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PHILO. 101 – INTRO.

TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING
According to Aristotle, one of the greatest philosophers “every human being must philosophize because
first of all philosophy is everybody’s business; every time we reason, we use philosophy.
WHY DO WE NEED TO STUDY PHILOSOPHY?
a.) It helps us clarify issues, discriminate among options and make better decisions. Philosophy helps us to
choose the better choice or options.
b.) Philosophy has a practical side. Philosophy is something that we can do. It helps us to be critical and
with the help of philosophy, we protect ourselves from destructive ideas.
c.) Philosophy can be a pleasurable and inspirational element in our life. It helps us to recognize the truth
and the false, real and unreal.
d.) Philosophy assists us to the truth of commitment and that commitment involves faith. As according to
Samuel Butler “You can do very little with faith but you can do nothing without it.” This means that
thinking should guide our faith not faith guiding our thinking.
TECHNIQUES:
1. remain open-minded
2. be perceptive
3. be critical
PHILOSOPHICAL ATTITUDE
a.) Tolerance- respecting the idea of others
- openness
b.) In philosophy, we use dialogue which philosophers called great conversations. Philosophy is not
something one simply learns, it is also something one lives. It is not only learned in the classroom
but more on reflections.
THE ADVENTURE AND THE RISK OF PHILOSOPHY
-According to Albert North Whitehead “Philosophy is an adventure of ideas” and that little knowledge is a
dangerous thing. When we say adventure, we start with little knowledge, then more knowledge to greater
knowledge.
RISKS:
a.) Risk of failure
b.) Risk of direct self-awareness
c.) Risk of disturbance of early pattern or action or thought.
-Doors once open are hard to close- when you learn or know something, it is hard to be unlearned.
POPULAR PHILSOPHY: AN EXERCISE
Ways of Learning Philosophy:
1. Consider the thoughts of other ordinary people.
2. Consider the reflections of other ordinary people about life.

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PHILO. 101 – INTRO. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY
A. DEFINITION/MEANING OF PHILOSOPHY
Philosophy comes from the Greek words  (philos) which means love and  (sophia)
which means wisdom
 It is a branch of human science which deals with the formal reasons and formal principles of things
knowable through the natural light of human reason alone.
 It is a human science because philosophy is not just a gathering of knowledge but a organized body of
knowledge.
 It deals with the proper reasons and formal principles of things because philosophy searches for what is
essential and it is more on formal features rather than with the physical or material features of a thing.
o
This makes philosophy different from the positive sciences such as Biology, Chemistry, and
Physics etc. Positive sciences deal with the physical or material constituents and physical principles of
things, while philosophy goes beyond the physical or the material features of a thing and it studies the
nature of life and its principle.
o
Take for example the definition of man.
Positive science: “Man is a member of the Genus Homo, Family Hominidae, Order Primates, Class
mammalia, characterized by erect posture and opposable thumb, distinguished by the ability to
communicate by means of organized speech and to record information in a variety of symbolic systems”
Philosophy: “Man is a rational animal, that is, a being having an organic sensitive body and a rational
soul, which through the specific rational faculties of reason and will is capable of abstract knowledge
through discovery, inference or education, and is also capable of discretionary free action, of culture and
progress, and of communicating with his kind by means of articulate voice and other meaningful signs.”
 Knowable through the natural light of human reason alone because man alone has the capability to think
and rationalize.
 According to Blaise Pascal, “The heart has reason in which reason itself cannot understand”
 PHILOSOPHY is the science of “things”. Philosophy includes everything as its object as seen in their
final causes. It tries to go down into the foundational principles.
 PHILOSOPHY is also an attempt to reach a systematic knowledge of the different aspects of reality. It is
an attempt to reach answers, and conclusions which can still be open for revisions.
o Because philosophy is systematic, it should be orderly, consistent, comprehensive and logical
knowledge. That is why we cannot understand something if it is disorderly.

WHY DOES MAN PHILOSOPHIZE?
 To understand ourselves better
 Man is searching for wisdom
 It is the cry of the human heart and mind.
 Man seeks answers to his questions.
 Man is intelligent
BEGINNINGS OF PHILOSOPHIZING
 Wonder
 Doubt
 Limits situation (crisis)
 Metaphysical uneasiness- related with spiritual things-inner restlessness
For Socrates, philosophy is knowing ourselves that is why Socrates would say “Know Thyself”. Philosophy
is really a discovering of our own selves and knowing more of our own selves the basic questions in philosophy.
Some of these basic questions are as follows:
1.

Who am I? What is Man?

2.

Where am I going?

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PHILO. 101 – INTRO. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING
3.

What is my future and destiny?

4.

What should I do to make my life happy?

With this, we can conclude that philosophy is all about the MEANING OF LIFE. To see the meaning of life, the
following questions must be asked again of ourselves:
1.

What is the supreme purpose and goal of human living?

2.

What consists of man’s perfection and happiness?

3.

What is the ultimate objective of human strivings? Is it ever attainable?

4.

What is the summum bonum of human existence?

5.

What is the remedy and cause of human suffering?

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PHILO. 101 – INTRO. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING

Name: ____________________________Date:_________________
Course: ____________________________________
Answer the following comprehensively:
Define and explain philosophy in your own words.
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What is your philosophy in life?
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What is the importance of studying philosophy and logic in your life as a student?
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ANTHROPOLOGY Gk. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING B. 101 – INTRO. vital operations and the principle of life (soul) 4.PHILO. episteme which means knowledge on the validity of human knowledge 8.  (logike) which means word or thought the science and art of correct thinking 2.  (theos) which means God  on the First Cause of universal contingent beings 7. COSMOLOGY Gk. THEODICY Gk. ONTOLOGY or GENERAL METAPHYSICS  Lt. PSYCHOLOGY Gk. ens or on which means being on beings in general 6. ETHICS Gk. AESTHETICS study of art and beauty Arroyo 2007 5 .  (psyche) which means mind or soul on living beings.  (kosmos) which means universe  a study on the universe or the physical world 3.  (anthropon) which means man a study about man 9. BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY 1. POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY a study about the state or government 10. LOGIC Gk. SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY a study of man in relation with the society he lives in 11. ethos) which means morality On the morality of human acts 5. EPISTEMOLOGY Lt.

