History #9- Final

4/19 How did the zealots lead the Jews to revolt against Rome? Zealots • • Wanted the Jews to be independent Q: Did the Jews think they could win? If so, how could the Jews believe they could win?

A.Tensions develop • Romans resent Jews ○ Economically- Most Jews were struggling economically  Tzidukim were successful  Mostly merchants Stereotype develops that all Jews were rich because those were the Jews that were most visible to the society. ○ Religiously- Most of Rome were pagans  However, the Romans’ gods had become a symbol of patriotism rather than religious figureheads- the only religion they came in contact with was Judaism.  The Romans who did not convert accused the Jews of proselytizing(forcibly converting people). ○ Politically

Jews were exempt from the Roman pagan festivals  Conquered people(especially Egyptians) saw the Jews being treated favorably and resented them for it

Jews were allowed to have their own communities with Jewish institutions and function somewhat freely

The Romans thought the Jews were strange

B. Rule of the procurators • Jews resent Romans ○ Procurators- very cruel and uncaring  Ex. Pontius Pilate  It is not clear if the procurators realized that they were antagonizing the Jews • Wanted to build an aqueduct to bring water to Jerusalem but used the money from Beit HaMikdash ○  Result: riots and violence between Jews and Romans

String of procurators: v, bad Romans appoint Agrippa  Son of Aristobulous Raised in Rome • Good friend of Caligula

As soon as he is appointed, he is so honored to be leader of Jews that he is very careful with halacha and is a very good ruler to Jews.

Rules for 7 years and dies suddenly • It is assumed that Rome murders him but it has not been proven

Agrippa the Second  Very assimilated Romans give him very small portion of Judea

C. Zealot position • • • Zealots begin to come together, gain weapons, and plan in the time of Herod As tension mounts, more and more Jews become zealots Prushim/Sanhedrin try to placate the zealots

D. Events that led to revolt- 66 C.E. 1. Florus(procurator)- takes money from Beit HaMikdash for his own use ○ Groups gather at Beit HaMikdash and collect money on behalf of Florus  ○ They are mocking him

Florus sends in an army and about 3,600 Jews are massacred  Jewish leaders are beaten publically

This was the beginning of real violence  Many Jews realize that the only way to fight Rome is through violence

Romans try to take Beit HaMikdash but Jews prevent this

2. Jews appeal to Agrippa to go to Rome to get rid of Florus ○ Agrippa refuses  This shows that he was much more concerned with his relationship with Rome than his relationship with the Jews  Many Jews become zealots because they realize there is no way to negotiate with Rome 3. Jews used to offer a korban for the Emperor ○ Zealots wanted that stopped  Zealots stop it

Rome comes with an army + Agrippa the 2nd + Tzidukim joined Rome’s side • Ex. of a civil war- Sinat Chinam ○ Many Jews join zealots- Realized that either you were for Rome or against Rome

4. A Roman army came for Syria to attempt to take over Jerusalem and the Zealots are able to stop them ○ Many Jews join the zealots because this gave them hope that maybe the zealots could win  Fighting within Zealots  Most extreme group-Sacari

Left and went to Masada ○ Remain their until end of revolt

Did the Jews believe they could win? • It is not clear whether they all thought they would win ○ Those who thought they could win  Hashem would help them Demonstration that it was possible: Victory + Chanukkah They thought that the Jews in Diaspora would come and help them Nero is killed, and three army generals take over- they did not care very much about Rome- it looked like Rome was falling apart 4/20/10 How did both sides prepare for war? • Romans ○ Commander: Vespacian  Commands 3 legions  ○ 1 of those legions is commanded by his son Titus

Military strategy: come from North and attach every Jewish community on the way to Jerusalem and camp outside Jerusalem and converge on Jerusalem- ultimate goal was to get to Beit HaMikdash


Commander: Josephus(Yoseph Ben Matityahu HaKohen)  ~See Yis’s oral report~ Probably selected because he was seen as a moderate among the zealots(compromise)  Negative to this: no one is unhappy but no one his happy either

Revolt • Romans begin attack in North ○ Jews in Galil surrender  Ex. Sipori Gamla- Jews didn’t think the Roman army could get to them but Rome does and there is very brutal fighting  ○ ○ ○ Rome takes over Gamla

Romans get to the outskirts of Jerusalem and set up camp outside Romans besiege Jerusalem Inside Jerusalem are all the zealots  Divided into the two factions of the zealots  Moderates- appoint Shimon Ben Giora as their leader • Instructs his army to burn all of the food supplies of the Jews ○ So that the Jews would want fight

By 17th of Tammuz, there are no more sacrifices, and the Romans break through the walls of Jerusalem

During the next 3 weeks, the Romans make their way through Jerusalem through numerous walls until they get to the Beit HaMikdash

9th of Av- Beit HaMikdash burns for 48 hours well into the 10th of Av What actually happened when the Beit HaMikdash is burned?  Josephus’s version: Jews were chased Romans into Beit HaMikdash and one of the Roman soldiers set the Beit HaMidkash on fire. The Romans run to Titus and Titus tries to put the flames out.  Beit HaMikdash was destroyed due to some random soldier set it on fire + Titus tries to save the Beit HaMikdash • This is highly unlikely ○ Roman army- very organized- unlikely that some random soldier lit the fire ○ ○ Titus was screaming- why wouldn’t anyone hear him? Why would Titus want to save the Beit HaMikdash.

Q: Why would Josephus write about this event this way?  Wanted to portray Rome in a positive light Was good friend of Titus

Most historians say that Titus was responsible for the destruction of the Beit HaMikdash  Gemara: he runs into Kodesh Kidoshim to see what was there and to see if anything would happen to him

4/22 I. How was the destruction of the Beit HaMikdash a cataclysmic event? • Cataclysmic event- an event that changes everything

A. Physically • • • tremendous destruction everywhere in Yerushalaim Romans took anything of wealth for themselves and for the triumph(parade back to Rome) Before siege: 2 million Jews After siege: ○ ○ ○ 97,000 Jews taken captive 1,100,000 died of starvation large #s of Jews were used in triumph and then forced to become servants, gladiators, and concubines throughout Rome. II. How did the Jews react to the destruction? A. Kohanim ○ Many Kohanim thought that it was the end of Judaism?  Commited suicide by throwing themselves into the fire

B. Christian’s reaction ○ Hashem destroyed the Beit HaMikdash because he rejected the Jews, and the Christians are the new chosen people  Many pagans converted as a result  C. Prushim ○ Yochanan Ben Zakkai continues development of Judaism in Yavneh they wanted to be with the new chosen people

D. Zealots ○ Continue fighting  Masada Rebellions 55 years later(135 C.E.)- Bar Kochva rebellion

 E. Essenes ○

isolate themselves even more

F. Many Jews ○ believed the destruction was caused by “Sinat Chinam”  Jews realized that they had to do Teshuva  4/23 III. How did the Romans celebrate their victory? Ex. Kamsa and Bar Kamsa

Made a triumph ○ ○ ○ Brought Shimon Ben Giora and executed him Brought best Jews(in best shape) back Brought back riches from Beit HaMikdash

Erected the Arch of Titus ○ ○ ○ Point where they saw the triumph entering Rome Picture of the Jews being dragged back to Rome with the Menorah Irony- If you’re a Jew in Rome today seeing this Arch, it is ironic that the Romans were celebrating destroying Judaism, but we are still here today.

