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Prepared by : Ar PIO


The Foundation of Planning

Prepared by: Ar. PIO

Dissatisfaction on the part of individuals and groups
concerning their relationships with the environment
will lead them to take modifying actions. These
changes could include:
- the nature of the activity itself
- the space in which it was carried out

Actions taken by individuals and groups in interest can
bring about conditions which give rise to serious social,
economic, and aesthetic problems connected with the
use of land.

Planning seeks to…
a) regulate or control the
activity of individual and
groups in such a way as to
minimize the bad effects
which may arise.

b) promote better performance
of the physical environment in
accordance with a set of broad
aims and more specific
objectives set out in a plan.

- its location with respect to all other activities
- the kinds of communications made with activities at other
- the channels which served to carry or transmit them


…cost of river transport are low especially for bulky commodities compared to fairly high transport cost use diminishing intensively in reverse relationship to increased distance from the town. o OUTER BELT WOULD HAVE LITTLE DEMAND FOR LAND BECAUSE OF TRANSPORT would be low and the value of extensive production would be correspondingly low. . …river would have the effect of extending the different land uses almost parallel along its course. o LAND IN GREATEST DEMAND WOULD BE AS NEAR AS POSSIBLE TO THE MARKET ON ACCOUNT OF LOW TRANSPORT COSTS. . o POSTULATED THAT AROUND A CENTRAL TOWN Modifications…  overall use pattern might be modified by the existence of a navigable river. Johann Heinrich von Thünen -rural land of constant fertility assumed different forms (the type of land use varies with distance away from the market) .the highest rent would be gained for this advantage and the highest value output per hectare would accrue. (The intensity of production declines with distance away from the market) 2 .  further modification might occur if a small city with its own production zones is located within the land use pattern of the main settlements.Prepared by : Ar PIO 12/14/2015 Location theory… explains the pattern of land use indicates a solution to the problem of what is the most rational use of land suggesting ways in which the current pattern can be improved.

• a change of use could be expected to take place through the price mechanism when one gradient falls below another. (transport cost more of a reflection of accessibility than distance) • locations close to junctions. COST WILLIAM ALONSO  rents diminish outward from the center of a city to offset both lower revenue and higher operating costs and not least transport costs. • Alonso model did not specify the type of land use associated with each bidgradient. 3 . …as distance from the center increases. • distribution of the day-time population and points of maximum transit (where people cluster together) are also important. the spatial distribution. number and size of client establishments determine revenue. • in the case of offices. …this is due to the upward pull of transport costs. nodes and terminals are particularly favored maximizing proximity to suppliers and markets. • decentralized shopping centers are being developed following road improvement and increased car ownership. which are no longer offset sufficiently by economies in the use of land and labor. • revenue is thus greatest within the CBD and so are the aggregate costs. REVENUE • retailing revenue is determined by the size of the shopping catchment area or hinterland. from 2 to 5kms use “b” is dominant. the use with the highest gradient prevailing. • price and rent of land fall with increased distance from the CBD. • wages are higher in the center …local demand for labor being greater than local supply. • modern manufacturing industry relies increasingly on heavy road vehicles for long distance transportation and incurs lower transport costs on the fringes of cities than at more central locations. • assumed that the urban area has a single nucleus and that the market for land is perfect. …only within a fairly short distance from the CBD are commercial users able to realize high profitability. • use “a” prevails up to a distance of 2kms from the CBD. revenue falls and aggregate costs (after falling initially) rises. not just in terms of population but in terms of purchasing power. …a rent gradient would compensate for falling revenue and higher operating costs …different land uses would have different rent gradients. B. and beyond 5kms use “c” prevails.Prepared by : Ar PIO 12/14/2015 LOCATIONAL DETERMINANTS OF COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL USE… A. …commuting costs need to be offset by higher remuneration.

4 . most firms find it difficult to adjust their locations to the optimum. True in the practice of conventional suburban development Downside being that a preexistence of excellence in location is invariably associated with high cost of land acquisition Created by proximity to a desirable factor such as transportation. D. a waterfront. a slope.Prepared by : Ar PIO 12/14/2015 C. a long vista. • firms requiring large sites and those attempting to reduce costs of over-concentration will be attracted to the suburbs. • firms locating close together to benefit from complementary will incur lower costs because of external economies and enjoy higher revenue due to joint demand. a popular resort. location” is considered to be the foremost determinant in the catalyzing of the decision to purchase. …a satisfactory rather than ideal location moreover is established by zoning and land use controls. firms need to locate where they can benefit from both the greatest revenue and from the lowest costs. as propagated by the adage “location. location. or a desirable community Only method to economically achieve the value added by location is to create it on inexpensive land through Planned Neighborhood Development. PROFITABILITY • to maximize profits. • specialized functions and activities serving the urban market as a whole will locate centrally. …since there is a high degree of inertia. LOCATION A factor which. a pleasant climate.