101 – INTRO. how should a person relate with other people? (On social philosophy) ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________ Is morality really important to human beings? Why? (On Ethics) ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________ Explain: “Absolute beauty is completely independent of the senses” (On aesthetics) ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________ If you are to choose.PHILO. how will you arrange the world? Why? (On Cosmology) ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________ If I lie. do I conceal the truth to others or to myself? (On Epistemology) ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________ Arroyo 2007 6 . TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Name: ________________________________Date: _______________ Course: _______________________________ Answer the questions comprehensively. As a social being.

getting a truth or conclusion from something formerly known to the thinker. Therefore. Felix is a cat.  But common sense is prone to mistakes.  Logic is a SCIENCE. 101 – INTRO. we need the science and art of logic to develop the habit of confident reasoning. An obvious sign of this is that even as kids we often ask for the why of things.  premise  premise  conclusion All salesmen are extroverts. MEANING/DEFINITION OF LOGIC  science and art of correct thinking  It is an organon meaning instrument. 2 KINDS OF INFERENCE 1.  Logic is a science because it is a body of knowledge that is systematically arranged and confirmed to be true. A human being is a “knowing being”. Deductive Inference draws a particular conclusion on the basis of assumed common or universal principles. The power of thinking is an instrument for knowing the why and wherefore of things but thinking sharpened by skill in logic is an efficient instrument for scientific knowing. of water etc.  Therefore. day-dreaming or solving problems. 2. This is what we call Natural Logic and this guided man to the use of fire.  Thinking refers to any or to all the movements of the mind such as imagining.  Logic is the science and art of correct THINKING. IDEOGENESIS (how is an idea being formed in the mind?) Arroyo 2007 7 .  It is through logical methods that sciences discover truths.  Logic is an ART  ART is the habit of doing something with a certain degree of order and harmony. orderly and properly.  Logic is an ART because it is a practical science which leads to the formation of the habit of thinking easily.  The ability to reason is inherent to man.  SCIENCE is a systematic body of knowledge. comprehending. INFERENCE. Mario is a salesman. we need therefore a systematized instruction on how to build up our natural talents and how to use them effectively. A sharp axe is an efficient instrument for cutting down a tree. An axe is an tool for cutting down a tree.  In logic. Inductive Inference draws a universal or general conclusion from a series of individual interrelated facts. This selfevident assertion simply means that a human being is so constituted that he cannot help wanting to know. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING C. Felix is an animal. memorizing. Therefore.  Logic then is a tool in helping us find out why things are as they are. Premises (statements) Evidence Conclusion (statement) What is claimed to follow from the evidence Examples: All cats are animals. It is an instrument for discovering and presenting truths. It is also a normative science which means it uses rules to be followed.PHILO.  All human beings then in varying degrees want to know why things are so. thinking means inference. We have this so called COMMON SENSE. analyzing. recalling. We are insatiably curious. Mario is an extrovert WHY SHOULD WE STUDY LOGIC?  We begin our solution to this question by observing that everyone obviously desires to know.

2 LOGICAL PROPERTIES OF AN IDEA 1. Man is not an angel. ABSTRACTION is the mental process for the formation of an idea which includes picking up from. living. Man being that is substance. sentient and rational. 3. bodily. Persons are not things. phantasms are being formed in our imaginations. 101 – INTRO. we are simply giving the definition of the concept or idea. In this mental act. plants. or drawing out from. material. 2. living. the greater the extension. Simple Apprehension act of the mind by which we understand the fundamental nature of a thing. plants. Arroyo 2007 8 . Socrates is an ancient Greek philosopher. substance Brutes. Man rational animal 2. That is the greater the comprehension. 3. material. brutes. APPLICATION:  When someone asks for the meaning of a term. Examples.  When a student asks for an example of a proposition. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche is a good thinker. EXTENSION sum-total of individuals and categories of beings to which the idea may be applied. he anticipates an answer from its comprehension. men Living. PROPOSITION is a kind of sentence wherein the subject and the predicate are combined so as to emphasize something true or false. living. Therefore. Judgment act of the mind by which we compare two concepts and declare them to be either in conformity or disagreement with each other. the lesser the extension and the lesser the comprehension. All philosophers are good thinkers. COMPREHENSION sum-total of the thought elements or conceptual features contained in an idea. men Rational. 2. Argument/Syllogism combining sentences or propositions so as to form a new judgment.PHILO. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche is a philosopher. sentient. material. brutes. SIMPLE APPREHENSION an act of the mind by which we know the real meaning of a thing without affirming or denying anything about it. Peter is a rational being. substance Minerals. All men are rational beings. men Material. 3 ACTS OF THE MIND 1. substance men What is the relationship between the comprehension and extension of an idea?  They VARY INVERSELY. This is called PERCEPTION or SENSATION. Reasoning act of the mind by which we gain new truths from what is formerly assumed to be true. Therefore. 2. Peter is a man. *Definition knowing the essence of a thing. Examples: 1. Giving the specifying difference and the genus Examples: 1. brutes. 1. minerals. EXAMPLE: COMPREHENSION EXTENSION Substance Spirits. . 2. men Sentient. substance Plants. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Perception/SensationApprehensionAbstraction = IDEA To have an idea. there should be an encounter between the subject and the object.In giving the comprehension of an idea. he anticipates an answer from its extension.

Man. partially different. stone 2. Ex. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING CHAPTER TWO TERMS A. Conventional sign is a sign whose connection with the thing it manifests is provided by common understanding or agreement. Univocal term expressing the same meaning as applied to several subjects. therefore. they are sensible and tangible. Abstract signifies a nature or quality though it exists on its own right and apart from the individual or subject. son-sun. Examples: Color red is a sign of martyrdom. B. ACCORDING TO COMPREHENSION 1. ACCORDING TO EXTENSION 1. MEANING/DEFINITION  Terms are verbal or written words or signs communicative of a concept or idea. Thus.beautiful lady Good mother. Equivocal term that is outwardly and externally identical or the same but expressing different meanings. podium.battle B. hot-hat-hut. Singular signifies one.good heart. Natural signs are signs whose connection with the objects they manifest is provided by nature. different peoples have different words to designate the same object. Examples: 1. Examples: House Church Animal Horse River 2. bottle. 2. 101 – INTRO. Analogous term expressing cognate or related meaning. ACCORDING TO MEANING 1. Examples: Friendship Humanity Love Manhood Authority Loyalty C. CLASSIFICATION OF TERMS A. Traffic lights Spoken/Written Words. Examples: 1. SIGN is something that manifests a different thing aside from itself. partially the same. 2. Kinds of Signs: 1. 3. Concrete these are terms that can be perceived. Smoke is a natural sign of fire. definite. Flag 2. are conventional signs. Arroyo 2007 9 . A heavy dark cloud is a natural sign of an oncoming rain.PHILO. specific individual. The spoken word is an articulated human voice and the written word is the sign of the spoken word. Ex. Beautiful song. Ex.

