of location. An analysis on

the loss of monthly horizontal solar irradiance over a tilted

surface is done. During the month of December maximum

irradiance loss is occurred about 12% (Figure 8 ) value was

given in the TABLE IV, which shows irradiation losses for

monthly data which will be very large if considered for a year

or a couple of years.

Pmax

at tilt

angle

S=0o

23

33

45

53

58

50

43

41

40

39

28

23

Tilt

angl

e S

opti

mal

in

degr

ee

48

38

25

13

7

5

6

10

18

31

44

50

OPTIMAL TILT ANGLE

At tilt angle

At tilt angle

At optimal

% Loss

s=latitude (deg)

tilt angle

Months s=0 deg

of Hloss

H

Ht

H

Ht

H

Ht

JAN

3.43

3.43

3.43

3.82

3.43

3.83

10.44

FEB

4.66

4.66

4.66

4.93

4.66

4.90

4.89

MAR

6.04

6.04

6.04

6.05

6.04

6.15

1.78

APR

6.85

6.85

6.85

6.69

6.85

6.88

0.43

MAY

7.03

7.03

7.03

6.75

7.03

7.03

0

JUNE

6.30

6.30

6.30

6.02

6.30

6.03

-4.47

1496

Average

monthly

Ht on

optimal

tilted

surface

W/m2

Pmax

at

optim

al tilt

angle

S

154

201.3

251

286.5

307.7

269.5

235

225

224

226

181

161

27

37

47

54

58

51

43

41

40

41.5

33

29

VI.

CONCLUSION

sky

stage using Matlab Simulink model to translate the monthly

average global horizontal solar irradiance into tilted surface,

while in second stage SIT interfaced LabVIEW model

converts tilted surface solar radiation into power. Then

monthly optimal tilt angle was extracted for a particular

location in Roorkee, India (29.8749 N, 77.8899 E). A

comparison of solar energy at three important tilt angles, (i)

tilt angle=0degree, (ii) tilt angle = latitude and (iii) tilt angle=

optimal have been carried out and found that if orientation of

PV panel is equal to latitude of a place instead of optimal tilt

angle a energy loss of about 12% occur for the months

December and January. Monthly variation of different

components of solar irradiance (i) Beam radiation H bt, (ii)

Diffuse radiation Hdt and (iii) Reflecteted radiation Hrt on

tilted surface with tilt angle was demonstrated in Fig.2 Result

obtained from the developed model show that installation of

solar module at optimal tilt angle becomes indispensable to

harness the maximum solar energy. Although, it is simulated

to obtained monthly optimal tilt angle and corresponding

power generation for Roorkee, but it can be applied to any

place just by changing the astronomical and geographical data.

Model result is validated by comparing with the data provided

by metrological department [29] and manufacturer of module

under consideration.

The original

Hay and the

alternative

Hay model

[10].

The Ma and

Iqbal model

[11]

The Skartveit

and Olseth

Model [12]

The Reindl

model

Reindl et al

[13]

The

Gueymard

Model [14][15]

The Muneer

model [16][17]

Authors

Estimation model

Remarks

Assumed

uniform

1

diffuse radiation and

Liu & Jordan

, = (1 + )

approximates the cloudy

model[3]

2

sky conditions.

Assumed 66.7% of the

Koronakis

1

total sky domes diffuse

[4]

, = (2 + )

solar radiation.

3

Jimenez and

Castro [5]

Considered 20% of

global radiation as a

diffuse radiation

The Perez

model [18][20]

1

, = 0.2(1 + )

2

Z.J. Chu[21]

Diffused component is

taken as beam radiation

The

and it holds good to

circumsolar

clear sky condition.

model [6].

, =

Guihua

Li[22]

,

The Bugler

model [7]

Temps and

Coulson [8]

The Klucher

model [9]

Introduce a corrective

term to correct the

isotropic model

=

, 1 +

"

#

!

2

+ 0.05,

0.05

model and introduce

two terms P1&P2

Including a revising

function F to evaluate

the magnitude of clear

1

, = $1 $2

2

%0.51+ 2 "%1+& 3 '*1+& 2

2

1497

Modified circumsolar

and introduced term

FHay.

,

= /&:;

+ [(1 + )/2]1 &:; }

,

HSM-MI

Identified gloomy skies

as part of diffuse

radiation and

introduced

a

Z

correction factor

= %>?

