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INDEX

1
2

Introduction ....................................................................................................
Specification ..................................................................................................
2.1 AC-3 Technical specifications ................................................................
2.2 AC-4 Technical Specifications ...............................................................
2.3 Block Diagram .......................................................................................
2.4 Control unit .............................................................................................
2.4.a Microswitches ...............................................................................
2.4.b Accelerator unit .............................................................................
2.4.c Other analog control unit ................................................................
2.4.d Speed feedback ............................................................................

3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5

2.5

Protection features

2.6
2.7
2.8

Operational features ............................................................................... 7


Diagnosis .............................................................................................. 8
Thermal consideration ............................................................................ 8

2.9

General instructions and precautions

.......................................................................... 6

. .............................................. 8

2.10 Susceptibility and electromagnetic emission

.................................. 9

2.11 Main contactor and emergency switch .................................................... 9


.......................................................................... 10

Safety and protection

Installation .................................................................................................... 11
4.1 Connection cables ............................................................................... 11
4.2 Contactors ........................................................................................... 11
4.3 Fuses ................................................................................................... 11
4.4 Description of connectors - Traction configuration ............................... 12
4.4.a Amp Saab connector ................................................................... 12
4.4.b Molex Minifit connectors .............................................................. 14
4.5 Description of connectors - Pump configuration .................................... 16
4.5.a Amp Saab connector ................................................................... 16
4.5.b Molex Minifit connectors .............................................................. 18
4.6 Encoder installation .............................................................................. 20
4.7 Description of power connections......................................................... 21
4.8 AC3 Mechanical drawing ..................................................................... 22
4.9 AC4 Mechanical Drawing ..................................................................... 23
4.10 Connection drawing - Traction configuration ......................................... 24
4.10.a Amp Saab connector ................................................................ 24
4.10.b Molex Minifit connectors ........................................................... 25
4.11 Connection drawing - Pump configuration ............................................ 26
4.11.a Amp Saab connector ................................................................ 26
4.11.b Molex Minifit connectors ........................................................... 27
4.12 Connection drawing - Combi configuration ........................................... 28
4.12.a Amp Saab connector ................................................................ 28
4.12.b Molex Minifit connectors ........................................................... 29
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Programming & Adjustments using Digital Console ............................... 30


5.1 Adjustments via Console ...................................................................... 30
5.2 Description of Console & Connection ................................................... 30
5.3 Description of Standard Console Menu ................................................ 31
5.3.a Traction configuration .................................................................. 31
5.3.b Pump configuration ...................................................................... 32
5.4 Function configuration .......................................................................... 33
5.4.a Traction ....................................................................................... 33
5.4.b Pump .......................................................................................... 37
5.5 Parameter regulation: Traction configuration ........................................ 43
5.6 Parameter regulation: Pump configuration ............................................ 45
5.7 Programming console functions ........................................................... 47
5.8 Sequence for Ac Inverter Traction setting .............................................. 48
5.9 Tester: description of the function; Traction configuration ...................... 49
5.10 Tester: description of the function; Pump configuration ......................... 51
6 Other functions ............................................................................................ 53
6.1 Description of the Console Save function ............................................. 53
6.2 Description of Console Restore function ............................................... 54
6.3 Description of Alarms menu ................................................................. 55
6.4 Description of Console Program Vacc function .................................... 56
7 AC Inverter diagnostic - Traction configuration ........................................ 57
7.1 Analysis of alarms displayed on console .............................................. 57
8 AC Inverter diagnostic - Pump configuration ............................................ 61
8.1 Analysis of alarms displayed on console .............................................. 61
9 Recommended Spare parts for inverter .................................................... 65
10 Periodic Maintenance to be repeated at times indicated .......................... 66

The informations included into the marked paragraphs by this symbol are
essential for the safety.

SIGNATURES TABLE
COMPANY DEPT. SERVICES
ENGINEERING SECTION EXECUTIVE
EXPORT MANAGER

Publications N: ADWZP0AD
Edition: January 2003
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MANAGEMENT EXECUTIVE

1 INTRODUCTION
Within the ZAPIMOS family, the AC3 inverter is the model suitable for control of 712 KW
motors; the AC4 inverter is the model suitable for control of 12kW to 20kW motors. They
have been expressly designed for battery electric traction.
They are fit for electric truck, electric cars, tractors and buses.

2 SPECIFICATION
2.1 AC-3 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Inverter for AC asynchronous 3-phase motors
Regenerative braking functions
Can-bus interface
Digital control based upon a microcontroller
Voltage: ......................................................................................... 36 - 48 - 72 - 80V
Maximum current (36V,48V): ......................................................... 600A (RMS) for 3'
Maximum current (72V,80V): ......................................................... 450A (RMS) for 3'
Booster (all version) .............................. 10% of maximum current for some seconds;
Operating frequency: ..........................................................................................8kHz
External temperature range: ................................................................. -30C 40C
Maximum inverter temperature (at full power): .................................................... 75C
2.2 AC-4 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Inverter for AC asynchronous 3-phase motors
Regenerative braking functions
Can-bus interface
Digital control based upon a microcontroller
Voltage: ................................................................................................ 48 - 72 - 80V
Maximum current (48V): ................................................................ 700A (RMS) for 3'
Maximum current (72V,80V): ......................................................... 550A (RMS) for 3'
Booster (all version) .............................. 10% of maximum current for some seconds;
Operating frequency: ..........................................................................................8kHz
External temperature range: ................................................................. -30C 40C
Maximum inverter temperature (at full power): .................................................... 75C

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2.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM

2.4 CONTROL UNIT


2.4.a Microswitches
- The microswitches must have a contact resistance lower than 0.1ohm and a leakage
current lower than 100A.
- When full load connected, the voltage between the key switch contacts must be lower
than 0.1V.
- The microswitches send a voltage signal to the microprocessor when a function request
(for ex.: running request) is made.
2.4.b Accelerator unit
The accelerator unit can consist of a potentiometer or an Hall effect device.
It should be in a 3-wire configuration.
CPOT (A11, Saab connector version; A1, Molex Minifit version) signal ranges from 0 to
10V.
Potentiometer value should be in the 0.5 - 10 Kohm range; generally, the load should be in
the 1.5mA to 30 mA range. Faults can occur if it is outside this range.

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The Procedure for automatic potentiometer signal acquisition is carried out using the
Console. This enables adjustment of the minimum and maximum useful signal level
(PROGRAM VACC function), in either direction. This function is unique when it is necessary to compensate for asymmetry with the mechanical elements associated with the
potentiometer, especially relating to the minimum level.
The sequence of procedure is described in the programming console manual.

The two graphs show the output voltage from a non-calibrated potentiometer with
respect to the mechanical zero of the control lever. MI and MA indicate the point where
the direction switches close. 0 represents the mechanical zero of the rotation.
The Left Hand graph shows the relationship of the motor voltage without signal acquisition
being made. The Right Hand Graph shows the same relationship after signal acquisition
of the potentiometer.
2.4.c Other analog control unit
1) Input A13 (Saab connector version), A8 (Molex Minifit version) is an analog input,
whose typical application is for proportional braking. It should be in a 3 wire configuration. Potentiometer value should be in the 0.5-10Kohm range. Generally, the load
should be in the 1.5mA to 30 mA range.
The CPOTB (A13, A8) signal range is from 0 to 10V.
2) Connections A3 (Saab), B6 (Minifit) (PTHERM) and A4 (Saab), B12 (minifit)
(NTHERM) are used for a motor thermal sensor. It can be digital (on/off sensor, normally closed) or analog. See also chapter 4.4 for more explanation.
2.4.d Speed feedback
The motor control is based upon the motor speed feedback. The speed transducer is an
incremental encoder, with two phases shifted at 90. The encoder can be of different types
:
- power supply:
+5V or +12V
-

electric output:

open collector ( NPN or PNP), push-pull, line driver

standard (A and B) or differential (A, A, B, B) output

For more details about encoder installation see also chapter 3.6.

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2.5 PROTECTION FEATURES


- Battery polarity inversion:
It is necessary to fit a MAIN CONTACTOR to protect the inverter against reverse battery
polarity and for safety reasons.
- Connection Errors:
All inputs are protected against connection errors.
- Thermal protection
If the chopper temperature exceeds 75C, the maximum current is reduced in
proportion to the thermal increase. The temperature can never exceeds 100C.
- External agents:
The inverter is protected against dust and the spray of liquid to a degree of
protection meeting IP54.
- Protection against uncontrolled movements:
The main contactor will not close if:
- The Power unit is not functioning.
- The Logic is not functioning perfectly.
- the output voltage of the accelerator does not fall below the minimum voltage value
stored, with 1V added.
- Running microswitch in closed position.
- Low battery charge:
when the battery charge is low, the maximum current is reduced to the half of the maximum current programmed.
- Protection against accidental Start up
A precise sequence of operations are necessary before the machine will start.
Operation cannot begin if these operations are not carried out correctly.
Requests for drive, must be made after closing the key switch

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2.6 OPERATIONAL FEATURES


- Speed control.
- Optimum behavior an a slope due to the speed feedback:
- the motor speed follows the accelerator, starting a regenerative braking if the speed
overtakes the speed set-point.
- the system can perform an electrical stop on a ramp (the machine is electrically hold
on a slope) for a programmable time (see also chapter 4.4)
- Stable speed in every position of the accelerator.
- Regenerative release braking based upon deceleration ramps.
- Regenerative braking when the accelerator pedal is partially released (deceleration).
- Direction inversion with regenerative braking based upon deceleration ramp.
- Regenerative braking and direction inversion without contactors: only the main
contactor is present.
- The release braking ramp can be modulated by an analog input, so that a proportional
brake feature is obtained.
- Optimum sensitivity at low speeds.
- Voltage boost at the start and with overload to obtain more torque (with current control).
- The inverter can drive an electromechanical brake
- Hydraulic steering function:
1) traction inverter
- the traction inverter sends a "hydraulic steering function" request to the pump inverter
on the can-bus line (see also OPTION chapter 4.4)
- moreover , if the pump inverter is not present (for ex: tractor application), the traction
inverter can manage an "hydraulic steering function" by driving a hydro contactor which
drive a hydraulic steering motor (output A7 (Saab), B9 (Minifit), see also OPTION chapter)
2) pump inverter
- the pump inverter manage an "hydraulic steering function". That is, it drives the pump
motor at the programmed speed for the programmed time.
- High efficiency of motor and battery due to high frequency commutations.
- Self diagnosis with indication of the fault shown by a flashing led.
- Modification of parameters through the programming console.
- Internal hour-meter with values that can be displayed on the console.
- Memory of the last five alarms with relative hour-meter and temperature displayed on the
console.
- Test function within console for checking main parameters.

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2.7 DIAGNOSIS
The microprocessor continually monitors the inverter and carries out a diagnostic procedure on the main functions. The diagnosis is made in 4 points
1) Diagnosis on key switch closing that checks: watchdog circuit, current sensor, capacitor charging, phase's voltages, contactor drives, can-bus interface, if the switch sequence for operation is correct and if the output of accelerator unit is correct.
2) Standby diagnosis at rest that checks: watchdog circuit, phase's voltages, contactor
driver, current sensor, can-bus interface.
3) Diagnosis during operation that checks: watchdog circuits, contactor driver, current
sensors, can-bus interface.
4) Continuos diagnosis that check: temperature of the inverter, motor temperature.
Diagnosis is provided in two ways. The digital console can be used, which gives a detailed
information about the failure; the failure code is also sent on the Can-Bus.
2.8 THERMAL CONSIDERATION
- The heat generated by the power block must be dissipated. For this to be possible,
the compartment must be ventilated and the heat sink materials ample.
- The heat sink material and system should be sized on the performance requirement of
the machine. Abnormal ambient air temperatures should be considered. In situations
where either ventilation is poor, or heat exchange is difficult, forced air ventilation should
be used.
- The thermal energy dissipated by the power block module varies and is dependent on
the current drawn and the duty cycle.
2.9 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS AND PRECAUTIONS

- Never connect SCR low frequency chopper with ASYNCHRONOUS INVERTER because the ASYNCHRONOUS filter capacitors alter the SCR choppers' work. If it is
necessary to use two or more control units (traction + lift. for ex.), they must belong to the
ZAPIMOS family.
- Do not connect the inverter to a battery with a nominal value different from the value
indicated on the chopper plate. If the battery value is greater, the MOS may fail; if it is
lower, the control unit does not "power up".
- During battery charge, disconnect ASYNCHRONOUS from the battery.
- Supply the ASYNCHRONOUS only with battery for traction; do not use a power supply.
- When the chopper is installed, make tests with the wheels raised from the ground, in
order to avoid dangerous situations due to connection errors.
- After the chopper is switched off (key off), the filter capacitor remains charged for some
minutes; if you need to work on the inverter, discharge them using a
10W 100W resistance connected from the +Batt to the -Batt.

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2.10 SUSCEPTIBILITY AND ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSION


Electromagnetic susceptibility and emission are strongly influenced by the installation.
Special attention must be given to the lengths and the paths of the electric connections and
the shields.
This situation is beyond ZAPI's control. Therefore ZAPI declines any responsibility for
noncompliance if correct testing is not made (the irradiated emission directive is
EN50081-2).
2.11 MAIN CONTACTOR AND EMERGENCY SWITCH
- The connection of the battery line switches must be carried out following ZAPI instructions.
- If a mechanical battery line switch is installed, it is necessary that the key supply to the
inverter is open together with power battery line; if not, the inverter may be
damaged if the switch is opened during a regenerative braking.

- An intrinsic protection is present inside the logic when the voltage on the battery power
connection overtakes 40% more than the battery nominal voltage or if the key is
switched off before the battery power line is disconnected.

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3 SAFETY AND PROTECTION


ZAPI controllers are designed according to the prEN954-1 specifications for safety
related parts of control system and to UNI EN1175-1 norm.
The safety of the machine is strongly related to installation; length, layout and
screening of electrical connections have to be carefully designed.
AC3/AC4 inverter electronic implements an hardware safety circuit, which is able to open
the Line Contactor (LC) and the Electric Brake (EB) - and therefore to cut the power line
stopping the machine via HARDWARE, that is bypassing the software control of the LC
and EB. This safety circuit is driven by "SAFETY" input (see next chapter). If safety input is
connected to -BATT, the "SAFETY" circuit is inactive; if the input is open, the "SAFETY"
circuit becomes active and, within a timeout, it is able to open the drivers of LC coil and
EB coil. The safety circuit is also periodically checked by the AC3/AC4 microcontroller; if
the microcontroller detects a failure in the "SAFETY" circuit, the microcontroller itself will
bring the machine in a safe status.
Suggested connection of "SAFETY" circuit:
- STANDALONE CONFIGURATION: it is suggested to connect safety input to the
"SEAT" microswitch or to the "DEADMAN" microswitch (it depends on the application);
in this way the machine will be brought to a safe status as soon as the operator leaves
the machine.
- COMBI CONFIGURATION: in this case the pump controller acts as supervisor, checking
the traction controller functionality by the CANBUS. So it is suggested to connect the
"SAFETY" input of traction controller to a dedicated output of pump controller, so that
the pump controller can drive the traction safety input and open the power line in case of
malfunctioning of traction controller.
ZAPI is always available to cooperate with the customer in order to evaluate installation and connection solutions. Furthermore, ZAPI is available to develop new
SW or HW solutions to improve the safety of the machine, according to customer
requirements.
Machine manufacturer holds the responsibility for the truck safety features and
related approval.

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4 INSTALLATION
Install the chopper with the base-plate on a flat metallic surface that is clean and unpainted.
Apply a light layer of thermo-conductive grease between the two surfaces to permit better
heat dissipation.
Ensure that the wiring of the cable terminals and connectors is carried out correctly.
Fit transient suppression devices to the horn, solenoid valves, and contactors not connected to the chopper such as those for activating the pump motor or steering motor.
4.1 CONNECTION CABLES
For the auxiliary circuits, use cables of 0.5mm section.
For power connections to the motor and to the battery, use cables having section in the
3550 mm range (as a minimum).
For the optimum inverter performance, the cables to the battery should be run side by side
and be as short as possible.
4.2 CONTACTORS
The main contactor must be installed. Depending on the position of a jumper installed in
the logic board:
- the output which drives the main contactor coil is on/off (the coil is driven with the full
battery voltage).
-

the output which drives the main contactor coil is switched at high frequency (1 KHz)
with a duty cicle of 70%; this feature is useful to decrease the power dissipation of the
contactor coil.
4.3 FUSES

- Use a 6.3A Fuse for protection of the auxiliary circuits.


- For protection of the power unit, refer to diagrams.. The Fuse value shown is the maximum allowable. For special applications or requirements these values can be reduced.
- For Safety reasons, we recommend the use of protected fuses in order to prevent the
spread of fused particles should the fuse blow.

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4.4 DESCRIPTION OF CONNECTORS - TRACTION CONFIGURATION


The AC3 and AC4 have been designed to be produced with two different types of I/O
connector: One AMP SAAB 29 poles connector or six Molex Minifit connectors.
4.4.a Amp Saab connector

A1

PPOT

Potentiometer positive: 10V output; keep load > 1KW.

A2

NPOTB

-Batt.

A3

PTHERM

Input for motor temperature sensor.

A4

NTHERM

-Batt.

A5

-BATT

Battery negative.

A6

NLC

Negative of main contactor coil.

A7

NBRAKE

Output for driving a brake or an hydraulic steering contactor coil;


drives the load to -Batt maximum current : 3A.

A8

PLC

Positive of main contactor coil.

A9

CM

Common of FW / BW / SR / PB / SEAT / BACK. FW / BACK. BW /


EXCLUSIVE HYDRO microswitches.

A10 KEY

Connected to the power supply through a microswitch (CH) with a


10A fuse in series.

A11 CPOT

Accelerator potentiometer wiper.

A12 NPOT

Negative of accelerator unit, tested for wire disconnection diagnosis.

A13 CPOTB

Brake potentiometer wiper.

A14 CAN-H

High level CAN-BUS voltage I/O.

A15 CAN-L

Low level CAN-BUS voltage I/O.

A16 FORW

Forward direction request input. Must be connected to the forward


direction microswitch, active high.

A17 BW

Backward direction request input. Must be connected to the backward direction microswitch, active high.

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A18 BACK. FORW Inching function, forward direction input. Must be connected to the
inching forward switch. Active high.
A19 BACK. BACK Inching function, backward direction input. Must be connected to the
inching backward switch. Active high.
A20 ENCODER

Incremental ENCODER connector (see chapter 3.6).

A21 ENCODER

Incremental ENCODER connector (see chapter 3.6).

A22 ENCODER

Incremental ENCODER connector (see chapter 3.6).

A23 ENCODER

Incremental ENCODER connector (see chapter 3.6).

A24 MODE

This input allows the customer to select the software for traction or
lifting application.
Configuration:
MODE: Open (not connected)
Traction inverter
MODE: Close (connected with A5)
Pump inverter

A25 SAFETY

If not connected to -Batt the MC coil power output will be disabled.


Can also be used as a general purpose input.

A26 PB

Brake request input. Must be connected to the brake pedal switch,


active high.

A27 EX. HYDRO

Exclusive hydro function input. Must be connected to the exclusive


hydro microswitch. Active high (see also OPTION chapter)

A28 SR/HB

Speed reduction (handbrake) input. Active low (switch opened). See


also OPTION chapter.

A29 SEAT

SEAT input; must be connected to the SEAT microswitch; it is active


high.

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4.4.b Molex Minifit connectors

A1

CPOT

Accelerator potentiometer wiper.

A2

PPOT

Potentiometer positive: 10V output; keep load > 1KW.

A3

NPOT

Negative of accelerator unit, tested for wire disconnection diagnosis.

A4

CM

Common of FW / BW / SR / PB / SEAT / BACK. FW / BACK. BW /


EXCLUSIVE HYDRO microswitches.

A5

FORW

Forward direction request input. Must be connected to the forward


direction microswitch, active high.

A6

BW

Backward direction request input. Must be connected to the backward direction microswitch, active high.

A7

PB

Brake request input. Must be connected to the brake pedal switch,


active high.

A8

CPOTB

Brake potentiometer wiper.

A9

PPOTB

Brake potentiometer positive. 10V output; keep load >1KW.

A10 NPOTB

-Batt.

A11 -BATT

-Batt.

A12 BACK. FORW Inching function, forward direction input. Must be connected to the
inching forward switch. Active high.
A13 BACK. BACK Inching function, backward direction input. Must be connected to the
inching backward switch. Active high.
A14 EX. HYDRO

Exclusive hydro function input. Must be connected to the exclusive


hydro microswitch. Active high (see also OPTION chapter)

B1

KEY

Connected to the power supply through a microswitch (CH) with a


10A fuse in series.

B2

PLC

Positive of main contactor coil.

B3

PBRAKE

Positive of the electromechanical brake coil.

B4

SEAT

SEAT input; must be connected to the SEAT microswitch; it is active


high.

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B5

SAFETY

If not connected to -Batt the MC coil power output will be disabled.


Can also be used as a general purpose input.

B6

PTHERM

Input for motor temperature sensor.

B7

CM

Common of FW / BW / SR / PB / SEAT / INCHING FW / INCHING


BW / EXCLUSIVE HYDRO microswitches.

B8

NLC

Negative of main contactor coil.

B9

NBRAKE

Output for driving a brake or an hydraulic steering contactor coil;


drives the load to -Batt maximum current : 3A.

B10 SR/HB

Speed reduction (handbrake) input. Active low (switch opened). See


also OPTION chapter.

B11 GND

-Batt.

B12 NTHERM

-Batt.

C1

CAN-L

Low level CAN-BUS voltage I/O.

C2

CAN-L-OUT

Low level CAN-BUS voltage I/O.

C3

CAN-H

High level CAN-BUS voltage I/O.

C4

CAN-H-OUT

High level CAN-BUS voltage I/O.

D1

-BATT

-Batt.

D2

MODE

This input allows the customer to select the software for traction or
lifting application.
Configuration:
MODE: Open (not connected)
Traction inverter
MODE: Close (connected with A5)
Pump inverter

E1E6

Incremental ENCODER connector (see chapter 3.6).

F1

PCLRXD

Positive serial reception.

F2

NCLRXD

Negative serial reception.

F3

PCLTXD

Positive serial transmission.

F4

NCLTXD

Negative serial transmission.

F5

GND

Negative console power supply.

F6

+12

Positive console power supply.

F7

FLASH

Must be connected to F8 for the Flash memory programming (if


used).

F8

FLASH

Must be connected to F7 for the Flash memory programming (if


used).

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4.5 DESCRIPTION OF CONNECTORS - PUMP CONFIGURATION


The AC3 and AC4 have been designed to be produced with two different types of I/O
connector: One AMP SAAB 29 poles connector or six Molex Minifit connectors.
4.5.a Amp Saab connector

A1

PPOT

Potentiometer positive: 10V output; keep load > 1KW.

A2

NPOTB

-Batt.

A3

PTHERM

Input for motor temperature sensor.

A4

NTHERM

-Batt.

A5

-BATT

Battery negative.

A6

NAUX

This output can be used for drive the main contactor coil (single
pump configuration) or to drive an auxiliary load (combi configuration)

A7

NBRAKE

Output for driving an hydraulic steering contactor coil; drives the load
to -Batt maximum current : 3A.

A8

PAUX

Positive of the auxiliary output.

A9

CM

Common of LIFT ENABLE / 1st SPEED / 2nd SPEED / 3rd SPEED


/ 4th SPEED / HYDRO / SR microswitches.

A10 KEY

Connected to the power supply through a microswitch (CH) with a


10A fuse in series.

A11 CPOT

Potentiometer wiper input.

A12 NPOT

Negative of lifting potentiometer, tested for wire disconnection diagnosis.

A13 AN. IN.

Free analog input.

A14 CAN-H

High level CAN-BUS voltage I/O.

A15 CAN-L

Low level CAN-BUS voltage I/O.

A16 LIFT ENABLE Input for potentiometer lifting enable input; it is active HIGH.
A17 1st SPEED

Input for first speed request; it is active HIGH.

A18 HYDRO REQ.

Input for hydraulic steering request. Active high.

A19 SR

Speed reduction input. Active low (switch opened).

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A20 ENCODER

Incremental ENCODER connector (see chapter 3.6).

A21 ENCODER

Incremental ENCODER connector (see chapter 3.6).

A22 ENCODER

Incremental ENCODER connector (see chapter 3.6).

A23 ENCODER

Incremental ENCODER connector (see chapter 3.6).

A24 MODE

This input allows the customer to select the software for traction or
lifting application.
Configuration:
MODE: Open (not connected)
Traction inverter
MODE: Close (connected with A5)
Pump inverter

A25 SAFETY

If not connected to -Batt the MC coil power output will be disabled.


Can also be used as a general purpose input.

A26 3rd SPEED

Input for third speed request; it is active HIGH.

A27 DIG. IN.

This is a digital input, free for customer request.

A28 2nd SPEED

Input for second speed request; it is active HIGH.

A29 4th SPEED

Input for fourth speed request; it is active HIGH.

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4.5.b Molex Minifit connectors

A1

CPOT

Accelerator potentiometer wiper.

A2

PPOT

Potentiometer positive: 10V output; keep load > 1KW.

A3

NPOT

Negative of accelerator unit, tested for wire disconnection diagnosis.

A4

CM

Common of LIFT ENABLE / 1st SPEED / 2nd SPEED / 3rd SPEED


/ 4th SPEED / HYDRO / SR microswitches.

A5

LIFT ENABLE Input for potentiometer lifting enable input; it is active HIGH.

A6

1st SPEED

Input for first speed request; it is active HIGH.

A7

3rd SPEED

Input for third speed request; it is active HIGH.

A8

AN. IN.

Free analog input.

A9

PPOT

Potentiometer positive: 10V output; keep load > 1KW.

A10 -BATT

-Batt.

A11 -BATT

-Batt.

A12 HYDRO REQ.

Input for hydraulic steering request. Active high.

A13 SR

Speed reduction input. Active low (switch opened).

A14 DIG. IN.

