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Steel mill

Praça 1º de Maio, 9 - Centro
35180-018 - Timóteo - MG - Brazil
Tel. 55 (31) 3849 7000 - Fax 55 (31) 3848 4699
Av. João Pinheiro, 580 - Centro
30130-180 - Belo Horizonte - MG - Brazil
Tel. 55 (31) 3235 4200 - Fax 55 (31) 3235 4294
commercial offices
Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 1.355 - 20º andar
01452-919 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil
Tel. 55 (11) 3818 1700 - Fax 55 (11) 3816 2847
Av. Carlos Gomes, 111 - cj. 904 - Auxiliadora
90480-003 - Porto Alegre - RS - Brazil
Tel. 55 (51) 3328 4751 - Fax 55 (51) 3328 6795

ED 2/agosto 2007

Av. Américo Buaiz, 501 - sala 701 - Torre Norte
Enseada do Suá - 29050-911 - Vitória - ES - Brazil
Tel. 55 (27) 3357 1107 - Fax 55 (27) 3345 6726

your sugar has greater value.With Acesita stainless steel. .

Using Acesita stainless steel to produce sugar. 444 and 439 (tubes and sheets) to reduce costs and enhance product quality. . Acesita has developed the 410 (sheets). mill productivity and sugar competitiveness.

1 . • high corrosion resistant. • chemical inertia (no metal transfer. • excellent formability and weldability. • excellent mechanical properties.Unlike other types of material. no reaction with sugar and no chance in sugar color. • smooth surface. taste). flavor. making bacteria colony growth more difficult on the steel surface. allowing easy cleaning. • biological inertia. • elevated hygiene level. stainless steels have the following set of features: • maintenance of organoleptic characteristics (color.


• Higher quality of the sugar and better price. In some cases. and not corrosion. as it has fewer black spots. Advantages of Acesita 410D Stainless Steel Sheets: • Better cost/benefit ratio than carbon steel. preparation. • Lower thickness compared to carbon steel. • Products suitable for use in food processing.65 mm for carbon-steel tubes to 1. these steels because their expansion rate react better than the 304 steel in welded joints because their expansion rate is closer to that of carbon steel.The 444 and 439 stainless steel tubes feature the following advantages: • The reduction in the tube thickness enables an increased thermal exchange surface. • A more suitable material for those areas of sugar mill where abrasion problems are a concern. due to the greater material durability. • Maintenance costs are reduced thanks to the excellent corrosion resistance of the material. • Their ferrite structure makes them immune to stress corrosion cracking. • The low roughness of the tubes surface makes cleaning easier and reduces deposits on the tube surface. the thickness of the Acesita 444 stainless steel tubes can be reduced even further. 3 . and transport.50 mm for 444/439 tubes) and thereby for a higher thermal efficiency. and the useful life of the 444 steel is even longer than the 304’s. When applied as a cladding. Highly favorable cost/benefit ratio compared to carbon steel. • The thermal conductivity of 444 and 439 stainless steels is higher compared to the 304 stainless steel. • The life spam of the equipment is increased thanks to the great corrosion resistance of those steels. • Better abrasion resistance than that of carbon steel. • The mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance of those tubes allow for an effective reduction of their thickness (from 2.

crevice and microbiological corrosion. which makes it more resistant to pitting. • Cane conveyors. but it also can be used in the last two evaporation processes which use the more aggressive V3 and V4 plant steam. 4 . Examples: Tubes for evaporation systems (up to the 3rd process). • Shut Donelly. except in sulphitation areas and during the last two evaporation processes. • Floor and sides of feeding conveyors.410D (sheets) Acesita 410D stainless steel sheets are indicated for: • Bagasse conveyors. 439 (sheets and tubes) Acesita stainless steel tubes and sheets are indicated in all sugar mill applications. APPLICATIONS OF ACESITA STAINLESS STEEL AT THE SUGAR MILL. This is because Acesita 444 steel has Mo (molybdenum) in its chemical composition. internal cladding of boiling pans. 444 (sheets and tubes) Not only can the Acesita 444 stainless steel be used in all applications indicated for the 439 steel. • Diffusers.