Rome minted new coins in honor of occasion

IV. How did Yochanan Ben Zakkai continue to develop Judaism that was not based in the Beit HaMikdash? • Rome destroyed the Beit HaMikdash, many Jews, and much of Jerusalem. However, they did not destroy hope, Torah, or the practice of Judaism. ○ The Jews are the only people who manage to live without a land.  Judaism is based on spirituality and belief, as apposed to materialism, such as conquered lands.

During the Babylonian exile, the Jews had to face this challenge- They managed to continue to live as Jews.

Once the Second Beit HaMikdash was built, it was still not the same as the first, so the Jews relied heavily on davening and Torah learning

Yochanan Ben Zakkai ○ Question YBZ had to face while Jerusalem was under seige: Should we continue to fight for the land or should we just try to save Jewish learning? ○ He got out of Jerusalem by sneaking out in a coffin.  He presents himself to Vespasian as a prophet, addressing him as the emperor.  Vespasian thought that YBZ was mocking him/ commiting treason

Then, a messanger comes with the news that the emperor died and that Vespasian would be emperor.

Vespasian said he would grant YBZ 3 wishes. • 1. “Give me Yavneh and its wise men” ○ Yavneh= learning center and new seat of the Sanhedrin  Controversial: Many rabbis did not go to Yavneh  ○ Viewed him as traitor because he went to the Romans

Other learning centers established:  Akiva- Bnei Brak Yehuda Ben Ilai- Usha Eliezer Ben Hyrcanus- Lydda

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2. That the family of Hillel will be spared- especially Rabban Gamliel

Normally, Rome would kill the leaders of the revolt  YBZ didn’t want the Nasi to be killed

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Even so, Rabban Gamliel went into hiding and YBZ was acting Nasi This was to establish the authority of the Sanhedrin and Nasi  They were halachic authority  It was critical at this point that everyone accept to authority of the Sanhedrin because at this time, there were many different groups of Judaism • There needed to be an authority of Judaism that everyone abided by

Eliezer Ben Hyrcanus  Considered authority of halacha An issue came up with an oven  Majority ruled Tamei EBH said it was Tahor • If I am right, the brook should flow the opposite way that its flowing, the tree should uproot itself and the wall should fall over. All of the things happen ○ Lastly, EBH asked for a Bat Kol

Bat Kol says that EBH is right but “Torah Lo BaShamayim Hee”  Sanhedrin makes decisions and their authority must be respected

EBH was put in cherem until he died

3 cases were R’ Yehoshua disagreed with R’ Gamliel and R’ Gamliel publically humiliated him  last case: Maariv- Optional or obligatory?  R’ Gamliel made R’ Yehoshua stand during the entire next discussion of the Sanhedrin • V. humiliating ○ Sanhedrin decide to depose of R’ Gamliel  R’ Elazar Ben Azzariah becomes Nasi  V. young over night, grows beard  R’ Gamliel went to R’ Yehoshua to apologize, but says a comment regarding the state of R’ Yehoshua’s house. • R’ Yehoshua tells him that the Nasi should know how the people left • Since R’ Gamliel apologized, Sanhedrin make compromise ○ R’ Gamliel- 3 Shabbatot

 “Bo Bayom”- on this day:  •

R’ Elazar Ben Azzariah- 2 Shabbatot

Yeshiva was much more open

3. To get Rabbi Tzadok a docter ○ R’ Tzadok- Gadol HaDor  Had known 40 years prior that B”H would be destroyed  Fasted a lot and got v/ sick • Shows that rabbis need to be treated with respect and that their merit is based on their knowledge and learning

Vespasian might have thought that these were petty, silly requests, but YBZ asked for the keys to Judaism’s survivle.

Other Contributions of YBZ • Tefillah ○ ○ Anshei Knesset HaGedola started to put together an order of davening During YBZ’s time, they will add things and incorporate ways to remember destruction of B”H.  Birchat Kohanim Shir Shel Yom Korbanot

Yehi Ratzon at end of Shemona Esrei We daven at times corresponding to times of korbanot Rosh Hashana- we blow shofar Shavuot- Hoshanot Yom Kippur- we describe in detail the whole Avodah We don’t have a 7 branch menorah We don’t have music on Shabbat because Levi’im used to have orchestra in Beit HaMikdash on Shabbat

We break glass at wedding We leave a part of our houses unfinished

 • Tanach ○ ○ ○ ○

Put in final form Process was began by Anshei Knesset HaGedola Criteria: had to be considered divinely inspired Apacryopha: stuff that didn’t make it in  Maccabis Ben Tsira

 •

Torah SheBeal Peh ○ ○ Begins to progress Mishna Reshona(notes of Anshei Knesset HaGedolah)

Tana’im’s discussions are added to this

YBZR’ Yehuda HaNasi Important because:

○ ○ ○ All oral at this point

Tana’im could add in what went on in B”H

R’ Akiva- first one to take these discussions and try to start organizing it R’ Meir- works on it after R’ Akiva  R’ Meir= Tanna Kama

R’ Yehuda HaNasi finished compiling it  ~200

Yavneh • Begins losing influence ○ ○ R’ Gamliel + R’ Yehoshua’s disputes Rome  Domitian is emperor after Titus  Taxes Jews heavily Closes Yavneh •  Move to Usha in secret

Nerva is emperor for 2 years  Respectful of Jews

Cancels Domitian’s laws against Jews ○ ○ Takes away tax Minted a coin that said “the disgrace of the Jewish tax is removed”

Trajan is emperor  Not so good to the Jews • Only emperor of Pax Romana to conquer land ○ Conquers the fertile crescent  Includes Babylon  Included Jews in Diaspora

Revolts behind is back  Jews in Judea think that Jews in Diaspora will come and help them but they don’t

○ 4/29 Jews in Babylon join in these revolts

Land is lost after his death

Revolts: 115-117 ○ Diaspora Revolt

In Babylonian Exile- revolted because Trajan conquered the fertile crescent, and this Babylon.

In Egypt, across North Africa, and in Cyprus, Jews also revolted  They did so because they realized that they were being treated like second class citizens  Cyprus- required v. large number of troops to put down revolt

• ○

Law: Jews not allowed to step foot in Cyprus

During this time, the Rabbis discouraged revolt in Judea  This is because there was a promise by Rome that the Jews could rebuilt the B”H so the Jews didn’t want them to change their minds  Rome takes back its promise, and Hadrian rebuilds Jerusalem as a pagan city and named it Aelia Capitalina.  He built a temple to Jupiter at the sight of the B”H • Hadrian ○ ○ Begins ruling 117 Prohibits practice of observance of Judaism  observing Shabbat and performing circumcision were prohibited ○ Makes Jerusalem into Aelia Capitalina  Jews plan to revolt

Bar Kochba Revolt

Leader: Bar Kosiba/Bar Kochba ○ ○ ○ Very big and strong Very charismatic and spiritual People believed he was Meshiach  ○ ○ R’ Akiva thinks he is mashiach

Many Jews join in the revolt Inittialy very successful  Succeeds in recapturing Jerusalem Begins to establish a government  mint coins function as an independent government within Roman Empire for 30 months

Rome sends massive army  At first, Jews held off the massive army Roman Army besieged Jerusalem and recaptures Jerusalem As Rome bagan to do well, Bar Kochba began to act strangly  Dealy very harshly with those who did not join in in the revolt he was leading  Has his uncle, a well known rabbi, executed on false charges

