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Mechanical Design of Heat Exchangers and Pressure Vessel

The next chapter focusses upon tube sheet sandwiched beComponents. K. P. Singh and A. I. Soler, Arcturus Publishers tween two flanges. The combination fo large temperature and
Inc., Cherry Hill, N.J. 1984.
pressure differences dictate careful study of the joints. A
This is a "whopper" of a book. Starting from the basics, it precise stress analyses is required including the leakage area.
progresses along until it reaches the more complex aspects of Prudent mathematical analysis and study of these equations
heat exchanger design. Along the way it encounters and covers require a complete stress analysis. This is admirably done by
a great deal of material. Until the present, there has not been a the authors. The computer program TRIEL is based upon the
book which covers this vast ground. As stated by the author, three-element joint as presented in this chapter. Flanges with
"Profound changes have occurred in recent years in heat ex- full face gaskets and ring gaskets are the subject of Chapter 5.
changer design practice . . . . Seismic analysis was an alien Included is nonlinear gasket behavior, simulation of bolt efterm to the heat exchanger trade. Words like 'response spec- fects, calculation of flange. The computer code
trum,' 'flow induced vibration,' 'nozzle load induced GENFLANGE is used in the analysis of nonlinear gaskets plus
stresses,' had little kinship to heat exchanger design the analysis of 2 and 3 element bolted flange joints.
technology . . . . A thorough grasp of the underlying concepts
Chapter 6 speaks about joints for high pressure closures.
in flow induced vibration and seismic analysis along with Bolted joints cannot be used due to the large number of repressure vessel mechanical design and stress analyses tech- quired bolts and exceedingly large pre-loads. This large inniques, is essential for developing cost effectiveness and crease necessitates the use of boltless flanges. They are either
reliable design . . . . Our objective is to present that necessary of the axially loaded design or pressure actuated. For the
for heat exchanger design and operating-problems-resolution former, the pressure load is resisted by suitable means which
in a logical and systematic manner." The authors accomplish do not oppose the axial header load. The few devices which
their task and goal by bridging the gap between analytical have had a measure of success are: (a) threaded joint,
methods and practical considerations.
(Jb) casale joint, (c) Breitschneider closure, (d) shear stud
The book contains 22 chapters and 27 computer codes. Five closure, (e) shear pin design, (/) yoke ring, (g) shear bond
of the latter contain no listings but the remainder do. An ap- design. The pressure-actuated closure is the forcing of an
pendix analyzes and presents the classical plate and shell endless elastic ring in a circumferential groove. Another type
of joint based upon the Bridgeman principle is the wedge seal
theory and its applications to pressure vessels.
Chapter 1 presents an elaborate introduction to tubular heat ring closure. The book goes into great detail plus the
exchangers. It includes the various styles (fixed tube sheet, U- mathematical derivation of the equations relating to the sealtube, floating tube sheet, etc.), heat exchanger nomenclature, ing action and sizing of the retainer shoe.
tube layout, pitch and heat"Exchanger intervals. The
Chapter 7 discusses the variety of methods used in making
next topics are methods of impingement protection: circular the joints between the tube sheet and tubes. The most common
and square plates and four methods of designing for thermal attachment techniques are: (a) roller expansion,
transients. The chapter concludes with a brief resume of the (b) hydraulic expansion, (c) impact welding, (d) edge
codes and standards used in heat exchanger design and welding, (e) butt welding. The book continues with the
manufacture (TEMA, Heat Exchanger Institute and ASME discussion and derivation of mathematical expressions for
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes). Chapter 2 reports on the tube-to-tube sheet interface pressure. The chapter concludes
various stress categories. This covers beam strip analogy, with a lengthy discussion and derivation of estimating the ligaprimary and secondary stresses and classifications (primary ment temperature distribution. The computer program
and local membrane stress, primary and secondary bending LIGTEM is employed in determining the temperature
stress, etc.). The authors provide an example of gross struc- distribution. Chapter 8 focusses upon the design of tube sheets
tural discontinuity. This considers welded cylinders having for U-tube heat exchanger. The importance of tube sheet
unequal thickness. The chapter concludes with an interesting design should not be underestimated. Analysis methods indiscussion of discontinuity stresses at head, shell and skirt clude the perforated region, two-sided integral construction,
junction. Chapter 3 takes us to the area of bolted flange one-sided integral and one-sided gasket construction, twodesign. This embraces the various constituents, which sided gasketed construction and tube sheet stress analysis. The
are: (a) bolted flange type, (b) four types of flange facings, computer code "UTUBE" is fully explained and detailed in
(c) four types of flange facing finishes, (rf) five types of gaskets this chapter.