Any type of stainless steel should receive an external coating of epoxy-based paint before burying.5 439 439 439   439                                                                 Mirrors Decantation tank Cush cush rotational screen Float Piping Dosing tanks Flash balloon Pre-evaporation tubes (1st and 2nd process) (1) Pre-evaporation tubes (3rd to 5th process) (1) Sheets Body and calender coating Condensers Piping Entrainment separators Syrup tanks Boiling tubes Sheets Boiling pans internal cladding Horizontal and vertical crystallizer Massecuite reheater Massecuite agitator Piping Sugar conveyor Keg lifts Honey and syrup tanks Entrainment separators Condensers Distillery residue above 40°C Distillery residue up to 40°C   439 439 439 439   439 439 439               439 439 439 439     439   (Vertical/horizontal) cane juice heater Sulphitation column 410D   Pre-air piping Bagasse conveyors     Gas cleaner   439   439   Diffuser kiln   Diffuser cane juice ducts 410D   410D Side up to cane mat Diffuser bottom perforated sheet   410D Diffuser lower and side structure   410D 439     Intermediate carrier bottom   410D Shut Donnelly Cane juice spouts 410D   Cane juice piping / imbibition Trough / pan       439 410D   Cush cush rotational screen 410D Feeding belt band   Sugar cane conveyor belt side 410D Feeding belt side 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444   444 444   444         444     444 444       304L   304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L   304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L   304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L   304L 304L   304L         304L     304L 304L       Stainless steel indicated 316L 316L                                                         316L                                   Longer useful life and better cost/benefit ratio. thereby allowing for a more efficient thermal exchange. Remark Higher corrosion and abrasion resistance and productivity thanks to the reduced number of maintenance halts. Longer useful life and better cost/benefit ratio. by maintaining pH above 10. evaporators and annealing kilns between crops with sodium hydroxide (lye). Better cost/benefit ratio. protects the 316L. Longer useful life and better cost/benefit ratio. Longer useful life and better cost/benefit ratio. Higher corrosion resistance and productivity thanks to the reduced number of maintenance halts. Better cost/benefit ratio. 304L. 444 and 439 stainless steel tubes from corroding. Maintaining the stainless steel surface clean and dry between crops greatly improves its corrosion resistance. Higher corrosion resistance and productivity thanks to the reduced number of maintenance halts. Stainless steel does not react to sugar and therefore does not change its color. Use stainless steel in your projects. Stainless steel does not react to sugar and therefore does not change its color. Better cost/benefit ratio. Better cost/benefit ratio. Talk to the Acesita Technical Assistance to know about the proper specifications to use to improve your performance. Guide to the Appropriate Stainless Steel for the Applications in the Sugar Mill Equipment (1) Low roughness and high corrosion resistance allow for less scaling and easy cleaning. Higher corrosion resistance. Higher corrosion and abrasion resistance and productivity thanks to the reduced number of maintenance halts. protects the sidewall and cleans the tube truss. Higher corrosion and abrasion resistance and productivity thanks to the reduced number of maintenance halts. The hibernation of heaters. thereby recuperating the thermal exchange capacity. Stainless steel does not react to sugar and therefore does not change its color. Higher corrosion resistance and productivity thanks to the reduced number of maintenance halts. and longer useful life. Note: Distillery (residue) Sugar production Cane juice evaporation Cane juice treatment Sulphitation Steam generation Cane juice extraction (diffuser) Cane juice extraction (conventional) Sugar cane preparation Sugar cane reception Sector . Higher corrosion resistance. especially between crops.


2 630 460 200 304 8.50 0.8 10.7 10.10 - Typical Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steels STEEL Tensile Strength (MPa) Yield Strength (MPa) Elongation (%) Rockwell B Hardness (HRB) Fatigue limit Erichsen Test 410D 450 .50 ≤1.75 .045 0.3 57.025 1.00 0.8 620 420 200 439 7.5 .045 0.5 - 0.00 .00 0.2 720 500 193 316 8.0 10.0 .75 0.4 16.Chemical Composition (% in weight) STEEL C Mn Si P S Cr Ni Mo N2 Other 410D ≤ 0.K) Electrical resistivity Specific heat (j/kg.0 .1.08 2.0 17.0 .4 26.00 1.03 0.°C Thermal conductivity at 100°C (W.75 304 740 500 193 C (SAE 1010) 7.19.08 2.8 142 - - 7 .2 18.5 1.19.005 10.20+4(C+N2) ≤ Ti +Nb ≤ 0.025 ≤ 0.9 17.00 ≤ 0.10 - 316 0.5 .03 18.00 1.0 - ≤ 0.10.03 ≤1.0 0.00 0.8 439 0.0 .030 17.2 14.12.035 0.5 0.85 - - 444 490 337 32 85 - 10 439 420 240 28 85 - 9 304 700 300 54 85 241 12 316 620 300 52 85 269 12 Typical Physical Properties of Annealed Stainless Steels STEEL Density (g/ cm3) Average coefficient of thermal expansion at 0°C 100°C µ/m.03 1.03 17.2.0 11.0 2.7 - - - - - - 444 7.00 0.20+4(C+N2) ≤ Ti+Nb ≤ 0.03 16.5 16.040 0.4 24.75 0.°C 538°C µ/m.040 0.4 11.00 1.°K) Modulus of Elasticity (GPa) 410D 7.00 0.0 15.3 . m.20.0 .02 - 444 0.50 - 0.0 8.8 12.650 ≥ 280 ≥ 20 70 .