This is a digital input, free for customer request.

B1

KEY

Connected to the power supply through a microswitch (CH) with a


10A fuse in series.

B2

PAUX

Positive of the auxiliary output.

B3

PHYDRO

Positive for the hydraulic steering contactor.

B4

4th SPEED

Input for fourth speed request; it is active HIGH.

B5

SAFETY

If not connected to -Batt the MC coil power output will be disabled.


Can also be used as a general purpose input.

B6

PTHERM

Input for motor temperature sensor.

B7

CM

Common of LIFT ENABLE / 1st SPEED / 2nd SPEED / 3rd SPEED


/ 4th SPEED / HYDRO / SR microswitches.

Page 18

B8

NAUX

This output can be used for drive the main contactor coil (single
pump configuration) or to drive an auxiliary load (combi configuration)

B9

NHYDRO

Output for driving an hydraulic steering contactor; drives the load to Batt. Maximum current: 3A.

B10 2nd SPEED

Input for second speed request; it is active HIGH.

B11 GND

-Batt.

B12 NTHERM

-Batt.

C1

CAN-L

Low level CAN-BUS voltage I/O.

C2

CAN-L-OUT

Low level CAN-BUS voltage I/O.

C3

CAN-H

High level CAN-BUS voltage I/O.

C4

CAN-H-OUT

High level CAN-BUS voltage I/O.

D1

-BATT

-Batt.

D2

MODE

This input allows the customer to select the software for traction or
lifting application.
Configuration:
MODE: Open (not connected)
Traction inverter
MODE: Close (connected with A5)
Pump inverter

E1E6

Incremental ENCODER connector (see chapter 3.6).

F1

PCLRXD

Positive serial reception.

F2

NCLRXD

Negative serial reception.

F3

PCLTXD

Positive serial transmission.

F4

NCLTXD

Negative serial transmission.

F5

GND

Negative console power supply.

F6

+12

Positive console power supply.

F7

FLASH

Must be connected to F8 for the Flash memory programming (if


used).

F8

FLASH

Must be connected to F7 for the Flash memory programming (if


used).

Page 19

4.6 ENCODER INSTALLATION


1) AC4 card is fit for different types of encoder. To control AC motor with Zapi inverter, it
is necessary to install an incremental encoder with 2 phases shifted of 90. The encoder power supply can be +5 or +12V. It can have different electronic output.
Minifit Saab
E1

A20 +5V/+12V positive of encoder power supply.

E2

A23 GND

E3

A21 A

phase A of encoder.

E4

phase A inverted (encoder with differential output).

E5

A22 B

phase B of encoder.

E6

phase B inverted (encoder with differential output).

A
B

negative of encoder power supply.

2) Connection of encoder with differential outputs; +5V power supply (Minifit connectors).

3) Connection of encoder with open collector output; +5V power supply (Minifit connectors)..

4) Connection of encoder with open collector output: +12V power supply (Minifit connectors).

VERY IMPORTANT
It is necessary to specify in the order the type of encoder used, in terms of power
supply, electronic output and n of pulses for revolution, because the logic unit
must be set in the correct way by Zapi.
Page 20

4.7 DESCRIPTION OF POWER CONNECTIONS


View of the power bars:

-BATT
Negative of the battery.
+BATT
Positive of the battery.
U; V; W Connection bars of the three motor phases; follow this sequence and the indication on the motor.

Page 21

4.8 AC3 MECHANICAL DRAWING

Page 22

4.9 AC4 MECHANICAL DRAWING

Page 23

4.10 CONNECTION DRAWING - TRACTION CONFIGURATION


4.10.a Amp Saab connector

Page 24

4.10.b Molex Minifit connectors

Page 25

4.11 CONNECTION DRAWING - PUMP CONFIGURATION


4.11.a Amp Saab connector

Page 26

4.11.b Molex Minifit connectors

Page 27

4.12 CONNECTION DRAWING - COMBI CONFIGURATION


4.12.a Amp Saab connector

Page 28

4.12.b Molex Minifit connectors

Page 29

5 PROGRAMMING & ADJUSTMENTS USING DIGITAL CONSOLE


5.1 ADJUSTMENTS VIA CONSOLE
Adjustment of Parameters and changes to the inverters configuration are made using the
Digital Console. The Console is connected to the F connector of the inverter (Minifit
connectors version).
5.2 DESCRIPTION OF CONSOLE & CONNECTION

Digital consoles used to communicate with AC inverter controllers must be fitted with
EPROM CK ULTRA, minimum "Release Number 3.02".

Page 30

5.3 DESCRIPTION OF STANDARD CONSOLE MENU


5.3.a Traction configuration

Page 31

5.3.b Pump configuration

Page 32

5.4 FUNCTION CONFIGURATION


5.4.a Traction
Using the CONFIG MENU of the programming console, the user can configure the following functions (see "OPERATIONAL FEATURE" chapter for an explanation of "hydraulic
steering function") :
SUBMENU "SET OPTIONS"
1 HOUR COUNTER
- RUNNING:
- KEY ON:

the counter registers travel time only.


the counter registers when the "key" switch is closed.

2 BATTERY CHECK
- ON:
the battery discharge level check is carried out; when the battery level reaches 10%, an alarm is signalled and the maximum current is reduced to
the half of the programmed value.
- OFF:
signalled.

the battery discharge level check is carried out but no alarm is

3 CUTBACK MODE
- PRESENT:
speed input.

input B10 (Minifit), A28 (Amp Saab) is managed as a cutback

- ABSENT:
brake input.

input B10 (Minifit), A28 (Amp Saab) is managed as an hand-

4 HYDRO KEY ON
- ON / OFF:
if this option is programmed ON the traction inverter manages
an hydraulic steering function when the "key" is switched ON (only if the "aux output
#1" option is programmed as "hydro contactor" or as "exclusive hydro").
5 STOP ON RAMP
- ON:
the stop on ramp feature (truck electrically hold on a ramp) is
managed for a time established by "auxiliary time" parameter. After this time, the
behavior depends on the "aux output #1" option programmation (see also the following table).
- OFF:

the stop on ramp feature is not performed.

6 AUX OUTPUT #1
- BRAKE:
output B9 (Minifit), A7 (Amp Saab) drives an electromagnetic
brake coil (see also the table below).
- HYDRO CONT.: the inverter manages an hydraulic steering function when the direction input or brake pedal input are active or a movement of the truck is detected.
- EX. HYDRO:
the inverter manages an hydraulic steering function when the
exclusive hydro input is active.
7 PEDAL BRAKING
- ANALOG:
the mechanical brake pedal has a switch and a potentiometer
installed. When the accelerator is released and the pedal brake is pushed the inverter performs an electrical braking whose intensity is proportional to the brake
Page 33

pedal potentiometer. The minimum intensity is established by the "Release braking"


parameter, when the brake pedal is slightly pressed (brake switch close but brake
potentiometer at the minimum). The maximum intensity is established by the "Pedal
braking" parameter when the brake pedal is fully pressed (brake potentiometer at the
maximum). In the middle positions, the electrical braking intensity is a linear function
between minimum and maximum intensity.
- DIGITAL:
The truck does not have a potentiometer installed on the mechanical brake pedal, but only a microswitch; when the accelerator pedal is released
and the brake pedal is pushed (brake switch closed), the inverter performs an electrical braking following "Pedal braking" parameter.
8 SET TEMPERATURE
- DIGITAL:
a digital (ON/OFF) motor thermal sensor is connected to B6
(Minifit), A3 (Amp Saab) input.
- ANALOG:
an analog motor thermal sensor is connected to B6 (Minifit), A3
(Amp Saab) (the curve can be customized on a customer request).
- NONE:

no motor thermal sensor switch is connected.

SUBMENU "ADJUSTEMENT"
1 SET POT BRK MIN:
records the minimum value of braking pedal potentiometer
when the braking pedal switch is closed; the procedure is similar to the "Program
Vacc" function (see chapter 5.4). This procedure must be carried out only if the
"Pedal braking" option is programmed as "Analog".
2 SET POT BRK MAX: records the maximum value of braking pedal potentiometer
when the braking pedal is fully pressed; the procedure is similar to the "Program
Vacc" function (see chapter 5.4). This procedure must be carried out only if the
"Pedal braking" option is programmed as "Analog".
3 SET BATTERY TYPE:

selects the nominal battery voltage;

4 ADJUST BATTERY:
ler.

fine adjustment of the battery voltage measured by the control-

5 ADJUSTMENT #04:
this parameter determines the motor temperature level at which
the Motor temperature alarm is signalled. The range is from 70C to 160C with
10C steps. This parameter must be adjusted only if the Set temperature (menu
Set option) parameter is programmed Analog.
6 THROTTLE 0 ZONE:
also curve below).

establishes a deadband in the accelerator input curve (see

7 THROTTLE X POINT:
input curve.

These parameter change the characteristic of the accelerator

8 THROTTLE Y POINT:
input curve.

These parameter change the characteristic of the accelerator

Page 34

VACC MIN and VACC MAX are values programmable by the "Program Vacc" function.
9 ADJUSTMENT #01:

adjust the upper level of the battery discharge table.

10ADJUSTMENT #02:

adjust the lower level of the battery discharge table.

11 LOAD HM FROM MDI: for an explanation of this point see the MDI instrument handbook
12 CHECK UP DONE:
book

for an explanation of this point see the MDI instrument hand-

13 CHECK UP TYPE:
book

for an explanation of this point see the MDI instrument hand-

Page 35

AUX
OUTPUT

BRAKE

BRAKE

HYDRO
CONT.

HYDRO
CONT.

EXCL.
HYDRO

EXCL.
HYDRO

Page 36

STOP
ON
RAMP

A7 (Saab), B9 (Minifit)
OUTPUT

BEHAVIUR ON A SLOPE

ON

The truck is electrically hold on a


-Drives the coil of a electromagnetic slope; when the time set by
brake.
"auxiliary time" parameter is elapsed
-The hydraulic steering function
the brake is applied and the 3request is sent to the pump inverter phase bridge is released. Do not
use this combination if the
by the can-bus link
negative brake is not instolled.

OFF

The truck is not electrically hold on


a slope, but comes down very
-Drives the coil of a electromagnetic
slowly; when the time set by
brake.
"auxiliary time" parameter is
-The hydraulic steering function
elapsed, the brake is applied and
request is sent to the pump inverter
the 3-phase bridge is opened. Do
by the can-bus link
not use this combination if the
negative brake is not instolled.

ON

-Drives the coil of a hydraulic


steering contactor.
-The hydraulic steering function
request is also sent to the pump
inverter by the can-bus link

The truck is electrically hold on a


slope; when the time set by
"auxiliary time" parameter is
elapsed, the truck comes down very
slowly, till the flat is reached.

OFF

-Drives the coil of a hydraulic


steering contactor.
-The hydraulic steering function
request is also sent to the pump
inverter by the can-bus link

The truck is not electrically hold on


a slope, but comes down very
slowly till the flat is reached.

ON

-Drives the coil of a hydraulic


steering contactor.
-The hydraulic steering function
request is also sent to the pump
inverter by the can-bus link

The truck is electrically hold on a


slope; when the time set by
"auxiliary time" parameter is
elapsed, the truck comes down very
slowly, till the flat is reached.

OFF

-Drives the coil of a hydraulic


steering contactor.
-The hydraulic steering function
request is also sent to the pump
inverter by the can-bus link

The truck is not electrically hold on


a slope, but comes down very
slowly till the flat is reached.

5.4.b Pump
Using the config menu of the programming console, the user can configure the following functions.
SUBMENU "SET OPTIONS"
1 HOUR COUNTER
- RUNNING:

the counter registers travel time only.

- KEY ON:

the counter registers when the "key" switch is closed.

2 BATTERY CHECK
- ON:
the battery discharge level check is carried out; when the battery level reaches 10%, an alarm is signalled and the maximum current is reduced to
the half of the programmed value.
- OFF:
signalled.

the battery discharge level check is carried out but no alarm is

Very important:
In the combi system (pump + traction), the battery discharge calculation for the complete
system is carried out by the traction inverter; the information about the pump inverter consumption is sent on the can-bus line from the pump inverter to the traction inverter. So the
correct programmation for the "Battery check" option is :
traction inverter:
ON
pump inverter:
OFF
3 SET TEMPERATURE
- DIGITAL:
a digital (ON/OFF) motor thermal sensor is connected to B6
(Minifit), A3 (Amp Saab) input.
- ANALOG:
an analog motor thermal sensor is connected to B6 (Minifit), A3
(Amp Saab) (the curve can be customized on a customer request).
- NONE:

no motor thermal sensor switch is connected.

SUBMENU "ADJUSTEMENT"
1 SET BATTERY TYPE:

selects the nominal battery voltage;

2 ADJUST BATTERY:
ler.

fine adjustment of the battery voltage measured by the control-

3 ADJUSTMENT #04:
this parameter determines the motor temperature level at which
the Motor temperature alarm is signalled. The range is from 70C to 160C with
10C steps. This parameter must be adjusted only if the Set temperature (menu
Set option) parameter is programmed Analog.
4 THROTTLE 0 ZONE:
also curve below).

establishes a deadband in the accelerator input curve (see

5 THROTTLE X POINT:

These parameter change the characteristic of the accelerator


Page 37

input curve.
6 THROTTLE Y POINT:
input curve.

These parameter change the characteristic of the accelerator

VACC MIN and VACC MAX are values programmable by the "Program Vacc" function.
7 ADJUSTMENT #01:

adjust the upper level of the battery discharge table.

8 ADJUSTMENT #02:

adjust the lower level of the battery discharge table.

Page 38

Flow chart showing how to make changes to OPTION Menu.


1) Opening Zapi Menu
2) Press Top Left & Right Buttons to enter
SET Menu.
3) The Display will show: SET MODEL
4) Press ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN button
until SET MODEL Menu appears.
5) SET OPTIONS appears on the display.
6) Press ENTER to go into the
SET MODEL Menu.
7) The display will shows the first OPTION.
8) Press ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN button
until desired OPTION appears
9) Desired OPTION appears.
10) Press SET UP or SET DOWN button in
order to modify the changes.
11) New OPTION appears.
12) Press OUT to exit the Menu.
13) Confirmation request appears.
14) Press ENTER to accept the changes,
or press OUT if you do not accept
the changes.
15) SET OPTIONS Menu appears.
16) Press OUT again. Display now show the
Opening Zapi Menu.

Page 39

Flow chart showing how to make changes to ADJUSTMENT Menu


1) Opening Zapi Menu
2) Press Top Left & Right Buttons to enter
CONFIG Menu.
3) The display will show: SET MODEL
4) Press ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN button
until ADJUSTMENTS Menu appears.
5) ADJUSTMENTS appears on the display.
6) Press ENTER to go into the ADJUSTMENTS
Menu.
7) The display will shows SET BATTERY TYPE.
8) Press ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN button until
the desired parameter is reached.
9) The desired parameter is appears.
10) Press SET UP or SET DOWN button to modify
the adjustment.

11) Press OUT.


12) Press ENTER to confirm.
13) Repeat the same from 5 to 12 points for the
other adjustment.

Page 40

Flow chart showing how to use the SET BATTERY TYPE adjustment
1) Opening Zapi Menu
2) Press Top Left & Right Buttons to enter
CONFIG Menu.
3) The Display will show: SET MODEL
4) Press ROLL UP button until
ADJUSTMENTS. menu appears.
5) ADJUSTMENTS appears on the display.
6) Press ENTER to go into the ADJUSTMENTS
Menu.
7) The display will show: SET BATTERY TYPE.
8) Press SET UP to choose nominal value of
the battery.
9) New battery value appears.
10) Press OUT.
11) Confirmation request appears.
12) Press ENTER to accept the changes, or press
OUT if you do not accept the changes.
13) Press OUT. Display now shows the Opening
Zapi Menu.

Page 41

Flow chart showing how to carry out ADJUSTMENT BATTERY operation by console.
1) Opening Zapi Menu
2) Press Top Left & Right Buttons to enter
CONFIG Menu.
3) The Display will show: SET MODEL
4) Press ROLL UP button until
ADJUSTMENT Menu appears.
5) ADJUSTMENTS appears on the
display.
6) Press ENTER to go into the
ADJUSTMENTS Menu.
7) The display will show the first
OPTION.
8) Press ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN button
until desired OPTION appears
9) ADJUST BATTERY appears.
10) Press SET UP or SET DOWN button
in order to increase or decrease
respectively. Set the value read
by an external meter.
11) Battery value appears on the display.
12) Press OUT to exit the Menu.
13) Confirmation request appears.
14) Press ENTER to accept the changes,
or press OUT if you do not accept the
changes.
15) ADJUSTMENTS Menu appears.

16) Press OUT. Display now show the Opening Zapi Menu.

Page 42

5.5 PARAMETER REGULATION: TRACTION CONFIGURATION


In addition to the input configuration, parameter modification is made directly by ZAPI on
customer specifications, or by the customer, making the adjustments using the programming console. The following parameters can be modified:
1

ACC DELAY:

determines the acceleration ramp.

RELEASE BRAKING:

controls the deceleration ramp when the travel request


is released.

INVERSION BRAKING:

controls the deceleration ramp when the direction


switch is inverted during travel.

PEDAL BRAKING:

determines the deceleration ramp when the travel


request is released and the brake pedal switch is
closed.

SPEED LIMIT BRAKING:

deceleration ramp when the pedal position is changed


but not completely released.

BRAKE CUTBACK:

determines the deceleration ramp when the speed


reduction input becomes active and the motor slow
down.

MAX SPEED FORWARD:

determines the maximum speed in forward direction.

MAX SPEED BACKWARD:

determines the maximum speed in backward direction.

CUTBACK SPEED:

speed reduction when the cutback switch is active.

10 FREQUENCY CREEP:

minimum speed when the forward or reverse switch is


closed, but the accelerator is on a minimum
position.

11 MAXIMUM CURRENT:

this changes the maximum current of the inverter.

12 BACKING SPEED:

determines the speed in inching function.

13 BACKING TIME:

determines the time of the inching function.

14 AUXILIARY TIME:

determines the time that the truck is hold on the ramp if


the "stop on ramp" option is ON.

Page 43

The following table shows the different values at which the parameters can be set.

PARAMETER

PROGRAMMED LEVEL
UNIT

ACCELERATION DELAY (*)

Sec.

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

RELEASE BRAKING (**)

Sec.

5.5

5.0

4.5

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

INVERS BRAKING (**)

Sec.

5.5

5.0

4.5

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

PEDAL BRAKING (**)

Sec.

5.5

5.0

4.5

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

SPEED LIMIT BRAKING (**)

Sec.

8.9

8.3

7.7

7.1

6.6

6.0

5.5

4.9

4.4

3.8

BRAKE CUTBACK (**)

Sec.

5.5

5.0

4.5

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

MAX SPEED FW

Hz

65

80

95

110

125

140

155

170

185

200

MAX SPEED BW

Hz

65

80

95

110

125

140

155

170

185

200

CUTBACK SPEED

%Max Sp

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Hz

0.3

0.6

0.9

1.2

1.5

1.8

2.1

2.4

2.7

3.0

% IMAX

47

53

58

64

70

76

82

88

94

100

BACKING SPEED

Hz

10

12

14

16

18

BACKING TIME

Sec.

0.2

0.5

1.0

1.4

1.8

2.3

2.7

3.1

3.6

4.0

AUXILIARY TIME

Sec.

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

FREQUENCY CREEP
MAXIMUM CURRENT

After changing a parameter, press ENTER to confirm data when requested by the message on the console. Parameters modified and optimized on one unit can be stored by the
console (SAVE) and then released (RESTORE) on another chopper, thus allowing fast and
standardized settings (see console manual for details).
(*) The acceleration time shown is the time from 0 Hz to 100 Hz. This is the ideal ramp
calculated by the software; the real ramp could change as a function of motor control
parameter setting and, obviously, as a function of the load.
(**) The braking feature is based upon deceleration ramps. The value shown in the table
is the time to decrease the speed from 100 Hz to 0 Hz. This is the ideal ramps calculated by the software; the real ramp could change as a function of motor control parameter setting and, obviously, as a function of the load.

Page 44

5.6 PARAMETER REGULATION: PUMP CONFIGURATION


The following parameters can be modified:
1 PU. ACCELER DEL:
acceleration ramp.
2

PU. DECELERATION DEL:

deceleration ramp.

MAX SPEED UP

determines the maximum lifting speed with a


potentiometer control.

MIN SPEED UP

determines the minimum lifting speed with a


potentiometer control when the lifting enable switch is
closed.

1ST SPEED FINE:

first speed, fine regulation.

2ND SPEED FINE:

second speed, fine regulation.

3RD SPEED FINE:

third speed, fine regulation.

4TH SPEED FINE:

fourth speed, fine regulation.

HYD SPEED FINE:

hydro speed, fine regulation.

10 MAXIMUM CURRENT:

the maximum current of the inverter.

11 AUXILIARY TIME:

time delay when an hydraulic steering function request


is switched off.

The following table shows the different values at which the parameters can be set.
PARAMETER

PROGRAMMED LEVEL
UNIT

ACCEL. DELAY (*)

Sec.

0.5

0.7

1.0

1.4

1.9

2.5

3.2

4.0

4.8

5.5

DECEL. DELAY (**)

Sec.

0.5

0.7

1.0

1.4

1.9

2.5

3.2

4.0

4.8

5.5

MAX SPEED UP

Hz

65

80

95

110

125

140

155

170

185

200

MIN SPEED UP

Hz

SPEED FINE (ALL) (***)

Hz

% IMAX

47

53

58

64

70

76

82

88

94

100

Sec

0.2

0.4

0.8

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

MAX CURRENT
AUXILIARY TIME

13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5 24.0 25.5

(*)

The acceleration time shown is the time from 0 Hz to 100 Hz (maximum selectable
speed). This is the ideal ramp calculated by the software; the real ramp could change
as a function of motor control parameter setting and, obviously, as a function of the
load.

(**)

The deceleration time shown in the table is the time from 100 Hz to 0 Hz. This is the
ideal ramp calculated by the software; the real ramp could change as a function of
motor control parameter setting and, obviously, as a function of the load.

(***) Adjustable with a 1Hz resolution in the 0 to 200 Hz range.

Page 45

After changing a parameter, press ENTER to confirm data when requested by the message on the console. Parameters modified and optimized on one unit can be stored by the
console (SAVE) and then released (RESTORE) on another chopper, thus allowing fast and
standardized settings (see console manual for details).
Flow Chart showing how to make Program changes using Digital Console fitted with
Eprom CK ULTRA.
1) Opening Zapi Display.
2) Press ENTER to go into the General
Menu.
3) The Display will show :
4) Press ENTER to go into the
Parameter Change facility.
5) The Display will show the first
parameter.
6) Press either ROLL UP and ROLL DOWN
to display the next parameter.
7) The names of the Parameters appear
on the Display.
8) When the desired Parameter appears, the
Display will show a Level Number that will
be between 0 and 9. Press either PARAM
(Top Right) or SET (Bottom Right)buttons
to change the Level value.
9) The Display will show the New Level.
10) When you are satisfied with the results of
the changes you have made, Press OUT.
11) The Display asks ARE YOU SURE"?
12) Press ENTER to accept the changes, or
press OUT if you do not wish to accept the
changes and wish to make further
modifications to the parameters.
13) The Display will show :

Page 46

5.7 PROGRAMMING CONSOLE FUNCTIONS


- Functional configuration (see 4.1 , 4.2 , 4.3 , 4.4)
- Parameter programming (see 4.5 , 4.6)
- Tester: the user can verify the state of the following parameters:
TRACTION
motor voltage (%)
frequency (Hz)
encoder (Hz)
slip value (Hz)
current rms (A)
temperature (C)
motor temperature (C)
accelerator (V)
forw. switch (ON/OFF)
back. switch (ON/OFF)
inching forw. (ON/OFF)
inching back. (ON/OFF)
cutback switch (ON/OFF)
brake switch (ON/OFF)
seat switch (ON/OFF)
exclusive hydro (ON/OFF)
hand brake (ON/OFF)
voltage booster (%)
battery voltage (V)
cos fi
battery current (A)
battery charge (%)

PUMP
motor voltage (%)
frequency (Hz)
encoder (Hz)
slip value (Hz)
current rms (A)
temperature (C)
motor temperature (C)
accelerator (V)
lifting switch (ON/OFF)
1st speed switch (ON/OFF)
2nd speed switch (ON/OFF)
3rd speed switch (ON/OFF)
4th speed switch (ON/OFF)
hydro speed req. (ON/OFF)
voltage booster (V)
battery voltage (V)
cos fi
battery current (A)
battery charge (%)

- Save function (for storing data)


- Restore function (for loading parameters on another chopper)
- Display of the last 5 alarms including hour-meter value and temperature at the moment
of the alarm.
- Accelerator range programming: records the minimum and maximum useful accelerator
stroke values for both direction of running.
- See the console manual for a detailed description of function and parameters.

Page 47

5.8 SEQUENCE FOR AC INVERTER TRACTION SETTING


When the "Key Switch" is closed, if no alarms or errors are present, the Console Display
will be showing the Standard Zapi Opening Display.
If the chopper is not configured to your requirements, follow the sequence detailed on
Chapter 5.2 . Remember to re-cycle the Key Switch if you make any changes to the choppers configuration. Otherwise follow the sequence detailed below :
1) Select the Options required. See Chapter 4.1 4.4.
2) Select and set the Battery Voltage. See Chapter 4.4.
3) Confirm correct installation of all wires. Use the Consoles TESTER function to assist.
4) Perform the accelerator signal acquisition procedure using the Console PROGRAM
VACC. Procedure is detailed on Chapter 5.4.
5) Set the "MAXIMUM CURRENT Current, using the table on Chapter 4.5 , 4.6.
6) Set the Acceleration Delay requirements for the machine. Test the parameters in both
directions.
7) Set the FREQUENCY CREEP level starting from level 0.6 Hz. The machine should just
move when the accelerator microswitch is closed. Increase the Level accordingly.
8) Set the Speed Reductions as required. Make adjustments to CUTBACK SPEED
Check the performance with the accelerator pedal totally depressed. If the machine is a
forklift, check the performance with and without load.
9) RELEASE BRAKING. Operate the machine at full speed. Release the accelerator
pedal. Adjust the level to your requirements. If the machine is a forklift, check the performance with and without load.
10) INVERSION BRAKING. Operate the machine at 25% full speed. Whilst traveling INVERT the Direction Switch. Set a soft Level of Inversion Braking. When satisfactory,
operate the machine at Full Speed and repeat. If the machine is a Forklift, repeat the
tests and make adjustments with and without load. The unladen full speed condition
should be the most representative condition.
11) PEDAL BRAKING (If used). Operate the machine at full Speed. Release the accelerator pedal and press the Pedal Brake. Set braking level to your requirements.
12) Set MAX SPEED FORW.
13) Set MAX SPEED BACK (Reverse).
14) Make the choice for the truck behavior on a slope (see chapter 4.4). If the "Stop on
ramp" option is ON, set the desired value of "auxiliary time" parameter.