Arroyo 2007 10 . Signs and determinants: a) Universal expressions b) Universal ideas a statement which is true all the time Examples: Everybody All students Nobody Every Each one 3. Examples: Some teachers Few candidates Most schools D. Examples: Lawyer and attorney God and Supreme being Man and rational being disciple and follower 2. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Signs and determinants: a. Examples: Rich and humble tall and dark and handsome Intelligent and beautiful beautiful and intelligent 4.)Proper Nouns b. ACCORDING TO RELATION 1. Identical Terms are those having the same comprehension and extension.)Nouns modified by adjective in the superlative degree c. 101 – INTRO. Relative Terms  are those that express a feature of a thing which cannot be thought of without implying another.  term that stands for an indefinite part of an absolute extension Signs and determinants: a ) Indefinite pronouns or adjectives b) Use of numbers c) General propositions A statement which is true most of the time but not all the time.)Personal pronouns Examples: My father His dog The First gentleman President George Bush The highest mountain 2. Universal signifies all the individuals within the extension of such concept.)Collective nouns d)Demonstratives e.PHILO. Examples: Writer and journalist Teacher and professor 3. Particular signifies a part or portion of the total extension of such concept. Examples: Rich and poor hot and cold Weak and healthygood and bad 5. Similar Terms-are those having the same extension but different comprehension. Compatible Terms are those expressing features which may be present at the same time in one individual or subject. Incompatible Terms  are those expressing features which cannot be present together and simultaneously in one individual or subject.

There is no underlying middle between contradictory terms. Privative Terms are those which express the absence or lack of perfection in an individual or subject.PHILO.is the absence of life Ignorance. Examples: Blindness. Examples: First and last Left and right Arroyo 2007 11 . TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Examples: Master-slave Teacher-student Doctor-patient 6.is the absence of sight Death.is the absence of knowledge 7. Examples: Mortal-immortal Something-nothing 8. Contradictory Terms  are those so related that one is the simple negation of the other. Contrary Terms  are those that express the extreme opposites in a given category or series of the same class. There is an underlying middle between contrary terms. 101 – INTRO.

$ as signifying dollars ____________10. A will as signifying one’s last testimony ____________9. Sound of a bell as signifying the end of a boxing round ____________2. A salute as signifying a sign of respect ____________18.PHILO. A shadow as signifying the outline of a body ____________13. A yawn as signifying boredom Arroyo 2007 12 . Booing as signifying disapproval ____________11. ____________1. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Name: _________________________________ Date: ________________ Course: ________________________________ Classify the following as natural or conventional signs. Lilies as signifying Easter ____________14. Snoring as signifying sleep ____________4. Barking of a dog as signifying some danger ____________17. Trembling as signifying fear ____________12. A shout as signifying the attracting of a person ____________7. 101 – INTRO. Fever as signifying illness ____________3. The word “white” as signifying a certain color ____________5. Roman collar as signifying a priest ____________8. Shaking hands as signifying departure ____________6. The word “hello” as signifying a greeting ____________16. Blushing as signifying embarrassment ____________15.

Athlete as signifying a swimmer and a wrestler ____________4. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Name: _________________________________Date: _______________ Course: ________________________________ Classify the following words as univocal. Run as signifying swift movement and a score in a baseball game ____________19. Moral as signifying a state of man and the quality of work or art ____________11. Pit as signifying the hard stone of a fruit and a hole in the ground ____________7. Peck as signifying a fourth part of a bushel and a quick. Nerve as signifying a band of living tissue and pluck ____________6. Number as signifying odd or even ____________15. Date as signifying a fruit and a point or period of time ____________9. 101 – INTRO. equivocal or analogous. Perch as signifying a kind of fish and a bar for birds to roost on ____________18. Beautiful as signifying a person and the complexion of a person ____________14. Human as signifying man and woman ____________20. ___________1. Literature as signifying prose and poetry ____________8.PHILO. Metal as signifying iron and copper ____________5. Emotion as signifying love and hatred ____________12. Green as signifying color of grass and color of a tie ____________17. Walk as signifying a movement and a pathway ____________10. Poker as signifying a metal for stirring a fire and a card game Arroyo 2007 13 . Pitcher as signifying a container of water and a baseball player ____________2. Story as signifying an anecdote and a set of rooms on the same floor ____________16. Tragic as signifying a condition of man and a type of an accident ____________3. sharp stroke of a break ____________13.

_________________ 15. My friend who is a philosopher studying archaelogy. The Prince of Theologians made several famous books. _________________ 11. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Name: _____________________________________ Date: _____________ Course: ____________________________________ Identify whether the underlined words or terms are singular. Men are rational beings. Spiderman is the best movie of the year. Some Filipinos are hospitable people. _________________ 9. 101 – INTRO. _________________ 3.PHILO. This quiz is very easy. _________________ 5. _________________ 17. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche is a German philosopher. Men are mortal beings. _________________ 16. _________________ 7. _________________ 8. _________________ 2. Men are less emotional than women. was ordained as a priest of the Diocese of Abra. The UST Medical Mission Team went to the farthest barrio of Tarlac. Anybody can be a good logician and mathematician at the same time. Bottles will never fly like birds. _________________ 10. Baguio is the summer capital of the Philippines. Several books are worth reading. These apples were bought at a very expensive price. _________________ Arroyo 2007 14 . The Varsitarian Staff of UST went to Baguio for a seminar. or particular 1. Everybody is encouraged to watch Spiderman. _________________ 13. _________________ 4. _________________ 6. _________________ 12. _________________ 14. universal. _________________ 18. All men are by nature good.

full-empty 4. something-nothing_________________ 3. Compatible. Privative. King ____________________ 10. _________________ Name: ________________________________ Date: _______________ Course: _______________________________ Give the abstract terms of the following concrete terms: 1. Men are stronger than women. Incompatible. Similar. poor-rich _________________ 2. owner-proprietor _________________ 7. Dictator____________________ 4. Legal ____________________ 5. 101 – INTRO. Contradictory or Contrary Terms. Brother____________________ 9. cause-effect _________________ _________________ _________________ 6. _________________ 20. Abandon____________________ Identify whether the following are Identical. doctor-patient 5. Anything that is worthwhile in life is not given for free. 1. Adult ____________________ 6.PHILO. Frail ____________________ 7. Govern____________________ 3. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING 19. Honest____________________ 8. small-terrible Arroyo 2007 _________________ 15 . Relative. Virgin ____________________ 2.

