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Padeye strength

Padeyes are frequently applied for use as lift points or as
hinged connections.Several calculation methods are
available (from class and industry) for strength
assessment of padeyes. Generally, the following
stresses are evaluated:
 contact stress between pin and eye
 tensile stress next to the eye
 tensile stress at the “extreme fibre” of the eye plate
 shear stress in the eye plate.
Stresses in the connection of the padeye to the structure
and in the welds of possible doubler plates in way of the
eye are important as well, but not subject of the current
project.
Not all methods make use of all stresses mentioned,
reflecting different philosophies on stress components
governing padeye design. Formulae for stress
calculation show principal differences between methods.
All methods are using more or less approximate
(nominal) calculation methods. However, the compact
geometry of padeyes will cause actual stress peaks
deviating from the nominal values. These stress
concentration effects are accounted for by factors on
loads or nominal stresses and / or relatively low
allowable stresses. Each method has its own set of
factors. Obviously all existing padeye methods are based
on experience and give no insight in the actual stress
peak values. Furthermore, it is not clear which stress
components are actually critical for strength.

Eye plate
variables

Tensile stress Contact stress Padeye on
next to eye
padeye
platform

Extreme fibre tensile stress is secondary and shear stress is not significant. The influence of the clearance between the pin and the eye as well as the relative magnitude of loading on stress peaks was investigated. Using these FE routines for each padeye design is not practical.R&D project Eye plate structures are designed for ever growing load levels. It was found that each padeye generally is governed by the peak tensile stress at the edge of the hole only. This tool now facilitates the quick and accurate evaluation of padeye strength. This resembles the supporting effect of the pin on the padeye where a larger padeye deformation (related to larger stresses) induces a larger contact area which on its turn lowers the stress concentration. Therefore. depending on the clearance applied. It was found that the classic Hertz theory is very well suited for the contact pressure analysis. the contact condition between the pin and the eye plate was considered. Future developments Strength evaluation requires accurate stress analysis on the one hand in combination with knowledge of allowable values on the other hand. based on thorough knowledge of eye plate stress response and the pin to eye interaction behaviour. Finite element analysis is applied to investigate the stress fields in padeyes for a range of geometries and load directions. In order to guarantee structural safety as well as economic design (plate thickness) Vuyk Engineering Rotterdam initiated a research and development project with the goal to clarify above issues and to develop a tool for more accurate padeye strength analysis. As a next step. All analyses are performed using fine-mesh models including the modelling of the contact zone which requires non-linear calculations. FE results were systematically generated and used as input for a spread sheet program. Allowable stresses should be . It appeared that higher load intensities have a favourable effect on stress concentration effects.

Since the failure limit of padeyes is not as obvious as one might think. . another research project is currently ongoing at Vuyk Engineering Rotterdam.based on structural failure modes with corresponding critical (failure) values.