Page 48

5.9 TESTER: DESCRIPTION OF THE FUNCTION; TRACTION CONFIGURATION


The most important input or output signals can be measured in real time using the TESTER function of the console. The Console acts as a multimeter able to read voltage,
current and temperature. The following definition listing shows the relative measurements :
1) MOTOR VOLTAGE: this is the voltage supplied to the motor by the inverter; it is expressed as a percentage of the full voltage (which depends of the battery voltage).
2) FREQUENCY: this is the frequency of the voltage and current supplied to the motor.
3) ENCODER: this is the speed of the motor, expressed in the same unit of the frequency; this information comes from the speed sensor.
4) SLIP VALUE: this is the difference of speed between the rotating field and the shaft
of the motor, expressed in
the same unit of the frequency.
5) CURRENT RMS: Root Mean Square value of the motor current.
6) TEMPERATURE: the temperature measured on the aluminum heat sink holding the
MOSFET devices.
7) MOTOR TEMPERATURE: this is the temperature of the motor; if the option is programmed "None" (see chapter 4.4.a) it shows 0.
8) ACCELERATOR: the voltage of the accelerator potentiometer's wiper (CPOT). The
voltage level is shown on the Left Hand Side of the Console Display and the value in
percentage is shown on the Right Hand Side.
9) FORWARD SWITCH: the level of the Forward direction digital entry FW.
ON / +VB = active entry of closed switch.
OFF / GND = non active entry of open switch.
10) BACKWARD SWITCH: the level of the Reverse direction digital entry BW.
ON / +VB = active entry of closed switch.
OFF / GND = non active entry of open switch.
11) BACKING FORW: status of the inching function (forward direction) input.
ON / +VB = active entry of closed switch.
OFF / GND = non active entry of open switch.
12) BACKING BACK: status of the inching function (backward direction) input.
ON / +VB = active entry of closed switch.
OFF / GND = non active entry of open switch.
13) CUTBACK SWITCH: the level of the Speed Reduction Microswitch.
ON / GND = active entry of speed reduction microswitch.
OFF / +VB = non active entry of microswitch.
14) BRAKE SWITCH: the level of the Pedal Brake Microswitch.
ON / +VB = active entry of Brake pedal Microswitch.
OFF / GND = non active entry of microswitch.

Page 49

15) SEAT SWITCH: the level of the Seat Microswitch digital entry.
ON / +VB = active entry of closed seat switch.
OFF / GND = non active entry of open seat switch.
16) EXCLUSIVE HYDRO: status of the exclusive hydro switch.
ON / +VB = active entry of closed switch.
OFF / GND = non active entry of open switch.
17) HAND BRAKE: the level of the Handbrake Microswitch.
ON / GND = active entry of Handbrake Switch (open switch).
OFF/ +VB = non active entry of microswitch (closed switch).
18) VOLTAGE BOOSTER: this is the booster of the voltage supplied to the motor in load
condition; it is expressed in a percentage of the full voltage.
19) BATTERY VOLTAGE: level of battery voltage measured at the input to the key switch.
20) COS FI: this is the cos j (real time calculated) of the motor.
21) BATTERY CURRENT: this is the battery current (not measured but calculated).
22) BATTERY CHARGE: the percentage Charge level of the battery.

Page 50

5.10 TESTER: DESCRIPTION OF THE FUNCTION; PUMP CONFIGURATION


The most important input or output signals can be measured in real time using the TESTER function of the console. The Console acts as a multimeter able to read voltage,
current and temperature. The following definition listing shows the relative measurements :
1) MOTOR VOLTAGE: this is the voltage supplied to the motor by the inverter; it is expressed as a percentage of the full voltage (which depends of the battery voltage).
2) FREQUENCY: this is the frequency of the voltage and current supplied to the motor.
3) ENCODER: this is the speed of the motor, expressed in the same unit of the frequency; this information comes from the speed sensor.
4) SLIP VALUE: this is the difference of speed between the rotating field and the shaft
of the motor, expressed inthe same unit of the frequency.
5) CURRENT RMS: Root Mean Square value of the motor current.
6) TEMPERATURE: the temperature measured on the aluminum heat sink holding the
MOSFET devices.
7) MOTOR TEMPERATURE: this is the temperature of the motor; if the option is programmed "None" (see chapter 4.4.b) it shows 0.
8) ACCELERATOR: the voltage of the accelerator potentiometer's wiper (CPOT). The
voltage level is shown on the Left Hand Side of the Console Display and the value in
percentage is shown on the Right Hand Side.
9) LIFTING SWITCH: status of the lifting switch.
ON / +VB = active entry of closed switch.
OFF / GND = non active entry of open switch.
10) 1 ST SPEED SWITCH: status of the first speed switch of the pump.
ON / +VB = active entry of closed switch.
OFF / GND = non active entry of open switch.
11) 2 ND SPEED SWITCH: status of the second speed switch of the pump.
ON / +VB = active entry of closed switch.
OFF / GND = non active entry of open switch.
12) 3 RD SPEED SWITCH: status of the third speed switch of the pump.
ON / +VB = active entry of closed switch.
OFF / GND = non active entry of open switch.
13) 4 TH SPEED SWITCH: status of the fourth speed switch of the pump.
ON / +VB = active entry of closed switch.
OFF / GND = non active entry of open switch.
14) HYDRO SPEED REQ.: status of the hydro speed request of the pump.
ON / +VB = active entry of closed switch.
OFF / GND = non active entry of open switch.

Page 51

15) VOLTAGE BOOSTER: this is the booster of the voltage supplied to the motor in load
condition; it is expressed in a percentage of the full voltage.
16) BATTERY VOLTAGE: level of battery voltage measured at the input to the key switch.
17) COS FI: this is the cos j (real time calculated) of the motor.
18) BATTERY CURRENT: this is the battery current (not measured but calculated).
19) BATTERY CHARGE: the percentage Charge level of the battery.

Flow Chart showing how to use the TESTER function of the Digital Console.
1) Opening Zapi Display.
2) Press ENTER to go into the General menu.
3) The Display will show :
4) Press ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN button until
TESTER MENU appear on the display.
5) The Display shows :
6) Press ENTER to go into the TESTER function.
7) The first variable to be tested is shown on the Display.
8) Press either ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN buttons until your
desired variable for measurement appears on the Display.

9) When you have finished, Press OUT.


10) The Display shows :
11) Press OUT again and return to Opening Zapi Display.

Remember it is not possible to make any changes using TESTER. All you can do is
measure as if you were using a pre-connected multimeter.

Page 52

6 OTHER FUNCTIONS
6.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE CONSOLE SAVE FUNCTION
The SAVE function allows the operator to transmit the Parameter values and Configuration data of the chopper into the Console memory. It is possible to load 64 different programmes.
The information saved in the Console memory can then be reloaded into another chopper
using the RESTORE function.
The data that is available via the SAVE function is as follows:
- All Parameter Values (PARAMETER CHANGE).
- Options (SET. OPTIONS).
- The Level of the Battery (ADJUST BATTERY).
Flow Chart showing how to use the SAVE function of the Digital Console.
1) Opening Zapi Display.
2) Press ENTER to go into the General menu.
3) The Display will show :
4) Press ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN button until
SAVE PARAM. appears on the display
5) The Display will show :
6) Press ENTER to go into the SAVE function.
7) If this facility has been used before the type
of chopper data stored appears on the top Main with
a 2 digit reference.
8) Keep pressing either ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN keys until
the second Main indicates a FREE storage facility.

9) Press ENTER to commence SAVE routine.


10) You can see the items that are being stored whilst
the SAVE routine is happening.
11) When finished, the Console shows :
13) Press OUT to return to the Opening Zapi Display.
Page 53

6.2 DESCRIPTION OF CONSOLE RESTORE FUNCTION


The RESTORE PARAM function allows transfer of the Consoles stored data into the
memory of the chopper. This is achieved in a fast and easy way using the method previously used with the SAVE PARAM. function.
The data that is available via the RESTORE PARAM. function is as follows :
- All Parameter Values (PARAMETER CHANGE).
- Options (SET OPTIONS)
- The level of the Battery (ADJUST BATTERY)
ATTENTION: When the RESTORE operation is made, all data in the chopper memory will
be written over and replace with data being restored.
Flow Chart showing how to use the RESTORE function of the Digital Console.
1) Opening Zapi Display.
2) Press ENTER to go into the General menu.
3) The Display will show :
4) Press ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN button until
RESTORE PARAM. appears on the display.
5) The Display will show :
6) Press ENTER to go into the RESTORE PARAM. function.
7) The Display shows the type of Model stored,
with a Code Number.
8) Keep pressing either ROLL UP and ROLL DOWN buttons
until the desired model appears on the Display.

9) Press ENTER to commence the Restore operation.


10) The Display will ask ARE YOU SURE.
Press ENTER for YES, or OUT for No.

11) You can see the items that are being stored in
the chopper memory whilst the RESTORE
routine is happening.
12) When finished the Console displays :
13) Press OUT to return to the Opening Zapi Display .
Page 54

6.3 DESCRIPTION OF ALARMS MENU


The microprocessor in the chopper remembers the last five Alarms that have occurred.
Items remembered relative to each Alarm are : the code of the alarm, the number of times
the particular Alarm occurred, the Hour Meter count, and the chopper temperature.
This function permits a deeper diagnosis of problems as the recent history can now be
accessed.
Flow Chart showing how to use the ALARMS function via the Digital Console.
1) Opening Zapi Display.
2) Press ENTER to go into the General menu.
3) The Display will show :
4) Press ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN button until
PARAMETER CHANGE appears on the display.
5) The Display will show:
6) Press ENTER to go into the ALARMS function.
7) The Display will show the most recent Alarm.
8) Each press of the ROLL UP button brings up following
Alarms. Pressing ROLL DOWN returns to the most recent.
9) If an Alarm has not occurred, the Display will show:
ALARM NULL.
10) When you have finished looking at the Alarms, press
OUT to exit the ALARMS menu.
11) The Display will ask CLEAR LOGBOOK ?
12) Press ENTER for yes, or OUT for NO.
13) Press OUT to return to the Opening Zapi Display.

Page 55

6.4 DESCRIPTION OF CONSOLE PROGRAM VACC FUNCTION


This function looks for and remembers the minimum and maximum potentiometer wiper
voltage over the full mechanical range of the pedal. It enables compensation for non symmetry of the mechanical system between directions.
The operation is performed by operating the pedal after entering the PROGRAM VACC
function.
Flow Chart showing how to use the PROGRAM VACC function of the Digital Console.
1) Opening Zapi Display.
2) Press ENTER to go into the General Menu.
3) The Display will show :
4) Press ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN button until
PROGRAM VACC appears on the display.
5) The Display will show :
6) Press ENTER to go into the PROGRAM VACC routine.
7) The Display will show the minimum and maximum
values of potentiometer wiper output.
Both directions can be shown.
8) Press ENTER to clear these values.
Display will show 0.0.
9) Select Forward Direction, close any interlock
switches that may be in the system.
10) Slowly depress the accelerator pedal (or tiller butterfly) to
its maximum value. The new minimum and maximum
voltages will be displayed on the Console plus an
arrow indicating the direction.
11) Select the Reverse Direction and repeat Item 10.
12) When finished , press OUT.
13) The Display will ask : ARE YOU SURE ?.
14) Press ENTER for yes, or OUT for NO.
15) Press OUT again to return to the Opening Zapi Menu.

Page 56

7 AC INVERTER DIAGNOSTIC - TRACTION CONFIGURATION


The alarms are signalled by a diagnostic LED.
1 blink:
logic failure ("WATCHDOG", "EEPROM KO", "LOGIC FAILURE #1",
"LOGIC FAILURE #2", "LOGIC FAILURE #3", "CHECK UP NEEDED").
2 blinks:
running request on start-up or error in seat sequence or double direction
request ("INCORRECT START", "HANDBRAKE", "FORW + BACK").
3 blinks:
phase voltage or capacitor charge failure
("CAPACITOR CHARGE", "VMN LOW", "VMN HIGH").
4 blinks:

failure in accelerator ("VACC NOT OK", "PEDAL WIRE KO").

5 blinks:
failure of current sensor
("STBY I HIGH").
6 blinks:
failure of contactor driver
("COIL SHORTED", "DRIVER SHORTED", "CONTACTOR DRIVER", "AUX OUTPUT
KO", "CONTACTOR OPEN").
7 blinks:
excessive temperature ("HIGH TEMPERATURE", "MOTOR TEMPERATURE", "THERMIC SENSOR KO").
8 blinks:

failure detection from can-bus ("WAITING PUMP", "CAN-BUS KO").

long blink: discharge battery ("LOW BATTERY")


7.1 ANALYSIS OF ALARMS DISPLAYED ON CONSOLE
1. WATCH DOG
The test is made in both running and standby. It is a self-diagnosing test within the
logic. If an alarm should occur, replace the logic.
2. EEPROM KO
Fault in the area of memory in which the adjustment parameters are stored; this alarm
inhibits machine operation. If the defect persists when the key is switched OFF and
ON again, replace the logic. If the alarm disappears, remember that the parameters
stored previously have been cancelled and replaced by the default values.
3. LOGIC FAILURE #1
This alarm signals that an undervoltage / overvoltage protection operation has occurred. Two possible reasons:
a. A real undervoltage / overvoltage situation happened.
b. Fault in the hardware section of the logic board which manages the overvoltage
protection. Replace the logic card.
4. LOGIC FAILURE #2
Fault in the hardware section of the logic board which manages the phase' s voltage
feedback. Replace the logic board.
5. LOGIC FAILURE #3
Fault in the hardware section of the logic board which manages the hardware current

Page 57

protection. Replace the logic board.


6. CHECK UP NEEDED
This is a warning. It is an information for the user that the programmed time for maintenance is elapsed.
7. INCORRECT START
This alarm signals an incorrect starting sequence. Possible causes:
a. running microswitch failure;
b. error in sequence made by the operator;
c. incorrect wiring;
d. if the default persists, replace the logic.
8. FORW + BACK
The test is carried out continuously. An alarm is signalled when a double running request is made simultaneously. Possible causes:
a. defective wiring;
b. running microswitch failure;
c. incorrect operation;
d. if the defect persists, replace the logic.
9. HANDBRAKE
The truck does not start because the handbrake switch is opened. Possible causes:
a.
defective wiring;
b.
failure of the microswitch;
c.
incorrect operation of the operator;
If the defect persist , replace the logic.
10. CAPACITOR CHARGE
Follows the charging capacitor system:

When the key is switched ON, the inverter tries to charge the capacitor through a power
resistance, and check if the capacitor are charged within a timeout. If this is not true: an
alarm is signalled; the main contactor is not closed.
Possible reasons:
a) the charging resistance is opened; if it is opened.
b) The charging circuit has a failure.
c) There is a problem on the power modules.
Page 58

11. VMN LOW, VMN HIGH


The test is carried out during initial diagnosis and in standby.
Possible causes:
a. problem with the motor connections or the motor power circuit; check if the 3 phases
are correctly connected; check if there's a dispersion of the motor towards ground;
b. inverter failure, replace it.
12. VACC NOT OK
The test is made in standby. This alarm indicates that the accelerator voltage is 1V
greater than the minimum value programmed by the PROGRAM VACC function.
Possible causes:
a. the potentiometer is not correctly calibrated;
b. the potentiometer is defective.
13. PEDAL WIRE KO
This alarm is signalled if a fault is detected in the accelerator unit wiring (NPOT or
PPOT cable is interrupted).
14. STBY I HIGH
Test carried out in standby. Check if the current is 0. If not verified, an alarm is signalled
which inhibits machine operations. Possible causes:
a. current sensor failure;
b. logic failure: first replace the logic; if the defect persists, replace the power unit.
15. MAIN CONTACTOR ALARMS
COIL SHORTED:
When the key is switched ON the P checks the MC driver FF SR. If it does not react in
a correct way to the P stimulus, the alarm is signalled. Replace the logic board. The
FF SR makes an hardware control of the current in the MC coil. If this is too high, it
opens the MC and the alarm is signalled.
Check if there are external shortcircuit and if the ohmic value of the MC is correct;
otherwise replace the logic.
DRIVER SHORTED:
When the key is switched ON, the P checks that the MC coil driver is not shorted; if it
is, this alarm is signalled; replace the logic board.
CONTACTOR DRIVER:
When the initial diagnosis is finished, the traction logic closes the MC and checks the
voltage on the Drain of the driver. If this is not low , an alarm is signalled.
Replace the logic.
CONTACTOR OPEN:
The main contactor coil has been driven by the logic board, but the contactor does not
close. Two possible reasons:
a) the wires to the coil are interrupted or not well connected.
b) the contact of the contactor is not properly working.

Page 59

16. AUX OUTPUT KO


The P checks the driver of the electromechanical brake. If the status of the driver
output does not correspond to the signal coming from the P, the alarm is signalled.
Replace the logic.
17. HIGH TEMPERATURE
Chopper temperature is greater than 75C. The maximum current is reduced proportionally to the temperature increase. The chopper stops at 100C.
If the alarm is signalled when the chopper is cold:
a) check the wiring of the thermal sensor;
b) thermal sensor failure;
c) logic failure.
18. MOTOR TEMPERATURE
This warning is signalled if the motor temperature switch opens (digital sensor) or if the
analog signal overtakes the cut off level. If it happens when the motor is cold, check the
wiring. If all is ok, replace the logic board.
19. THERMIC SENSOR KO
The range of inverter temperature sensor is always checked and a warning is signalled
if it is out of range.
When this alarm is signalled, check the connection of the sensors.
20. WAITING PUMP
This alarm is present in combi systems (traction+pump). The pump has detected a
failure, the traction cannot close the main contactor because of the alarm status of the
pump (which the traction knows by the CAN-BUS line). The failure must be looked for in
the pump inverter.
21. CAN BUS KO
The diagnosis of the CAN-BUS line is present only if the inverter uses this link (depends on the software version). It is signalled if the inverter does not receive any message from the CAN-BUS line. First of all, check the wiring. If it is ok, the problem is on
the logic board, which must be replaced.
22. BATTERY LOW
If the "battery check" option is ON, a battery discharge algorithm is carried out. When
the charge level is 10% , this alarm is signalled and the current is reduced to the half of
the programmed level.

Page 60

8 AC INVERTER DIAGNOSTIC - PUMP CONFIGURATION


The alarms are signalled by a diagnostic LED.
1 blink:
logic failure ("WATCHDOG", "EEPROM KO", "LOGIC FAILURE #1",
"LOGIC FAILURE #2", "LOGIC FAILURE #3").
2 blinks:
START").

running request on start-up or error in seat sequence ("INCORRECT

3 blinks:
phase voltage or capacitor charge failure
("CAPACITOR CHARGE", "VMN LOW", "VMN HIGH").
4 blinks:

failure in accelerator ("VACC NOT OK", "PEDAL WIRE KO").

5 blinks:
failure of current sensor
("STBY I HIGH").
6 blinks:
failure of contactor driver
("COIL SHORTED", "DRIVER SHORTED", "CONTACTOR DRIVER", "CONTACTOR
OPEN").
7 blinks:
excessive temperature ("HIGH TEMPERATURE", "MOTOR TEMPERATURE", "THERMIC SENSOR KO").
8 blinks:

failure detection from can-bus ("WAITING TRACTION", "CAN-BUS KO").

long blink: discharge battery ("LOW BATTERY")


8.1 ANALYSIS OF ALARMS DISPLAYED ON CONSOLE
1. WATCH DOG
The test is made in both running and standby. It is a self-diagnosing test within the
logic. If an alarm should occur, replace the logic.
2. EEPROM KO
Fault in the area of memory in which the adjustment parameters are stored; this alarm
inhibits machine operation. If the defect persists when the key is switched OFF and
ON again, replace the logic. If the alarm disappears, remember that the parameters
stored previously have been cancelled and replaced by the default values.
3. LOGIC FAILURE #1
This alarm signals that an undervoltage / overvoltage protection operation has occurred. Two possible reasons:
a. A real undervoltage / overvoltage situation happened.
b. Fault in the hardware section of the logic board which manages the overvoltage
protection. Replace the logic card.
4. LOGIC FAILURE #2
Fault in the hardware section of the logic board which manages the phase' s voltage
feedback. Replace the logic board.

Page 61

5. LOGIC FAILURE #3
Fault in the hardware section of the logic board which manages the hardware current
protection. Replace the logic board.
6. INCORRECT START
This alarm signals an incorrect starting sequence. Possible causes:
a. running microswitch failure;
b. error in sequence made by the operator;
c. incorrect wiring;
d. if the default persists, replace the logic.
7. CAPACITOR CHARGE
Follows the charging capacitor system:

When the key is switched ON, the inverter tries to charge the capacitors through a
power resistance and check if the capacitors are charged within a timeout. If this is not
true: an alarm is signalled; the main contactor is not closed.
Possible reasons:
a) check if the charging resistance is opened.
b) The charging circuit has a failure.
c) There is a problem on the power modules.
8. VMN LOW, VMN HIGH
The test is carried out during initial diagnosis and in standby.
Possible causes:
a. problem with the motor connections or the motor power circuit; check if the 3 phases
are correctly connected; check if there's a dispersion of the motor towards ground;
b. chopper failure, replace it.
9. PEDAL WIRE KO
This alarm is signalled if a fault is detected in the accelerator wiring (NPOT or PPOT
cable is interrupted).
10. VACC NOT OK
The test is made in standby. This alarm indicates that the accelerator voltage is 1V
greater than the minimum value programmed by the PROGRAM VACC function.
Possible causes:
a. the potentiometer is not correctly calibrated;
b. the potentiometer is defective.
Page 62

11. STBY I HIGH


Test carried out in standby. Check if the current is 0. If not verified, an alarm is signalled
which inhibits machine operations. Possible causes:
a. current sensor failure;
b. logic failure: first replace the logic; if the defect persists, replace the power unit.
12. MAIN CONTACTOR ALARMS
In the combi system (pump + traction) the main contactor is driven by the traction inverter. So the following description concerns the pump inverter used independently
from the traction inverter. In this configuration the pump inverter manages its own main
contactor.
COIL SHORTED:
When the key is switched ON the P checks the MC driver FF SR. If it does not react in
a correct way to the P stimulus, the alarm is signalled. Replace the logic board. The
FF SR makes an hardware control of the current in the MC coil. If this is too high, it
opens the MC and the alarm is signalled.
Check if there are external shortcircuit and if the ohmic value of the MC is correct;
otherwise replace the logic.
DRIVER SHORTED:
When the key is switched ON, the P checks that the MC coil driver is not shorted; if it
is, this alarm is signalled; replace the logic board.
CONTACTOR DRIVER:
When the initial diagnosis is finished, the traction logic closes the MC and checks the
voltage on the Drain of the driver. If this is not low , an alarm is signalled.
Replace the logic.
CONTACTOR OPEN:
The main contactor coil has been driven by the logic board, but the contactor does not
close. Two possible reasons:
a) the wires to the coil are interrupted or not well connected.
b) the contact of the contactor is not properly working.
13. HIGH TEMPERATURE
Chopper temperature is greater than 75C. The maximum current is reduced proportionally to the temperature increase. The chopper stops at 100C.
If the alarm is signalled when the chopper is cold:
a. check the wiring of the thermal sensor;
b. thermal sensor failure;
c. logic failure.
14. MOTOR TEMPERATURE
This warning is signalled if the motor temperature switch opens digital sensor or if the
analog signal overtakes the cut-off level. If it happens when the motor is cold, check the
wiring. If all is OK, replace the logic board.
15. THERMIC SENSOR KO
The range of inverter temperature sensor is always checked and a warning is signalled
if it is out of range.
When this alarm is signalled, check the connection of the sensors.

Page 63

16. WAITING TRACTION


This alarm is present in combi systems (traction+pump). The traction has detected a
failure has informed the pump inverter through the can-bus line. The pump is waiting for
the traction ok. The failure must be looked for in the traction inverter.
17. CAN BUS KO
The diagnosis of the CAN-BUS line is present only if the inverter uses this link (depends on the software version). It is signalled if the inverter does not receive any message from the CAN-BUS line. First of all, check the wiring. If it is ok, the problem is on
the logic board, which must be replaced.
18. BATTERY LOW
If the "battery check" option is ON, a battery discharge algorithm is carried out. When
the charge level is 10% , this alarm is signalled and the current is reduced to the half of
the programmed level.

Page 64

9 RECOMMENDED SPARE PARTS FOR INVERTER

Part Number

Description

C16507

Protected 500A strip Fuse.

C16505

Protected 355A strip Fuse.

