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Biology 115 Exam 2 Study Guide

Chapter 10: Photosynthesis













Photosynthesis: the process by which light energy is converted into the stored
chemical energy of organic molecules.
Overall Reaction of Photosynthesis: 6 CO2 + 12 H2O à C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O.
Oxygen produced by photosynthesis comes directly from H2O.
The synthesis of ATP during photosynthesis occurs as a result of phosphorylation
of ADP.
Photosynthesis involves:
o Light Reactions
§ Energized electrons reduce NADP+ to NADPH.
§ Energized electrons pass down the electron transport chain using
mechanism of chemiosmosis to generate ATP in a process called
photophosphorylation.
o Calvin Cycle
§ CO2 is fixed with RuBP then three-carbon compound
phosphorylated and reduced (using NADPH and ATP) to form
G3P, which is made into glucose and other carbohydrates.
Autotrophs sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other living
beings.
Photoautotrophs are organisms that use light as a source of energy to synthesize
organic substances.
Heterotrophs obtain organic food molecules by eating other organisms or
substances derived from them.
Chloroplasts are organelles found in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorb
sunlight and use it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon
dioxide and water.
o Chloroplasts are found mainly in the cells of the mesophyll, the tissue in
the interior of the leaf.
Stomata are microscopic pores that allow gas exchange between the environment
and the interior of the plant.
Stroma: the dense fluid within the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid
membrane and containing ribosomes and DNA; involved in the synthesis of
organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
Thylakoids: flattened, membranous sacs inside the chloroplast.
Chlorophyll: green pigment that gives leaves their color.
Light behaves as waves and also as particles called photons.
Pigments are substances that absorb visible light.
Chlorophyll a: the key light-capturing pigment that participates directly in the
light reactions.
o The spectrum of chlorophyll a suggests that violet-blue and red light work
best for photosynthesis.
Chlorophyll b: an accessory pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a.
Photosystem: composed of a reaction-center complex surrounded by several lightharvesting complexes.

o It provides for reproduction of unicellular organisms. S Phase. o Two types: Photosystem II (PS II) and Photosystem I (PS I) Primary electron acceptor: a specialized molecule that shares the reaction-center complex with a pair of chlorophyll a molecules and that accepts an electron from them. Prior to cell division. Phases of the Cell Cycle: o Mitotic (M) phase and Interphase. o Two sister chromatids separate during mitosis. attached along cohesions. the units of inheritance. and . Linear electron flow: a route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves both photosystems and produces ATP. o It takes 3 turns of the Calvin Cycle to fix 3 molecules of CO2 and produce 1 molecule of G3P. and repair of multicellular organisms. Anaphase. o This is organized into chromosomes. Cell Division creates genetically equivalent daughter cells. Regeneration of CO2 acceptor (RuBP). Mitosis has 5 stages: Prophase. o Each sister chromatid has a centromere. and O2. o In Prokaryotes by binary fission. Duplicated chromosomes consist of two identical sister chromatids. Every diploid eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in each somatic cell. and G2 Phase. Interphase includes the G1 Phase. Genome: a cell’s complete complement of DNA. Metaphase. a region where proteins bind to specific centromeric DNA sequences and hold the chromatids closely together. o In eukaryotes by mitosis. o It provides for development. Reduction. o Cycle can be divided into 3 stages: Carbon Fixation. have half that number of chromosomes. The Cell Cycle extends from the formation of a new cell by the division of its parent cell to its own division into two daughter cells. Chapter 12: Cell Cycle • • • • • • • • • • Cell Division is essential for the perpetuation of life. growth. Prometaphase. Cyclic electron flow: a route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves only one photosystem and that produces ATP. gametes (sperm & egg). Each Eukaryotic chromosome is a very long DNA molecule with associated proteins that help structure the chromosome and control the activity of genes. and then the cytoplasm divides during cytokinesis.• • • • o Each light-harvesting complex consists of various pigment molecules bound to proteins. a cell replicates its DNA. reproductive cells. Chromatin: the entire complex of DNA and protein. The Calvin Cycle uses the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH to reduce CO2 to sugar. NADPH.