which are used in flange design. The important Waters,
The most widespread application of heat exchanger conRossheim and Williams methods are detailed in depth. They struction in the power and process industries are the fixed and
are used in the design of the flange ring, tapered hub, shell floating head heat exchangers. The determination of the effecelements, longitudinal stresses in hub and shell, radial and tive pressure on tube sheet due to tube bundle, analyses of pertangential stresses in a ring. The chapter concludes with a forated circular tube sheet and analysis of unperforated tube
detailed listing of computer program FLANGE and the stress sheet runs are important aspects used in heat exchanger
analysis of a welding neck flange.
design. The book forges ahead with ways of modifying
372/Vol. 108, AUGUST 1986

Transactions of the ASME

Copyright © 1986 by ASME
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In addition. cylindrical and toridal shells. The equations are derived and a particular design example is furnished employing the previously designed formula. . (c) stresses in the shell at the saddle supports. The chapter concludes with some ideas for preventing flowinduced vibration procedure. A number of different empirical fluid elastic and turbulent buffeting correlations are presented based on experiments and analysis of a number of investigators. again. flat circular cover bolted to a lap joint flange. The tube acts as a beam and both tube sheet and tube are assumed to have equal displacement. (d) bolt load distribution in three-leg support system. 108/373 Downloaded From: http://pressurevesseltech. The concluding section presents a short section on bellows fatigue life. Chapter 18 reports on four-leg supports for pressure vessels. (e) metallurigcal failure. The computer program UBAX computes the bending and direct stress in the tube overhand and U-bend regions due to the specified outer leg thermal differentials. Chapter 12 discusses the analysis of a flat cover which utilizes the main closure for the tube-side chamber in tubular heat exchangers. The chapter concludes with a reference of "discontinuity stress resultants" which are additional reactions at the junction developed to keep the two portions of the shell together. wind loads. An excellent chapter! Until recently. The other topic is an evaluation of the discontinuity effects caused by abrupt changes in the meridional curvature which produces a mismatch in the shell displacement in the two sides of the discontinuity. The next important phenomena is damping and the important damping coefficient. The next chapter covers the important subject of expansion joints. latent pressure and a symmetrically distributed edge moment using ASME Code. The program FIXFLOAT expresses the parametric analysis of a fixed tube sheet heat exchanger. A good example is the design and construction of large power plant condensors. (b) lug design. Chapter 16. The optimal plane of loading is defined as the plane which maximizes the maximum stress in at least one of the support legs. They have a direct bearing to power plant condensors. The seismic loading. (b) fluid-elastic excitation. The computer program FAN FLUE is a pre and past processor for expansion joint analysis using AXISTRESS and EJMAREC for the stress analysis of a rectangular joint. (b) lug. It can be broadly classified either Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology as (a) formed head. etc. The U-bend natural frequency is derived and the computer program UVIB solves for the in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations of the Ubend. The topic of the stiffness of a "formed head" expansion joint is analyzed by computing the internal stress resultants and the stress distribution in the inner on 12/29/2015 Terms of Use: http://www. This includes the development of expressions for ring rotation. focusses upon flow-induced vibration. The authors mention the number of external loadings and show how they are applied in design. ellipsoidal. i.asme. They are particularly useful in low-pressure. Chapter 13 covers the subject of formed heads in closures for pressure vessels and heat exchangers. The authors show the derivation of the ASME Code formula for the large end of a reducer. the authors prefer the equation stated by Anderson in determination of stresses versus life cycles.e. This can be classified as (a) structural damping. This includes the correction for shear deformation. this is explained in terms of the inertia of the flow stream. Chapter 11 continues with rectangular tube sheets. Since the formed head can be considered a shell of revolution. The