C16520

6.3A 20mm Control Circuit Fuse

C29509

SW 200 80V
Single Pole Contactor

C29532

SW 200 48V
Single Pole Contactor

Page 65

10 PERIODIC MAINTENANCE TO BE REPEATED


AT TIMES INDICATED
Check the wear and condition of the Contactors moving and fixed contacts.
Electrical Contacts should be checked every 3 months.
Check the Foot pedal or Tiller microswitch. Using a suitable test meter, confirm that there
is no electrical resistance between the contacts by measuring the volt drop between the
terminals. Switches should operate with a firm click sound.
Microswitches should be checked every 3 months.
Check the Battery cables, cables to the chopper, and cables to the motor. Ensure the
insulation is sound and the connections are tight.
Cables should be checked every 3 months.
Check the mechanical operation of the pedal or tiller . Are the return springs ok. Do the
potentiometers wind up to their full or programmed level.
Check every 3 months.
Check the mechanical operation of the Contactor(s). Moving contacts should be free to
move without restriction.
Check every 3 months.
Checks should be carried out by qualified personnel and any replacement parts used
should be original. Beware of NON ORIGINAL PARTS.
The installation of this electronic controller should be made according to the diagrams
included in this Manual. Any variations or special requirements should be made after
consulting a Zapi Agent. The supplier is not responsible for any problem that arises from
wiring methods that differ from information included in this Manual.
During periodic checks, if a technician finds any situation that could cause damage or
compromise safety, the matter should be bought to the attention of a Zapi Agent immediately. The Agent will then take the decision regarding operational safety of the machine.
Remember that Battery Powered Machines feel no pain.
NEVER USE A VEHICLE WITH A FAULTY ELECTRONIC CONTROLLER.

ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL DEVICES


42028 - POVIGLIO - (R.E.) - Via Parma, 59 - ITALIA
Tel. +39 0522 960050 (r.a.) - Fax +39 0522 960259 - e-mail: zapi@zapispa.it

AC3/AC4 INVERTER
OPERATING HANDBOOK
AND FUNCTION DESCRIPTION

Index
1

2
3

Page
Features ......................................................................................................... 2
1.1 Specification .......................................................................................... 2
1.2 Functional Description ............................................................................ 3
1.2.a LED function .................................................................................. 3
1.2.b DISPLAY function .......................................................................... 3
Installation ...................................................................................................... 5
2.1 Connection Drawing ............................................................................... 5
2.2 Dimensions ............................................................................................ 6
Programmation and adjustments ................................................................. 7
3.1 Battery Discharge algorithm ................................................................... 7
3.2 Maintenance / Service .......................................................................... 10
3.3 Hour-meter Memory service ................................................................. 11
Alarms ........................................................................................................... 12
4.1 Decoding of the Alarms displayed ........................................................ 12

SIGNED IN APPROVAL
COMPANY DEPT. SERVICES

MANAGEMENT EXECUTIVE

ENGINEERING SECTION EXECUTIVE


EXPORT MANAGER
Pubblication n.: AD2ZP0CB
Edition: March 2003
Page 1

1 FEATURES
1.1 SPECIFICATIONS
- ZAPI MDI is an indicator suitable for every type of battery powered vehicle equipped
with a high frequency traction controller from Zapimos family.
- This Unit is supplied directly from the chopper and not by the battery. In this way the
same device can be used on systems with different battery voltages.
- The battery's state of charge is obtained with an advanced algorithm made by the microprocessor. This algoritm considers the condition of braking or large acceleration
current demands from the drive motor.
- Using the Zapi PROGRAMMING CONSOLE, it is possible to make a selection from
100 different types of discharge curves.
- ZAPI MDI is a microprocessor- based system that allows high precision, reliability and
adaptability in the measurement of the battery's state of charge, and the calculation of
the hours worked.
- The ZAPI MDI indicator has three internal functions.
- Indication of the battery's state of charge
- Operating hour meter
- Indication of the system Alarms.
- As this unit is not connected directly to the battery, the ZAPI MDI does not require the
complex auxiliary wiring associated with traditional indicators.The wiring is "point-topoint"(from the indicator directly to the chopper). In this way, the wiring of the machine is
simpler, with reduced costs and installation time.

Page 2

1.2 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTIONS


1.2.a LED function
Battery State of charge.
Five LEDs, show the battery's State of Charge. Four Green, and one Red. With a fully
charged battery, all the Green LEDs are illuminated. As the battery becomes discharged,
the Green LEDs turn off progrssively, one after the other, in proportion to the residual
charge of the battery,until value of residual charge is reached. At this time the Red Led
illuminates indicating a discharged battery.

1.2.b DISPLAY function


Hour meter
An alpha-numeric liquid crystal display is fitted in the centre of the unit that shows the Hours
Worked.
Alarms
The same display can also indicate the Alarm state, showing a Code corresponding to the
type of Alarm. To attract attention, the Red LED will start flashing when an Alarm is generated.
Software version
When the Key Switch is initially closed, the display shows the Eprom Version for a few
seconds. (EPXXX where XXX represents the version). Simultaneously the symbol of a
Shifting Spanner appears.

Page 3

Other information
Three symbols inform the operator as follows:

Turtle Symbol
Shows activation of the soft mode of the truck, Maximum speed and acceleration are
reduced.

Shifting Spanner Symbol


Shows the request of programmed maintenance or the state of Alarm. In this case the
relative code will be displayed. The information supplied by the MDI can be extremely
useful. Failures can be quickly identified by the Operator or Service Technician thereby the
fastest solution to the problem;

Sand Glass Symbol


This Symbol flashses when the Hour Meter is working.

Page 4

2 INSTALLATION
2.1 CONNECTION SCHEME

Page 5

2.2 DIMENSIONS

Page 6

3 PROGRAMMING AND ADJUSTMENTS


Using the Zapi console, it is possible to configure the following options:
- The battery discharge algorithm
- The service maintenance
- The hour meter memory service.
3.1 BATTERY DISCHARGE ALGORITHM
The Battery Discharge algorithm is adjustable. The limits of the discharge curve can be
programmed.
Parameters allowing this adjustement are:
- ADJUSTMENT #1 = This modifies the voltage limit which reduces the 100% charge to
90% charge.
- ADJUSTMENT #2 = This modifies the voltage limit which reduces the 20% from the
charge 10%
Any other limit (80%, 70%, 60%,..) is modified linearly.
Note :
- The parameter set at 0 represents a decrease of the limit of 3.21%
- The parameter set to 9 represents an increase of the limit of 2.75%
Default values are at level 5 (there is no correction of the limits).
The following chart shows the values of the battery limits with the default parameters.
Remember that the values are relative to readings taken with battery currents between
15% and 27% of the maximum (armature) current.

CO N DITIO N O F THE BATTERY VO LTAGE

% IN THE
CO N SO LE TESTER

N UMBER O F
LEDs O N MDI

V BATT > 99.54% V N O M

100%

4 LED GREEN

V BATT 99.54% V N O M

90%

3 LED GREEN

V BATT 98.62% V N O M

80%

3 LED GREEN

V BATT 97.25% V N O M

70%

3 LED GREEN

V BATT 96.33% V N O M

60%

2 LED GREEN

V BATT 95.41% V N O M

50%

2 LED GREEN

V BATT 94.50% V N O M

40%

2 LED GREEN

V BATT 93.57% V N O M

30%

1 LED GREEN

V BATT 92.20% V N O M

20%

1 LED GREEN

V BATT 91.28% V N O M

10%

1 LED RED

Page 7

It has to be considered that:Once the controller is turned on, the charge can decrease
- It is possible to reach the 100% charge only at turning on after a re-charge, except in the
case in which the preceding turn off, the charge was over 70%. When this happens, the
displayed percentage (ex. 80%) is reteined longer than normal.This is because the true
voltage is higher than the dispalyed value. It becomes necessary to wait until the true
voltage decreases until it reaches the limit of the displayed percentage
- It is advised to charge batteries when low charge percentages are reached (example
10%, 20%, 30%).This will extend the life of the battery. .

Using the ZAPI Console, it is possible to modify the limits of the algorithm for battery discharge, as follows:

1) Zapi Opening Menu.


2) Press ENTER to access to Menus
3) The PARAMETER CHANGE Menu appears

4) Press ROLL UP until the ALARMS Menu


is displayed.
5) Press ENTER to access the Menu
6) The First / last alarm memorised in the
logbook appears
7) Press ROLL UP and ROLL DOWN together to find the
"Zapi Protected Men"
8) The heading of the Menu appears, together
with the first Sub-Men item.
9) Press ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN to find the
HARDWARE SETTING Menu

Page 8

10) The heading HARDWARE SETTING appears


11) Press ENTER to access the Menu
12) Now Press buttons ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN to the
desired option to be changed.
13) When found, the option (ex. Adjustment #1) is
displayed with its value, previously set or with
the default value
14) Now press buttons PARAM or SET to modify
the dispalyed value.
15) The new value is displayed
16) Press OUT button to leave Menu
17) Finally press ENTER to confirm modification.

Follow the procedure from point 5 to point 12 to make other adjustments (ex adjustment
#2).
IMPORTANT:
Before making tests on a discharged battery, it is reccomended to check (with a calibrated digital multimeter), that the value Battery Voltage dispalyed in the Tester" Menu of
the Zapi Console, is the same as the same as the true battery voltage.
If the two voltages are not the same, it is necessary to make a calibration. This can be
made using the "Adjust Battery" facility located in the "Adjustement" Menu. For further
information, see the Manual applicable to the controller to wich the MDI is connected.

Page 9

3.2 MAINTENANCE SERVICE


- The MDI indicator may display the Alarm AL 99 corresponds to CHECK UP
NEEDED on the Zapi console, and informs the operator that it is necessary for the
machine to receive some service.
- The display of this Alarm depends on how the operation CHECK UP TYPE is set in
the Zapi Console.
- The performance of the machine also depends on this parameter (reduction or disabling
of the traction function).
In the following chart, the type of behaviour is shown according to how the parameter
CHECK UP TYPE has been set.

STATE OF THE
OPTION CHECK
UP TYPE

DISPLAYED
ALARM 340
HOURS

NONE

NO

NO

NO

OPTION 1

YES

NO

NO

OPTION 2

YES

YES

NO

OPTION 3

YES

YES

YES

380 HOURS SPEED 380 HOURS STOP


REDUCTION
OF THE MACHINE

Note:
- the state of the option CHECK UP TYPE on default is NONE. Therefore in this configuration the Alarm is not shown and does not cause any speed reduction or disabling of
the traction motor.
- To cancel the Alarm it is necessary to set option " CHECK UP DONE" to ON.This can
be found in the HARDWARE SETTING Menu (Zapi Protected Menu) of the
Console.When this change has been made, esxit all Menus so that Zapi Opening
Dispaly is seen. The Key switch should be turned off and after 10 seconds turned on
again.
- If it is required to activate the maintenance function, after the machine has done some
hours of work, it is necessary to set option "CHECK UP DONE" to ON. This permits a
reset of the maintenance hour-meter. As above, when this change has been made, exit
all Menus so that the Zapi Opening Display is seen. The key switch should be turned off
and after 10 seconds turned on again.
- In case you wish to activate the maintenance function also after the machine has done
some hours of work, you have to set ON the option CHECK UP DONE which permits
to reset the maintenance hour-meter. Turning off and on again the key, the function will
self-reset to OFF.

Page 10

3.3 HOUR-METER MEMORY SERVICE


The MDI indicator retains the Hour Meter value in its own memory (EEPROM). It is possible to transfer the Hour Meter values into other controllers, should a raplacement be
rquired. In this way there is no loss of the Hour Meter record for a particular machine.
This can achieved as follows:
With the key Switch open, connect the ZAPI Console. (Midi NOT connected).
Close the key Switch. Set the function "LOAD HM FROM MDI"to ON.This can be
found in the HARDWARE SETTING Menu (Zapi Protected menu). In some ver
sions, this function may be called "AUX FUNCTION1".
Open the key switch. Disconnected the Zapi Console. Connect the MDI and then
close the key Switch.
The repalcement controller will now receive and retain the Hour Meter value of the previous
controller.
It has to be considered that:
- On default, the parameter "LOAD HM FROM MDI" is set to OFF. Therefore if this type of
function is not activated as described above, at turn on the memory of the hour-meter
will be lost.
- To avoid this situation (at present only in some versions of Dual-Sem or Asyncronous
controllers) should the operator forget to set parameter, the MDI signals the alarm " AL
98" for 1 minute (during this time traction is disabled). This warms the operator of the
imminent cancellation of the Hour Meter Memory.After 1 minute, if the operator has not
intervened, theHour Meter of the MDI will be re-written, with the Hour Meter value of the
new controller (Zero Hours if the controller is new).

Page 11

4 ALARMS
The ZAPI MDI gives indication of the Alarm of the controller to which it is connected, with a
corresponding code..
When an Alarm is generated, the Red LED flashes to attract the attention of the operator.
The symbol of Shifting Spanner also appears.

4.1 DECODING OF THE ALARMS DISPLAYED ON THE MDI


Using the indication given by the MDI and after reference to the following chart, the operator can solve the problem, if the failure is not serious. It will also be necessary to refer to the
paragraph describing the Alarms in the Manual of the relevant controller.
If the Alarm information suggests or indicates a serious problem,the operator will be able
to give useful information to the Service Centre, thereby reducing down time with relative
costs savings.

Page 12

AL 00

NONE

AL 01

CHOPPER RUNNING

AL 02

NO COMUNICATION

AL 03

UNKNOWN CHOPPER

AL 04

CONSOLE EEPROM

AL 05

SERIAL ERROR 2

AL 06

SERIAL ERROR 1

AL 07

CHOPPER NOT CONFIG

AL 08

WATCHDOG

AL 09

FIELD FF FAILURE

AL 10

EEPROM DATA KO

AL 11

EEPROM PAR KO

AL 12

EEPROM CONF KO

AL 13

EEPROM KO

AL 14

EEPROM OFFLINE

AL 15

LOGIC FAILURE 5

AL 16

LOGIC FAILURE 4

AL 17

LOGIC FAILURE 3

AL 18

LOGIC FAILURE 2

AL 19

LOGIC FAILURE 1

AL 20

FORW VMN LOW

AL 21

FORW VMN HIGH

AL 22

BACK VMN LOW

AL 23

BACK VMN HIGH

AL 24

LEFT VMN LOW

AL 25

LEFT VMN HIGH

AL 26

RIGHT VMN LOW

AL 27

RIGHT VMN HIGH

AL 28

PUMP VMN LOW

AL 29

PUMP VMN HIGH

AL 30

VMN LOW

AL 31

VMN HIGH

AL 32

VMN NOT OK

AL 33

NO FULL COND

AL 34

RGT NO FULL COND

AL 35

LFT NO FULL COND

AL 36

PU NO FULL COND

AL 37

CONTACTOR CLOSED

AL 38

CONTACTOR OPEN

AL 39

BRAKE DON' T CLOSED

AL 40

BRAKE CONT OPEN


Page 13

Page 14

AL 41

DIR CONT CLOSED

AL 42

DIR CONT OPEN

AL 43

RIGHT CONT CLOSED

AL 44

RIGHT CONT OPEN

AL 45

LEFT CONT CLOSED

AL 46

LEFT CONT OPEN

AL 47

MAIN CONT CLOSED

AL 48

MAIN CONT OPEN

AL 49

I=0 EVER

AL 50

LEFT I=0 EVER

AL 51

RIGHT I=0 EVER

AL 52

PUMP I=0 EVER

AL 53

STBY I HIGH

AL 54

LEFT STBY I HIGH

AL 55

RGT STBY I HIGH

AL 56

PUMP STBY I HIGH

AL 57

HIGH FIELD CURR

AL 58

NO FIELD CURR

AL 59

HIGH BRAKING I

AL 60

CAPACITOR CHARGE

AL 61

HIGH TEMPERATURE

AL 62

TH PROTECTION

AL 63

THERMIC LEVEL 2

AL 64

PUMP TEMPERATURE

AL 65

MOTOR TEMPERATURE

AL 66

BATTERY LOW

AL 67

BATTERY LEVEL 2

AL 68

BATTERY LEVEL 1

AL 69

CURRENT SENS KO

AL 70

POWER FAILURE 4

AL 71

POWER FAILURE 3

AL 72

POWER FAILURE 2

AL 73

POWER FAILURE 1

AL 74

DRIVER SHORTED

AL 75

CONTACTOR DRIVER

AL 76

COIL SHORTED

AL 77

COIL INTERRUPTED

AL 78

VACC NOT OK

AL 79

INCORRECT START

AL 80

FORW + BACK

AL 81

BAD STEER 0 SET

AL 82

ENCODER ERROR

AL 83

BAD ENCODER SIGN

AL 84

STEER SENS KO

AL 85

STEER HAZARD

AL 86

PEDAL WIRE KO

AL 87

PEDAL FAILURE

AL 88

TRACTION BRUSHES

AL 89

PUMP BRUSHES

AL 90

DRIVER 1 KO

AL 91

DRIVER 2 KO

AL 92

DRIVER 1 SIC KO

AL 93

DRIVER 2 SIC KO

AL 94

INPUT ERROR 6

AL 95

INPUT ERROR 5

AL 96

INVERSION

AL 97

POSITION HANDLE

AL 98

INPUT ERROR 2

AL 99

INPUT ERROR 1

Page 15

Important:
The alarms reported in the previous tables are refered to Zapi standard coding.
Customized software or special products can have same changements in the alarms
indications.
Following you can find same example:

COD. MDI

ALARM

CHOPPER

AL 15

V FIELD NOT OK

SEM-0 / SEM-1C

AL 15

R VMN NOT OK

DUAL-SEM

AL 16

SYSTEM CHECK KO

SEM-2 / SEM-3 / COMBI-SEM

AL 16

L VMN NOT OK

DUAL-SEM

AL 17

PUMP MOTOR TEMP.

SEM-2 / SEM-3 / COMBI-SEM

AL 17

R V FIELD NOT OK

DUAL-SEM

AL 18

BRAKE DRIVER KO

SEM-2 / SEM-3 / COMBI-SEM

AL 18

L V FIELD NOT OK

DUAL-SEM

AL 70

PUMP VACC NOT OK

SEM-2 / SEM-3 / COMBI-SEM

AL 70

R FIELD I LOW

DUAL-SEM

AL 71

HANDBRAKE

SEM-2 / SEM-3 / COMBI-SEM

AL 71

L FIELD I LOW

DUAL-SEM

AL 72

R FIELD I HIGH

DUAL-SEM

AL 73

L FIELD I HIGH

DUAL-SEM

AL 94

MICRO CHECK KO

DUAL-SEM

AL 95

OPERATOR ABSENT

DUAL-SEM

AL 96

BRAKE DRIVER KO

DUAL-SEM

AL 97

HANDBRAKE

DUAL-SEM

AL 98

CLEARING MDI HM

DUAL-SEM

AL 99

CHECK UP NEEDED

SEM-0 / SEM-1C

Page 16

ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL DEVICES


42028 - POVIGLIO - (R.E.) - Via Parma, 59 - ITALIA
Tel. +39 0522 960050 (r.a.) - Fax +39 0522 960259 - e-mail: zapi@zapispa.it

INSTALLATION AND
USER MANUAL

MDI
( Multifunction Digital Indicator )

CONSOLE MANU
AL
MANUAL

Page 1

Publication n.: 550108


Edition : November 1991

Page 2

INDEX
Page
Legend

ZAPI console description

Keyboard

General description of functions

Hour meter

Alarm display

Parameter programming

Tester

Save

Restore

Accelerator max. stroke programming

Chopper hardware configuration

Data motor

Operators manual

Menu A description

List of pins suitable for configuration

11

Menu B description

12

Basic information about the equipment

12

Description menu B

12

Description of menu 1 - Program

13

13

Item list for menu 1 - Program

Description of menu 2 - Tester

14

14

List of measurements taken by the tester

Description of menu 3 - Save

18

Description of menu 4 - Restore

19

Description of menu 5 - Alarms

20

21

List of alarms on display

Description of menu 6 - Accelerator setting

23

Description of menu 7 - Data motor

24

Re-configuration of chopper or connected I/O

25

Page 3

LEGEND
VMN = Mosfet drain voltage
I / O = Input, Output connection ( pin configuration see pag. 11 )

Page 4

ZAPI CONSOLE DESCRIPTION

KEYBOARD
Description of key functions:

Key 1

Allows selection of an option or the next menu item.

Key 2

Allows select of an option or the previous menu item.

Key 3

Allows confirmation of selected options.

Key 4

Retains the current function.

Key 5

Allows an increase in the parameters or selects the type of connected I/O.

Key 6

Allows a reduction in the parameters or selects the type of connected I/O.

Page 5

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF FUNCTIONS


HOUR METER
The hour meter appears in the second line of the display when the chopper is connected.
The hour meter has a sensitivity of one minute and a full scale value of 65,534 hours and
59 minutes.
ALARM DISPLAY
The console features the possibility to read the last five alarm messages stored in the
chopper and displayed together with the time of occurrence, the number of times the alarm
was sent and the temperature value at the time of the alarm.
PARAMETER PROGRAMMING
The chopper parameters can be displayed and programmed via the keyboard thereby
making it possible to set the chopper easily.
TESTER
It makes it possible to display the state of the chopper analogue and digital values and
thereby have a useful tool for the analysis of chopper operation and external cables.
SAVE
It makes it possible to store all values relating to the parameters and the chopper hardware
configuration into the console with a program which can be selected from the keyboard.
RESTORE
It makes it possible to program a chopper with the parameters contained in a program
generated by a SAVE.
ACCELERATOR MAX. STROKE PROGRAMMING
It allows to program the accelerator max. stroke.
The max. permissible value is 5 Volts while the minimum value is 3 Volts.
CHOPPER HARDWARE CONFIGURATION
It allows chopper configuration though there is no logic configuration.
You should answer the console guided questions and abandon automatically once the
questions are over.

Page 6

DATA MOTOR
This function allows the engineer to record the motor's electrical parameters in the chopper
memory the characteristics memorized varies between motors and are used during
reversal, allowing more efficient control of the motor current.
This procedure requires an input of answers to questions displayed on the console,
automatically leaving " motor data " routine upon completion.

Page 7

OPERATOR'S MANUAL

When switched on, the console tries to become connected with the chopper and displays
the following messages:

If connection is not successful the console displays the following message:

At this stage you should check whether connections have been correctly performed as per
the attached drawings.

If connection is made properly two situations may occur:

In case of no chopper configuration the console runs menu A (chopper


configuration), otherwise it runs menu B (console functions).

Page 8

DESCRIPTION OF MENU A (Chopper configuration)

The display shows the following:

To continue chopper programming press ENTER (key No. 3).


By running this command the following is displayed:

You can choose from a maximum of 10 different menu items, namely:


1-

H1 3 CABLES

2-

H1 4 CABLES S

3-

H1 4 CABLES T

4-

H1 SPECIAL

5-

NO CONFIG.

6-

NO CONFIG.

7-

NO CONFIG.

8-

NO CONFIG.

9-

NO CONFIG.

10 - NO CONFIG.
By means of the ROLL UP (key No. 1) and ROLL DOWN (key No. 2) keys you can scroll
the possible configurations of selectable choppers while the ENTER key (No. 3) confirms
the selection made.
The NO CONFIG. item shows that the selected model number has not yet been set.

Page 9

When a menu item is confirmed via the ENTER key (No. 3) the display shows:

At this stage if you confirm by pressing ENTER (key No. 3) the chopper configuration is as
per the selected model.
By pressing OUT (key No. 4) you can have access to the previous menu (SELECT MODEL).
After setting the model configuration the console enters the I/O CONFIGURATION MENU.
The display shows the number of pins requiring configuration and the meaning that a pin
may acquire.
Example:

By pressing SET-UP (key No. 5) and SET-DOWN (key No. 6) you scroll the different
possible states of a pin.
Any time you confirm by pressing ENTER (key No. 3) the display shows:

Confirming again with the ENTER key (No. 3) the state of the pin is stored in the chopper
while the OUT key (No. 4) allows you to repeat pin programming.
Once pin programming is completed the display shows:

At this point chopper configuration is complete. To move to the B menu simply switch off
and on again.

Page 10

LIST OF PINS SUITABLE FOR CONFIGURATION:


FREE (free pin)
Pin 5E

Selectable states:

RV1 (speed 1 cut back)


SPARE (to be defined)
FREE (free pin)

Pin 4E

Selectable states:

RV2 (speed 2 cut back)


SPARE (to be defined)
FREE (free pin)

Pin 2D

Selectable states:

INVERS (rapid inversion)


SPARE (to be defined)
FREE (free pin)

Pin 1E

Selectable states:

SEAT (seat)
HANDLE (handle)
FREE (free pin)

Pin 3E

Selectable states:

WEAK (weakening)
BY-PASS (by-pass)

Page 11

MENU B DESCRIPTION (Console functions)


BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT THE EQUIPMENT
If chopper configuration is available when the equipment is switched on, a set of information
is displayed, namely:
1) Manufacturers name
2) Chopper model
3) Program release version
4) Hour meter value
Example:

where:

ZAPI

is the Manufacturers name

V.1.0

is the program release number

H1 SP

is the chopper model

35

is the hour meter value.

MENU B DESCRIPTION
By pressing the ENTER key you enter the main menu which consists of the following
functions:
1 - Program
2 - Tester
3 - Save
4 - Restore
5 - Alarms
6 - Accelerator setting
7 - Motor data
By means of the ROLL UP (No. 1) and ROLL DOWN (No. 2) keys you can scroll the
functions while with the ENTER key (No. 3) you can confirm the selected function.
By selecting OUT (key No. 4) you return to the menu B.

Page 12

DESCRIPTION OF MENU 1 - PROGRAM


When you enter the Program menu the display shows the name of the first programmable
parameter with the corresponding level number.
The parameter level ranges from 0 to 9.
Example:

By means of the ROLL UP (No. 1) and ROLL DOWN (No. 2) keys you can scroll the
parameters while with the SET-UP (No. 5) and SET-DOWN (No. 6) keys you can change
the levels.
The UP key allows you to increase the level while by pressing the DOWN key you decrease
the level.
LIST OF MENU ITEMS FOR MENU 1 - PROGRAM:
1.1 ACCEL. DELAY
1.2 BRAKING

: Acceleration time
: Current braking threshold

1.3 CUT BACK SPEED 1

: Speed 1 reduction

1.4 CUT BACK SPEED 2

: Speed 2 reduction

1.5 COMPENSATION

: Compensation for speed reduction

1.6 CREEP SPEED

: Min. acceleration threshold

1.7 I MAX.

: Max. current

1.8 MAX. SPEED FORWARD

: Highest speed forward

1.9 MAX. SPEED REVERSE

: Highest speed reverse

2.0 WEAK DROPOUT

: Weakening output current threshold

By pressing the OUT key (No. 4) you return to the main menu.