which produces spores produced by plants by sporophyte generation. During prometaphase. Cell plate: forms the fusion of membrane vesicles. Autosomes: chromosomes other than sex chromosomes. some of the spindle microtubules attach to each chromatid’s kinetochore. Plants have life cycle called alternation of generations. the nucleoli disappear and the chromatin fibers coil and fold into visible chromosomes. Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes. which join in fertilization forming a diploid zygote. or fusion of sperm and egg. cytokinesis begins. equivalent sets of chromosomes are at the two poles of the cell. Karyotype is an ordered display of an individual’s condensed chromosomes. nucleoli reappear. Single-celled eukaryotes reproduce by process of binary fission. Two chromosomes of each type. Chapter 13: Meiosis • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Genetics if the scientific study of the transmission of traits from parents to offspring and the variation between and within generations. § Meiosis I: includes synapsis. Cleavage: the process that separates the two daughter cells. At metaphase. crossing over. which divides by mitosis to form life. The DNA in eukaryotes is packaged into a species-specific number of chromosomes present in all somatic cells.• • • • • Telophase. which produces gametes. § Meiosis II: sister chromatids separate and 4 haploid cells are produced. Nuclear envelopes form. homologs. At anaphase. Mitotic spindle: an assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis. Sexual reproduction: an individual receives a unique combination of genes inherited from 2 parents. genes from both parents are transmitted to offspring. and independent assortment. produces a zygote containing both a paternal and maternal set of chromosomes. Meiosis: special type of cell division that halves the chromosome number and provides a haploid set of chromosomes to each gamete. In telophase. all of which result in genetic variation. chromosomes are separated and move toward the poles. the centromeres of all the chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate. are present in each somatic cell. Mitosis: During prophase. Asexual reproduction: single parent passes copies of all its genes to its offspring. Diploid (2n) / Haploid (n) Fertilization. When gametes fuse in fertilization. o Meiosis includes Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Life cycle: the sequence of stages from conception to production in an organism. . A gene’s locus is its location on a chromosome. Sexual Life Cycle: o Involves meiosis. This alternates with gametophyte generation. males XY. Sex chromosomes: determine the sex of a person: females XX.

• • • • • • • • • • • • He used true-breeding varieties of pea plants. o Meiosis II: looks like regular mitotic division. Homozygous versus Heterozygous Genotype versus Phenotype Dominant allele versus Recessive allele Monohybrid Cross Dihybrid Cross Probability laws govern Mendelian inheritance o Multiplication rule: states that the probability that a certain combination of independent events will occur together is equal to the product of the separate possibilities of the independent events.• Stages of Meiosis: o Interphase: each duplicated chromosome consists of two genetically identical sister chromatids that remain attached at the centromere and along their length by sister chromatid cohesion. . o Telophase I: a haploid set of chromosomes reaches each pole. or assorts. and then allowed the next generation to self-pollinate. The Law of Independent Assortment: states that each pair of alleles segregates.or cross-pollinated F1 generation The Law of Segregation: states that two alleles in a pair segregate (separate) into different gametes during gamete formation. Complete Dominance: the phenotype of the heterozygote is indistinguishable from that of the dominant homozygote. Codominance: each allele will affect the phenotype in separate. in which chromosomes line up individually on the metaphase plate. o Metaphase I: homologous pairs line up at the metaphase plate. • Mendel studied seven characters that occurred in alternative forms called traits. o Addition rule: states the probability is equal to the sum of the separate probabilities of the different. o Prophase I: homologous chromosomes pair up and genetic material is exchanged by crossing over between non-sister chromatids. applies to genes for two characters located on different pairs of homologous chromosomes or when they are far enough apart on the same chromosome to behave as though they are on different chromosomes. o Anaphase I: each pair separates with one homolog moving toward each pole. distinguishable ways. Mendel performed hybridizations in which he mated contrasting true-breeding varieties. mutually exclusive ways it can occur. independently of each other pair during gamete formation. Chapter 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea • Mendel used the scientific approach to identify two laws of inheritance. Incomplete dominance: intermediate phenotypes are characteristic of alleles showing this. o P generation: true-breeding parental plants o F1 generation: offspring of the first cross o F2 generation: offspring of the self.