3. CATEGORICAL PROPOSITION Elements of a Categorical Proposition 1. Therefore. all propositions are sentences but not all sentences are propositions.form of the CP Unifying principle that maintains the structure of the proposition Quality of a Proposition 1. They are the affirmative propositions. It is a statement in which something is affirmed or denied. B. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING 8.PHILO. A. LOGICAL OPPOSITIONS 1. 101 – INTRO. 2. Quantifier part of the CP that tells the quantity of the proposition 2.) Copulabonding verb.) Affirmative the predicate is affirmed of the subject from the Latin word affirmo which means “I agree”.) Particular the predicate is affirmed or denied of only part of the subject.) Universalthe predicate is affirmed or denied of the whole of the subject. Example: ERAP is not the President of the Philippines. The first 2 vowels of the word are A and I. perfect-imperfect_________________ 10. 2. Universal Negative (E) No lawyers are politicians. Example: Some politicians are corrupt officials. Contradiction/Contradictories Arroyo 2007 16 . An example of a sentence is “RUN!” This is a single word expressing a complete thought and therefore a sentence. Quantity of a Proposition 1. from the Latin word nego which means “I deny”. 4.) Negative the predicate is denied of the subject. Example: All mothers are loving parents. Particular Affirmative (I) Some lawyers are politicians. Universal Affirmative (A) All lawyers are politicians. They are the negative propositions.) Subject and Predicate Termsmatter of the proposition materials from which the proposition is made 3. Example: GMA is the president of the Philippines 2. “RUN!” is not a proposition because it does not express a judgment. Particular Negative (O) Some lawyers are not politicians. A proposition is different from a sentence because a sentence is a word or a group of words expressing a complete thought. 4 TYPES OF CATEGORICAL PROPOSITION 1. It may be something that is stated for the purpose of discussion or something to be dealt with as a statement of fact or truth. president-ruler _________________ 9. The two vowels of the word are E and O. loser-winner _________________ CHAPTER THREE PROPOSITION A proposition is an expression of judgment.

A and I/ E and O Examples: “All men are liars” and “Some men are liars” are sub-alternating propositions.C O N T R A R I E T Y O Some S are not P. A E C O N T RAR I E TY C O S U B A L T E R N A T I O N I Some S are P. No S is P. Sub-Contrariety when two particular propositions using the same subject and predicate terms but differ in quality. THE SQUARE OF OPPOSITION All S are P. “Some criminals are not harmful” and “Some criminals are harmful” are contrary propositions. Contrariety/Contrary Propositions when two universal propositions using the same subject and predicate terms but differ in quality. A and O/ E and I Examples: “All men are mortal beings” and “Some men are not mortal beings” are contradictory propositions. Sub-Alternation when two propositions using the same subject and predicate terms but differ in quantity with the same quality.PHILO. 3. “All men are not emotional” and “Some men are emotional” are contradictory propositions. 2. 17 . A and E Examples” “All politicians are honest” and “No politician is honest” are contrary propositions. 4. Arroyo 2007 N N T O R I A T D A R T N O C C I D C T I O N S U B A L T E R N A T I O N S U B. I and O Examples: “Some buildings are houses” and “Some buildings are not houses” are contrary propositions. “Some students are not absent” and “No student is absent” are sub-alternating propositions. “No student is intelligent” and “All students are intelligent” are contrary propositions. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING  when two propositions using the same subject and predicate terms oppose each other owing to their differences in both quantity and quality. 101 – INTRO.

Mothers love their children. A is true * If E is true. O is true * If O is true. Law of Sub-Contrariety States that two contrary propositions can not be both false but they maybe both true at the same time. Law of Contradiction Two contradictory propositions cannot be both true and both false at the same time. I is doubtful RULES IN TRANSLATING ORDINARY STATEMENTS INTO THE STANDARD FORM OF CATEGORICAL PROPOSITION 1. E is doubtful * If E is false. Some men are people stronger than women 2. * If A is true. A is false * If O is false. O is doubtful 4. E is true 2. I is true * If I is true. Arroyo 2007 18 . E is false * If E is true. * If I is false. I is false * If E is false.PHILO. Law of Contradiction 3.  All dogs are barking animals. I is doubtful * If E is false. A is false * If O is false. I is true * If I is true. FOUR LAWS GOVERNING LOGICAL OPPOSITIONS 1. E is false * If A is false. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING C. Examples: All lions are fierce. A is doubtful * If O is true. Law of Sub-Alternation 2. All lions are fierce animals. E is false * If I is false. Translate universal statements as universal propositions unless the statement points to a particular usage. 101 – INTRO. * If A is true. * If I is false. Law of Sub-Alternation a) States that the truth of the universal carries or implies the truth of the particular but not vice versa. O is true * If O is false. Law of Sub-Contrariety 1. A is false * If A is false. O is true * If I is true. Law of Contrariety 4. O is doubtful * If O is true. A is doubtful 3. Law of Contrariety States that two contrary propositions cannot be both true but they may be both false at the same time. Examples: Dogs bark. Add the missing complement to an adjective or to a describing phrase to show that they refer to classes/terms. I is true * If E is true. * If A is true. Some Filipinos are hospitable people Men are stronger than women. E is doubtful b) States that the falsity of the particular carries or implies the falsity of the universal but not vice versa. Filipinos are hospitable people. O is false * If A is false.

Examples: Almost 50% of the students in logic are members of the debate team. 7. A proposition The author of Don Quijote is a good writer.PHILO. 101 – INTRO. Most of the teachers are nationalists. Examples: All except seminarians are members of the club. no or some respectively. Exceptive statements should be translated to an E statement. Exclusive statements should be translated into universal statements by reversing the order of the original statement. Examples: The first lady is very extravagant person. 3. Only voters are citizens. 5. The first lady is very extravagant person. Not all politicians are liars. A proposition This student is not lazy. “Not all” should be translated as an O proposition Examples: Not all applicants are qualified workers.  All citizens are voters 6.  This student is not a lazy guy. E proposition 4. Singular statements should be treated as universal statements. Quantifiers that refer to universal or particular should be replaced by: all. Arroyo 2007 19 .  Some students in logic are members of the debate team. The author of Don Quijote is a good writer.  Some teachers are nationalists. Some politicians are not liars. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Some mothers are children lovers. Every student is a learner. All priests are men. Everybody except the judges are members of the administration  No judge is a member of the administration. Some applicants are not qualified workers.  All students are learners. No seminarian is a member of the club. Examples: None but men are priests.