Page 13

DESCRIPTION OF MENU 2 - TESTER:


When you enter the TESTER menu the display shows:

The displayed message shows the voltage level available at the chopper output terminals
with reference to VMN forward and VMN reverse.
Where:
< 30%

Indicates that on output connector there is a voltage less than 30% of battery
voltage

> 30%

Indicates that on output connector there is a voltage greater than 30% of battery
voltage

By means of the ROLL UP (No. 1) and ROLL-DOWN (No. 2) keys you can scroll all the
signals available on the chopper connectors.
By pressing the OUT key you can return to the main menu.
LIST OF MEASUREMENTS TAKEN BY THE TESTER:
1)

Measures VMN 2/3 voltage.


Example:

where:
< 80%

Indicates that on output connector there is a voltage less than 80% of battery
voltage

> 80%

Indicates that on output connector there is a voltage greater than 80% of battery
voltage

Page 14

2)

Measures contactor driver voltage.


Example:

where:

3)

Means that low voltage is available at the output connector

VB

Means that on output connector there is the battery voltage

Measures connector voltage with reference to forward and reverse.


Example:

4)

Measures connector voltage with reference to speed reduction 1 and speed


reduction 2 .
Example:

where:

5)

Means that low voltage is available at the output connector

VB

Means that on output connector there is the battery voltage

Measures connector voltage with reference to rapid inversion.


Example:

Page 15

where:

6)

Means that low voltage is available at the output connector

VB

Means that on output connector there is the battery voltage

Measures connector voltage with reference to the handle/seat microswitch.


Example:

where:

7)

Means that low voltage is available at the output connector

VB

Means that on output connector there is the battery voltage

Reads the accelerator analog value.


Example:

where:
5000 is the accelerator mVolt value
100% is the percent accelerator value
8)

Reads motor current.


Example:

where:
50 is motor current in Ampere.

Page 16

9)

Reads the power block temperature value.


Example:

where:
30 is the power block temperature value in degrees centigrade.
10) Reads battery voltage.
Example:

where:
23.5 Volt is battery voltage read during the tester phase
24 Volt is the type of battery used by the chopper.
11) Reads motor voltage
Example:

where:
22 Volt is voltage applied to the motor.

Page 17

DESCRIPTION OF MENU 3 - SAVE:


To store all parameter values into the console you simply have to specify on the display in
which program the data should be stored.
Example:

The ROLL UP (No. 1) and ROLL DOWN (No. 2) keys allow you to select the number of the
program while the parameters should be saved while by pressing ENTER (No. 3) you can
confirm the selection made.
You can select up to 10 programs.
When confirming by pressing ENTER (key No. 3) the display shows:

By pressing the OUT key you return to the menu B. If you confirm by pressing ENTER (key
No. 3) the display shows:

The chopper parameters are now transferred to the console in the showed point..
Once this transfer has occurred the program returns to the menu B.

Page 18

DESCRIPTION OF MENU 4 - RESTORE:


To program a chopper with the parameters contained in a program generated by a SAVE
you should select the program for storage.
Example:

The ROLL UP (No. 1) and ROLL DOWN (No. 2) keys make it possible to select the number
of the program to be stored into the chopper while by pressing the ENTER key (No. 3) you
confirm the selection made.
When confirming by pressing ENTER (key No. 3) if the selected program has not been
generated by a SAVE the display shows:

and after approximately 2 sec. the program returns to the menu B.


If, on the contrary, the selected program has been generated by a SAVE the display shows:

By pressing the OUT key you return to the menu B. If you confirm by pressing ENTER (key
No. 3) the display shows:

The parameters of the console program are now transferred to the chopper. Once transfer
has occurred the program return to the menu B.

Page 19

DESCRIPTION OF MENU 5 - ALARMS


When you enter the ALARMS menu the display shows the first alarm stored in the chopper
memory.
By means of the ROLL Up (No. 1) and ROLL DOWN keys (No. 2) you can scroll the last
5 alarms which have been sent.
Furthermore the display shows the state of the hour meter at the time of the alarm, the
number of times that the alarm was sent and the temperature at the time of the alarm.
Example:

where:
23 is the time at which the alarm was sent
2 is the number of times that the alarm was sent
25 is the temperature in degrees centigrade at the time of the alarm
If the display shows

then no alarm has been stored in the chopper.


By selecting the OUT key (No. 4) you return to the menu B.

Page 20

LIST OF ALARMS ON DISPLAY


1-

Chopper no conf.

Alarm generated if no logic configuration has occurred.

2-

VMN forw low

VMN 1/3 at rest or VMN 1/3 when operating with PWM 80%
(forward).

3-

VMN Back low

VMN 1/3 at rest or VMN 1/3 when operating with PWM 80%
(reverse).

4-

No full cond.

VMN 1/3 with total conduction.

5-

Cont don't close

Contactor is not closed.

6-

I=0 ever

No current during operation.

7-

I hight at stand

Current is available at rest.

8-

Watch - dog

Watch-dog.

9-

Forw back

Double request for running.

10 - Incorrect start

Running request at starting.

11 - VACC > 1Volt

Accelerator 1 Volt at rest.

12 - Contactor driver

Shorted driver.

13 - EEprom data ko

EEprom data area not OK.

14 - EEprom par. ko

EEprom parameter data area not OK.

15 - EEprom conf. ko

Chopper configuration data area not OK.

16 - EEprom ko

EEprom off line.

Page 21

17 - Err. by-pass

By-pass output error VMN 1/3.

18 - Protection

High temperature 70o.

19 - Battery

Battery dis-charged.

Page 22

DESCRIPTION OF MENU 6 - ACCELERATOR SETTING


When you enter this menu the display shows the value in Volt of the max. possible
accelerator stroke referred to both running directions.
Example:

By confirming with the ENTER key (No. 3) you enter the programming phase and the display
shows:

By pressing the OUT key you return to the menu B.


During this programming phase the operator is required to bring the throttle completely
forward and completely backward.
During this operation the potentiometer values are displayed until the max. value is reached.
At this stage if you want to store the displayed voltage values into the chopper you simply
confirm by pressing the ENTER again (key No. 3) so that the display shows:

If you confirm by pressing ENTER again (key No. 3) the values are stored in the chopper
and the program returns to the menu B.

Page 23

DESCRIPTION OF MENU 7 - DATA MOTOR


When entering this menu the display shows:

The console display requires that the operator stops the motor from rotating.
If ENTER (No. 3) is pressed the display shows:

The console display requires that the operator selects the forward direction.
If you press ENTER (key No. 3) the display shows:

By pressing ENTER again (key No. 3) again the display shows:

If all console instructions have been accurately followed the motor parameters are
calculated and stored into the chopper memory.
At the end of processing the program returns to the menu B.
The above procedure can be interrupted at any time returning to the menu B by simply
pressing the OUT key.

Page 24

RE-CONFIGURATION OF CHOPPER OR CONNECTIONS I/O


If chopper configuration obtained with menu A is not in compliance with the selected model
or if an error has been made during the programming phase re-configuration is possible
both for the chopper model and the chopper I/O.
For this purpose choose the menu basic information about product and simultaneously
press ROLL UP (No. 1) and SET-UP (No.5) for approximately 1sec.

The display thus shows:

By means of the ROLL UP (No. 1) and ROLL DOWN (No. 2) keys you can scroll all menu
functions while by pressing the ENTER key (No. 3) you can confirm the selected function.
Menu items are as follows:
1 - SEL. MODEL
2 - CONFIG. I/O
The operations to do are the some of menu' A (see instructions of menu' A).

Page 25

INDEX
1
2

Introduction ............................................................................................................. 4
Specification ........................................................................................................... 5
2.1 Technical specifications - "Dualac2"................................................................ 5
2.2 Technical specifications - "Dualac2&hp" ......................................................... 6
2.3 Technical specifications - "Dualac2 Power" ..................................................... 7
2.4 Technical specifications - "Dualac2&hp Power" .............................................. 8
2.5 Control unit ...................................................................................................... 8
2.5.1 Microswitches ........................................................................................ 8
2.5.2 Accelerator unit ...................................................................................... 8
2.5.3 Other analog control unit ......................................................................... 9
2.5.4 Speed feedback ................................................................................... 10
2.5.5 Steering angle transducer ..................................................................... 10
2.6

Protection features

................................................................................. 12

2.7
2.8
2.9

Operational features ...................................................................................... 13


Diagnosis ..................................................................................................... 14
Thermal consideration ................................................................................... 14

2.10 General instructions and precautions

...................................................... 14

2.11 Susceptibility and electromagnetic emission

......................................... 15

2.12 Main contactor and emergency switch ........................................................... 15


................................................................................... 16

Safety and protection

Installation ............................................................................................................. 17
4.1 Connection cables ........................................................................................ 17
4.2 Contactors .................................................................................................... 17
4.3 Fuses ............................................................................................................ 17
4.4 Description of connectors - "Dualac2" and "Dualac2 Power" ........................ 18
4.5 Description of connectors - "Dualac2&hp" and "Dualac2&hp Power" ............ 20
4.6 Encoder installation ....................................................................................... 23
4.7 CANBUS connector description .................................................................... 24
4.7.1 "Dualac2" Controller in stand-alone configuration .................................. 24
4.7.2 "Dualac2" Controller is a termination module in the canbus net ............. 24
4.7.3 "Dualac2" Controller is a repetition module in the canbus net ................ 25
4.8 Description of power connections.................................................................. 26
4.8.1 "Dualac2" ............................................................................................. 26
4.8.2 "Dualac2 Power" .................................................................................. 27
4.8.3 "Dualac2&hp" ....................................................................................... 28
4.8.4 "Dualac2&hp Power" ............................................................................ 30
4.9 Mechanical drawing ...................................................................................... 32
4.10 Connection drawing - "Dualac2" and "Dualac2 Power" standalone ................ 36
4.11 Connection drawing - "Dualac2&hp" and "Dualac2&hp Power" standalone ... 37

Page 1

Programming & Adjustments using Digital Console ......................................... 38


5.1 Adjustments via Console ............................................................................... 38
5.2 Description of Console & Connection ............................................................ 38
5.3 Description of Standard Console Menu ......................................................... 39
5.3.1 "Dualac2" and "Dualac2 Power" menu configuration ............................ 39
5.3.1.a Master ............................................................................................... 39
5.3.1.b Slave ................................................................................................. 40
5.3.2 "Dualac2&hp" and "Dualac2&hp Power" menu configuration ................ 41
5.3.2.a Master ............................................................................................... 41
5.3.2.b Slave ................................................................................................. 42
5.4 Function configuration ................................................................................... 43
5.4.1 "Dualac2" and "Dualac2 Power" - Master ............................................. 43
5.4.2 "Dualac2" and "Dualac2 Power" - Slave ............................................... 46
5.4.3 "Dualac2&hp" and "Dualac2&hp Power" - Master ................................ 47
5.4.4 "Dualac2&hp" and "Dualac2&hp Power" - Slave .................................. 47
5.5 Parameter regulation ..................................................................................... 52
5.5.1 "Dualac2" - Master ............................................................................... 52
5.5.2 "Dualac2" - Slave ................................................................................. 53
5.5.3 "Dualac2&hp" - Master ......................................................................... 54
5.5.4 "Dualac2&hp" - Slave ........................................................................... 55
5.6 Programming console functions .................................................................... 60
5.6.1 Functional configuration (see 5.4) ......................................................... 60
5.6.2 Parameter programming (see 5.5) ....................................................... 60
5.6.3 "Dualac2" and "Dualac2 Power" Tester: user can verify the state of the
following parameters: .................................................................................... 60
5.6.4 "Dualac2&hp" and "Dualac2&hp Power" Tester: user can verify the state
of the following parameters: ........................................................................... 61
5.6.5 Save function (for storing data) --> only with Pc-console ........................ 61
5.6.6 Restore function (for downloading parameters to another controller) -->
only with Pc-console ...................................................................................... 61
5.6.7 Display of the last 5 alarms including hour-meter value and temperature at
the moment of the alarm. ............................................................................... 61
5.6.8 Accelerator range programming ........................................................... 61
5.6.9 See the console manual for a detailed description of function and parameters.............................................................................................................. 61
5.7 Sequence for Ac Inverter Traction setting ....................................................... 62
5.8 Tester: description of the function .................................................................. 63
5.8.1 "Dualac2" and "Dualac2 Power" - Master ............................................. 63
5.8.2 "Dualac2" and "Dualac2 Power" - Slave ............................................... 64
5.8.3 "Dualac2&hp" and "Dualac2&hp Power" - Master ................................ 65
5.8.4 "Dualac2&hp" and "Dualac2&hp Power" - Slave .................................. 66
Other functions ..................................................................................................... 69
6.1 Save and Restore function............................................................................. 69
6.2 Description of Alarms menu .......................................................................... 70
6.3 Description of Console Program Vacc function ............................................. 71

Page 2

8
9

"Dualac2" and "Dualac2&hp" Inverter diagnostic ............................................ 72


7.1 Traction related fault codes ........................................................................... 72
7.2 Analysis of traction related alarms displayed on console................................ 76
7.3 Pump related fault codes ............................................................................... 81
7.4 Analysis of pump related alarms displayed on console .................................. 82
Recommended Spare parts for inverter ............................................................. 83
Periodic Maintenance to be repeated at times indicated ................................... 84

The informations included into the marked paragraphs by this symbol are
essential for the safety.

SIGNATURES TABLE
COMPANY DEPT. SERVICES

MANAGEMENT EXECUTIVE

ENGINEERING SECTION EXECUTIVE


EXPORT MANAGER
Publications N: AE9ZP0BA
Edition: March 2003
Page 3

1 INTRODUCTION
Within the ZAPIMOS family, the DUALAC2 inverter is the model suitable for control of pairs
of 3.0kW to 7.0kW motors. The DUALAC2&HP can also control a DC-Series pump motor,
up to 15kW. These controllers have been expressly designed for battery powered applications, traction and hydraulic functions. They are fit for electric trucks, utility cars, tractors.

Page 4

2 SPECIFICATION
2.1 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS - "DUALAC2"
Inverter for pairs of AC asynchronous 3-phase motors
Regenerative braking functions
Can-bus interface
Digital control based upon a microcontroller (one per each motor)
Voltage: .................................................................................. 24 - 36 - 48 - 72 - 80V
Maximum current (24V): ........................................ 350A (RMS) for 3' per each motor
Maximum current (36/48V): ................................... 275A (RMS) for 3' per each motor
Maximum current (72/80V): ................................... 200A (RMS) for 2' per each motor
Operating frequency: ..........................................................................................8kHz
External temperature range: ................................................................. -30C 40C
Maximum inverter temperature (at full power): .................................................... 75C
BLOCK DIAGRAM

Page 5

2.2 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS - "DUALAC2&HP"


Inverter for pairs of AC asynchronous 3-phase motors plus chopper for DC series pump
motor.
Regenerative braking functions
Can-bus interface
Digital control based upon a microcontroller (one per each AC motor)
Voltage: .................................................................................. 24 - 36 - 48 - 72 - 80V
Maximum current (24V): ........................................ 350A (RMS) for 3' per each motor
Maximum current (36/48V): ................................... 275A (RMS) for 3' per each motor
Maximum current (72/80V): ................................... 200A (RMS) for 2' per each motor
Chopper maximum current (24V): ............................................................. 500A for 2'
Chopper maximum current (36/48V): ........................................................ 420A for 2'
Chopper maximum current (72/80V): ........................................................ 300A for 2'
Operating frequency: ..........................................................................................8kHz
External temperature range: ................................................................. -30C 40C
Maximum inverter temperature (at full power): .................................................... 75C
BLOCK DIAGRAM

Page 6

BLOCK DIAGRAM CHOPPER

2.3 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS - "DUALAC2 POWER"


Inverter for pairs of AC asynchronous 3-phase motors
Regenerative braking functions
Can-bus interface
Digital control based upon a microcontroller (one per each AC motor)
Voltage: .................................................................................. 24 - 36 - 48 - 72 - 80V
Maximum current (24V): ........................................ 450A (RMS) for 3' per each motor
Maximum current (36/48V): ................................... 350A (RMS) for 3' per each motor
Maximum current (72/80V): ................................... 275A (RMS) for 2' per each motor
Operating frequency: ..........................................................................................8kHz
External temperature range: ................................................................. -30C 40C
Maximum inverter temperature (at full power): .................................................... 75C
BLOCK DIAGRAM
See chapter 2.1 - Block Diagram.

Page 7

2.4 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS - "DUALAC2&HP POWER"


Inverter for pairs of AC asynchronous 3-phase motors plus chopper for DC series pump
motor
Regenerative braking functions
Can-bus interface
Digital control based upon a microcontroller (one per each AC motor)
Voltage: .................................................................................. 24 - 36 - 48 - 72 - 80V
Maximum current (24V): ........................................ 450A (RMS) for 3' per each motor
Maximum current (36/48V): ................................... 350A (RMS) for 3' per each motor
Maximum current (72/80V): ................................... 275A (RMS) for 2' per each motor
Chopper maximum current (24V): ............................................................. 500A for 2'
Chopper maximum current (36/48V): ........................................................ 420A for 2'
Chopper maximum current (72/80V): ........................................................ 300A for 2'
Operating frequency: ..........................................................................................8kHz
External temperature range: ................................................................. -30C 40C
Maximum inverter temperature (at full power): .................................................... 75C
BLOCK DIAGRAM
See chapter 2.2 - Block Diagram.
2.5 CONTROL UNIT
2.5.1 Microswitches
- The microswitches must have a contact resistance lower than 0.1ohm and a leakage
current lower than 100A.
- When full load connected, the voltage between the key switch contacts must be lower
than 0.1V.
- The microswitches send a voltage signal to the microprocessor when a function request
(for ex.: running request) is made.
2.5.2 Accelerator unit
The accelerator unit can consist of a potentiometer or an Hall effect device.
It should be in a 3-wire configuration.
CPOT (C21) signal ranges from 0 to 10V.
Potentiometer value should be in the 0.5 - 10 Kohm range; generally, the load should be in
the 1.5mA to 30 mA range. Faults can occur if it is outside this range.

Page 8

PPOT is the accelerator unit positive supply. It can be either a 5V output or a 10V output.
The selection of the output voltage is made in the logic card by moving a jumper (factory
set).
NPOT is the accelerator unit negative supply. This output is feedback to the C A/D converter to test the continuity of the accelerator unit circuit (test of poti wire disconnection).
The Procedure for automatic potentiometer signal acquisition is carried out using the
Console. This enables adjustment of the minimum and maximum useful signal level
(PROGRAM VACC function), in either direction. This function is unique when it is necessary to compensate for asymmetry with the mechanical elements associated with the
potentiometer, especially relating to the minimum level.
The sequence of procedure is described in the programming console manual.

The two graphs show the output voltage from a non-calibrated potentiometer with
respect to the mechanical zero of the control lever. MI and MA indicate the point where
the direction switches close. 0 represents the mechanical zero of the rotation.
The Left Hand graph shows the relationship of the motor voltage without signal acquisition
being made. The Right Hand Graph shows the same relationship after signal acquisition
of the potentiometer.
2.5.3 Other analog control unit
1) Input C18 is an analog input, whose typical application is for proportional braking. It
should be in a 3 wire configuration. Potentiometer value should be in the 0.5-10 Kohm
range. Generally, the load should be in the 1.5mA to 30 mA range.
The CPOTB (C18) signal range is from 0 to 5V or from 0V to 10V.
2) Connections C25 (PTHERMR) and C24 (NTHERMR) are used for the right motor
thermal sensor. Connections C35 (PTHERML) and C34 (NTHERML) are used for the
left motor thermal sensor. Sensors can be digital (on/off sensor, normally closed) or
analog. See also chapter 5.4 for more explanation.
3) In the versions with integrated pump chopper (DUALAC2&HP and DUALAC2&HP
POWER), it is possible to input to the controller an analog signal for proportional lifting.
This input will be the output of a potentiometer (3 wires, resistance in the 1 to 10kohm
range) or of a Hall Effect device; the load must be below 10mA. CPOTLIFT (D9) signal
has to be within the 0 to 10V range.

Page 9

2.5.4 Speed feedback


The traction motors control is based upon the motor speed feedback. The speed transducer is an incremental encoder, with two phases shifted at 90. The encoder can be of
different types :
- power supply:
+5V or +12V
-

electric output:

open collector ( NPN or PNP), push-pull

For more details about encoder installation see also chapter 4.6.
2.5.5 Steering angle transducer
Angular position of steered wheels is transduced to an electric information (voltage) by
means of a potentiometer, with following characteristics:
- resistance in the 2kohm to 20kohm range;
- suggested rotation electric angle: at least 300;
- positive supply: 5V or 10V;
- potentiometer has to be installed in a way that in the "zero" position (straight wheels),
poti output voltage is in the middle of the electric range corresponding to a full left-toright transition of the steered wheels;
- install the potentiometer in a way that, when truck turns right, poti output voltage increases;
- use "SET STEER MIN" and "SET STEER MAX" functions to record the extremes (minimum and maximum) of the potentiometer range; see chapter 5.4.
- use "SET STEER 0-POS" function to record the poti output when the steered wheels
are straight; see chapter 5.4.

MOTOR MANAGEMENT TABLE

Page 10

Potentiometer connections

Steering table
The relationship between the two motors speed changes as a function of the steering
angle and of the axle/wheeltrack ratio.
While the steering angle is an information coming from the trasducer (potentiometer), the
axle/wheeltrack ratio is a constant characteristic of the truck that depends on his dimensions. Actually two steering tables are provided:
Option #1 = tables for 3 wheels trucks with driving wheels counter-rotation (the internal
wheel inverts the direction).
Option #2 = tables for 4 wheels trucks without driving wheels counter-rotation (the
internal wheel does not inverts the direction).
The truck data have to be communicated to Zapi, so that it is possible to put in the software
the correct steering table.
The correct table selection is done in the SET OPTION menu, see chapter 5.4.

The relationship between the two motors speed is equal to the relationship between the
two radius described during the curve.
Page 11

2.6 PROTECTION FEATURES


- Battery polarity inversion:
It is necessary to fit a MAIN CONTACTOR to protect the inverter against reverse battery
polarity and for safety reasons.
- Connection Errors:
All inputs are protected against connection errors.
- Thermal protection
If the chopper temperature exceeds 75C, the maximum current is reduced in
proportion to the thermal increase. The temperature can never exceeds 100C.
- External agents:
The inverter is protected against dust and the spray of liquid to a degree of
protection meeting IP54.
- Protection against uncontrolled movements:
The main contactor will not close if:
- The Power unit is not functioning.
- The Logic is not functioning perfectly.
- the output voltage of the accelerator does not fall below the minimum voltage value
stored, with 1V added.
- Running microswitch in closed position.
- Low battery charge:
when the battery charge is low, the maximum current is reduced to the half of the maximum current programmed.
- Protection against accidental Start up
A precise sequence of operations are necessary before the machine will start.
Operation cannot begin if these operations are not carried out correctly.
Requests for drive, must be made after closing the key switch

Page 12

2.7 OPERATIONAL FEATURES


- Speed control.
- Optimum behaviour an a slope due to the speed feedback:
- the motors speed follows the accelerator, starting a regenerative braking if the speed
overtakes the speed set-point.
- the system can perform an electrical stop on a ramp (the machine is electrically hold
on a slope) for a programmable time (see also chapter 5.4)
- Stable speed in every position of the accelerator.
- Electronic differential feature with torque balance between external and internal wheel.
- Regenerative release braking based upon deceleration ramps.
- Regenerative braking when the accelerator pedal is partially released (deceleration).
- Direction inversion with regenerative braking based upon deceleration ramp.
- Regenerative braking and direction inversion without contactors: only the main
contactor is present.
- The release braking ramp can be modulated by an analog input, so that a proportional
brake feature is obtained.
- Optimum sensitivity at low speeds.
- Voltage boost at the start and with overload to obtain more torque (with current control).
- The inverter can drive an electromechanical brake
- Hydraulic steering function:
- the traction inverter sends a "hydraulic steering function" request to the pump inverter
on the can-bus line.
- moreover , if the pump inverter is not present (for ex: tractor application), the traction
inverter can manage an "hydraulic steering function" by driving a hydro contactor which
drive a hydraulic steering motor (output C31).
- High efficiency of motor and battery due to high frequency commutations.
- Modification of parameters through the programming console.
- Internal hour-meter with values that can be displayed on the console.
- Memory of the last five alarms with relative hour-meter and temperature displayed on the
console.
- Diagnostic function with Zapi handset for checking main parameters.
- Built in BDI feature.
- Flash memory, sw downloadable via serial link and via CANBUS.
- Canopen interface available.