Chapter 15: Chromosomes • • Chromosome theory of inheritance: genes occupy specific positions (loci) on chromosomes. . where proteins that initiate replication bind to a specific sequence of nucleotides and separate the two strands to form a replication “bubble”. Eukaryotic chromosomes have many origins of replication. o Topoisomerase helps relieve the strain from the tighter twisting of DNA strands in front of helicase. o Single-stranded binding proteins keep the separated strands apart while they serve as templates. o A=T and G=C Double Helix: shape of DNA. Semiconservative Model of DNA: predicts that the two daughter DNA molecules each have 1 parental strand and 1 newly formed strand. Chargaff determined the number of adenines and thymines are approximately equal. two strands. Replication proceeds in both directions in the two replication forks. ORGANIZER: Chapter 16: DNA • • • • • • • DNA is precisely copied in the process of DNA replication. Watson and Crick constructed model of double helix that had the paired nitrogenous bases on the inside of the helix and two sugar-phosphate chains running in opposite directions on the outside. DNA Replication: o Replication of most bacterial chromosomes begins at a single origin of replication. and the number of guanines and cytosines was also equal. o Enzyme called helicase unwinds the helix and separates the parental strands at each replication fork. and it is the random alignment of pairs of homologous chromosomes that result in the independent assortment and segregation of alleles in gamete formation. Meselson & Stahl tested models of DNA using E.coli.

such as the TATA box. Eukaryotic cells modify RNA after transcription. The nucleotide sequence on mRNA is read in the correct reading frame. transcription and translation can occur simultaneously. mRNA is processed before it exits the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm.one enzyme hypothesis Transcription: the transfer of information from DNA to mRNA. the terminator is the sequence that signals the end of transcription. o A modified guanine nucleotide is attached to the 5’ end of a pre-mRNA. In eukaryotes. the sequence of codons. The nucleotide base triplets along the template strand of a gene are transcribed into complementary mRNA codons. Multiple repetitions of a short nucleotide sequence at the ends of chromosomes. called telomeres. transcription factors must first recognize and bind to the promoter before RNA polymerase can attach. During translation. The promoter is the DNA sequence where RNA polymerase attaches and initiates transcription. The translation of nucleotides into amino acids uses a triplet code to specify each amino acid. where translation occurs. and a string of adenine nucleotides. Genes specify proteins via transcription and translation. Chapter 17: Gene Expression • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Gene Expression: the DNA-directed synthesis of proteins. DNA polymerase III and I are involved in replication. Translation: transfers information from mRNA to a polypeptide. o Okazaki Fragments. In bacteria. o DNA ligase joins the sugar-phosphate backbones of the fragments. In eukaryotes. RNA splicing: the process after a primary transcript is made of a gene. called a poly-A tail. determines the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide. Ribozymes: RNA molecules that act as enzymes. The specific binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter determines where transcription starts and which DNA strand is used as the template. The promoter includes the transcription start point and recognition sequences. The initial RNA transcript of any gene is called the primary transcript. protect an organism’s genes from being eroded during successive DNA replication.• o Primase joins RNA nucleotides based-paired to the parental strand to form the primer needed to start the new DNA strand. changing from the language of nucleotides to that of amino acids. is added to the 3’ end. o Ribosomes are the sites of translation In prokaryotes. at which point the assembly is called the transcription initiation complex. Beadle and Tatum’s one gene. read in the 5’à3’ direction. introns are removed and exons joined together after the mRNA leaves the nucleus. starting at the start codon and reading each triplet sequentially. o DNA polymerases connect nucleotides to the growing end of a new DNA strand. Alternative RNA splicing: allows different polypeptides to be produced from a .