whose resistance is lower than that of the 444 stainless steel.5 % NaCl solution) Pitting potential (mV) x SCE 600 500 pH= 3. Pitting and Microbiological Corrosion: 410D < 439 < 304 < 444 < 316 The pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of the 410D stainless steel is lower than that of the 439 stainless steel. CORROSION RESISTANCE. the 439 stainless steel is recommended in several applications (for heaters.0 400 The higher the pitting potential. crystallizers.Resistance to Crevice.0 pH= 8. RATIO OF PITTING POTENTIAL VERSUS TYPE OF STAINLESS STEEL (3. 300 200 100 0 439 304 Type of stainless steel 8 444 316 . driers. first and second evaporation process. among others) because its corrosion resistance is considered appropriate for the various environments in which the equipment runs. However. boiling pans. the more resistant the stainless steel to this type of corrosion.

Thanks to their ferrite structure. Resistance to Intergranular Corrosion .After a two-year atmospheric exposure in different types of environments (marine. rural) Acesita 444 stainless steel showed a higher resistance to atmospheric corrosion than the 304 stainless steel and a resistance similar to that of the 316 stainless steel.Corrosion Resistance . Resistance to Stress Corrosion Cracking .444 and 439 Resistance to Atmospheric Corrosion . In cases in which addition of material is used. more than 100 times less than the traditional carbon steel used for construction. if necessary. 9 . 410D Corrosion Resistance .The Acesita 444 and 439 stainless steels are protected from sensitization. In tests carried out in saline atmosphere chambers. there is no mass loss on the material and. industrial. since they are Ti and Nb stabilized and are therefore highly resistant to intergranular corrosion.The corrosion resistance of the 410D stainless steel due to its good mechanical properties grants to this material a good behavior in situations in which both abrasion and corrosion exist. the painted 410D stainless steel showed a five times better behavior than painted carbon steel. a paint coat may be applied (for aesthetic purposes only). The action of the environment sometimes produces a brown color as a consequence of a slight oxidation.The 410D stainless steel is considered to be a material with good weldability.The rate of corrosion per unit time of the 410D stainless steel when exposed to the atmosphere is less than 1µm/year. However. the 439 and 444 stainless steels are immune to this type of corrosion. The latter should be limited to 3%. urban. the latter should be the 304L. 444 304 Resulting stainless steel surface after a two-year exposure by the seaside . The recommended protecting gas is argon with the addition of helium and CO2. Abrasion . Welding .