flange ring can be designed via ASME Code. This dynamic subject was ignored by designers until a rash of tube failures caused designers to have a concerted look at this phenomena. The book discusses the thickness of the cover. (b) natural damping. (c) tube sheet clamping effect. The computer program LAPCOV is based on the lap joint-flat cover interaction analysis plus the previously mentioned TRIEL program to analyze and solve the problem of flat cover bolted to a welding neck flange. The types of supports are: (a) saddle. The computer program shows some of the inaccuracies of the TEMA design formulas. (c) fluid damping. (c) annular ring. (d) skirt. (c) jet switching. (b) baffle damage. The acoustic resonance correlation depends upon the acoustic and existing frequencies plus damping. Vol. mechanical loads from interconnecting piping requires a proper determination of the "optimal plane" of loading. The standard natural frequency formulas are derived and discussed. The different types of vibration mechanisms are: (a) vortex shedding. the relations for staggered tube layout are considered. or (b) formed membrane. (e) trapeze. simplifying the analysis of stationary tube sheet in an integral or floating head heat exchanger. (e) foundation response of ring-type supports mounted on rigid foundation. large-volume flow rate conditions. Caution is necessary if the preliminary design is marginal. The natural frequency of the heat exchanger tube which is essential in flow-induced vibration failure depends upon the end conditions. The computer program FIXSHEET performs a complete stress analysis of integral tube sheet exchangers (integral both shell and tubeside). the equations for the membrane theory under internal pressure can be utilized. The design must now be checked for seismic loading. TEMA Standards and Heat Exchanger Institute Code. The next chapter is the flange-cover interaction. the lengthiest. The advent of commercial nuclear power radically altered the thinking. annular plate and outer shell. loss in heat due to flow bypass and thermal performance of two tube pass heat exchangers. The effective tube mass affects its natural frequency and should be calculated with care. The book entails 7 tests reAUGUST1986. is stated as an empirical criteria and is proposed to assess the possibility of acoustic resonance. The authors demonstrate the theoretical analysis by employing the plate theory equations. This is important in both piping and heat exchangers. The flow of shell side fluid in a baffled heat exchanger is highly complex. cover and flange ring stresses. mechanical loads from attached piping. (d) acoustic resonance.asme. It considers the corroded thickness. Another excellent and wellwritten chapter! Chapter 10 treats the subject of double tube sheet construction which is important in the prevention of fluid leakage between shell and tube side. Although a number of empirical formulas based upon test data are mentioned. The latter specifies lever arms for the gasket load and header load due to pressure. The bellows expansion joints for cylindrical and rectangular vessels are next considered. The computer program RINGSUP calculates the total membrane and bending stress at the junction of the annular ring support and shell. For the design the beam strip method is employed in an approximate analysis for both the condensor tube sheets and the waterbox parameters which reflect the character of its edge restraints. Chapter 14 introduces thermal stresses in the heads due to thermal expansion-related problems. The set of equations with properly assigned boundary conditions can be efficiently solved by altering the problem into a series of initial value problems and utilizing numerical integration along the radial c o o r d i n a t e s . The chapter concludes with interactive relationships.. The following topics are delved into: (a) stresses in an annular ring support due to vetical loads. Required are the effective velocity and determinations of the discrete flow paths of the shellside fluid from one baffle space to the next plus the flow distributions in the U-bend region. (d) material defect propagations. The authors use a program DOUBLESHEET to solve and analyze this problem.asmedigitalcollection. This applies to conical. For fluid-elastic instability as expressed in Conners' experiments.floating head exchangers. The computer program EXJOINT automates the analysis and computation of the flanged and fluid expansion joint design. sizing of supports was generally left to the personal judgments of the designer. The types of vibration damage patterns in tube failures are: (a) collision damage.