Some trees are mahogany. _____5. Each triangle has three angles. E. _____8. _____11. _____3. 101 – INTRO. _____10. _____6. Some heavenly bodies do not fall on earth. _____9. Bottles will never fly. Men differ from angels. O) are the following. Many men are fools. Not all that glitters is gold. Arroyo 2007 20 . All lawyers are politicians. All professional politicians are not trustworthy. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Name: _____________________________________Date: ___________________ Course: ____________________________________ Identify what type of propositions (A. __ 1. _____7. I. _____4. No talkative individuals are genuine philosophers. _____2. Majority of the audience enjoyed the play we have witnessed.PHILO.

Arroyo 2007 21 . Only boys are good mathematicians. Some Catholics are Israelites. ________________________ 3. ________________________ 8. ________________________ 4. Some beings are men. Some scientists are not wise individuals. All Catholics are not Israelites. ________________________ 9. 101 – INTRO. No prodigal persons are prudent. No good Catholics are prayerful people. Some mathematicians are boys. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Name: ____________________________________Date: ___________________ Course: ___________________________________ Identify what type of logical opposition are the following: 1. Some prodigal persons are not prudent. ________________________ 7. No beings are men. Some dogs are not gentle. ________________________ 11. ________________________ 6. All scientists are wise individuals. Some lovers are not men. Some opportunists are not men with no principle. All men are not brutes. Some dogs are gentle. None but men are lovers. ________________________ 12. No Catholics are Moslems. Some men are not brutes. ____________________ ____ 2. All egoistic people are not generous. ________________________ 10. All good Catholics are prayerful people. Some Catholics are not Moslems. All opportunists are men with no principle. ________________________ 5. Some egoistic people are not generous.PHILO.

101 – INTRO. If “All dogs are animals” is true. ____________6.” is true. ________________________ 14. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING ________________________ 13.” is ____________. then “All actions are illegal” is ___________. subalternation. If “Some glasses are breakable” is true. false or doubtful and write on the space before each number the type of opposition (contradiction. All except Louisians are CICians. ________________________ Name: ___________________________________Date: ____________________ Course: __________________________________ Complete the sentence by indicating whether it is true. “Every voter is an alien” is _____________. All Louisians are CICians. All pupils are active children. If “Some actions are not charitable” is true. ____________9.” is false. then “All teachers are patient and kind. then “Some students are not wage-earners” is ___________. then. If “Some students are wage-earners. ____________10. ____________5. contrariety. No pupils are active children. then “Some religious beliefs are false” is ____________. “No writer is good” is ___________. If “Some writers are good” is false then. ____________8. If “No teacher is patient and kind” is false. ____________3. then “No dog is an animal” is ___________. If “Some actions are legal” is true. ____________2. then “Some fruits are chocolate” is ____________. ____________4.PHILO. If “No fruit is a chocolate” is true. ____________7. sub-contrariety) : ____________1. Arroyo 2007 22 . then “All actions are charitable” is ___________. If “Some religious beliefs are not false” is false. then “No glass is breakable” is ______________. If “No voter is an alien.

contrariety. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Name: ___________________________________Date: _______________________ Course: __________________________________ On the first blank.) All citizens are executives. ____ ___________________ _______________ Some reptiles are not dangerous. ____ ___________________ _______________ Few citizens are executives. doubtful) on the third blank. E.) Not all friends are trustworthy. the type of logical opposition (contradiction._____ TRUE All friends are not trustworthy. 1.PHILO. false. ____ ___________________ _______________ 3.) Some reptiles are dangerous. ____ ___________________ _______________ 2. sub-alternation. I. ____ ___________________ _______________ All friends are trustworthy ____ ___________________ _______________ Arroyo 2007 23 . ____ ___________________ _______________ Some friends are trustworthy. ____ ___________________ _______________ No citizen is an executive. 101 – INTRO._____ FALSE Several citizens are not executives._____ TRUE Every reptile is dangerous. sub-contrariety) on the second blank and the judgment (true. write the kind of proposition (A. ____ ___________________ _______________ All reptiles are not dangerous. O).

_______________________________________________________________ Arroyo 2007 24 . _______________________________________________________________ Only CICians are responsible students. _______________________________________________________________ None but children are humble persons. _______________________________________________________________ All except teachers are Karate players. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Name: ___________________________________Date: ________________ Course: __________________________________ Translate the following ordinary statements into its standard form of categorical proposition and identify what proposition it is. _______________________________________________________________ Most of the politicians are Thomasians. 101 – INTRO. _______________________________________________________________ Not all politicians are lawmakers. The actual Pope is Joseph Ratzinger. _______________________________________________________________ Bottles will never fly. _______________________________________________________________ Lawmakers are educated.PHILO. _______________________________________________________________ The student council is not the governing body of the school. _______________________________________________________________ Few of the varsity players are writers.

the minor term is “Ilocanos” because it is the subject of the conclusion 3. *In the example above. Example All lawyers are politicians. the middle term is “Filipinos” because it is found in the two premises. Example: All Filipinos are hospitable persons All Ilocanos are Filipinos Therefore All Ilocanos are hospitable persons HOW TO IDENTIFY THE TERMS IN THE SYLLOGISM? 1. In the example above. In the example above. Fig. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING CHAPTER FOUR CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISMS Categorical syllogism is a deductive argument consisting of 3 categorical propositions which contain exactly 3 terms. FORM OF CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM Figure of the categorical syllogism Mood of Categorical Syllogism I. 3 (sub-sub) M – P Fig. 2 (pre-pre) P–M S –M -------S–P Fig.) Middle Term (M) the only term which is not found in the conclusion and the only term which appears twice in the premises. Some lawyers are liars Therefore some liars are not politicians Major term: politicians Minor term: liars Middle term: lawyers A. the major term is “hospitable persons” because it is the predicate of the conclusion. 4(pre-sub) P–M Arroyo 2007 25 . 101 – INTRO. 1 ( sub-pre) M – P S–M -------S–P Fig.) Major Term (P) found in the major premise as either the subject or the predicate the predicate of the conclusion.) Minor Term (S) found in the minor premise as either the subject or predicate the subject of the conclusion. 2.PHILO. FIGURE OF CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM it refers to the way the middle term is arranged in the syllogism.