Page 13

2.8 DIAGNOSIS
The microprocessors continually monitor the inverter and carry out a diagnostic procedure
on the main functions. The diagnosis is made in 4 points
1) Diagnosis on key switch closing that checks: watchdog circuit, current sensor, capacitor charging, phase's voltages, contactor drivers, can-bus interface, if the switch sequence for operation is correct and if the output of accelerator unit is correct, correct
synchronization of the two CS, integrity of safety related inputs hardware.
2) Standby diagnosis at rest that checks: watchdog circuit, phase's voltages, contactor
driver, current sensor, can-bus interface.
3) Diagnosis during operation that checks: watchdog circuits, contactor driver, current
sensors, can-bus interface.
4) Continuos diagnosis that check: temperature of the inverter, motor temperature.
Diagnosis is provided in two ways. The digital console can be used, which gives a detailed
information about the failure; the failure code is also sent on the Can-Bus.
2.9 THERMAL CONSIDERATION
- The heat generated by the power block must be dissipated. For this to be possible,
the compartment must be ventilated and the heat sink materials ample.
- The heat sink material and system should be sized on the performance requirement of
the machine. Abnormal ambient air temperatures should be considered. In situations
where either ventilation is poor, or heat exchange is difficult, forced air ventilation should
be used.
- The thermal energy dissipated by the power block module varies and is dependent on
the current drawn and the duty cycle.
2.10 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS AND PRECAUTIONS
- Never connect SCR low frequency chopper with ASYNCHRONOUS INVERTER because the ASYNCHRONOUS filter capacitors alter the SCR choppers' work. If it is
necessary to use two or more control units (traction + lift. for ex.), they must belong to the
ZAPIMOS family.
- Do not connect the inverter to a battery with a nominal value different from the value
indicated on the chopper plate. If the battery value is greater, the MOS may fail; if it is
lower, the control unit does not "power up".
- During battery charge, disconnect ASYNCHRONOUS from the battery.
- Supply the ASYNCHRONOUS only with battery for traction; do not use a power supply.
- When the chopper is installed, make tests with the wheels raised from the ground, in
order to avoid dangerous situations due to connection errors.
- After the chopper is switched off (key off), the filter capacitor remains charged for about
1 minute; if you need to work on the inverter, discharge them using a
10W 100W resistance connected from the +Batt to the -Batt.
Page 14

2.11 SUSCEPTIBILITY AND ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSION


Electromagnetic susceptibility and emission are strongly influenced by the installation.
Special attention must be given to the lengths and the paths of the electric connections and
the shields.
This situation is beyond ZAPI's control. Therefore ZAPI declines any responsibility for
noncompliance if correct testing is not made (the irradiated emission directive is
EN50081-2).
2.12 MAIN CONTACTOR AND EMERGENCY SWITCH
- The connection of the battery line switches must be carried out following ZAPI instructions.
- If a mechanical battery line switch is installed, it is necessary that the key supply to the
inverter is open together with power battery line; if not, the inverter may be
damaged if the switch is opened during a regenerative braking.

- An intrinsic protection is present inside the logic when the voltage on the battery power
connection overtakes 40% more than the battery nominal voltage or if the key is
switched off before the battery power line is disconnected.

Page 15

3 SAFETY AND PROTECTION


ZAPI controllers are designed according to the prEN954-1 specifications for safety
related parts of control system and to UNI EN1175-1 norm.
The safety of the machine is strongly related to installation; length, layout and
screening of electrical connections have to be carefully designed.
Dualac2 controller electronic implements double hardware circuit for four inputs: Seat (C5),
Forward (C6), Reverse (C7), Accelerator Enable (C8).
These signals are input, through two hardware independent circuits, to both
microcontrollers which implement a cross-check of the input status, thus preventing an
abnormal behaviour due to a failure in the input hardware.
It is strongly suggested to connect the machine safety related devices to these
four inputs, in order to increase machine safety.
ZAPI is always available to cooperate with the customer in order to evaluate installation and connection solutions. Furthermore, ZAPI is available to develop new
SW or HW solutions to improve the safety of the machine, according to customer
requirements.
Machine manufacturer holds the responsibility for the truck safety features and
related approval.

Page 16

4 INSTALLATION
Install the controller with the base-plate on a flat metallic surface that is clean and
unpainted. Apply a light layer of thermo-conductive grease between the two surfaces to
permit better heat dissipation.
Ensure that the wiring of the cable terminals and connectors is carried out correctly.
Fit transient suppression devices to the horn, solenoid valves, and contactors not connected to the chopper such as those for activating the pump motor or steering motor.
4.1 CONNECTION CABLES
For the auxiliary circuits, use cables of 0.5mm section.
For power connections to the motor and to the battery, use cables having section
of 35 mm (as a minimum).
For the optimum inverter performance, the cables to the battery should be run side by side
and be as short as possible.
4.2 CONTACTORS
The main contactor must be installed. The LC coil driver is voltage controlled by means of
a 1 khz PWM. The voltage applied to the coil can be adjusted by "Main Cont Voltage"
parameter in Config/Adjustment menu. It has to be adjusted to the LC coil nominal voltage.
4.3 FUSES
- Use a 6.3A Fuse for protection of the auxiliary circuits.
- For protection of the power unit, refer to diagrams.. The Fuse value shown is the maximum allowable. For special applications or requirements these values can be reduced.
- For Safety reasons, we recommend the use of protected fuses in order to prevent the
spread of fused particles should the fuse blow.

Page 17

4.4 DESCRIPTION OF CONNECTORS - "DUALAC2" AND "DUALAC2 POWER"

A1

CAN_H

High level CANBUS.

A2

CANT_H

CANBUS termination output, 120 ohm internally connected to


CAN_H. Connect to CAN_L_OUT to insert the termination.

A3

CAN_POS

Positive of CAN circuit; to be used in case of optoisolated


CANBUS.

A4

CAN_L_OUT

Low level CANBUS: to be used as repetition for CAN_L line or to be


connected to CANT_H to insert termination resistance.

A5

CANT_L

CANBUS termination output, 120 ohm internally connected to


CAN_L. Connect to CAN_H_OUT to insert the termination.

A6

CAN_L

Low level CANBUS.

A7

CAN_H_OUT

High level CANBUS: to be used as repetition for CAN_H line or to


be connected to CANT_L to insert termination resistance.

A8

CAN_NEG

Negative of CAN circuit, to be used in case of optoisolated


CANBUS.

B1

PCLRXD

Positive serial reception.

B2

NCLRXD

Negative serial reception.

B3

PCLTXD

Positive serial transmission.

B4

NCLTXD

Negative serial transmission.

B5

GND

Negative console power supply.

B6

+12

Positive console power supply.

B7

FLASH

B8

FLASH

Page 18

C1

PENC_R

Positive of right motor encoder power supply (+5V/+12V).

C2

NENC_R

Negative of right motor encoder power supply.

C3

KEY

Connected to +Batt trough a microswitch and a 10A fuse in series.

C4

CM

Common of FW / REV / HB / PB / SEAT / ENABLE microswitches.

C5

SEAT

Seat presence signal; active high.

C6

FORWARD

Forward direction request signal; active high.

C7

REVERSE

Reverse direction request signal; active high.

C8

ENABLE

Traction request signal; active high.

C9

PB

Pedal brake request signal; active high.

C10 SR/HB

Speed reduction signal or hand brake input; active low (microswitch


open). See also chapter 5.4.

C11 PENC_L

Positive of left motor encoder power supply (+5V/+12V).

C12 NENC_L

Negative of left motor encoder power supply.

C13 PHA_R

Right motor encoder phase A.

C14 PHB_R

Right motor encoder phase B.

C15 NPOTST

Negative of steering potentiometer (-BATT).

C16 PPOTST

Positive of steering potentiometer (+5V/+12V).

C17 CPOTST

Steering potentiometer wiper signal.

C18 CPOTB

Brake potentiometer wiper signal.

C19 NPOTB

-BATT.

C20 NPOT

Negative of traction accelerator potentiometer, tested for wire disconnection diagnosis.

C21 CPOT

Traction potentiometer wiper signal.

C22 PHA_L

Left motor encoder phase A.

C23 PHB_L

Left motor encoder phase B.

C24 NTHERM_R

Negative of right traction motor temperature sensor.

C25 PTHERM_R

Right traction motor temperature signal.

C26 NLC

Output of main contactor coil driver (drives to -BATT).

C27 PLC

Positive of main contactor coil.

C28 NBRAKE

Output of electric brake coil; drives the load to -BATT, maximum


current 3A.

C29 PBRAKE

Positive of the electromechanical brake coil.

C30 PAUX

Positive of auxiliary load.

C31 NAUX

Output of auxiliary load driver (drives to -BATT).

C32 -BATT
C33 PPOT

Traction potentiometer positive, 5/10V output; use load > 1k ohm.

C34 NTHERM_L

Negative of left traction motor temperature sensor.

C35 PTHERM_L

Left traction motor temperature signal.


Page 19

4.5 DESCRIPTION OF CONNECTORS - "DUALAC2&HP" AND "DUALAC2&HP


POWER"

A1

CAN_H

High level CANBUS.

A2

CANT_H

CANBUS termination output, 120 ohm internally connected to


CAN_H. Connect to CAN_L_OUT to insert the termination.

A3

CAN_POS

Positive of CAN circuit; to be used in case of optoisolated


CANBUS.

A4

CAN_L_OUT

Low level CANBUS: to be used as repetition for CAN_L line or to be


connected to CANT_H to insert termination resistance.

A5

CANT_L

CANBUS termination output, 120 ohm internally connected to


CAN_L. Connect to CAN_H_OUT to insert the termination.

A6

CAN_L

Low level CANBUS.

A7

CAN_H_OUT

High level CANBUS: to be used as repetition for CAN_H line or to


be connected to CANT_L to insert termination resistance.

A8

CAN_NEG

Negative of CAN circuit, to be used in case of optoisolated


CANBUS.

B1

PCLRXD

Positive serial reception.

B2

NCLRXD

Negative serial reception.

B3

PCLTXD

Positive serial transmission.

B4

NCLTXD

Negative serial transmission.

B5

GND

Negative console power supply.

B6

+12

Positive console power supply.

B7

FLASH

B8

FLASH

Page 20

C1

PENC_R

Positive of right motor encoder power supply (+5V/+12V).

C2

NENC_R

Negative of right motor encoder power supply.

C3

KEY

Connected to +Batt trough a microswitch and a 10A fuse in series.

C4

CM

Common of FW / REV / HB / PB / SEAT / ENABLE microswitches.

C5

SEAT

Seat presence signal; active high.

C6

FORWARD

Forward direction request signal; active high.

C7

REVERSE

Reverse direction request signal; active high.

C8

ENABLE

Traction request signal; active high.

C9

PB

Pedal brake request signal; active high.

C10 SR/HB

Speed reduction signal or hand brake input; active low (microswitch


open). See also chapter 5.4.

C11 PENC_L

Positive of left motor encoder power supply (+5V/+12V).

C12 NENC_L

Negative of left motor encoder power supply.

C13 PHA_R

Right motor encoder phase A.

C14 PHB_R

Right motor encoder phase B.

C15 NPOTST

Negative of steering potentiometer (-BATT).

C16 PPOTST

Positive of steering potentiometer (+5V/+12V).

C17 CPOTST

Steering potentiometer wiper signal.

C18 CPOTB

Brake potentiometer wiper signal.

C19 NPOTB

-BATT.

C20 NPOT

Negative of traction accelerator potentiometer, tested for wire disconnection diagnosis.

C21 CPOT

Traction potentiometer wiper signal.

C22 PHA_L

Left motor encoder phase A.

C23 PHB_L

Left motor encoder phase B.

C24 NTHERM_R

Negative of right traction motor temperature sensor.

C25 PTHERM_R

Right traction motor temperature signal.

C26 NLC

Output of main contactor coil driver (drives to -BATT).

C27 PLC

Positive of main contactor coil.

C28 NBRAKE

Output of electric brake coil; drives the load to -BATT, maximum


current 3A.

C29 PBRAKE

Positive of the electromechanical brake coil.

C30 PAUX

Positive of auxiliary load.

C31 NAUX

Output of auxiliary load driver (drives to -BATT).

C32 -BATT
C33 PPOT

Traction potentiometer positive, 5/10V output; use load > 1k ohm.

C34 NTHERM_L

Negative of left traction motor temperature sensor.

C35 PTHERM_L

Left traction motor temperature signal.


Page 21

D1

-BATT

Negative output.

D2

2ND

Second hydraulic speed input, active high.

D3

1ST

First hydraulic speed input, active high.

D4

ENABLE

Input for proportional lifting enable; active high.

D5

CMM

Common output of microswitches (+BATT).

D6

5TH

Fifth hydraulic speed input, active high.

D7

4TH

Fourth hydraulic speed input, active high.

D8

3RD

Third hydraulic speed input, active high.

D9

CPOTLIFT

Input for proportional lift potentiometer.

D10 -BATT
D11 -BATT
D12 -BATT
D13 NPOTLIFT

Negative for proportional lift potentiometer.

D14 PPOTLIFT

Positive for proportional lift potentiometer (12V).

Page 22

4.6 ENCODER INSTALLATION


1) Dualac2 and Dualac2&hp card is fit for different types of encoder. To control AC motor
with Zapi inverter, it is necessary to install an incremental encoder with 2 phases
shifted of 90. The encoder power supply can be +5 or +12V. It can have different
electronic output.
C11/C1:

+5V/+12V:

positive of encoder power supply.

C12/C2:

GND:

negative of encoder power supply.

C22/C13:

A:

phase A of encoder.

C23/C14:

B:

phase B of encoder.

2) Connection of encoder with open collector output; +5V power supply.

3) Connection of encoder with open collector output; +12V power supply.

The encoder power supply voltage and output electronic has to be communicated to ZAPI
in order to correctly set the selection jumpers in the logic card.

Page 23

4.7 CANBUS CONNECTOR DESCRIPTION


Dualac2 Controller has a canbus interface, so it has been designed to work in a can
network together with other electronic modules, exchanging informations over the canbus
network.
Furthermore, the exchange of informations between master and slave microcontrollers is
based on the canbus, as well.
Dualac2 also provides built-in can termination resistance, which can be connected in
different ways, as described here following:
4.7.1 "Dualac2" Controller in stand-alone configuration

Bridge 2-4 and 5-7 connect both built-in120 ohm can termination resistances.
4.7.2 "Dualac2" Controller is a termination module in the canbus net

Bridge 2-4 connects one built-in 120 ohm can termination resistance, the second will be
connected in another module of the canbus net.

Page 24

4.7.3 "Dualac2" Controller is a repetition module in the canbus net

The canbus built-in termination resistances are not inserted.

Page 25

4.8 DESCRIPTION OF POWER CONNECTIONS


4.8.1 "Dualac2"
View of the power bars:

-B

Negative of the battery.

+BT

Positive of the battery; if the power fuse is not present, the positive
cable coming from LC contact must be connected to this power
connection.

+BTF

Positive of battery before power fuse, must be connected to positive


cable coming from LC contact.

Um; Vm; Wm

Connection bars of the three right motors phases; follow this sequence and the indication on the motor.

Us; Vs; Ws

Connection bars of the three left motors phases; follow this sequence and the indication on the motor.

Page 26

4.8.2 "Dualac2 Power"


View of the power bars:

-B

Negative of the battery.

+BT

Positive of the battery; if the power fuse is not present, the positive
cable coming from LC contact must be connected to this power
connection.

+BTF

Positive of battery before power fuse, must be connected to positive


cable coming from LC contact.

Um; Vm; Wm

Connection bars of the three right motors phases; follow this sequence and the indication on the motor.

Us; Vs; Ws

Connection bars of the three left motors phases; follow this sequence and the indication on the motor.
Page 27

4.8.3 "Dualac2&hp"
View of the power bars:

-B

Negative of the battery.

+BT

Positive of the battery; if the power fuse is not present, the positive
cable coming from LC contact must be connected to this power
connection.

Page 28

+BTF

Positive of battery before power fuse, must be connected to positive


cable coming from LC contact.

Um; Vm; Wm

Connection bars of the three right motors phases; follow this sequence and the indication on the motor.

Us; Vs; Ws

Connection bars of the three left motors phases; follow this sequence and the indication on the motor.

-P

Output of pump motor chopper.

+P

Pump chopper positive, if the power fuse is not present, the positive
cable coming from LC contact must be connected to this power
connection; also the pump motor positive cable must be connected
to this power connection.

+BPF

Pump chopper positive before power fuse, must be connected to


positive cable coming from LC contact.

Page 29

4.8.4 "Dualac2&hp Power"


View of the power bars:

-B

Negative of the battery.

+BT

Positive of the battery; if the power fuse is not present, the positive
cable coming from LC contact must be connected to this power
connection.

Page 30

+BTF

Positive of battery before power fuse, must be connected to positive


cable coming from LC contact.

Um; Vm; Wm

Connection bars of the three right motors phases; follow this sequence and the indication on the motor.

Us; Vs; Ws

Connection bars of the three left motors phases; follow this sequence and the indication on the motor.

-P

Output of pump motor chopper.

+P

Pump chopper positive, if the power fuse is not present, the positive
cable coming from LC contact must be connected to this power
connection; also the pump motor positive cable must be connected
to this power connection.

+BPF

Pump chopper positive before power fuse, must be connected to


positive cable coming from LC contact.

Page 31

4.9 MECHANICAL DRAWING


Dimensions of "Dualac2":

Page 32

Dimensions of "Dualac2 Power":

Page 33

Dimensions of "Dualac2&hp":

Page 34

Dimensions of "Dualac2&hp Power":

Page 35

4.10 CONNECTION DRAWING - "DUALAC2" AND "DUALAC2 POWER"


STANDALONE

Page 36

4.11 CONNECTION DRAWING - "DUALAC2&HP" AND "DUALAC2&HP POWER"


STANDALONE

Page 37

5 PROGRAMMING & ADJUSTMENTS USING DIGITAL CONSOLE


5.1 ADJUSTMENTS VIA CONSOLE
Adjustment of Parameters and changes to the inverters configuration are made using the
Digital Console. The Console is connected to the B connector of the inverter.
5.2 DESCRIPTION OF CONSOLE & CONNECTION

Digital consoles used to communicate with AC inverter controllers must be fitted with
EPROM CK ULTRA, minimum "Release Number 3.02".

Page 38

5.3 DESCRIPTION OF STANDARD CONSOLE MENU


5.3.1 "Dualac2" and "Dualac2 Power" menu configuration
5.3.1.a Master

Page 39

5.3.1.b Slave

Page 40

5.3.2 "Dualac2&hp" and "Dualac2&hp Power" menu configuration


5.3.2.a Master

Page 41

5.3.2.b Slave

Page 42

5.4 FUNCTION CONFIGURATION


5.4.1 "Dualac2" and "Dualac2 Power" - Master
Using the CONFIG MENU of the programming console, the user can configure the following functions (see "OPERATIONAL FEATURE" chapter for an explanation of "hydraulic
steering function") :
SUBMENU "SET OPTIONS"
1 HOUR COUNTER
- RUNNING:

the counter registers travel time only.

- KEY ON:

the counter registers when the "key" switch is closed.

2 BATTERY CHECK
- ON:

the battery discharge level check is carried out; when the battery level reaches 10%, an alarm is signalled and the maximum
current is reduced to the half of the programmed value.

- OFF:

the battery discharge level check is carried out but no alarm is


signalled.

3 HYDRO KEY ON
- ON / OFF:

if this option is programmed ON the traction inverter manages


an hydraulic steering function when the "key" is switched ON.

4 STOP ON RAMP
- ON:

the stop on ramp feature (truck electrically hold on a ramp) is


managed for a time established by "auxiliary time" parameter.

- OFF:

the stop on ramp feature is not performed.

5 AUX INPUT #1
- EXCLUSIVE HYDRO:
input C10 activates hydraulic steering function, output
A31 is activated.
- OPTION #1:

input C10 is the input for an handbrake device, active low


(open switch).

- CUTBACK SPEED: input C10 is the input for a speed reduction device, active low
(open switch).

Page 43

6 PEDAL BRAKING
- ANALOG:

the mechanical brake pedal has a switch and a potentiometer


installed. When the accelerator is released and the pedal
brake is pushed the inverter performs an electrical braking
whose intensity is proportional to the brake pedal
potentiometer. The minimum intensity is established by the
"Release braking" parameter, when the brake pedal is slightly
pressed (brake switch close but brake potentiometer at the
minimum). The maximum intensity is established by the "Pedal
braking" parameter when the brake pedal is fully pressed
(brake potentiometer at the maximum). In the middle positions,
the electrical braking intensity is a linear function between
minimum and maximum intensity.

- DIGITAL:

The truck does not have a potentiometer installed on the mechanical brake pedal, but only a microswitch; when the accelerator pedal is released and the brake pedal is pushed (brake
switch closed), the inverter performs an electrical braking
following "Pedal braking" parameter.

7 SET TEMPERATURE
- DIGITAL:

a digital (ON/OFF) motor thermal sensor is connected to C25


(C35) input.

- ANALOG:

an analog motor thermal sensor is connected to C25 (C35)


(the curve can be customized on a customer request).

- NONE:

no motor thermal sensor switch is connected.

8 STEER TABLE

This parameter is used to set the correct steering table.

SUBMENU "ADJUSTEMENT"
1 SET POT BRK MIN:

records the minimum value of braking pedal potentiometer


when the braking pedal switch is closed; the procedure is
similar to the "Program Vacc" function (see chapter 6.3). This
procedure must be carried out only if the "Pedal braking" option is programmed as "Analog".

2 SET POT BRK MAX:

records the maximum value of braking pedal potentiometer


when the braking pedal is fully pressed; the procedure is similar to the "Program Vacc" function (see chapter 6.3). This
procedure must be carried out only if the "Pedal braking" option is programmed as "Analog".

3 SET BATTERY TYPE:

selects the nominal battery voltage;

4 ADJUST BATTERY:

fine adjustment of the battery voltage measured by the controller.

5 MAX STEER RIGHT:

this is the function to record in the controller EEPROM the


steering poti output voltage when the wheels are fully turned
right (maximum of the steering poti range).

Page 44

6 MAX STEER LEFT:

this is the function to record in the controller EEPROM the


steering poti output voltage when the wheels are fully turned left
(minimum of the steering poti range).

7 SET STEER 0 POS:

this is the function to record in the controller EEPROM the


steering poti output voltage when the wheels are straight.

8 SET STEER RIGHT:

this parameter sets the max steering angle in right direction.

9 SET STEER LEFT:

this parameter sets the max steering angle in left direction.

10

THROTTLE 0 ZONE: establishes a deadband in the accelerator input curve (see


also curve below).

11

THROTTLE X POINT:these parameter change the characteristic of the accelerator


input curve.

12

THROTTLE Y POINT: these parameter change the characteristic of the acceleratorinput curve.

VACC MIN and VACC MAX are values programmable by the "Program Vacc" function.
13

ADJUSTMENT #01: adjust the upper level of the battery discharge table.

Page 45

14

ADJUSTMENT #02: adjust the lower level of the battery discharge table.

15

MAIN CONT VOLTAGE: this parameters adjusts the Line contactor coil voltage
(PWM output C26)

16

AUX OUTPUT VOLTAGE: this parameters adjusts the Electric brake coil voltage
(PWM output C28).

5.4.2 "Dualac2" and "Dualac2 Power" - Slave


Using the config menu of the programming console, the user can configure the following functions.
SUBMENU "SET OPTIONS"
Not available.
SUBMENU "ADJUSTEMENT"
1 SET BATTERY TYPE:

selects the nominal battery voltage;

2 ADJUST BATTERY:

fine adjustment of the battery voltage measured by the controller.

3 AUX OUPUT VOLTAGE:


this parameter adjust the voltage of the auxiliary output
coil (hydraulic steering contactor coil), PWM output A31.

Page 46

5.4.3 "Dualac2&hp" and "Dualac2&hp Power" - Master


See chapter 5.4.1.
5.4.4 "Dualac2&hp" and "Dualac2&hp Power" - Slave
Using the config menu of the programming console, the user can configure the following functions.
SUBMENU "SET OPTIONS"
Not available.
SUBMENU "ADJUSTEMENT"
1 SET BATTERY TYPE:

selects the nominal battery voltage;

2 ADJUST BATTERY:

fine adjustment of the battery voltage measured by the controller.

3 SET ACCELER MIN:

This parameter is used to adjust minimum value of the lift


potentiometer. Press ENTER, pull the lever till the lift switch
closes, then record the value (OUT --> ENTER).

4 SET ACCELER MAX: This parameter is used to adjust maximum value of the lift
potentiometer. Press ENTER, pull the lever to the maximum,
then record the value (OUT --> ENTER).
5 THROTTLE 0 ZONE:

establishes a deadband in the lifting accelerator input curve


(see also curve below).

6 THROTTLE X POINT:

these parameter change the characteristic of the lifting accelerator input curve.

7 THROTTLE Y POINT:

these parameter change the characteristic of the lifting accelerator input curve.

8 AUX OUPUT VOLTAGE:


this parameter adjust the voltage of the auxiliary output
coil (hydraulic steering contactor coil), PWM output A31.

Page 47

Flow chart showing how to make changes to OPTION Menu.


1) Opening Zapi Menu
2) Press Top Left & Right Buttons to enter
SET Menu.
3) The Display will show: SET MODEL
4) Press ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN button
until SET MODEL Menu appears.
5) SET OPTIONS appears on the display.
6) Press ENTER to go into the
SET MODEL Menu.
7) The display will shows the first OPTION.
8) Press ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN button
until desired OPTION appears
9) Desired OPTION appears.
10) Press SET UP or SET DOWN button in
order to modify the changes.
11) New OPTION appears.
12) Press OUT to exit the Menu.
13) Confirmation request appears.
14) Press ENTER to accept the changes,
or press OUT if you do not accept
the changes.
15) SET OPTIONS Menu appears.
16) Press OUT again. Display now show the
Opening Zapi Menu.

Page 48

Flow chart showing how to make changes to ADJUSTMENT Menu


1) Opening Zapi Menu
2) Press Top Left & Right Buttons to enter
CONFIG Menu.
3) The display will show: SET MODEL
4) Press ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN button
until ADJUSTMENTS Menu appears.
5) ADJUSTMENTS appears on the display.
6) Press ENTER to go into the ADJUSTMENTS
Menu.
7) The display will shows SET BATTERY TYPE.
8) Press ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN button until
the desired parameter is reached.
9) The desired parameter is appears.
10) Press SET UP or SET DOWN button to modify
the adjustment.

11) Press OUT.


12) Press ENTER to confirm.
13) Repeat the same from 5 to 12 points for the
other adjustment.

Page 49

Flow chart showing how to use the SET BATTERY TYPE adjustment
1) Opening Zapi Menu
2) Press Top Left & Right Buttons to enter
CONFIG Menu.
3) The Display will show: SET MODEL
4) Press ROLL UP button until
ADJUSTMENTS. menu appears.
5) ADJUSTMENTS appears on the display.
6) Press ENTER to go into the ADJUSTMENTS
Menu and use ROLL UP/DOWN buttons to final
the SET BATTERY TYPE parameter.
7) The display will show: SET BATTERY TYPE.
8) Press SET UP to choose nominal value of
the battery.
9) New battery value appears.
10) Press OUT.
11) Confirmation request appears.
12) Press ENTER to accept the changes, or press
OUT if you do not accept the changes.
13) Press OUT. Display now shows the Opening
Zapi Menu.