+ (1 >? ) 2 '

2

,

= @&:; + A

+ *1 &:; A-(1

+ /2) B(C D )E

,

Added

a

horizon

brightening diffuse term

to the Hay model.

irradiance for unclear

skies is a linear

combination of values

for cloudy skies Rd,

and for clear skies Rdo

Taken care of the

shaded

and

sunny

surfaces separately and

further

differentiated

between cloudy and

non-cloudy conditions

of the bright surface.

includes all three subcomponents to account

for circum solar diffuse,

horizon diffuse and

isotropic diffuse

irradiation

+ /2) 1 + F3 "

2

+ &:; '

,

= [(1 GI ) + GI 1 ]

,

= J 2 L M2N

+ 2M (3 + 2) O

2 L M2N"P

,

=

(1 &1 )(1 + /2)

+ &1 L:MN + &2

Neural Network-based

Model for Estimation of

Solar Power Generating

Capacity

Pointed out that Liu and

Jordan method is only

suitable to estimate

daily

or

annual

collectible

beam

radiation on a tilted

surface with an azimuth

angle less than 15o,

Liu

Xianping[23]

angle for collector by

using Hays model.

Anu

George[24]

Theoretically estimated

optimal tilt angle using

geographic

factor

method, clearness index

geographic factor method is

the best.

France, pp. 303- 314, 1984.

[15].C. Gueymard, "Radiation on tilted planes: a physical model

adaptable to any computational time-step", presented at

INTERSOL85, pp. 2463-2467, Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY,

1986.

[16].T. Muneer, "Solar radiation modelling for the United Kingdom",

PhD thesis, CNAA, London, 1987.

[17].T. Muneer, "Solar radiation model for Europe", Building

Services Engineering Research and Technology, 11(4), pp. 153163, 1990.

[18].R. Perez, R. Stewart, R. Arbogast, J. Seals and J. Scott. "An

anisotropic hourly diffuse radiation model for surfaces:

description, performance validation, site dependency

evaluation", Solar Energy, 36(6), pp. 481- 497, 1986

[19].R. Perez, R. Seals, P. Ineichen, R. Stewart and D. Menicucci, "A

new simplified version of the Perez diffuse irradiance model for

tilted surfaces", Solar Energy, 39(3), pp. 221-231, 1987.

[20].R. Perez, P. Ineichen, R. Seals, J. Michalsky and R. Stewart,

"Modeling daylight availability and irradiance components from

direct and global irradiance", Solar Energy; 44(5), pp. 271-289,

1990.

[21].Chu, Z.J.; Srinivasan, D.; Jirutitijaroen, P., "Neural networkbased model for estimation of solar power generating capacity,"

TENCON 2009 - 2009 IEEE Region 10 Conference , vol., no.,

pp.1,7, 23-26 Jan. 2009

[22].Guihua Li; Yuqin Yang; Runsheng Tang, "On the estimation of

daily beam radiation on tilted surfaces," Electrical and Control

Engineering (ICECE), 2011 International Conference on , vol.,

no., pp.3552,3555, 16-18 Sept. 2011

[23].Xianping Liu, "Calculation and Analysis of Optimal Tilt Angle

for PV/T Hybrid Collector," Intelligent System Design and

Engineering Application (ISDEA), 2012 Second International

Conference on , vol., no., pp.791,795, 6-7 Jan. 2012

[24].George, A.; Anto, R., "Analytical and experimental analysis of

optimal tilt angle of solar photovoltaic systems," Green

Technologies (ICGT), 2012 International Conference on , vol.,

no., pp.234,239, 18-20 Dec. 2012

[25].Qian Zhao; Peng Wang; Goel, L., "Optimal PV panel tilt angle

based on solar radiation prediction," Probabilistic Methods

Applied to Power Systems (PMAPS), 2010 IEEE 11th

International Conference on , vol., no., pp.425,430, 14-17 June

2010

[26].Ying-Pin Chang; Lieh-Dai Yang, "Optimal tilt angle for PV

modules considering the uncertainty of temperature and solar

radiation," Renewable Energy Research and Applications

(ICRERA), 2012 International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,6,

11-14 Nov. 2012

[27].Weibin Yang; Bin Fang; Yuan Yan Tang; Jiye Qian; Xudong

Qin; Wenhua Yao, "A Robust Inclinometer System With

Accurate Calibration of Tilt and Azimuth Angles," Sensors

Journal, IEEE , vol.13, no.6, pp.2313,2321, June 2013.

[28].Jia Youjian, Nie Linru, Huang Shihua. "Review of the two types

of correlations on calculating the daily and monthly diffuse

radiation on the horizontal surfaces. Journal of Kunming

University of science and technology (science and technology),

2005, 25(5): pp.40-42.

[29].Solar Radiation Data (Monthly average, Lat/Long basis).

Internet: http://mnre.gov.in/sec/solar-assmnt.htm [April, 25,

2015]

angle method.

Qian

Zhao[25]

Ying-Pin

Chang[26]

Weibin[27]

to build the solar

Radiation

prediction

model.

Presented the hybrid

differential

evolution

(HDE) in determining

the tilt angle for

PV

module

Proposes

a

robust

inclinometer system

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