some red beings are men. all cats are dogs. Arroyo 2007 26 . GMA measures 12 inches. There should be exactly 3 terms to be used throughout the whole argument.PHILO. Therefore. Violation: fallacy of 4 terms (equivocation) Examples: A ruler measures 12 inches. * This syllogism is invalid because a word is used in two different propositions with different meaning. O) in which the major premise. MOOD OF CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM refers to the type of propositions (A. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING M–S --------S–P M–S --------S-P II. The middle term must be distributed at least once in the premises. Therefore some hardworking persons are academic scholars. E. IAI Only men are priests Mark is a man. Some unique beings are red. 2. Violation: Fallacy of the undistributed middle term. * This syllogism committed the fallacy of equivocation or fallacy of 4 terms. I. If the term is distributed in the conclusion then the same term must also be distributed in the premises. Therefore. 3. But GMA is a ruler. the minor premise and the conclusion respectively appear in the syllogism. EXAMPLES: Some students are academic scholars All students are hardworking persons. Therefore. * These syllogisms are invalid syllogisms because the middle terms “unique beings” and “animals” are undistributed in the two premises. All dogs are animals. 101 – INTRO. All cats are animals. * These syllogisms committed the fallacy of Undistributed Middle Term. Examples: All men are unique beings. Therefore Mark is a priest AAA A E I O DISTRIBUTION OF TERMS Subject Term Predicate Term Distributed Undistributed Distributed Distributed Undistributed Undistributed Undistributed Distributed GENERAL RULES FOR A VALID SYLLOGISM 1.

Two negative premises are not allowed. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Violation: Fallacy of the illicit major term or fallacy of illicit minor term. Violation: Fallacy of drawing an affirmative conclusion based from a negative premise. 9. All criminals are evil persons. Arroyo 2007 27 . No bats are animals. Two affirmative premises cannot give a negative conclusion. * This syllogism is invalid and committed the fallacy of drawing out an affirmative conclusion based from a negative premise. 101 – INTRO. 6. Examples: All cats are animals. All criminals are law-violators. Therefore. Therefore. Some teachers are not wise persons. Example: All teachers are models. Violation: Existential fallacy 7. 8. Therefore. some wise persons are models. No Ateneans are students. *This syllogism is invalid syllogism and had committed the fallacy of exclusive terms. 4. 5.PHILO. the conclusion must be particular. When both premises are particular. One of the negative premises is allowed if and only if the conclusion is negative. *These syllogisms are invalid syllogisms. The first and second example committed the fallacy of illicit major term and the third example committed the fallacy of illicit minor term. all evil persons are law-violators. All CICians are students. Mae is not a joyful person. Therefore. No particular conclusion can be derived from 2 universal premises. Therefore. When one premise is particular. there is no conclusion. Violation: Fallacy of exclusive terms Examples: Rizza is not a joyful person Mae is not Michelle. No bats are cats. no Ateneans are students.

all men are beings that can know God as the Spiritual Creator. Foolish individuals speak nonsense. Beings that can know God as the Spiritual Creator are beings that have a spiritual mind. But all cobras are snakes. Therefore. All scientists are wise individuals. some mammals are dogs. all men are wise individuals ____________________________________ 8. All except varsity players are academic scholars. foolish individuals are talkative. ____________________________________ 2. ____________________________________ 7. All men must eat. Therefore. Therefore. ____________________________________ 6. Therefore. But no lover is an egoist. But. But some students are varsity players. not all egoists are men. no beggars are rich people. 1. But all fast runners are mammals. ____________________________________ 4.PHILO. ____________________________________ 5. Therefore. Arroyo 2007 28 . 101 – INTRO. But all scientists are men. Some snakes are dangerous animals. all men are beings that have a spiritual mind ____________________________________ 9. All men are lovers. Therefore. Some dogs are fast runners. ____________________________________ 3. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Name: ________________________________________Date: _________________ Course: _______________________________________ Identify the mood and the figure of the following syllogisms and identify whether they are valid or invalid. But the painting on the wall is a man. Therefore. All senators are rich people. identify what fallacy is committed. If they are invalid. But. Therefore. some cobras are dangerous animals. But. some students are not academic scholars. no beggar is a senator. the painting on the wall must eat.

Every rectangle is a polygon. 2. But all athletes are _____________. But every square is a polygon. 5. some ________________ are sour. Therefore. every square is a rectangle. no ________________ is an __________. All ______________ are organism. Therefore. All lemons are _______. no dove is quadruped. But some artists are not musicians. 7. some _________ are not pianists. Arroyo 2007 29 . Therefore. Therefore. all ___________ are ___________. But all _________ are _________. 6. But no creative person is stupid. No law-abiding citizen is __________. ____________________________________ Name: ___________________________________Date: ___________________ Course: __________________________________ Supply the missing term in the following syllogisms to make them valid. Some ________ are not males. But some ________ are criminals. Therefore. Therefore. 4.PHILO. All ___________ are ____________. some adults are not _______________. But all plants are living things. Therefore. 1. But some __________ are yellow fruit. some talkative individuals speak nonsense. 101 – INTRO. 3. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Therefore. some physically fit are not _________. All artists are _____________. Therefore. ____________________________________ 10. No bird is ___________.

A-proposition is diagrammed as: S P E-proposition is diagrammed as: S P I-proposition is diagrammed as: X P S O-proposition is diagrammed as: X Arroyo 2007 S 30 P . No ____________ is a fly. But some ___________ are ____________. B. each representing a specific group.PHILO. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING 8. 101 – INTRO. This process of visualizing logical relationships was devised by John Venn (1834-1923). in which circular areas represent groups of items sharing common properties. The drawing consists of two or more circles. Therefore some insects are not spiders. VENN DIAGRAM A Venn diagram is a drawing.

2. If a syllogism is valid. The Universal Premise should be diagrammed first if the syllogism contains a particular premise. the X goes in the unshaded part. diagramming the premises will reveal the logical geography of the conclusion in a valid syllogism. we expect to have three overlapping circles. 101 – INTRO. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Since a syllogism is VALID if and only if the premises entail the conclusion. If part of the area has been shaded. the conclusion will be self-evident. as follows: F Arroyo 2007 W 31 . Steps in Diagramming: Let us diagram this syllogism and check if it is valid or invalid: All whales are mammals. no frogs are whales.PHILO. then diagramming the premises is insufficient to show the conclusion must follow. The Letter X should be placed on the line dissecting an area if the whole area is so designated in the premise. No frogs are mammals. Only the premises should be diagrammed. 3. Since we have three terms. Therefore. If the syllogism is invalid. F W M The first step in the diagramming process is to diagram the major premise. *Certain guidelines must be observed in connection with Venn diagram Test: 1.