People begin to lose faith in him ○ Jews take refuge in Baitar  Jews take refuge their because its very well protected Modern Palestinian city there called “The Jews ruin” A Jewish traitor gives the Jews away to the Romans and tells them about a secret passageway  Romans massacre the Jews and don’t let the Jews bury the bodies  Miracle: bodies don’t decompose and eventually Romans let them bury the bodies. ○ Caves in Judean dessert- Bar Kochba caves  2 Archaealogical digs  Yigal Yadin • scrolls with Bar Kochba’s name on it 19 bronze artifacts that look life inscence shovels and bowls for pagain rituals

Assumed to be pagan artifacts stolen from the Romans by the Jews

Jews hiding from Romans Jews hiding from Bar Kochba

Richard Freund

Theory: before Bar Kochba revolt, this cave was occupied by Jews seeking refuge after the destruction of the B”H ○ ○ Evidence-find coin from time of first revolt These found bronze artifacts were Jewish artifacts from the Beit HaMikdash

5/3 Fallowing Bar Kochba • • • • Hadrian makes penalty for observing Judaism death Makes Jerusalem into pagan city Jews aren’t allowing into Jerusalem Asara Harugei Malchut ○ ○ ○ • Killed over a period of time in horrible ways They are mentioned on Yom Kippur in detail Hoped that this would be end of Judaism

Giver of Smicha, receiver of Smicha, and city done in are punished ○ R’ Yehuda Ben Baba  Has 5 students come to an open area and gives them smicha Romans kill R’ Yehuda Ben Baba 5 students  R’ Meir

R’ Shimon Bar Yochai • Hid from Romans in cave with son ○ ○ Ate carob Learned Torah via mystical interpretation  Writes it down and buries it  Found in 1200s and is published as the Zohar • Grave is in Merom ○ Lag BaOmer- people come from all over the world  Yorzeit- but for what?  Date he was given smicha Date he came out of cave Date he died

 R’ Yehuda Bar Elai R’ Yossi R’ Eliezer Ben Shmuel

 ○

From these 5 rabbis, Torah is saved

They open Yishivotlearning continues

Romans had banned practice of Judaism • Rabbis of Sanhedrin said:

Averot  Big 3: Murder, Idolatry, Adultery- cant do no matter what  All 3 are foundations of Judaism

If you were told to break any mitzvah in public, you were not allowed to Ziman Shimad: time of destruction- in time that Romans were on a campaign to destroy Judaism, you were not allowed to transgress anything

What is higher priority- learning Torah or doing Mitzvot?  Answer was learning Torah, because learning leads to doing  Changes who you are and how you act

Oral Law was oralpersecutionAfraid it would be forgottenbegin process of writing down halacha in what would become mishna • Who started this process? ○ ○ R’ Akiva- begins organizing and classifying R’ Meir- further categorizes, etc.  ○ Is Tannah Kamma

R’ Yehuda HaNasi  Considered editor/compiler of Mishna  Needed to have an authority that everyone accepted • Called Rav

Wealthy/aristocratic Has very good relationship with emperor  Began when they were babies • Roman gov’t often asked babies to be brought before them to make sure baby didn’t have brit ○ R’ Yehuda HaNasi’s wife is on her way to bring R’ Yehuda and she meets a Roman woman who offers to switch the babies

 ○

Baby= Marcus Ariliasbecomes emperor

Mothers stayed in touch, kids grew up playing together, maintained friendship

Mishna- around year 200 • Authority is from the first pasuk in Pirkei Avot ○ Unbroken chain from Har Sinai  Could continue…  Zugot Tannaim-Mishna Amoraim- Gemara Savoraim- continue to do work on Gemara Gaonim

Rishonim Achronim

 •

Organized in 6 Sedarim- major aspects of persons life ○ Ziraim- seeds  Starts with this because most people were farmers  Work

1st masechet- Brachot  making brachot- all work you do ultimately is dependent on Hashem

Moed  Special days

Nashim  Marital laws/family related laws

Nizikin: damages  Civil law  Most country’s law code would just be this

Kadshim:  Man to G-d:Halachot of Beit HaMikdash

Taharot  Purity


Prakim  Mishnayot

Learning continues • Rabbi who learn after 200 are Amoraim ○ Discussions in Judea will become Gemara Yerushalmi  Codified around 350 R’ Yochanan Bar Naphcha- credited with compiling G Yerushami  Had yeshiva in Tiveria Dies in the 280s •  His students in next generations finish it off

Famous student: Resh Lakish • Started off as a thief

Discussions that didn’t make it into Mishnayot= Brittah  One group of Brittot= Tosefta

 ○

Comparing these= discussion in comparing

Gemara Bavli  More complete

Mid 300s • Rosh Chodesh ○ Someone had to see it

○ ○

Had to make sure these were good witnesses Set fired

Problem: Shomronim/Christians would set false fires

Hillel II- makes calendar so that you don’t have to bother with that

5/4 Circa 200center of Jewish community becomes Bavel until around 1100-1200 Why did the center of Jewish learning shift from Judea Babylon? • Every event in Jerusalem caused Jews to move ○ Most moves to Babylon  Traveled along fertile cresent Good location because there is an established Jewish community there

 •

One R’ Yehuda HaNasi dies, the Nisi’im that fallowed him were not as great ○ ○ ○ the Jews are treated worst by Romans Level of learning is not as high R’ Yehuda HaNasi tried to keep Jerusalem as center  Wouldn’t give smicha to a rabbi who was going to move to Babylon  ○ Initially refused to give Rav smicha

Early 400s- Rome eliminated position of Nasi

Rome is in economic troubles as they weaken

Raise taxesJews suffer

Rome is attacked from the East ○ Jews are caught in the middle

Christianity gets stronger and stronger and is eventually made official religion of Rome ○ Jews become second class citizens/lose rights

How does the Pax Romana end? • Marcus Arilius’s death= end of Pax Romana ○ During Marcus Arilius’s reign:  Plague Germanic tribes attack  Up until 180, the Germanic tribes stayed up North, above the Danube River because they were afraid.  At end of Marcus Arilius’s reign, they attack • •  They sensed a weakening of Rome Plague weakened Romans

Don’t attack yet, but make problems by the border- come in deeper and deeper

After Marcus Arilius dies, his son Commados is emperor  Self-centered Immature

How does Rome decline? Stage 1: problems(200s) • Economy weakens ○ Gold  Rome got all of its gold from all of the conquered lands and from imported goods Rome never developed enough goods to export  As gold ran out, they did not want to stop living the way they were • Import more than export(an unfavorable balance of trade) ○ Start to make coins that are worth less(less gold) prices go up, coins are worth less  ○ Crops  If you plant crops in the same soil every year, it becomes less fertile  For a long time, Rome had an abundance of food Now, with less new soil, they had food shortages Inflation

 ○ Trade 

Boats are being attacked by pirates  Goods are being taken It isn’t safe to trade • Trading declined

 • Political Problems ○

Barbarians disrupted trade routes on land

26 emperors- only 1 doesn’t die a horrible death  Political situation is horrible

People weren’t as loyal  People didn’t want government jobs  No prestige Lower salary

 • Military Problems

No patriotismno one wanted to join army  Needed to pay people to go into army

Start to use mercenaries  Hire people from Germanic tribes to fight Germanic tribes  Loyalty issue

Germanic tribes did not listen to orders that the Roman army was used to listening to

Moral Problems ○ ○ Tremendous corruption Epicureanism is rampant

Stage 2: Diocletian + Constantine(late 200s-early 300s)