Page 50

Flow chart showing how to carry out ADJUSTMENT BATTERY operation by console.
1) Opening Zapi Menu
2) Press Top Left & Right Buttons to enter
CONFIG Menu.
3) The Display will show: SET MODEL
4) Press ROLL UP button until
ADJUSTMENT Menu appears.
5) ADJUSTMENTS appears on the
display.
6) Press ENTER to go into the
ADJUSTMENTS Menu.
7) The display will show the first
OPTION.
8) Press ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN button
until desired OPTION appears
9) ADJUST BATTERY appears.
10) Press SET UP or SET DOWN button
in order to increase or decrease
respectively. Set the value read
by an external voltmeter.
11) Battery value appears on the display.
12) Press OUT to exit the Menu.
13) Confirmation request appears.
14) Press ENTER to accept the changes,
or press OUT if you do not accept the
changes.
15) ADJUSTMENTS Menu appears.

16) Press OUT. Display now show the Opening Zapi Menu.

Page 51

5.5 PARAMETER REGULATION


5.5.1 "Dualac2" - Master
The following parameters can be modified:
1
2

ACC DELAY:
RELEASE BRAKING:

INVERSION BRAKING:

PEDAL BRAKING:

SPEED LIMIT BRAKING:

BRAKE CUTBACK:

7
8
9

MAX SPEED FORWARD:


MAX SPEED BACKWARD:
CURVE CUTBACK:

10 CUTBACK SPEED:
11 FREQUENCY CREEP:

12 MAXIMUM CURRENT:
13 AUXILIARY TIME:

Page 52

determines the acceleration ramp.


controls the deceleration ramp when the travel request
is released.
controls the deceleration ramp when the direction
switch is inverted during travel.
determines the deceleration ramp when the travel
request is released and the brake pedal switch is
closed.
deceleration ramp when the pedal position is changed
but not completely released.
determines the deceleration ramp when the speed
reduction input becomes active and the motor slow
down.
determines the maximum speed in forward direction.
determines the maximum speed in backward direction.
Speed reduction when the truck is doing a curve. The
parameter sets the speed setpoint when the truck
driving wheels are running in opposite direction (3
wheels truck, steering angle greater than roughly 67);
or when the maximum steering angle is reached (4
wheels truck, the internal wheel is stopped). In
intermediate steering angles, the speed setpoint will
be within a range between the straight wheel speed
and the CURVE CUTBACK SPEED.
speed reduction when the cutback switch is active.
minimum speed when the forward or reverse switch is
closed, but the accelerator is on a minimum
position.
this changes the maximum current of the inverter.
determines the time that the truck is hold on the ramp if
the "stop on ramp" option is ON.

The following table shows the different values at which the parameters can be set.
PARAMETER

PROGRAMMED LEVEL
UNIT

ACCELERATION DELAY (*)

Sec.

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

5.5

RELEASE BRAKING (**)

Sec.

5.5

4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

INVERSION BRAKING (**)

Sec.

5.5

4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

PEDAL BRAKING (**)

Sec.

5.5

4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

SPEED LIMIT BRAKING (**)

Sec.

8.9

8.3

7.7

7.1

6.6

6.0

5.5

4.9

4.4

3.8

BRAKE CUTBACK (**)

Sec.

5.5

4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

MAX SPEED FW

Hz

65

80

95

110

125

140

155

170

185

200

MAX SPEED BW

Hz

65

80

95

110

125

140

155

170

185

200

CURVE CUTBACK

10

15

20

25

38

50

63

75

87

100

CUTBACK SPEED

10

15

20

25

38

50

63

75

87

100

FREQUENCY CREEP

Hz

0.3

0.6

0.9

1.2

1.5

1.8

2.1

2.4

2.7

% IMAX

43

50

56

62

68

75

81

87

94

100

Sec.

0.2

0.4

0.8

1.5

MAXIMUM CURRENT
AUXILIARY TIME

(*)

The acceleration time shown is the time from 0 Hz to 100 Hz. This is the ideal ramp
calculated by the software; the real ramp could change as a function of motor control
parameter setting and, obviously, as a function of the load.

(**)

The braking feature is based upon deceleration ramps. The value shown in the table
is the time to decrease the speed from 100 Hz to 0 Hz. This is the ideal ramps calculated by the software; the real ramp could change as a function of motor control parameter setting and, obviously, as a function of the load.

5.5.2 "Dualac2" - Slave


The menu is not available.

Page 53

5.5.3 "Dualac2&hp" - Master


The following parameters can be modified:
1
2

ACC DELAY:
RELEASE BRAKING:

INVERSION BRAKING:

PEDAL BRAKING:

SPEED LIMIT BRAKING:

BRAKE CUTBACK:

7
8
9

MAX SPEED FORWARD:


MAX SPEED BACKWARD:
CURVE CUTBACK:

10 CUTBACK SPEED:
11 FREQUENCY CREEP:

12 MAXIMUM CURRENT:
13 AUXILIARY TIME:

Page 54

determines the acceleration ramp.


controls the deceleration ramp when the travel request
is released.
controls the deceleration ramp when the direction
switch is inverted during travel.
determines the deceleration ramp when the travel
request is released and the brake pedal switch is
closed.
deceleration ramp when the pedal position is changed
but not completely released.
determines the deceleration ramp when the speed
reduction input becomes active and the motor slow
down.
determines the maximum speed in forward direction.
determines the maximum speed in backward direction.
Speed reduction when the truck is doing a curve. The
parameter sets the speed setpoint when the truck
driving wheels are running in opposite direction (3
wheels truck, steering angle greater than roughly 67);
or when the maximum steering angle is reached (4
wheels truck, the internal wheel is stopped). In
intermediate steering angles, the speed setpoint will
be within a range between the straight wheel speed
and the CURVE CUTBACK SPEED.
speed reduction when the cutback switch is active.
minimum speed when the forward or reverse switch is
closed, but the accelerator is on a minimum
position.
this changes the maximum current of the inverter.
determines the time that the truck is hold on the ramp if
the "stop on ramp" option is ON.

The following table shows the different values at which the parameters can be set.
PARAMETER

PROGRAMMED LEVEL
UNIT

ACCELERATION DELAY (*)

Sec.

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

5.5

RELEASE BRAKING (**)

Sec.

5.5

4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

INVERSION BRAKING (**)

Sec.

5.5

4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

PEDAL BRAKING (**)

Sec.

5.5

4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

SPEED LIMIT BRAKING (**)

Sec.

8.9

8.3

7.7

7.1

6.6

6.0

5.5

4.9

4.4

3.8

BRAKE CUTBACK (**)

Sec.

5.5

4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

MAX SPEED FW

Hz

65

80

95

110

125

140

155

170

185

200

MAX SPEED BW

Hz

65

80

95

110

125

140

155

170

185

200

CURVE CUTBACK

10

15

20

25

38

50

63

75

87

100

CUTBACK SPEED

10

15

20

25

38

50

63

75

87

100

FREQUENCY CREEP

Hz

0.3

0.6

0.9

1.2

1.5

1.8

2.1

2.4

2.7

% IMAX

43

50

56

62

68

75

81

87

94

100

Sec.

0.2

0.4

0.8

1.5

MAXIMUM CURRENT
AUXILIARY TIME

(*)

The acceleration time shown is the time from 0 Hz to 100 Hz. This is the ideal ramp
calculated by the software; the real ramp could change as a function of motor control
parameter setting and, obviously, as a function of the load.

(**)

The braking feature is based upon deceleration ramps. The value shown in the table
is the time to decrease the speed from 100 Hz to 0 Hz. This is the ideal ramps calculated by the software; the real ramp could change as a function of motor control parameter setting and, obviously, as a function of the load.

5.5.4 "Dualac2&hp" - Slave


Here following the list of parameters which can be set in this menu:
1
2
3

PU. ACCELER. DELAY:


PU. DECELER. DELAY:
SPEED LIMIT:

CREEP SPEED:

acceleration ramp of pump motor.


deceleration ramp of pump motor.
determines the maximum lifting speed (per cent of
voltage applied to the motor) with a potentiometer
control, when the potentiometer is at the maximum of
the programmed range.
determines the minimum lifting speed (per cent of
voltage applied to the motor) with a potentiometer
control, when the potentiometer is at the minimum of
the programmed range.

Page 55

COMPENSATION:

1ST SPEED FINE:

1ST SPEED COMP:

2ND SPEED FINE:

2ND SPEED COMP:

10 3RD SPEED FINE:

11 3RD SPEED COMP:

Page 56

this parameter sets the voltage compensation (V)


applied to the motor when the proportional lifting
function is active. The value of this V applied to the
motor is a function of the motor current. Aim of this
function is to reduce, as for as possible, the speed
change when the motor is loaded. Increasing the
parameter, the V will be increased.
this parameter sets the pump motor speed (voltage
applied to the motor) when the 1st speed request is
active.
this parameter sets the voltage compensation (V)
applied to the motor when the 1st speed request is
active. The value of V applied to the motor is a
function of the motor current. Aim of this function is to
reduce, as for as possible, the speed change when the
motor is loaded. Increasing the parameter, the V is
increased.
this parameter sets the voltage compensation (V)
applied to the motor when the 2nd speed request is
active. The value of V applied to the motor is a
function of the motor current. Aim of this function is to
reduce, as for as possible, the speed change when the
motor is loaded. Increasing the parameter, the V is
increased.
this parameter sets the voltage compensation (V)
applied to the motor when the 2nd speed request is
active. The value of V applied to the motor is a
function of the motor current. Aim of this function is to
reduce, as for as possible, the speed change when the
motor is loaded. Increasing the parameter, the V is
increased.
this parameter sets the voltage compensation (V)
applied to the motor when the 3rd speed request is
active. The value of V applied to the motor is a
function of the motor current. Aim of this function is to
reduce, as for as possible, the speed change when the
motor is loaded. Increasing the parameter, the V is
increased.
this parameter sets the voltage compensation (V)
applied to the motor when the 3rd speed request is
active. The value of V applied to the motor is a
function of the motor current. Aim of this function is to
reduce, as for as possible, the speed change when the
motor is loaded. Increasing the parameter, the V is
increased.

12 4TH SPEED FINE:

13 4TH SPEED COMP:

14 5TH SPEED FINE:

15 5TH SPEED COMP:

16 HYDRO SPEED FINE:

17 HYDRO SPEED COMP:

18 HYDRO TIME:
19 PUMP IMAX:

this parameter sets the voltage compensation (V)


applied to the motor when the 4th speed request is
active. The value of V applied to the motor is a
function of the motor current. Aim of this function is to
reduce, as for as possible, the speed change when the
motor is loaded. Increasing the parameter, the V is
increased.
this parameter sets the voltage compensation (V)
applied to the motor when the 4th speed request is
active. The value of V applied to the motor is a
function of the motor current. Aim of this function is to
reduce, as for as possible, the speed change when the
motor is loaded. Increasing the parameter, the V is
increased.
this parameter sets the voltage compensation (V)
applied to the motor when the 5th speed request is
active. The value of V applied to the motor is a
function of the motor current. Aim of this function is to
reduce, as for as possible, the speed change when the
motor is loaded. Increasing the parameter, the V is
increased.
this parameter sets the voltage compensation (V)
applied to the motor when the 5th speed request is
active. The value of V applied to the motor is a
function of the motor current. Aim of this function is to
reduce, as for as possible, the speed change when the
motor is loaded. Increasing the parameter, the V is
increased.
this parameter sets the pump motor speed (voltage
applied to the motor) when the hydraulic steering
function request is active.
this parameter sets the voltage compensation (V)
applied to the motor when the hydro speed request is
active. The value of V applied to the motor is a
function of the motor current. Aim of this function is to
reduce, as for as possible, the speed change when the
motor is loaded. Increasing the parameter, the V is
increased.
hydraulic steering function delay.
the maximum current of pump chopper.

Page 57

The following table shows all the values of parameters.

PARAMETER

PROGRAMMED LEVEL
UNIT

PUMP ACCELER DELAY (*)

Sec.

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.5

2.5

3.5

PUMP DECELER DELAY (**)

Sec.

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.5

2.5

3.5

83

88

94

100

SPEED LIMIT

0 - 100

CREEP SPEED

0 - 100

COMPENSATION

0 - 100

1ST SPEED FINE

0 - 100

1ST SPEED COMP

0 - 100

2ND SPEED FINE

0 - 100

2ND SPEED COMP

0 - 100

3RD SPEED FINE

0 - 100

3RD SPEED COMP

0 - 100

4TH SPEED FINE

0 - 100

4TH SPEED COMP

0 - 100

5TH SPEED FINE

0 - 100

5TH SPEED COMP

0 - 100

HYDRO SPEED FINE

0 - 100

HYDRO SPEED COMP

0 - 100

Sec.

0 - 25.5

HYDRO TIME
PUMP IMAX

(*)

%IMAX

50

55

61

66

72

77

The acceleration time shown is the theoretical time to change from 0V to full voltage
applied to the motor. This is an ideal ramp, the real ramp can change as a function of
the load.

(**) The deceleration feature is based upon deceleration ramps. The value shown in the
table is the time to decrease the voltage applied to the motor from 100% down to
0%.

Page 58

After changing a parameter, press ENTER to confirm data when requested by the message on the console. Parameters modified and optimized on one unit can be stored by the
Zapi Pc-console (SAVE) and then downloaded (RESTORE) to another controller, thus
allowing fast and standardized settings (see Pc-console manual for details).
Flow Chart showing how to make Parameter changes using Digital Console fitted with
Eprom CK ULTRA.
1) Opening Zapi Display.
2) Press ENTER to go into the General
Menu.
3) The Display will show :
4) Press ENTER to go into the
Parameter Change facility.
5) The Display will show the first
parameter.
6) Press either ROLL UP and ROLL DOWN
to display the next parameter.
7) The names of the Parameters appear
on the Display.
8) When the desired Parameter appears, the
Display will show a Level Number that will
be between 0 and 9. Press either PARAM
(Top Right) or SET (Bottom Right)buttons
to change the Level value.
9) The Display will show the New Level.
10) When you are satisfied with the results of
the changes you have made, Press OUT.
11) The Display asks ARE YOU SURE"?
12) Press ENTER to accept the changes, or
press OUT if you do not wish to accept the
changes and wish to make further
modifications to the parameters.
13) The Display will show :

Page 59

5.6 PROGRAMMING CONSOLE FUNCTIONS


5.6.1 Functional configuration (see 5.4)
5.6.2 Parameter programming (see 5.5)
5.6.3 "Dualac2" and "Dualac2 Power" Tester: user can verify the state of the following parameters:
MASTER
motor voltage (%)
frequency (Hz)
encoder (Hz)
slip value (Hz)
current rms (A)
temperature (C)
temperature #1 (C)
temperature #2 (C)
accelerator (V)
steer angle ()
brake pedal poti (%)
int wheel cutback (%)
seat switch (ON/OFF)
forw. switch (ON/OFF)
back. switch (ON/OFF)
enable switch (ON/OFF)
brake switch (ON/OFF)
cutback switch (ON/OFF)
exclusive hydro (ON/OFF)
hand brake (ON/OFF)
voltage booster (%)
battery voltage (V)
battery charge (%)

Page 60

SLAVE
motor voltage (%)
frequency (Hz)
encoder (Hz)
slip value (Hz)
current rms (A)
temperature (C)
seat switch (ON/OFF)
forw. switch (ON/OFF)
back. switch (ON/OFF)
enable switch (ON/OFF)
voltage booster (%)
battery voltage (V)

5.6.4 "Dualac2&hp" and "Dualac2&hp Power" Tester: user can verify the state of
the following parameters:
MASTER
motor voltage (%)
frequency (Hz)
encoder (Hz)
slip value (Hz)
current rms (A)
temperature (C)
temperature #1 (C)
temperature #2 (C)
accelerator (V)
steer angle ()
brake pedal poti (%)
int wheel cutback (%)
seat switch (ON/OFF)
forw. switch (ON/OFF)
back. switch (ON/OFF)
enable switch (ON/OFF)
brake switch (ON/OFF)
cutback switch (ON/OFF)
exclusive hydro (ON/OFF)
hand brake (ON/OFF)
voltage booster (%)
battery voltage (V)
battery charge (%)

SLAVE
motor voltage (%)
frequency (Hz)
encoder (Hz)
slip value (Hz)
current rms (A)
temperature (C)
seat switch (ON/OFF)
forw. switch (ON/OFF)
back. switch (ON/OFF)
enable switch (ON/OFF)
lift control (V)
lifting switch (ON/OFF)
1st speed switch (ON/OFF)
2nd speed switch (ON/OFF)
3rd speed switch (ON/OFF)
4th speed switch (ON/OFF)
5th speed switch (ON/OFF)
pump current (A)
pump vmn (V)
pump temperature (C)
battery voltage (V)
voltage booster (%)

5.6.5 Save function (for storing data) --> only with Pc-console
5.6.6 Restore function (for downloading parameters to another controller) --> only
with Pc-console
5.6.7 Display of the last 5 alarms including hour-meter value and temperature at
the moment of the alarm.
5.6.8 Accelerator range programming
Records the minimum and maximum useful accelerator stroke values for both
direction of running.
5.6.9 See the console manual for a detailed description of function and parameters.

Page 61

5.7 SEQUENCE FOR AC INVERTER TRACTION SETTING


When the "Key Switch" is closed, if no alarms or errors are present, the Console Display
will be showing the Standard Zapi Opening Display.
If the controller is not configured to your requirements, follow the sequence detailed here
following. Remember to re-cycle the Key Switch if you make any changes to the choppers
configuration.
1) Select the Options required. See Chapter 5.4.
2) Select and set the Battery Voltage. See Chapter 5.4.
3) Confirm correct installation of all wires. Use the Consoles TESTER function to assist.
4) Perform the accelerator signal acquisition procedure using the Console PROGRAM
VACC. Procedure is detailed on Chapter 6.3.
5) Perform the steering potentiometer signal acquisition, using the parameters in "Adjustment" menu (see Chapter 5.4).
Remember: turning the wheel to right direction, voltage has to increase.
6) Set the maximum steering angles, right and left direction; use the parameters in "Adjustment" menu (see Chapter 5.4).
7) Set the "MAXIMUM CURRENT Current, using the table on Chapter 4.5 , 4.6.
8) Set the Acceleration Delay requirements for the machine. Test the parameter setting in
both directions.
9) Set the FREQUENCY CREEP level starting from level 0.6 Hz. The machine should just
move when the accelerator microswitch is closed. Increase the Level accordingly.
10) Set the Speed Reductions as required. Make adjustments to CUTBACK SPEED
Check the performance with the accelerator pedal totally depressed. If the machine is a
forklift, check the performance with and without load.
11) RELEASE BRAKING. Operate the machine at full speed. Release the accelerator
pedal. Adjust the level to your requirements. If the machine is a forklift, check the performance with and without load.
12) INVERSION BRAKING. Operate the machine at 25% full speed. Whilst traveling INVERT the Direction Switch. Set a soft Level of Inversion Braking. When satisfactory,
operate the machine at Full Speed and repeat. If the machine is a Forklift, repeat the
tests and make adjustments with and without load. The unladen full speed condition
should be the most representative condition.
13) PEDAL BRAKING (If used). Operate the machine at full Speed. Release the accelerator pedal and press the Pedal Brake. Set braking level to your requirements.
14) Set MAX SPEED FORW.
Page 62

15) Set MAX SPEED BACK (Reverse).


16) Make the choice for the truck behaviour on a slope (see chapter 5.4). If the "Stop on
ramp" option is ON, set the desired value of "auxiliary time" parameter.
5.8 TESTER: DESCRIPTION OF THE FUNCTION
The most important input or output signals can be measured in real time using the TESTER function of the console. The Console acts as a multimeter able to read voltage,
current and temperature. In the following chapter a list of relative measurements for different configurations.
5.8.1 "Dualac2" and "Dualac2 Power" - Master
1) MOTOR VOLTAGE: this is the voltage supplied to the motor by the inverter; it is expressed as a percentage of the full voltage (which depends of the battery voltage).
2) FREQUENCY: this is the frequency of the voltage and current supplied to the motor.
3) ENCODER: this is the speed of the motor, expressed in the same unit of the frequency; this information comes from the speed sensor.
4) SLIP VALUE: this is the difference of speed between the rotating field and the shaft
of the motor, expressed in the same unit of the frequency.
5) CURRENT RMS: Root Mean Square value of the motor current.
6) TEMPERATURE: the temperature measured on the aluminum heat sink holding the
MOSFET devices.
7) TEMPERATURE #1: this is the temperature of the right motor; if the option is programmed "None" (see chapter 5.4.a) it shows 0.
8) TEMPERATURE #2: this is the temperature of the left motor; if the option is programmed "None" (see chapter 5.4.a) it shows 0.
9) ACCELERATOR: the voltage of the accelerator potentiometer's wiper (CPOT). The
voltage level is shown on the Left Hand Side of the Console Display and the value in
percentage is shown on the Right Hand Side.
10) STEER ANGLE: this is the indication of the angular position of the steered wheel.
11) BRAKE PEDAL POTI: voltage of the brake potentiometer's wiper (CPOTB). The
parameter is active only if the PEDAL BRAKING parameter is set ANALOG (see
chapter 5.4.).
12) INTERNAL WHEEL CUTBACK: this is the indication of the speed reduction applied
to the internal wheel; in other words, it shows the ratio of the two speeds.
13) SEAT SWITCH: the level of the Seat Microswitch digital input.
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
14) FORWARD SWITCH: the level of the Forward direction digital input FW.
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
Page 63

15) BACKWARD SWITCH: the level of the Reverse direction digital input BW.
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
16) ENABLE SWITCH: the level of the Enable digital input:
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
17) BRAKE SWITCH: the level of the Pedal Brake Microswitch.
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
18) CUTBACK SWITCH: the level of the Speed Reduction Microswitch.
ON / GND = input active, switch opened.
OFF / +VB = input non active, switch closed.
19) EXCLUSIVE HYDRO: status of the exclusive hydro switch.
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
20) HAND BRAKE: the level of the Handbrake Microswitch.
ON / GND = input active, switch opened.
OFF / +VB = input non active, switch closed.
21) VOLTAGE BOOSTER: this is the booster of the voltage supplied to the motor in load
condition; it is expressed in a percentage of the full voltage.
22) BATTERY VOLTAGE: level of battery voltage measured at the input of the key switch.
23) BATTERY CHARGE: the percentage Charge level of the battery.
5.8.2 "Dualac2" and "Dualac2 Power" - Slave
1) MOTOR VOLTAGE: this is the voltage supplied to the motor by the inverter; it is expressed as a percentage of the full voltage (which depends of the battery voltage).
2) FREQUENCY: this is the frequency of the voltage and current supplied to the motor.
3) ENCODER: this is the speed of the motor, expressed in the same unit of the frequency; this information comes from the speed sensor.
4) SLIP VALUE: this is the difference of speed between the rotating field and the shaft
of the motor, expressed in the same unit of the frequency.
5) CURRENT RMS: Root Mean Square value of the motor current.
6) TEMPERATURE: the temperature measured on the aluminum heat sink holding the
MOSFET devices.
7) SEAT SWITCH: the level of the Seat Microswitch digital input.
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch opened.

Page 64

8) FORWARD SWITCH: the level of the Forward direction digital input FW.
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch opened.
9) BACKWARD SWITCH: the level of the Reverse direction digital input BW.
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch opened.
10) ENABLE SWITCH: the level of the Enable digital input:
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
11) VOLTAGE BOOSTER: this is the booster of the voltage supplied to the motor in load
condition; it is expressed in a percentage of the full voltage.
12) BATTERY VOLTAGE: level of battery voltage measured at the input of the key switch.
5.8.3 "Dualac2&hp" and "Dualac2&hp Power" - Master
1) MOTOR VOLTAGE: this is the voltage supplied to the motor by the inverter; it is expressed as a percentage of the full voltage (which depends of the battery voltage).
2) FREQUENCY: this is the frequency of the voltage and current supplied to the motor.
3) ENCODER: this is the speed of the motor, expressed in the same unit of the frequency; this information comes from the speed sensor.
4) SLIP VALUE: this is the difference of speed between the rotating field and the shaft
of the motor, expressed in the same unit of the frequency.
5) CURRENT RMS: Root Mean Square value of the motor current.
6) TEMPERATURE: the temperature measured on the aluminum heat sink holding the
MOSFET devices.
7) TEMPERATURE #1: this is the temperature of the right motor; if the option is programmed "None" (see chapter 5.4.a) it shows 0.
8) TEMPERATURE #2: this is the temperature of the left motor; if the option is programmed "None" (see chapter 5.4.a) it shows 0.
9) ACCELERATOR: the voltage of the accelerator potentiometer's wiper (CPOT). The
voltage level is shown on the Left Hand Side of the Console Display and the value in
percentage is shown on the Right Hand Side.
10) STEER ANGLE: this is the indication of the angular position of the steered wheel.
11) BRAKE PEDAL POTI: voltage of the brake potentiometer's wiper (CPOTB). The
parameter is active only if the PEDAL BRAKING parameter is set ANALOG (see
chapter 5.4.).
12) INTERNAL WHEEL CUTBACK: this is the indication of the speed reduction applied
to the internal wheel; in other words, it shows the ratio of the two speeds.
13) SEAT SWITCH: the level of the Seat Microswitch digital input.
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
Page 65

14) FORWARD SWITCH: the level of the Forward direction digital input FW.
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
15) BACKWARD SWITCH: the level of the Reverse direction digital input BW.
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
16) ENABLE SWITCH: the level of the Enable digital input:
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
17) BRAKE SWITCH: the level of the Pedal Brake Microswitch.
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
18) CUTBACK SWITCH: the level of the Speed Reduction Microswitch.
ON / GND = input active, switch opened.
OFF / +VB = input non active, switch closed.
19) EXCLUSIVE HYDRO: status of the exclusive hydro switch.
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch opened.
20) HAND BRAKE: the level of the Handbrake Microswitch.
ON / GND = input active, switch opened.
OFF / +VB = input non active, switch closed.
21) VOLTAGE BOOSTER: this is the booster of the voltage supplied to the motor in load
condition; it is expressed in a percentage of the full voltage.
22) BATTERY VOLTAGE: level of battery voltage measured at the input of the key switch.
23) BATTERY CHARGE: the percentage Charge level of the battery.
5.8.4 "Dualac2&hp" and "Dualac2&hp Power" - Slave
1) MOTOR VOLTAGE: this is the voltage supplied to the motor by the inverter; it is expressed as a percentage of the full voltage (which depends of the battery voltage).
2) FREQUENCY: this is the frequency of the voltage and current supplied to the motor.
3) ENCODER: this is the speed of the motor, expressed in the same unit of the frequency; this information comes from the speed sensor.
4) SLIP VALUE: this is the difference of speed between the rotating field and the shaft
of the motor, expressed in the same unit of the frequency.
5) CURRENT RMS: Root Mean Square value of the motor current.
6) TEMPERATURE: the temperature measured on the aluminum heat sink holding the
MOSFET devices.