But applying the general rules to these moods. The minor premise must be affirmative. AEE. let us apply the specific rules for each figure. FESTINO. EAE. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING M The minor premise shall be likewise diagrammed: F W M The conclusion should not be diagrammed. BAROCO) Arroyo 2007 32 . 101 – INTRO. The syllogism is VALID. One premise must be negative. EIO. So the remaining possible valid moods are as follows: A A A A E E I I O O Major Premise A E I O A I A E A E Minor Premise *With these possible valid moods. FERIO) VALID MOODS FOR THE SECOND FIGURE Rules: 1. EIO (BARBARA.PHILO. those with mark “x” are terminated because they violate one of the general rules. 2. THE VALID MOODS x x xx xxx A A A A E E E E I I I I OOOO Major Premise AE I O AE I O A E I O AE I O Minor Premise These are the possible valid moods in every figure. it can be read off in the diagram. AOO (CESARE. AII. The major premise must be universal. AAA. 2. CELARE. The diagram shows that the area FW is empty: No frogs are whales. EAE. The major premise must be universal. CAMESTRE. In fact. VALID MOODS FOR THE FIRST FIGURE Rules: 1. DARII.

all mammals are warm-blooded animals. the conclusion must be particular. But. no brutes are men. If either premise is negative. all selfish acts are not praiseworthy. If the minor premise is an affirmative. no brutes are rational beings. DISAMIS. Therefore. FERISON) VALID MOODS FOR THE FOURTH FIGURE Rules: 1. the major term must be universal. all warm-blooded animals are not reptiles. all inconsiderate men are hard-hearted. EAO. FESAPO. But. all gifted musicians are artists. FRESISON) EXAMPLES: FIRST FIGURE AAA (BARBARA) All beings that have mastery over their voluntary acts are responsible for their voluntary acts. Arroyo 2007 33 . SECOND FIGURE EAE (CESARE) No praiseworthy acts are mean. IAI (DISAMIS) Some inconsiderate men are strict But. all ambitious individuals are selfish. But. Therefore. THIRD FIGURE AAI (DARAPTI) All gifted musicians are emotional But. BOCARDO. The conclusion must be particular.PHILO. Therefore. the minor premise must be universal. all reptiles are not mammals. Therefore. FOURTH FIGURE AAI (BRAMANTIP) All whales are mammals. all normal human adults are responsible for their voluntary acts. IAI. all normal human adults have mastery over their voluntary acts. CAMENES. AEE (CAMESTRE) All men are rational beings. FELAPTON. The minor premise must be affirmative. AAI. Therefore. But. Therefore. AEE. AAI. no ambitious individuals are truly considerate. 2. AEE (CAMENES) All mammals are warm blooded animals. 3. But. DATISI. 2. EIO (DARAPTI. But. Therefore. all selfish acts are mean. EAO. EAE (CELARE) No selfish persons are truly considerate. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING VALID MOODS FOR THE THIRD FIGURE Rules: 1. some warm-blooded animals are whales. AII. If the major premise is affirmative. IAI. DIMARIS. Therefore. OAO. 101 – INTRO. EIO (BRAMANTIP. some artists are emotional. some hard-hearted men are strict.

TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Name: ___________________________________Date: __________________ Course: __________________________________ Identify the figure and the mood of the following valid syllogisms. All talkative individuals are shallow minded. But all gifted musicians are artists. Therefore. Therefore. ___________________ 2. all lawyers are professionals. Only brave people are patriots But some patriots are women. All except mammals are fishes. no ambitious individuals are truly considerate. But. all reptiles are not mammals. some vertebrates are fishes. But some chastisements are virtuous acts. Arroyo 2007 34 . All mammals are warm-blooded animals. But. ___________________ 7. some chastisements are not sinful. ___________________ 8. But some men are not proud. Therefore. ___________________ 6. But some men are talkative individuals Therefore. 101 – INTRO. No virtuous acts are sinful. some artists are emotional. some women are brave people. some vertebrates are not mammals ___________________ 5. Therefore. not all men are vain. All vain people are proud. 1. Some lawyers are not truthful.PHILO. Therefore. some men are shallow minded. some professionals are not truthful. Therefore. ___________________ 3. All gifted musicians are emotional. ___________________ 9. ___________________ 4. Therefore. No selfish persons are truly considerate But all ambitious individuals are selfish Therefore. But all warm-blooded animals are not reptiles.

” “Kapag hindi mo ako minahal. No lazy person is resourceful. maawa napo kayo sa akin. It refers to any error in reasoning.refers to errors with regard to the content or the meaning of the argument. bolero at tsaka hindi maganda ang background ng pamilya niya. But some resourceful individuals are students.refers to errors in relation to the form or structure of reasoning or argument. Fallacies may be formal or informal. Argumentum Ad Hominem (Argument Against the Person)  This happens when the person of the arguer is attacked. 101 – INTRO.” “Mali ang sinabi nya dahil estudyante lang siya. Example: Sir. passions or prejudices of the people. Example: Migz Zubiri is sure to win the senatorial position because he has been consistently topping election surveys. Examples: “ Kapag hindi ka nakuha sa santong dasalan. rather than his argument. The point in question is not whether a conclusion is true or false but whether the form of argument is correct or incorrect. Ipasa nyo napo ako! May tatlong anak po akong pinapag-aral at sinusuportahan. Some Informal Fallacies which are frequently committed: Argumentum Ad Misericordiam (Appeal to Pity or Sympathy)  This is the error of by-passing logic and the point at issue by appealing to pity or sympathy. ___________________ CHAPTER FIVE FALLACY Fallacy comes from the Latin word fallo or fallere which means to deceive.” Argumentum Ad Baculum (Appeal to Force or Threat)  This is committed when one seeks to establish a conclusion by resorting to force or intimidation. some students are not lazy persons. pasaway. Formal. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING ___________________ 10.” Arroyo 2007 35 .PHILO. kukunin kita sa santong paspasan. It is committed when factors contributing to reasoning are distorted. Example: “Wag ninyong pinaniniwalaan yung sinasabi ni Peter. Therefore.” Argumentum Ad Populum ( Appeal to the People)  This is committed when one evades the point under discussion and instead appeals to the opinions. valid or invalid. hindi kita ipapasa. Informal.

Complex Question  This is asking a question that presupposes an answer to another question that has not been asked and answered. 9. therefore I love you. Example: Another killer earthquake will hit Cabanatuan City within three years. Argumentum Ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to Ignorance)  This occurs when one proves that a thing is true because it cannot be proven false or a thing is false because it cannot be proven true.PHILO. Example: The sky is blue. Sarah Geronimo said. Addendum: Non sequitur (It does not follow)  An argument whose conclusion does not follow logically from the premises as when two ideas are disconnected. Example: “Wala talagang Diyos kase hindi ko siya nakikita kahit na sa microscope. 101 – INTRO. Example: “Is he your 3rd boyfriend?” Arroyo 2007 36 . Post hoc ergo propter hoc (False Cause) Example: The Basketball Varsity of the College of the Immaculate Conception won the championship game because the players drank Milo Energy drink before the game. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Argumentum Ad Vericundiam (Appeal to wrong authority)  This happens when a wrong or unqualified authority is cited to establish a conclusion. 8.