as it allows for higher reductions in thickness. this property should be considered in the design. The hole walls of the sheets that are to receive the tubes must be smooth and free of any impurity such as sand. lined electrode. 3 – After the cleaning. Hibernation Instructions: (THESE INSTRUCTIONS HOLD FOR EQUIPMENT WITH LONG MAINTENANCE HALTS) To prevent the stainless steel tubes from corroding and to increase their life spam. maintaining the pH above 10. we recommend that you use a boring machine for the pre-expansion of the tubes when these are still in bundles. 11 . if necessary. spray-clean the equipment again with a pressure jet of water. and applies to all stainless steels. 444 stainless steel tubes with wall thickness under 1. as instructed in item 3. To define its thickness.The weldability of Acesita 410D. fill up the equipment with the solution. as stainless steel withstands deformation well. The 444 stainless steel requires the use of the 316L electrode. provided that special care is taken as to the use. It is important to note that the cost of hibernation is low. and then bore them with the same equipment containing at least 5 rolls while controlling the torque electronically to allow for a smooth expansion within the limits required and thereby prevent any tube wall necking (excessive expansion). proceed to the hibernation of the equipment using a sodium hydroxide solution. etc. This is why it is important to pay special attention when specifying the tube wall thickness.Empty the equipment and clean the inside and outside of the tubes. However. Welding . it is beneficial in several ways. Cases in which the sheet holes vary sharply will show a greater deformation of the tubes during the boring process. as per items 1 and 2. 4 – Just before the following season. 5 . Acesita recommends the following: 1 – At the end of the season. as well as the residues through entrainment. 6 – If the equipment requires some maintenance. and hibernation.Boring .50 mm may be used. 304 and 444. please contact the Acesita Technical Assistance Team to analyze the case. 7 – If you notice anything abnormal with the tubes. and the 439 and 410D stainless steels require the use of the 308L or 309L electrodes.Optionally.This procedure should be repeated in all intervals between crops. at ambient temperature until the next season. They may be used in the MIG and TIG processes with or without the addition of metal. provided that the proper equipment is used. spray the internal part of the tubes clean with a pressure jet of water. 2 . For a better protection of your tubes. equipment design. such as 316. burr or any other matter. thereby recuperating the tubes thermal exchange capacity. The main advantages of hibernation are: the protection of the tube truss and equipment between crops and the cleaning of the oxides outside and inside the tubes. For a more efficient and higher quality boring. it must only be done after the water-spray-cleaning. 444 and 439 stainless steels is good. it is important to conduct a thorough analysis of the cost/benefit ratio besides the technical analysis. boring. to ensure the removal of any scale. both inside and outside the tubes. and has therefore advantages.

1250 Up to 6. and through HFI – High Frequency Induction to weld them with Kawasaki Steel Co.2 Up to 11.00 25.00 to 3. civil construction. Equipment. and in various other sectors.50 to 6.000 444 1. uses the latest technology to manufacture the stainless steel tubes through CBR – Center Bend Roll Process to shape them.00 1000 . 439 and 444) Sheets / Coils STEEL THICKNESS (mm) WIDTH (mm) LENGTH (mm) 410D 1.1300 Up to 6.4 to 76.00 to 3. Acesita’s Products.000 439 0. resistant and adapted to the diverse applications used in sugar-mills.50 to 6. This machine can run at high speed (90m/min) thereby enabling Acesita to supply the market with top quality tubes that are highly competitive.000 444 0. state of Minas Gerais.2 Up to 11.1250 Up to 6.The Acesita tube manufacturing unit. Product Portfolio (410D.4 to 76.000 Tubes 12 . located on the premisesof the industrial facilities in Timóteo.35 1000 .00 25.35 1000 .000 STEEL THICKNESS (mm) DIAMETER (mm) LENGTH (mm) 439 1.00 to 8.

09 0.75 2.2300 0.1197 0.1122 0.89 Internal exchange surface m2/m 0. 13 .0903 0.50mm 2.1 31.35 1.00 and + 5.1103 0.9 1.65mm Wall: 0.80 mm to 3.2 38.00 mm Diameter: 25. Tests conducted on the tubes • Flattening • Reverse flattening • Flanging • Eddy current (testing conducted during the manufacturing process) STANDARDS AND TOLERANCES.1 31.11 2.2394 0.1197 0.25 mm • for the thickness = ± 10 % • for the length = .0.20 mm Length: up to 11 meters These theoretical values may vary according to the actual thickness of the tube wall.00 mm Tolerances for the welding cable height • Internal welding cable height through = 0.1 31.75 38.20 mm maximum.0922 0.75 76.0997 0.3 1. The 410D sheets and coiled strips meet the DIN 1.75 Weight per meter kg 1.0997 1. Standard Tolerances • for the diameter = ± 0.0997 0.Standards The 444 (UNS S44400) and 439 (UNS S43932) stainless steel tubes supplied by Acesita meet the respective ASTM A268/A268M and A240/ A240M standards. without any thermal treatment and through the High Frequency (HF) welding process.20mm 1.1030 0.4003 standard.0831 Internal exchange surface m2/m 0.4 mm to 76.1197 0. DIMENSIONS Description Unit Weight and surface according to thickness and diameter Wall thickness mm External diameter mm 38.