In the trp operon. blocking attachment of RNA polymerase. An operator is a segment of DNA within the promoter that controls the access of RNA polymerase to the genes. A phenomenon known as wobble enables the third nucleotide of some tRNA anticodons to pair with more than one kind of nucleotide in the codon. Ribosomes have three tRNA binding sites: o P site: hold the tRNA carrying the polypeptide chain o A site: hold the tRNA carrying the amino acid o E site: exit site Chapter 18: Gene Regulation • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bacteria often respond to environmental change by regulating transcription In bacteria. such as the trp operon is inhibited when a specific small molecule binds to and activates a repressor. The transcription of an inducible operon is stimulated when a specific small molecule binds to and inactivates a repressor. The activity of the repressor protein may be determined by the presense or absence of a corepressor. which has a high affinity for the trp operator and switches the trp operon off. A repressor is a protein that binds to a specific operator. the repressor is synthesized in its inactive form. Differences between cells with the same genome are the result of differential gene expression. Trytophan is the corepressor that binds to the trp repressor. The regulation of the lac operon includes both negative control by the repressor protein that is inactivated by the presence of lactose. genes for different enzymes of a single metabolic pathway may be grouped together into one transcription unit or served by a single promoter. and positive control by CAP (catabolite activator protein) when complexed with cAMP. The transcription of a repressible operon. An operon is the DNA segment that includes the clustered genes. and the operator.• • • • single gene. Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules carry amino acids to ribosomes. The lac operon is an inducible operon. Regulatory genes code for repressor proteins. Ribosomes consist of a large and a small subunit. the promoter. each composed of proteins and a form of RNA called ribosomal RNA (rRNA). o Each tRNA carries a specific amino acid and has an anticodon that basepairs with a complementary codon on mRNA. changing it into its active shape. o Each amino acid has a specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that attaches it to its appropriate tRNA molecules to create an aminoacyl tRNA. Gene Expression: o Regulation of Chromatin Structure o Regulation of Transcription Initiation o Post-Transcriptional Regulation Embryonic Development: o Cell Division . where they are added to a growing polypeptide.

Biotechnology involves techniques and tools such as: o DNA sequencing. Recombinant DNA may be made by inserting foreign DNA into plasmids. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) allows scientists to study sample sets of mRNA. Automated sequencing machines enable DNA sequencing. gene cloning. leaving sticky ends of short single-stranded sequences on both sides of the resulting restriction fragment. DNA microarray. Restriction enzymes protect bacteria from phages or other organisms. o One approach makes use of plasmids. Expression vector: a cloning vector that has an active promoter just upstream from the gene insertion site. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): can produce billions of copies of a secretion of DNA in only a few hours. Cloned organisms are useful for basic research and other applications. restriction enzymes. polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Electroporation: process in which an electric pulse briefly opens holes in the plasma membrane through which DNA can enter. scientists can test all the genes expressed in a tissue for hybridization.o Cell Differentiation o Morphogenesis Chapter 20: Biotechnology • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • DNA sequencing and DNA cloning are valuable tools for genetic engineering and biological inquiry. o The most useful restriction enzymes cut the backbone in a staggered way. Practical applications of DNA-based biotechnology include: o Medical applications o Forensic Evidence o Agricultural Applications . Using a nucleic acid probe allows researchers to determine in which cells a particular gene is being expressed. The technique of in situ hybridization uses labeled probes to detect the locations of mRNAs within an intact organism. determining a gene’s complete nucleotide sequence. hybridization with nucleic acid probes. Gene cloning provides multiple copies of the gene and may also be used to produce protein coded for by the foreign DNA. DNA cloning: making multiple copies of a specific DNA segment. recombinant DNA. and complementary DNA. gel electrophoresis. Using DNA microarray assays. Cloning vectors: DNA molecules that can move foreign DNA into a cell and replicate there. o Most restriction enzymes recognize restriction sites.