Diocletian ○ Reforms  Doubled size of army  Economy suffers

Pursecuted Christians  Wanted to strengthen paganism to bring back patriotism Doesn’t workChristianity becomes stronger

Dressed and acted like a Persian emperor because he saw how much the Persians were respected

Divided the Empire in half  2 emperors, 2 assistant emperors would help stabilize Split: between Italian Peninsula and Greek Peninsula • Western side ○ ○ • Capital is Rome Spoke Latin

Eastern side/Byzantine Empire ○ ○ ○ Capital is Byzantium Spoke Greek Had more cities

 

More trademore prosperious Dioclecian takes this side

Good for trade- great harbor on peninsula where Byzantium was

Once Diocletian dies, four people try to take over  Constintine is one of those armies  The night before big battle, he has a vision • Jesus: if you become Christian, you will be successful ○  Constantine wins Put crosses everywhere

Constantine  Grabs Western half and then Eastern half  Makes them one again Renames Byzantium Constantinople •  Makes it a Christian city

Builds thick high wall on peninsula to protect city

Christianity strengthens  How does this cause the downfall of Rome? • People’s loyalty changes- people become loyal to Christianity as apposed to being loyal to Rome

Christianity is a system much like government ○ When Rome declines, Christianity steps in as the government

Constantine makes rule called Edict of Milan • All Christians and people have the freedom to choose the religion they want ○ Suggests the Christianity is the favored religion

Constantine passes the Nicene Creed • Stated the Doctrine of the Trinity ○ 3 parts to G-d  Father- in heaven Son-Jesus  Made of “similar substance” to G-d

Holy Ghost

Constantine made all Christianity believe this ○ Arians- Arianism  Believed that Jesus was a man, not a G-d Mixture of paganism and Christianity

Constantine didn’t like that there were different sectsin Christianity

If you didn’t believe that, you were a heretic  Heretics were burned

Constantine was doing this not for religious purposes, but for the purpose of uniting his empire • Machloket: Is Christianity considered monotheism?

Not pure monotheismppl think that laws of paganism should apply to Christianity

Early Church Fathers- 300s600s • • Developed Christian belief Many were trained as philosophers + combined it with their Christian belief ○ Augustine • • Becomes bishop Writes two books ○ “Confessions”- autobiography  ○ How he came to believe in Christianity Developed philosophies/beliefs

“The City of G-d”  written right after Rome is destroyed by barbarians

people were distraught

Anything built by man is not meant to last- the only invincible city is the City of G-d

Witness Theory- Christian explanation to the Jews being alive  “Jews are alive to witness truth of Christianity” Believed that Yeshu was coming back, and that the Jews would then all believe in him

Christian Clergy • • • Local Church: priest All local church: bishop Large territory: Archbishop

Right after Rome is attacked for the first time, they move the emperor of Rome to protect him. Rome is destroyed, and the bishop of Rome(Innocent) directs the rebuilding and reorganization of Rome.  Functions as leader of Rome Gets very powerful

declares that all churches in empire have to listen to anything he says- he is in charge • Bishops fallowing him take on more and more power as governments/judges/etc. ○ Leo- title of pope: said he had authority over western side of Rome ○ Church came up with Petrine Doctrine  Peter was the first pope Pope is heir to Peter and Augustus- political and religious Retroactively made them all pope  Gives them authority believe he speaks word of god

Cardinals- right under Pope ○ Developed later on

Missionaries- try to convert people ○ ○ Ex. Augustine was sent to convert England V. successful

Monasteries  Benedict

From wealthy Roman family Was trying to get away from Rome Goes off and lives by himself so he would not be distracted by anyone or anything

People heard about him and started asking if he would learn with them and if they could come with him

Convinced him to start a community interested in living this very spiritual life

Starts the first monastery • Vows ○ ○ ○ • Poverty Chastity- not getting married Obedience

Strict schedule ○ Prayed 8 time a day  ○ Through the night too

2 hours a day they studied 7 hours a day they did some kind of work on the monastery

wore robes

• •

lived in very small rooms called cells only ate twice a day ○ very simple meals  no wine or meat except for on Saturdays

some of the monks copied manuscripts of Christian writings ○ often calligraphies them

became centers of Christian learning and had all of these Christian books

Many monasteries copied his model- called Benedictian monasteries Some monasteries(not Benedicts) prohibited talking except when necessary

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Benedicts sister created convents for women

None of the monks, nuns have children- their best leaders do not reproduce Why would someone choose to be a nun or a monk at this time, during Rome’s downfall?

The world was falling apart, and people were very unsettled- these were islands of security in a very chaotic world Ensured protection, food, shelter, and care

 ○

Felt this was the most ideal way to lead Christian life

Gregory- lived in late 500s  Originally a political leader

Decided to be come a monk  Worked for the pope as an ambassador • •  Very effected Mission became to increase power of church and pope

Eventually becomes pope himself • Acts a lot more like a political leader ○ • Makes treaty with Lombard tribe

Has respect of all emperors

Dream: Christendom- wanted to create a united Christian kingdom that included all of the W Roman Empire with the pope as the religious and political leader  He does not achieve this, but the popes that come after him also have this goal

Was a scholar  Wrote books, theology • His theology was v. different than early church fathers ○ ○ Early church fathers: mixing faith and reason Gregory: didn’t trust man’s reason- focused completely on faith  Becomes the emphasis in Christianity during the Middle Ages

Did not like Jews, but did not think that the Jews should be forced to convert  However, you could humiliate them, teach them, or take away their political rights to try and convince them to join Christianity

Physical church  Took basilicas(Roman courts) and made them into churches

 

Shows transition from Roman cultureChurch Rectangle with seat with an apes where the alter was Decorated with pictures, scenes of Jesus and apostles, symbols(fish, water), mosaics, stained glass windows • b/c many people were illiterate

start very simply as church becomes more powerful • transition can be seen in physical churches ○ become more elaborate

Stage 3: Germanic tribes invade(300s) • • • • Germanc tribes= all tribes in Northern Europe- North of Danube River Individual tribes who hated each other Within each tribe, loyal to each other Who were the Germanic tribes? ○ Tall

○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • •

Powerful Fair skin Blue eyes Long red/blond hair Moody Violent Reckless Loyal Hospitable Hardy Nomads

Up until 180- stayed north of Danube river After 180, as Rome begins weakening, they begin to enter ○ Kill, cause chaos, come further and further in, then run out

System of Justice ○ Assumed that defense was guilty  Had to prone innocence  Could take oath •  Stuttered- assumed that they were guilty

Trial by ordeal

• • 

Tests to determine if they were guilty or not

Trial by combat • Duel- winner= innocent

Reason for doing this: depends on god  Gods would protect innocent Very pagan, superstitious

370- start onslaught on empire

Why?  Huns come towards Germanic tribes Germanic tribes run away from them and enter Roman empire Visigoths- attack Rome first  Cause Augustine to write “City if God”

Vandals- plunder and destroy everything- FINAL DESTRUCTION  “vandalism”

all of the tribes run away to the Roman empire  once they attack, they settle • Europe= kingdoms of barbarians ○ Angles and Saxons= England Franks= France

○ ○

Visigoths= Spain Ostrogoths= Italian Peninsula Vandals= N. Africa

Romans mix with barbarians  These barbarian kingdoms eventually become countries of Europe

5/10 End of Rome • Some historians: 455 ○ • Vandals finish off Rome

Some historians: 476 ○ Last emperor Romulus Augustus  Was sent into exile by barbarians  Really was end of empire


• •

1st time 2nd time-452 ○ Attila the Hun  Leads the Huns to sack city after city

Eastmakes his way intoWest • On his way to Rome ○ Pope Leo comes out to meet Atilla the Hun  No one knows what was said Then Atilla takes his army, turns around, and leaves

Church would say- miracle Logical explanation- Atilla and his army was tired from destroying city after city


How did Rav and Shmuel establish learning as the key to Jewish survival in Babylonia?