Page 66

7) SEAT SWITCH: the level of the Seat Microswitch digital input.


ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
8) FORWARD SWITCH: the level of the Forward direction digital input FW.
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
9) BACKWARD SWITCH: the level of the Reverse direction digital input BW.
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
10) ENABLE SWITCH: the level of the Enable digital input:
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
11) LIFT CONTROL: voltage of the lifting potentiometer (CPOT LIFT).
12) LIFTING SWITCH: status of the lifting switch.
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
13) 1 ST SPEED SWITCH: status of the first speed switch of the hydraulic system.
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
14) 2 ND SPEED SWITCH: status of the second speed switch of the hydraulic system.
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
15) 3 RD SPEED SWITCH: status of the third speed switch of the hydraulic system..
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
16) 4 TH SPEED SWITCH: status of the fourth speed switch of the hydraulic system..
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
17) 5 TH SPEED SWITCH: status of the fifth speed switch of the hydraulic system..
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
18) HYDRO SPEED REQ.: status of the hydro speed request of the hydraulic system..
ON / +VB = input active, switch closed.
OFF / GND = input non active, switch open.
19) PUMP CURRENT: current of the pump motor.
20) PUMP VMN: voltage between pump chopper output and -BATT.
21) PUMP TEMPERATURE: temperature of pump chopper power section.
Page 67

22) VOLTAGE BOOSTER: this is the booster of the voltage supplied to the motor in load
condition; it is expressed in a percentage of the full voltage.
23) BATTERY VOLTAGE: level of battery voltage measured at the input of the key switch.
Flow Chart showing how to use the TESTER function of the Digital Console.
1) Opening Zapi Display.
2) Press ENTER to go into the General menu.
3) The Display will show :
4) Press ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN button until
TESTER MENU appear on the display.
5) The Display shows :
6) Press ENTER to go into the TESTER function.
7) The first variable to be tested is shown on the Display.
8) Press either ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN buttons until your
desired variable for measurement appears on the Display.

9) When you have finished, Press OUT.


10) The Display shows :
11) Press OUT again and return to Opening Zapi Display.

Remember it is not possible to make any changes using TESTER. All you can do is
measure as if you were using a pre-connected multimeter.

Page 68

6 OTHER FUNCTIONS
6.1 SAVE AND RESTORE FUNCTION
SAVE function allows to transfer controller parameters to the Pc console memory. With this
function, a copy of the controller set of parameters can be retained in a Pc and
downloaded to another controller (see RESTORE).
RESTORE function allows to download controller parameters from the Pc console memory
to the controller Eeprom. Thus a copy of the parameters stored in a Pc can be downloaded
in a controller avoiding the parameter setting operation.
For more details, please refer to Pc console manual.

Page 69

6.2 DESCRIPTION OF ALARMS MENU


The microprocessor in the controller records the last five Alarms that have occurred. Items
remembered relative to each Alarm are : the code of the alarm, the number of times the
particular Alarm occurred, the Hour Meter count, and the chopper temperature.
This function permits a deeper diagnosis of problems as the recent history can now be
accessed.
Flow Chart showing how to use the ALARMS function via the Digital Console.
1) Opening Zapi Display.
2) Press ENTER to go into the General menu.
3) The Display will show :
4) Press ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN button until
PARAMETER CHANGE appears on the display.
5) The Display will show:
6) Press ENTER to go into the ALARMS function.
7) The Display will show the most recent Alarm.
8) Each press of the ROLL UP button brings up following
Alarms. Pressing ROLL DOWN returns to the most recent.
9) If an Alarm has not occurred, the Display will show:
ALARM NULL.
10) When you have finished looking at the Alarms, press
OUT to exit the ALARMS menu.
11) The Display will ask CLEAR LOGBOOK ?
12) Press ENTER for yes, or OUT for NO.
13) Press OUT to return to the Opening Zapi Display.

Page 70

6.3 DESCRIPTION OF CONSOLE PROGRAM VACC FUNCTION


This function looks for and remembers the minimum and maximum potentiometer wiper
voltage over the full mechanical range of the pedal. It enables compensation for non symmetry of the mechanical system between directions.
The operation is performed by operating the pedal after entering the PROGRAM VACC
function.
Flow Chart showing how to use the PROGRAM VACC function of the Digital Console.
1) Opening Zapi Display.
2) Press ENTER to go into the General Menu.
3) The Display will show :
4) Press ROLL UP or ROLL DOWN button until
PROGRAM VACC appears on the display.
5) The Display will show :
6) Press ENTER to go into the PROGRAM VACC routine.
7) The Display will show the minimum and maximum
values of potentiometer wiper output.
Both directions can be shown.
8) Press ENTER to clear these values.
Display will show 0.0.
9) Select Forward Direction, close any interlock
switches that may be in the system.
10) Slowly depress the accelerator pedal (or tiller butterfly) to
its maximum value. The new minimum and maximum
voltages will be displayed on the Console plus an
arrow indicating the direction.
11) Select the Reverse Direction and repeat Item 10.
12) When finished , press OUT.
13) The Display will ask : ARE YOU SURE ?.
14) Press ENTER for yes, or OUT for NO.
15) Press OUT again to return to the Opening Zapi Menu.

Page 71

7 "DUALAC2" AND "DUALAC2&HP" INVERTER DIAGNOSTIC


7.1 TRACTION RELATED FAULT CODES
Co
de

ALARM
STRING

Mast- Slave

CONTROLLER

er

DESCRIPTION

STATUS
Init

Condition that has to occur


to come out from alarm
status

Stby Motor
running

"WATCHDOG"

Alarm: the Watchdog


circuit has been triggered

-If the alarm is present in


Init status,remove the
alarm condition
-If the alarm has occurred
in stby or running mode, it
is necessary to remove
alarm condition and to
activate a traction request

17

"LOGIC

Alarm: failure in over-load To remove alarm condition

FAILURE#3"

protection hw circuit

+ activation of traction
request

18

"LOGIC

FAILURE#2"

Alarm: failure in U,V,W

To remove alarm condition

voltage feedback circuit

+ activation of traction
request

19

"LOGIC

FAILURE#1"

Alarm: an overvoltage or

To recycle the key switch

undervolt. condition has


been detected

30

"VMN LOW"

Alarm: wrong voltage on

-If the alarm is present in

motor power outputs;

Init status,remove the

failure in the power

alarm condition

section or in the mosfet

-If the alarm has occurred

driver circuit or in the

in stby or running mode, it

motor

is necessary to remove
alarm condition and to
activate a traction request

31

"VMN HIGH"

Alarm: wrong voltage on

-If the alarm is present in

motor power outputs;

Init status,remove the

failure in the power

alarm condition

section or in the mosfet

-If the alarm has occurred

driver circuit or in the

in stby or running mode, it

motor

is necessary to remove
alarm condition and to
activate a traction request

Page 72

Co
de

ALARM
STRING

Mast- Slave

CONTROLLER

er

DESCRIPTION

STATUS
Init

Stby

Condition that has to occur


to come out from alarm
status

Motor
running

53

"STBY I HIGH"

Alarm: wrong voltage in

-If the alarm is present in

the current sensor

Init status,remove the

feedback circuit

alarm condition
-If the alarm has occurred
in stby or running mode, it
is necessary to remove
alarm condition and to
activate a traction request

60

"CAP

Alarm: power capacitor

CHARGE"

To remove alarm condition

voltage does not increase


when the key is turned
ON; failure in the power
section, or in the Logic
PCB, or in the driver
PCB, or in the motor

74

"DRIVER

SHORTED"

Alarm: line contactor coil -If the alarm is present in


driver is shorted

Init status, remove the


alarm cause
-If the alarm has occurred
in stby or running mode, it
is necessary to remove
alarm cause and to activate
traction request

75

"CONTACTOR

Alarm: line contactor coil To remove alarm cause


driver is open (not able to and to activate traction

DRIVER"

drive the coil to the

request

correct voltage)
76

"COIL

SHORTED"

Alarm:

-If the alarm is present in

-Init: the LC and EB coil

Init status, remove the

driver protection circuit is alarm cause


damaged

-If the alarm has occurred

- Stby or running: short

in stby or running mode, it

on LC coil or EB coil

is necessary to remove
alarm cause and to activate
traction request

37

"CONTACTOR
CLOSED"

Alarm: line contactor

To remove alarm cause

power contact is stuck

within a timeout; if the


timeout is elapsed, it is
necessary to re-cycle the
key

Page 73

Co
de

ALARM
STRING

Mast- Slave

CONTROLLER

er

DESCRIPTION

Condition that has to occur

STATUS

to come out from alarm

Init Stby Motor

status

running
38

"CONTACTOR

OPEN"

Alarm: line contactor

To remove alarm cause

power contact does not

within a timeout; if the

pull-in

timeout is elapsed, it is
necessary to re-cycle the
key

82

"ENCODER

ERROR"
84

"STEER

To recycle the key

sensor (encoder) does


not work properly
X

SENSOR KO"
86

Alarm: motor speed

Alarm: steering poti signal To remove alarm cause


out of range

"PEDAL WIRE
KO"

Alarm: fault in accelerator To remove alarm cause and


negative (NPOT) input
activate a traction request
circuit

245 "WRONG SET

Alarm: the battery voltage To remove alarm cause

does not correspond to


"SET BATTERY"

BATTERY"

programmation
246

"SLAVE KO"

Alarm: Master C detects To recycle the key


a Slave C
malfunctioning

247 "MASTER KO"

Alarm: Slave C detects


a Master C

To recycle the key

malfunctioning or a
mismatch between inputs
status and Master
commands (via Canbus)
250

"INPUT

Alarm: Slave C has

To recycle the key

detects a mismatch

MISMATCH"

between inputs status and


the input status
transmitted via Canbus
by Master C
253 "AUX OUTPUT
KO"

Alarm: EB coil driver

-If the alarm is present in

shorted or open

Init status, remove the


alarm cause
-If the alarm has occured in
stby or running mode, it is
necessary to remove alarm
cause and to activate
traction request

Page 74

Co
de

ALARM
STRING

Mas- Slater

CONTROLLER

ve

DESCRIPTION

Condition that has to occur

STATUS

to come out from alarm

Init Stby Motor

status

running
13

"EEPROM KO"

Warning: Eeprom fault,

To remove Warning cause

controller will use


default parameters
61

"HIGH

or both temperature

TEMPERA-

higher than 75C

TURE"
65

"MOTOR

"VACC NOT

Warning: battery charge

To remove Warning cause

level below 20%

LOW"
78

To remove Warning cause

high

TURE"
"BATTERY

Warning: right or left or


both motors temperature

TEMPERA66

Warning: Master or Slave To remove Warning cause

Warning: accelerator

OK"

To remove Warning cause

signal (CPOT) voltage


higher than VACC MIN
+1V while the traction
enable switch is open

79

"INCORRECT

START"
80

"FORWARD +

Warning: wrong traction

To remove Warning cause

request sequence
X

Warning: forward and

To remove Warning cause

reverse inputs are both

BACKWARD"

active
249

"THERMIC

Warning: Master or slave To remove Warning cause


temperature sensor is out

SENSOR KO"

of range
251

"WAITING

FOR NODE#4"

Warning: Master C

To remove Warning cause

signals that Slave C is in


alarm status

251

"WAITING

"NO CAN

To remove Warning cause

signals that Master C is


in alarm status

FOR NODE#3"
241

Warning: Slave C

MESSAGE #4"

Alarm: Master has lost

To remove Alarm cause

Can communication with


the Slave

247

"NO CAN
MESSAGE #3"

Alarm: Slave has lost Can To remove Alarm cause


communication with the
Master

Page 75

7.2 ANALYSIS OF TRACTION RELATED ALARMS DISPLAYED ON CONSOLE


1. WATCH DOG
It is a self-diagnosing test within the logic between Master and Slave controllers. This
alarm could also be caused by a canbus malfunctioning, which blinds Master-Slave
communication. So, before replacing the controller, check the canbus.
2. LOGIC FAILURE #3
Fault in the hardware section of the logic board which manages the hardware current
protection. Replace the logic board.
3. LOGIC FAILURE #2
Fault in the hardware section of the logic board which manages the phase' s voltage
feedback. Replace the logic board.
4. LOGIC FAILURE #1
This alarm signals that the undervoltage / overvoltage protection interrupt has been
triggered. Two possible reasons:
a. A real undervoltage / overvoltage situation happened.
b. Fault in the hardware section of the logic board which manages the overvoltage
protection. Replace the logic card.
5. VMN LOW, VMN HIGH
The test is carried out during initial diagnosis and in standby.
Possible causes:
a. problem with the motor connections or the motor power circuit; check if the 3 phases
are correctly connected; check if there's a dispersion of the motor to truck frame.
b. fault in the inverter power section, replace the controller.
6. STBY I HIGH
The Cs verify if the feedback of current sensors device output is within the zero current
window. Possible causes of the alarm:
a. current sensor failure;
b. failure in the logic card: first replace the logic card; if the defect persists, replace the
power unit.
7. CAPACITOR CHARGE
Follows the charging capacitor system:

When the key is switched ON, the inverter tries to charge the capacitor through a power
resistance, and check if the capacitor are charged within a timeout. If they do not
charge, an alarm is signalled; the main contactor is not closed.
Page 76

Possible reasons:
a) the charging resistance is opened.
b) The charging circuit has a failure.
c) There is a problem in the power section.
8. MAIN CONTACTOR ALARMS
COIL SHORTED:
When the key is switched ON the Controller checks the LC coil driver shortcircuit
protection hardware. If it does not react in a correct way to the C stimulus, the alarm is
signalled. Replace the logic board. When the fault occurs while the LC is closed, the
alarm signals a shortcircuit across LC coil.
Check if there are external shortcircuit and if the ohmic value of the MC coil is correct;
otherwise replace the logic.
DRIVER SHORTED:
When the key is switched ON, the C checks that the LC coil driver is not shorted; if it
is, this alarm is signalled. Preliminary, check if there is an external short or low impedance pull-down between NLC (C26) and -BATT. If no external causes can be found out,
replace the controller.
CONTACTOR DRIVER:
When the initial diagnosis is finished, the traction logic closes the LC and checks the
voltage on the Drain of the driver. If this is not low , the driver is not able to close an
alarm is signalled. Replace the logic.
CONTACTOR OPEN:
The main contactor coil has been driven by the logic board, but the contactor does not
close. Two possible reasons:
a) the wires to the coil are interrupted or not well connected.
b) the contact of the contactor is not properly working (does not pull-in).
CONTACTOR CLOSED:
Before driving the LC coil, the controller checks if the LC contact is stuck. The controller
drives the bridge for a while, trying to discharge the capacitor bank. If they don't discharge, the fault condition is entered. It is suggested to check the contactor contact, if it
is mechanically stuck.
9. ENCODER ERROR
This alarm is signalled in following condition: the frequency supplied to the motor is
higher than 20 Hz, and the signal feedback from the encoder has a jump higher than 20
Hz in few tens millisecond. This condition clearly shows a malfunctioning of the encoder
signal. It is suggested to preliminary check the encoder wiring; if no fault is found in the
wiring it is necessary to replace the encoder.

Page 77

10. STEER SENSOR KO


This is an alarm which signals an out of range of the steering potentiometer signal. The
fault condition is entered in these two following conditions:
- the "Set steer 0 pos" (straight wheels programmation) parameter is wrong (lower
than "Set steer min" or higher than "Set steer max").
- the feedback signal of the steering potentiometer is outside the window defined by
"Set steer min" and "Set steer max" parameters.
In the first case, repeat the steering potentiometer acquisition. In the second case,
check the steering poti and its wiring. Eventually, repeat again the steering
potentiometer acquisition.
11. PEDAL WIRE KO
This alarm is signalled if a fault is detected in the accelerator unit wiring (NPOT or
PPOT cable is interrupted).
12. WRONG SET BATTERY
When the key is turned ON, the controller check the battery voltage and compares it
with the "SET BATTERY" parameter setting. If the actual value is 20% higher or lower
than nominal value, the fault condition is entered.
Replace the battery with a correct battery.
13. SLAVE KO
Slave and Master Cs perform a cross-check in order to verify their functionality. If the
MASTER detects SLAVE C malfunctioning, it brings the controller in a safe status
opening the power bridge and the Line Contactor.
14. MASTER KO
Slave and Master Cs perform a cross-check in order to verify their functionality. There
are two conditions under which slave enters this fault condition:
- the SLAVE C receives incoherent can message from the MASTER C
- the SLAVE C compares the inputs status and the related MASTER operations,
and find they are not coherent.
In both cases, the SLAVE brings the controller to a safe status opening the power
bridge and the Line contactor.
15. INPUT MISMATCH
Safety related inputs (Fw direction, Rev direction, accelerator ENABLE, SEAT switch)
are input to both microcontrollers by independent hw circuit. The two Cs read these
inputs and compare by exchanging related status on the canbus. If the SLAVE C finds
a mismatch between its inputs and MASTER inputs, it brings the controller to a safe
status opening the power bridge and the Line contactor.
16. AUX OUTPUT KO
The P checks the driver of the electromechanical brake coil. If the status of the driver
output does not correspond to the signal coming from the P, the alarm is signalled. It
is suggested to preliminary check if there is an external short or low impedance pulldown between NAUX (C31) and -BATT. If no external cause can be found, replace the
logic card.

Page 78

17. EEPROM KO
Fault in the area of memory in which the adjustment parameters are stored; this alarm
does not inhibits truck operation, but the controller will use default parameters. If the
defect persists when the key is switched OFF and ON again, replace the logic. If the
alarm disappears, remember that the parameters stored previously have been cancelled and replaced by the default values.
18. HIGH TEMPERATURE
Master or Slave or both temperatures are greater than 75C. The maximum current is
reduced proportionally to the temperature increase. At 100C the max current of both
inverter is reduced to zero.
If the alarm is signalled when the controller is cold:
a) thermal sensor failure;
b) failure in the logic card.
19. MOTOR TEMPERATURE
This warning is signalled if right or left or both motors temperature switches open
(digital sensor) or if the analog signals overtakes the cut off level. If it happens when the
motor is cold, check the wiring. If all is ok, replace the logic board.
20. BATTERY LOW
If the "battery check" option is ON, a battery discharge algorithm is carried out. When
the charge level is 20% , this alarm is signalled and the current is reduced to the half of
the programmed level.
21. VACC NOT OK
The test is made in standby. This alarm indicates that the accelerator voltage is 1V
greater than the minimum value programmed by the PROGRAM VACC function.
Possible causes:
a. the potentiometer is not correctly calibrated;
b. the potentiometer is defective.
22. INCORRECT START
This alarm signals an incorrect starting sequence. Possible causes:
a. Fw or Rev or Enable microswitch failure;
b. error in sequence made by the operator;
c. incorrect wiring;
d. if the default persists after checking the harness, replace the logic.
23. FORW + BACK
The test is carried out continuously. An alarm is signalled when a double running request is made simultaneously. Possible causes:
a. defective wiring;
b. running microswitch failure;
c. incorrect operation;
d. if the defect persists, replace the logic.

Page 79

24. THERMIC SENSOR KO


The range of inverter temperature sensor is always checked and a warning is signalled
if it is out of range.
When this alarm is signalled, the maximum current of the controller is reduced to halt.
25. WAITING FOR NODE #4
The Slave has detected a failure, the Master cannot close the main contactor because
of the alarm status of the Slave (which the Master knows by the CAN-BUS line). The
failure must be looked for in the Slave controller, use the remote console to get connection to the Slave C.
26. WAITING FOR NODE #3
The Master C has detected a fault condition, the Slave is aware of this thanks to
canbus communication; it cannot drive the motor until the Master has resolved its
problem. The fault has to be looked for in the Master.
27. NO CAN MESSAGE #4
Master (node #3) signals that it has lost can communication with the Slave (node #4).
This fault could be determined by a problem in the truck canbus line or by an internal
problem in the controller logic card.
It is suggested to preliminary check canbus connection.
28. NO CAN MESSAGE #3
Slave (node #4) signals that it has lost can communication with the Master (node #3).
This fault could be determined by a problem in the truck canbus line or by an internal
problem in the controller logic card.
It is suggested to preliminary check canbus connection.

Page 80

7.3 PUMP RELATED FAULT CODES

Co
de

ALARM
STRING

Mas- Slater

CONTROLLER

ve

DESCRIPTION

STATUS
Init

Stby

Condition that has to occur


to come out from alarm
status

Motor
running

28

"PUMP VMN

LOW"

Alarm: wrong voltage

-If the alarm is present in Init

output of pump chopper;

status,remove the alarm

the motor voltage feedback cause


is not coherent with

-If the alarm has occurred in

applied PWM

stby or running mode, it is


necessary to remove the fault
cause and to activate a
function request

56 "PUMP STBY I

Alarm: in stby condition

HIGH"

-If the alarm is present in Init

(no PWM applied to pump status,remove the alarm


chopper), the pump

cause

current sensor feedback is -If the alarm has occurred in


out of the zero current

stby or running mode, it is

window

necessary to remove the fault


cause and to activate a
function request

242

"PUMP

Sla-

TEMPERAT."

To remove warning cause

chopper temperature is

ve
242

Warning: the pump


higher than 75C

"PUMP"

Warning: Master controller To remove warning cause

Ma-

signals that Slave C has

ster

detected a fault in the


pump chopper

243

"PUMP INC.

START"
244 "PUMP VACC
MOTOR"

Warning: pump incorrect

To remove warning cause

start sequence
X

Warning: pump accelerator To remove warning cause


voltage is 1V greater than
the minimum value
programmed

Page 81

7.4 ANALYSIS OF PUMP RELATED ALARMS DISPLAYED ON CONSOLE


1. PUMP VMN LOW
The pump chopper power output is feedback to the C. If this feedback voltage is not
coherent with the applied PWM, this fault condition is signalled. There could be many
causes:
- failure in the pump chopper power section
- failure in the pump chopper driving section
- failure in the pump chopper voltage feedback circuit
- dispersion in the pump motor to truck frame.
2. PUMP STBY I HIGH
The pump chopper current sensor feedback is out of the zero-current window while no
PWM is applied to the pump chopper. The most likely cause is a failure in the current
sensor.
3. PUMP TEMPERATURE
Pump chopper temperature is higher than 75C, maximum current is proportionally
reduced. If the alarm is present when the controller is cold, there is a failure in the
temperature sensor or in the feedback circuit.
4. PUMP
This is a warning in the MASTER controller, which inform that the SLAVE is in a pump
chopper related fault condition.

Page 82

8 RECOMMENDED SPARE PARTS FOR INVERTER

Part Number

Description

C16507

Protected 500A strip Fuse.

C16505

Protected 355A strip Fuse.

C16520

6.3A 20mm Control Circuit Fuse

C29523

SW 180 80V
Single Pole Contactor

C29522

SW 180 48V
Single Pole Contactor

C29508

SW 180 24V
Single Pole Contactor

Page 83

9 PERIODIC MAINTENANCE TO BE REPEATED AT TIMES INDICATED


Check the wear and condition of the Contactors moving and fixed contacts.
Electrical Contacts should be checked every 3 months.
Check the Foot pedal or Tiller microswitch. Using a suitable test meter, confirm that there
is no electrical resistance between the contacts by measuring the volt drop between the
terminals. Switches should operate with a firm click sound.
Microswitches should be checked every 3 months.
Check the Battery cables, cables to the chopper, and cables to the motor. Ensure the
insulation is sound and the connections are tight.
Cables should be checked every 3 months.
Check the mechanical operation of the pedal or tiller . Are the return springs ok. Do the
potentiometers wind up to their full or programmed level.
Check every 3 months.
Check the mechanical operation of the Contactor(s). Moving contacts should be free to
move without restriction.
Check every 3 months.
Checks should be carried out by qualified personnel and any replacement parts used
should be original. Beware of NON ORIGINAL PARTS.
The installation of this electronic controller should be made according to the diagrams
included in this Manual. Any variations or special requirements should be made after
consulting a Zapi Agent. The supplier is not responsible for any problem that arises from
wiring methods that differ from information included in this Manual.
During periodic checks, if a technician finds any situation that could cause damage or
compromise safety, the matter should be bought to the attention of a Zapi Agent immediately. The Agent will then take the decision regarding operational safety of the machine.
Remember that Battery Powered Machines feel no pain.
NEVER USE A VEHICLE WITH A FAULTY ELECTRONIC CONTROLLER.

Page 84

ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL DEVICES


42028 - POVIGLIO - (R.E.) - Via Parma, 59 - ITALIA
Tel. +39 0522 960050 (r.a.) - Fax +39 0522 960259 - e-mail: zapi@zapispa.it

DUALAC2 INVERTER
OPERATING HANDBOOK
AND FUNCTION DESCRIPTION