The details of these studies and considerations together with the regulatory analysis for a proposed resolution of the Unresolved Safety Issue A-46 were described in NUREG-1030 report and its attachment. It has been extensively applied to piping design in nuclear power plants and the design of buildings. 108. Time-history analysis is prohibitively expensive for industrial hardware. Chen and G.-Y. The main focus of this chapter is to determine the stresses in the foundation bolts and determine the peak concrete bearing pressure due to an arbitrary set of loadings applied to the pressure vessel. 12302 New Concepts for Verification of Seismic Adequacy of Equipment in Operating Plants. facilities for handing. Chapter 20 covers the vertical mounting of heat exchangers and pressure vessels. Modal analysis methods employing the "Earthquake Response Spectrum" are a feasible compromise between fictitious static loads and exhausting time-history analysis. degree of dismemberment of the heat exchanger. AUGUST 1986 maintenance and troubleshooting of the equipment in order to live up to its rated performance. it was recognized that it may not be practical to qualify all equipment required for safe shutdown using current seismic qualification methods and criteria because of cost-benefit considerations and the difficulties in acquiring and testing the same vintage equipment as those installed in the operating plants. This is a good chapter that one should read carefully! The last chapter furnishes a number of practical considerations of heat exchanger design and use. The reviewer heartily recommends this book to those interested in heat exchanger and pressure vessel component design. If the modal contributions are not in phase. 1985. maximum absolute acceleration and maximum relative velocity.asme. the task of seismic analysis of multi-degree-of-freedom systems becomes straightforward. sometimes less stringent. Plant layout and workspace. The latter simulate the effect of anchor bolts and foundation characteristics. it has been deemed prudent to reassess the seismic adequacy of equipment required for safe shutdown in operating nuclear power plants to ensure safety function performance during and after a seismic event. Handling. pseudovelocity and displacements versus frequency. The support reaction due to all nozzle loads are then examined. ASME. process hazards and ease of in-service inspection are important points to consider in the design of heat exchangers. However. etc. Saddle mounting (usually 2) is preferred for heat exchangers due to ease of tube replacement. this is an excellent book and may be considered as a "bible" on heat exchanger and pressure vessel component design. lateral reaction at the top of the support beam and the axial compressive load on the beam. installation of component parts. P. factories. Current requirements and recommendations of criteria and methods of compliance for equipment seismic qualification call for analysis and/or laboratory testing as delineated in various national standards (IEEE. The authors aptly derive the equations for maximum relative displacement. The code HORSUP computerizes the analysis. connection and operation are additional important phases that the designer must consider. There is always the problem of proper 374/Vol. Code. bridges. Many studies were conducted and several alternatives were considered for the resolution of the USI A-46 issue." and unless wisely selected can be unduly conservative and thus create high fictitious values of computed vessel stresses and foundation reaction. Response spectrum may be considered to be the footprint of the earthquake. This is due to the partial comparison on the ring base plate. The most vulnerable directions of external loading are then determined. When the spectra is available. New York. The need for this reassessment formed a basis for an Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) which was initiated as USIA-46 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in Dec. This large tome should be located within arm's reach of the designer and operating engineer. Because of these evolutionary changes the equipment installed in the operating nuclear power plants may not meet current seismic qualification criteria. The heat exchanger should be designed to facilitate its maintenance and upkeep. A number of general-purpose finite element programs that are available can perform a response spectrum analysis of a given structure under a general seismic excitation. Special Publication PVP-101. The external loads arise from wind on 12/29/2015 Terms of Use: http://www. its corresponding stress. Therefore. ASME. Static inertia load replacing dynamic load is "touchy. etc. the bending moment at the top of the support beam. ANSI.asmedigitalcollection.asme. N. galvanic corrosion and erosion) which must be carefully thought out and factored into the design. The book contains an excellent table of nomenclature and adequate references at the end of each chapter. eds. The support legs are modeled as end loaded beam-type members mounted on rotational springs. The stress limits for the concrete pedestal and anchor bolts are referred to the Manual of Steel Construction. It evaluates the maximum response of a simple oscillator when subjected to the earthquake. working environment. 1980. The criteria and methods of qualification followed an evolutionary process such that many older plants were designed and built to different.quired in the design of the support system. H. Saunders Scotia. Transactions of the ASME Downloaded From: http://pressurevesseltech. They all must be built to be earthquake resistant. the square root of the sum of the squares (SSRS) combination is employed. The computer code VERSUP calculates these support reactions. In summary. This economizes in plant floor space. Y. The need for seismic qualification of safety-related electrical and mechanical equipment to ensure structural integrity and functional capability during and after a seismic event has been an important requirement in designing and constructing a nuclear power plant for the past 15 yr. The vertical equipment is modeled as a uniform beam having their respective ends restrained by simulated linear springs. Chapter 21 details the subject of response spectrum as applied to pressure vessels. It was found that: 1) within limitations specified in the report. Chapter 19 presents design data for preliminary sizing of saddles for heat exchangers and pressure . Sliter. from seismic motion and from reactions due to attached piping.. The combining of peak values for each mode using an absolute sum presupposes that the modal combinations are in phase with each other. The computer programs stated in the book are readily available for sale from the book publishers. The response spectrum is a composite plot of absolute acceleration. requirements than current criteria applied to plants seeking near term operating licenses. 1.) and NRC regulatory guides (including Standard Review Plan). the use of earthquake experience data is an acceptable generic alternative to verify the seismic ruggedness of equipment in operating nuclear power plants. Last but not least is the unwanted metallurgical problems (stress corrosion. A computer program FORLEG determines the optimal angle which maximizes the total fiber stress in leg no. The chapter concludes with the derivation of a set of equations that determine the peak concrete pressure and the distance of the neutral plane from the horizontal axis plus the maximum bolt tensile stress.