Leadership • Political leadership ○ Resh Galuta(Exilar)  Descendents of Yehoyakin This position is important to the Jews because the Resh Galuta is like an ambassador/political representative for the Jews to the Parthians and Muslims  Was treated very honorably by ruling empires

5/11 • Religious leadership ○ Heads of the yeshivot

Rav + Shmuel

Rav Went to Judea to learn the Mishna

• 

Rav Brought Mishna back to Babylon

When Rav comes back, Shmuel was head of the yeshiva at Nahardeya, and Rav was offered the position. He didn’t want to take that away from Shmuel, he starts his own yeshiva. Rav Starts Sura

When Nahardiya is destroyed, it is replaced by Pumbedita These yeshivot are for the Amoraim • Discussions were on mishna

Rav was considered Tana • Great kavod because he was living in the time of the Amoraim

learning= key to Jewish survival Instituted Kallah months • Adar and Elul: Open doors of academies for all men to learn for two months.

Picked these two months because at this time, there was not a lot of work to be done in the fields(most were farmers)

Rav is credited with writing some of the tfillot we say • • • • Alaynu- put it at end of every davening Benching Rosh Chodesh Yehi Ratzon at end of Shemonah Esrei Paragraph after Shofar blowing

Shmuel • • • Legal background Seen as more of a community type leader Created halacha of “Dina Dilmachutah Dina” ○ Fallow law of land

Discussions of Amoraim are Ba’al Peh up until early 500’s • Process of writing things down ○ ○ Pumbedita: Abayey and Rava Sura: Ravina and Rav Ashi

470- work on Gemara ends abruptly • yeshivot close, learning is difficult ○ Persians(Zoroastrians) close yeshivot

Were usually tolerant of Jews, but on occasion, they persecuted them

Lasted until 500’s ○ Lost a generation(3o yrs.)

Resh Galuta= Mar Zutra ○ Organized a separate Jewish community(started to learn and open schools)that lasted 7 years.

Next group of scholars= Savoraim • Don’t add content, but they fix it up and put the finishing touches on the Gemara ○ Bavli is finished in ~500  Considered more complete and finished than Yerushalmi  We learn Bavli because its more finished and because the Yerushalmi has more agricultural topics

Byzantine Empire= Eastern half of Roman Empire • • Western is destroyed in around 350, but the East will last another 1,000 years into the 1400s Byzantine Emperor

Absolute power- both religious and political  Religious  Considered head of Christian Church in East • Under him was the patriarch, but the emperor even had power over him

How did Justinian accomplish his goals? • Justinian- 500s ○ Strengthens empire  3 big goals

1. to re-conquer West • general was Belisarius ○ manages to conquer North Africa from the Vandals and Southern Spain from the Visigoths and the entire Italian peninsula from the Ostrigoths • In the process, the city of Rome is destroyed once again ○ Makes headquarters in Ravenna(N. Italian Peninsula)  Made into beautiful city  Cathedral best example of Byzantine art and architecture- mosaics, etc.

2. Law code= Codex Justinian • Parts ○ 1. Codex  ○ laws

2. Institute  instructions

3. Digest  past legal decisions(precedent)

4. Novellae  new laws

Some laws ○ ○ No Jew can have a Christian slave Synagogues should be made to look like churches

3. Beautifying Constantinople

Mêse-marketplace Hagia Sophia- church ○ Dome was specially constructed to be very high  ○ On a square base with supporting triangles

Very beautiful

Hippidrome- sports arena

University ○ ○ Studied in Greek Education was highly valued  Girls- educated, and some even attended the university

• •

Palace Wall ○ 3 sets of walls  Justinian built one of the walls very high and vey thick this is the reason that Constantine lasted as long as it did

After his death  A lot of the land he had conquered was re-captured by others •  plague enemies attach • • • tribes Persians Muslim Turks b/c emperors who succeed Justinian were not as good

 5/12

Shrinks until it is just Constantinople in the end

Christianity splits between East and West • 700s- debate over icons ○ icons were small or large statues of saints  was supposed to be inspiring, not idolatry  Byzantine emperors thought that they were getting too close to idol worship ○ Emperor(east) says that they should stop using icons(all christians)  Pope in west does not agree  Called East iconoclast(icon breaker) •  Term now means rebel

Pope excommunicated emperor of west  Excommunication- could not partake in any church rituals • No way you can get to heaven without doing all of the church rituals

Byzantine emperor finally gives in and allowes the use of icons  Consider anyone who was an iconoclast as a heretic(someone who goes against the religion).

This even pulls them apart

How did they practice Christianity differently?

West-Roman Catholic

East-eastern orthadox

Prayed in Latin

Prayed in reg. language

Head: pope

Head: patriarch

Divorce isn’t permitted

Divorce is permitted under certain circumstances

Clergy don’t marry

Clergy can marry

In 1054, West becomes Roman Catholic(universal), and East becomes Eastern Orthodox(right way) ○ ○ Eastern Orthodox splits up based on country Roman Catholic stays as one religion until Martin Luther  1500s- Martin Luther  splits into Catholics and Protestants • most other types are types of Protestantism

How did Mohammed’s teachings developed into a new religion? I. influences • Starts in Arabian Peninsula ○ Bedouins  Lived in tribes Lived in harsh environment Very loyal to each other but tribes fought tribes Survival of the fittest environment Very little compassion Sickly children were left out to die Religion- paganism

 ○

Other people lived in cities

Merchants for a living Traveled across the desert in caravans of camels There were Arabs, but also Jews and Christians  Many Jews went to Bavel when there was trouble in Jerusalem, but some went to Arabian Peninsula.

 pagans ○

Arabs were pagan

Mecca was holy city  Kaaba big black rock that they thought came from heaven  Pagan worship area You could go inside of it • Was filled with idols ○ One of the idols was Allah

II. Mohammed • • • Orphaned at a very young age Probably disnt know how to read or write First job: worked for a caravan company ○ Worked his way up  Worked for Kahdya(owned caravan company) and eventually marries her  She is very important to him financially and emotionally

He starts to get visions ○ Went into a trance- looked odd  Said that the angel Gabriel came to visit him  Said you should believe just in Allah and that Mohammed was the final prophet and that Mohammed should spread the religion to the world.

Tries to spread it in Mecca ○ Doesn’t work  Priests of Kaaba wanted him to leave Most people thought he was weird  Looked weird when he got visions

During this time, they believe that Gabriel actually comes to him and put him on a winged horse and that he flew him to Jerusalem and he goes to the spot where the Dome of the Rock is and that from there is goes up to heaven and Gabriel brings him on a tour to heaven. He meets Adam and Avraham and Moshe and Yeshu and finally Allah. It was there that Allah taught him everything in the Koran. It is believed that al of those people were prophets and that they all had truths, but that the final truth/ final prophet is Mohammed and Islam. He is taken back to Mecca ○ He now has knowledge of Koran

Decides to leave Mecca and go to Medina ○ Happens in 622 C.E. – considers year 1 of Muslim calendar

 •

called the Hegira

In Medina he gets many followers There were Jews in Medina who he slaughters because they wont conver

• • •

Comes back to Mecca with ten thousand of followers Used force to have people fallow him By the time he dies, most of the Arabian peninsula is Muslim

5/13 III. Mohammed’s Teachings • 5 Pillars of Fait

1. Salah- pray 5 times a day  When?  sunrise noon mid-afternoon sunset nightfall

Holy book= Qu’aran  Organized into chapters called Suras • Each time they pray they say some Suras

Know when to pray b/c Muezzin calls them to prayer Don’t have to pray in mosque  Men can go to a mosque

Prayer rug Ritually wash hands and feet Say Suras on floor

2. Hajj  once in your lifetime you are supposed to go on a 9 day pilgrimage to Mecca or pay for someone else to do  very ritualized

Saudi Arabia took over Hajj  Government pays for it once they get to airport • More people can experience it

No non-Muslim’s are not allowed in Mecca

3. Shahada- Statement of belief  there is no G-d but Allah and Muhammad is the prophet  say it= Muslim

○ ○

4. Zakat- must give charity 5. Saum- fasting during the month of Ramadan  month of repentance

fast during the day feast at night Ramadan travels through calendar

 •

Muhammad got Qur’an when he went up to heaven  Didn’t write it down because he didn’t know how to write

○ ○

Teaches it orally Abu Bakr finally writes it down  Arranged Suras according to length  Thematically not in logical order Very contradictory messages

Wrote it in Arabic  Until recently, it was only in Arabic and prayer was in Arabic • Unifies empire

Sunna- Oral Law ○ Other teachings of Muhammad

Some teachings are directed to be opposite of Bedouins Instituted things to entice the Jews to convert  Prayed facing Jerusalem Don’t eat pork

Should be honest in business dealings

Bedouins were known to be dishonest

No blood feuds  No Family rivalry Bedouins did this

No infanticide  No killing babies Bedouins used to do that

Instituted laws to protect widows and orphans  Response to Bedouins

No drinking or gambling  Big Bedouin thing to drink and gamble a lot

 • Leaders ○ ○

Polygamy- limited to 4 wives

Teachers: Mullahs Imans- people who led prayer services  Today, have more power If you prayed in mosque, Iman led service

Religion will turn into a political movement and into an empire

Starts in Mecca150 yrsall through North Africa, Spain, etc.

5/13,5/14 How did Islam spread so quickly? Had very good military leaders • Conquer Persia, Asia Minor, Byzantine Empire ○ Empires are weak  • Wasn’t so difficult to conquer

Motivation to fight hardest and put themselves in danger-Jihad(“striving”)

○ ○ ○ ○

Jihad= religious war Believed that Allah wanted them to fight to the death Reward for fighting and dying in a Jihad= go up to heaven Religious potential= participating in a Jihad ~see sheet~

Was easy to spread Islam to pagans • • Problem was with Jews and Christians Pagans are very tolerant because Allah was already one of their gods

Islam becomes a political power

A) 1st 4 caliphs • Having Muhammad as the leader of this religion= problem ○ Who should succeed him?  Becomes a critical debate and issue within Islam that caused the religion to split

4 leaders called caliphs • • • • 2 were family members 2 were not 3 out of 4 were assassinated caliphs ○ 1. Abu-Bakr  ○ 2. Omar  expands empire half way across N. Africa and entire Fertile Crescent area  Jews in Israel and Babylonia are under Muslim rule starts process of writing down and organizing the Qur’an

3. Another leader finishes Qur’an 4. Another ruler

B) differences

Sunni ○ ○ Believe that leader should be the most qualified person Go according to Qur’an and Sunni(Written law)

Shiite(Shi’a) ○ ○ ○ Believes that leader should be descendent of Muhammad Only go according to Qur’an Tend to more extreme

Iran is mostly Shiite and Iraq has some Shiites but mostly Sunnis, but most of the Muslim population is Sunnis

Sunni and Shittes fight for power

Sunni get power= Umayyad Dynasty (about 100 years) • • Move capital from Mecca to Damascus Unify empire ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • Conquer ○ ○ Into India Up until Tours France Mint coins Create roads Postal system All Muslim All speak Arabic

Battle of Tours

In 732 against the Franks • Franks stop advance of Muslims in Tours ○ Leader of Franks is Charles Martel

Had the Muslims won, Europe would have been made completely Muslim

○ •

Franks re-conquer quickly- Muslims lose France

With conquest they develop a very rich culture ○ Results in a Golden Age of culture for the Muslims  Much more advanced than the rest of the world in all areas of culture

• •

Great trade- very prosperous empire Shiites complain

that the Umayyads not only have power over the religion, but have corrupted the religion with wealth etc.

When Sunni took over, they killed Hussein, the grandson of Muhammad because he was really the next in line to rule  Day that he was killed is still a day of mourning for the Shiites  Big source of hatred between Shiites and Sunnis

Non-Arabs were being treated as second-class citizens

Shiite + some non-Arab Muslims= revolt ○ ○ Led by Abas and others Successful  Establish Abbasid Dynasty

Abbasid Dynasty (almost 500 years) • massacre ~80 of the Umayyad leaders ○ one leader escapes  goes to Spain  established an independent Umayyad kingdom in Spain • • • Rest become Shiites Shiites develop trade to an even higher extend ○ V. prosperous Spain splits off from the Abbasid Muslim Empire

Develop “sakk”

Sakk=check  Could bring piece of paper with a signature to get money in a bank Enabled a much higher level of trade

 • •

Move capital to Bagdad Cities develop

○ ○ ○ •

Damascus remains big city Cairo= big city Cordoba, Spain= big city

Culture takes off even more than before Leader in early times of Abbasid empire was Haran Ar Rashid ○ Wanted to make culture more rich  Prosperous society  More leisure time • Time to create ○ • Artists, artisans that were sponsored

Time to enjoy creations ○ People could appreciate it


Established House of Wisdom in Bagdad  Huge library and research center  Learning/study Collecting place for scholars from all of the empire of all different disciplines • Many scientists ○ Use scientific method

 • • Bagdad= cultural capital of empire Literature ○ Stories  1,001 Arabian Nights 

Hypothesize, experiment, conclusion

stories interwoven were from all cultures they had conquered • • they took from everyone and brought it all together but, had a very distinctive Arab style

known for poetry  Omar Khayam  Poet

“The Rubiyat”

Mathematician Worked on a calendar

• Math

Invented al-jabr (algebra)  Combining things(like addition) Wrote textbook Numbers- called Arabic Numerals  Really came from India but are called Arabic numerals

Invented use of zero  Good for calculating

5/21 What did the coming of Islam mean for the Jews? • Muhammad  Muhammad’s original intent: pro- Jewish  Prayed towards Jerusalem Had similar food-related laws to kashrut

When Muhammed went from Mecca to Medina, Many jews did not fallow him, and he killed them.

Assumed that Jews and Christians would want to convert  This is not the case

Most of his conversions occur by force Orginal discision: join or die

 • Omar ○

Conquers areas including the Jewish communities in Babylonia and in Jerusalem.  Many Jews live in these places

Came up with 3rd choice

d’himmi- second class citizen

○ ~see sheet on Pact of Omar~ 

Had to pay a giyzah-a tax

can practice their religion ,but must do it quietly and privately. Purpose:  don’t want these religions to grow, spread, or influence anybody Want to make it clear that the Muslims are on a higher level • • • Homes cant be higher Shuls cant be higher Ride on saddles ○ • Degrading

cant teach children the Koran ○ someone who isn’t a Muslim and reads the Koran makes the Koran unholy

a lot of this was not enforced  for many years, the Jews will live in Muslim countries peacefully and comfortably • Jews help the economy and are smart and productive members of society

Were, however, fairly consistent in enforcing the tax(giyzah)

1905 in Yemen- this pact was last printed

Up until 1925, Jewish orphans were converted to Islam Laws were in affect until 1948  Yemenite Jews went to Israel via Operation Magic Carpet

Why did the Jews not convert to Islam? ○ ○ Islam was wrong Islam was a watered down version of Judaism  Very influenced by Judaism, but not based on the foundational elements that Judaism is based upon.

What happens to the Muslim empire? • Spain breaks off and is ruled by the Sunni Umayyads Other pieces start to break off • 900-1100: Seljuk Turks come on horseback and conquer fertile cresent area ○ ○ take parts of Muslim, Byzantine empire they were pagan, nomadic tribes  they become Muslim  less civilized people take over more civilized people and take on their religion ○ Christians in Jersualem(Byzantine empire) ask the pope in Rome to help free Jerusalem from the infidel

Pope sends helpCrusades  Pope wants to do this because the pope would love to have control over East again

1st crusade is successful

Jerusalem= under Christians control for ~30 years

Muslims begin to win Ottoman Turks come towards the end of the crusades • Create Ottoman empire in that area ○ Take over Byzantine empire Renames ConstantibopleIstanbul Lasts until the end of World War I  Becomes Turkey

5/24 How did the Gaonim establish themselves as the center of Jewish learning? • Bavel= center of Judaism in the world ○ ○ • Center for Jewish learning Considered final authority on halachic issues

3 Jewish leaders in Babylon 1. Resh Galuta  recognized by Muslims

2. Gaon of Sura 3. Gaon of Pumbedita • If people had questions they would send Shaylot and Teshuvot to Bavel ○ Collected in books called Responsa literature

Valuable to historians because these she’elot show us what was on their minds and what they were thinking, which is the hardest thing for historians to figure out.

Most famous: Shayla to Rav Amram  Q: what should we daven? A: order of davening • This became the siddur ○ R’ Sa’adia Gaon was asked a similar question and added to this  Their two tshuvot became the siddur we have today

Sent out Shaliachs ○ Would go to community and teach, answer questions, and collect funds  Felt that they could collect funds because they were teaching these communities Was a way to connect Bavel to these communities

 •

Community in Bavel was a continuation of the Prushi community ○ Learn and daven= way to serve Hashem

There were challenges to this kind of Judaims

How did Saadia Gaon confront the challenges to the Judaism of the Gaonim? • Saadia Gaon- (600s-1200) ○ • Rasag

Challenges A. Karites  Only Torah SheBichtav Arise from political dispute  Political dispute • Become Resh Galuta from father-to-son ○  If no son, choose close relative

Gaonim picked one of two borthers • Do not choose Anan ○ Said he would start his own branch of Judaims  Starts Karites

Anan says that we don’t need the rabbis or the Torah SheBeal Peh and we can just interperate the Torah as we wish  Attack on power and authority of the rabbis

Become very much like Tzidukim ○ Practiced Judaism very differently

Saadia spent a lot of time speaking and writing against the Karites  Delegitimized him  Number of Karites dropped tremendously

B. Jewish community in Palastine  Emphasis was different than Jews in Bavel  Influenced by Muslims •  Into linguistics, poetry, texts, midrash(Rather than halacha), etc.

Felt that since they were in Judea, they should be the halachic authorities even though their rabbis wre not on as high a level

Saadia comes to Judea  Debate: When was Rosh Hashana that year?  Saadia represented Gaonim Debated against head of Jewish community in Judea • Debated halachically and mathematically ○ It was clear that Saadia was correct  Firmly established that Gaonim had authority and influence on halacha C. Challenge of Muslim culture

Muslim culture  philosophy • philosophy showing Islam in a very rational, logical way ○  many Jews were familiar with this

at this point, the Jews didn’t really have philosophy- no presentation of Judaism in a rational way • didn’t have anything to answer in return ○ many Jews were being influenced

Saadia started to write poetry and philosophy  wrote rhyming dictionary of Hebrew words to help others write poetry write first philosophy book: “Emunot ViDayot”(Beliefs and Opinions”)  logical, rational presentation of Judaism 2 main points 1. No contradiction between truth from logic and reason and the truth that we got from revelation on Har Sinai ○ no contradiction between faith and reason

2. Supperiority of truths of Judaism over truths of Islam ○ analyzes both  Shows Judaism to be superior in 2 ways:

1. Judaism= Torah was revealed before thousands of people. Islam= truth was revealed to one man 2. other differences  4 ways to acquire truth: 1. senses- seeing something and knowing it is true 2. Self-evident things- gut truth ex. lying is bad 3. what you get through logic and reason ex. If a=b and b=c, than a=c 4. Revealed, reliable tradition- Torah Equal ways to acquire truths • if you are very smart, you can gain a lot of truth through logic and reason, but you still need revelation, and if your not as smart you need more revelations ○ believed strongly in faith and reason together

Rambam agrees with him that faith + reason is necessary to gain truth

Yehuda HaLevi disagrees

Presents Judaism very rationally

Takes things from Torah and explains things rationally ○ G-d created the physical world, he cant be physical,and is therefore incorporeal so you cant think of quantities of Hashem- Avodah Zara is impossible  Therefore,if G-d is creator, G-d must be immortal, all knowing, and all powerful  Therefore, man cannot ever reach the level of Hashem because Hashem is not physical

 5/25 •

Wrote in Hebrew letters

At the end of his life, Saadia gets into a dispute with the Exilark

It was clear to Saadia that the Exilark did something dishonest and Saadia would not put his own signature on the document  Turned into huge dispute  Exilark had Saadia exiled for 10 years Saadia came back after 10 years and they made up • This did damage to the position of the Exilark ○ This starts the downfall of the Jewish community in Bavel

How did the Jewish community in Babylon weaken? • • Dispute with Saadia weakened the authority and position of the Exilark Muslim empire broke up into different independent kingdoms ○ Makes trade more difficult  • Economically, community does not do so well

Jews at to pay the tax- economic difficulities

Jews start to leave

Where did the Jews go? 1. Through Asia Minor into Eastern Europe 2. Through Italian Peninsula and into France and Germany ○ Center of Ashkenaz

3. Across North Africa into Spain ○ ○ establish communities along the way Center of Sphard

What changes come to Western Europe as a result of the collapse of the Roman Empire?

United Roman Empire with stable governmentmany different kingdoms of Germanic tribes

Germanic tribes were only loyal to their own leader/lord ○ Politically: local loyalty- no unity

Cities of Roman empires were destroyed ○ People lived in countryside  Farm for food

Trade is not doing well- v. little trade ○ No peace= bad for trade

• •

Culture is destroyed Litteracy rate goes down Do not all speak Latin anymorespoke Romance languages ○ Latin + language of Germanic tribes

Kingdom of the France • First king: Clovis ○ ○ Conquers most of what we know of as France Tries to rule it as a united kingdom  Has laws  Germanic tribe-like laws • ○ Becomes Catholic Trial by ordial

 ○

Has support of Church

Starts Merovingian Dynasty  Continues peacefully for about 300 years Nicknames  The “Long-Haired Kings” •  Symbolizes power

The “Do-Nothing Kings” • b/c really, lords still had power

Major domo ○ ○ Major lord who really ran kingdom Mid 700s: Charles Martel  Major Domo Great conquerer Stopped Muslims in Battle of Tours(732) A lot of power  Was able to have is sons become a major domos after him • Son: Pepin

Pepin: wants power ○ ○ Pepin says to Pope: If I get rid of the Lombards, you will crown me king He does so, and he is crowned king

Good for Pepin  Power= from G-d Has political and religious power

Good for Pope  Pepin is indepted to the Pope • This relationship lasts for many years

Pases power to son  Son: Charlemagne • Starts Carolingian Dynasty

5/27 What were the goals and accomplishments of Charlemagne? • Goal #1 ○ to create Christendom  ○ A united Christian empire

Accomplishments  Conquering lands  Lands conquered(bulk of Gaul) before him had been conquered by Clovis Charlamagne adds on to the area that Clovis conquered • Saxoni, area by Spain, half way down the Italian Peninsula

Makes it into kingdom from empire

Organizes empire  Divided up into provinces • • Local rulers Spies- Missi dominici

Invited scholars to come  Alcuin- best way to convert people is by teaching them

Charlemagne says there is no time, and instead converts them by force

Was a holy man because he was Christian and had close ties with the Church  However, he was still a barbarian because he slaughters all these people

Goal #2 : To create culture w/ learning, etc. ○ Accomplishments:  Invited in scholars Sets up schools and encourages learning Invited Jews into kingdom because they were very learned He himself was not a scholar  He could never read or write

Starts the Carolingian renaissance  Culture, more than had existed before

His 1 son who succeeds him is called Louis the Pious • very pious man

sons of Louis the Pious- fight for power • this fighting for power will continue ○ united empire that Charlemagne creates is lost  there will be kings, but Lords will have power

Treaty of Verdun Devides power between grandsons

united empire no longer exiss

Charlamagne’s accomplishments: • plants seed for empire ○ Knights • Loyalty ○ ○ ○ To Chruch To Lord To Lady was before his time

~year 1,000: invasions • From Vikings ○ ○ Came from Scandenavia Attacked by ship  very strange, scary ships v. advanced  could come very close to shore

would come to shore and attacked in a frenzy(berserk)

○ ○ ○
6/28 • Maggars attack from the East ○ Attacks start spontaneously

tremendous destruction then would sail away before anyone could do anything

shows that Carolingion dynasty wasn’t providing basic right: protection

Medieval Society • • those who prayed- church officials those who fought- nobles: lords and vassals ○ feudalism

those who worked- serfs

Feudal System:Nobles • Vassal swore his loyalty to the lord ○ Basic thing he owed to the lord: military service  ○ ○ Usually was 40 days a year

Was supposed to be the lords trusted advisor Owed lord money  Vassals were supposed to contribute to events, celebrations If lord was held captive, the vassal was supposed to pay the ransom Payed when original contract was enacted

 •

Lord passed something to the vassal to show that he was giving him land ○ Land= fief

King had royal vassals

Royal vassals had vassals so they became lords and vassals  Etc… Until you got to the last vassals= knights

 • Feudal contracts ○ ○ •

Official document stating loyalty to lord Stipulated what if a war were to occur between to lords of one vassal

Became very confusing system

○ •

Result: a lot of war during this time

Lived in manors ○ Serfs worked the land  Owed lord work because they got protection, food, shelter, land.

6/1 How did the feudal system fall apart?


Trade develops

trade spreads throughout Europe and into the Middle East and far east

with this, society begins to change

 •

the feudal system was missing a middle class- merchants, etc.

Crusades: 1096-1200’s ○ First Crusade  Patriarch calls for help from the Pope because the Muslims took over Jerusalem

Christians there were Eastern Orthodox

Pope was anxious to demonstrate his power  Sends armies of Christian nights • People started to join on the way

Some for religious reasons, some for materialistic reasons.

Go overland to Constantinople or through Italian Peninsua to Constantinople, or all the way through water to Constantinople

• 

Then make their way to Jerusalem

First Crusade is successful  Form 4 Christian kingdoms Hold this land for 50 years until the Muslims take over it again, which causes 2nd Crusade, which was not successful

○ ○

Last few Crusades- want to get trading centers and routes- much more materialistic goals Those who made it to Jerusalem and back saw the world around them  Want to live in cities and wont want to go back the manor  Serfs begin to run away to cities • Tradition: if you live in the city for a year and a day you were free ○ Happen very often  Manors fall apart as trading developes

Purpose of feudalism: to protect in times of war

There isn’t so much war at this time

6/2 ~see sheet on trading routes~

What was the economic position o the Jew in Medieval Society? • When feudalism develops, the Jews cant be part of it, because it all involved a Christian oath ○ • When towns develop, the Jews will be the first ones to go to the towns

Will become early merchants and artisans ○ Early merchants did not do well- very risky  Guilds  In order to join, to had to be a master

Apprenticejourney manmasterpiecemaster ○ If you were a master, you had to join the guild  You would pay your dues and be part of the guild

The guild would tell you how to make your craft and how much it would cost • Eliminated competition

If you hurt yourself and couldn’t work, the guild would pay for your living If you died, the guild would pay for your funeral and would give money to your family

Jews couldnt join guilds because you had to take a Christian oath  Couldn’t be merchants

Became money lenders ○ Ambivilant relationship: Christians were happy when Jews lended money, but when the Christians had to pay they were not very happy

ProsperousbankingJews excluded

Develop reputation of being hard workers ○ Towns with Jews= good for economy and good for premoting education

Jews develop communities within Christian towns ○ Had almost total control over their communities  Not a lot of persecution before Crusades Jewish learning develops  Rabbenu Gershom Rashi

Developed:  On Rhine River Troyes, France Provance, France(Narbonne) • Mixture of Ashkenazi + Sphard

The hold if the Church on the people

Believed in Doctrine of Original Sin

○ ○

Paul just said that you have to believe in Jesus As Christianity developes, they created the 7 sacraments that you needed the help of the Church to perform  Could only perform 6 out of 7 Church as critical important

 •

V. wealthy- owned a lot of land ○ People left money and land to churh when they died

Politically powerful ○ Become corrupt  Crusades will be called for a number of reasons  including the power struggle between the East and West •  West was happy to show East there power

Including the fact that they hoped that the Crusades would cleanse the church of corruption

200 years of Crusades • 8 major Crusades ○ 6/4 Jerusalem will be held by the Muslims from the second Crusade and on

How were the Crusades a turning point in Church history, Jewish history, and Europian history? • Church History ○ ○ • Lost Jerusalem Since they lost, they loose faith because they said that god was behing this crusade

Jewish History ○ After the Crusades, the violence against the Jews continued throughout the middle ages  The Jews were accused of:  Blood libels Poisening the water during Black Plague

 ○

Jews are expelled, country by country, at the end of the Middle Ages  First out of England Then in and out of France a few times Out of German states 14921- Spain 1500s- Italy  by this time, basically no Jews in Western Europe

European History ○ End of feudalism  Lord loose power, merchants gain power  Middle class becomes more educated/powerful

 ○ ○ Kings start to gain power and nations start to develop Economy is based on trade  Competitive, capitalistic type of economy

Culture develops



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