Milk is drunk in the middle house. The football player lives next to the house where the horse is kept. The Japanese likes baseball. The Spaniard owns the dog. 101 – INTRO. The Russian drinks tea. Use the clues below to determine who owns the monkey and who drinks water. The American lives next to the blue house. The green house is immediately to the right of the white house. each of a different color. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING BRAINTEASERS NOTABLE NEIGHBORS (Logic Problem) There are five houses in a row. with different pets. favorite drinks and favorite sports. The hockey player owns hamsters. HOUSE 1 Color Country ArroyoSport 2007 Drink Pet HOUSE 2 HOUSE 3 HOUSE 4 HOUSE 5 37 . and inhabited by 5 people of different nationalities.PHILO. The football player lives in the yellow house. The American lives in the first house on the left. The Englishman lives in the red house. The basketball player drinks orange juice. Coffee is drunk in the green house. The table tennis player lives in the house next to the man with the fox.

How can all four men cross in only 17 minutes total? Brainteasers (taken from Introduction to Logic by Copi. stenographer. The second one explains "He said he was a Rafa. Being a stranger to this land you are not familiar with the ways of the people there and when you meet a group of three citizens you ask them which race they belong to. Pants on Fire by Erik Oosterwal You're a traveler in a distant land which is inhabited by two races. The times it takes for each man to cross are: 1 minute. they can only cross as fast as the slowest man can go. Jones. the fireman. a) The passenger living in Chicago has the same name as the brakeman. Mr. cashier. I have no idea why he would be traveling with such a strange assortment. The positions they occupy are manager. Robinson lives in Detroit. Each man has differing abilities and some take more time to cross than the others. and the engineer Their names listed alphabetically are Jones." The third one retorts "You're a liar!" Your problem is to figure out which race the third man belonged to. Mrs. Mr. The following facts are known: Mr. Black. The bridge is old and rickety and can support. manager. a goat. teller. 50-60) 1. 4th edition. and 10 minutes. He notices a small boat tied to the near shore. How can he safely cross the river with all his things intact? Liar. When crossing in pairs. a Goat. They have only one flashlight to share between them. Mr. Robinson. we'll call them Glurphs. two men going across at one time. we'll call them Rafas. 101 – INTRO. Mr.. The problem is that if he rows across with the tiger first. but the boat is too small to fit all his belongings into. can't seem to ever tell the truth. Smith. The first race. Miss Ambrose. at most. and a cabbage. What was the engineer’s name? 2.00 a year. but there he is anyway. and too wide to swim across so he is in a quandry on how to continue. On the train are also three passengers with corresponding names. At one point in his journey he comes to a river which is too deep to wade across. and if he rows across with the cabbage first. Liar. Smith once beat the fireman at billiards. can not ever tell a lie. and the second race. Coffee. The first one mumbles something that you could not understand. and Miss Earnshaw. The brakeman’s next-door neighbor. but it is large enough so that he can safely row across with one belonging at a time. Jones earns exactly $20.000. then the goat will eat the cabbage. Mr. and a Tiger by Erik Oosterwal A man is traveling with a tiger. and Mr. and Smith. 2 minutes. White. asst. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING A Cabbage. pp. one of the three passengers mentioned earns exactly three times as much as the brakeman. Kelly. The brakeman lives halfway between Detroit and Chicago. Crossing the Bridge by Erik Oosterwal Four men approach a bridge at night. The employees of a loan company are Mr. On a certain train the crew consists of the brakeman. and Arroyo 2007 38 . Robinson.PHILO. the tiger will eat the goat. 5 minutes.

The blind person then smiled broadly and said: “I do not need to have my sight. though not necessarily in that order. and the jailer offered freedom to the prisoner with normal vision if he could tell what color hat was on his head. Dopey and I are pals. I wanna die. The others are all passing the buck. The following statements are true of their foursome: a) The best player’s twin and the worst player are of opposite sex. Black is a bachelor. b) The best player and the worst player are of the same age. I never owned a revolver in my life. Kelly is the manager’s neighbor. Each was prevented from seeing what color hat was placed on his own head. I never owned a revolver. a dead man with a gun in one of his hands and a recorder on the other. Red is the guilty one. The assistant manager is the manager’s grandson. Red: I did not kill Torelli. The jailer told the prisoners that from three white hats and two red hats he would select three and put them on the prisoner’s heads. In a certain mythical community. Mr. White is 22 years old. genial host at Hamtramck’s most exclusive night club. I clearly see my hat is ______! How did he know? (FROM A TEXT MESSAGE) Crime Scene: In a condo unit. the cashier is the stenographer’s son-in-law. The prisoner confessed that he couldn’t tell. Spike did it. A stranger meets three natives and asks the first of them. was shot and killed by a racketeer gang because he fell behind in his protection payments. Butch: I did not kill Torelli. Lefty did not tell the truth when he said I did it.PHILO. Next the jailer offered freedom to the prisoner with only one eye if he could tell what color hat was on his head. The second native then reports that the first native denied being a politician. Spike is guilty. No sign of violence. All were of at least average intelligence. The third native says that the first native is a politician. I never saw Butch before. Which one of the foursome is the best player? 5. Spike: I am innocent. They were brought together. Each of them had made three statements. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING clerk. “I’m tired of my life. 101 – INTRO. two true and one false. Butch is the guilty one. A gunshot through his head. Dopey: I am innocent. five suspects were brought before the district attorney. but he agreed to extend the same terms to him when he made the request. The detective in charge took the recorder and played it. Miss Ambrose is the teller’s step-sister and Mr. and nonpoliticians always tell the truth. After considerable effort on the part of the police. who asked them what they had to say for themselves.Benno Torelli.” *gunshot* the detective asked the dead man’s roommate “is this his voice?” he replied. Mr. From what my friends with eyes have said. and his daughter are fond of golf and often play together. and the third was totally blind. one had normal vision. his son. Which of them is the guilty one? 6. Their statements were: Lefty: I did not kill Torelli. Mr. his sister.Of three prisoners in a certain jail. politicians never tell the truth. the second had only one eye. “yes” the detective said “ we must find the murderer” How did the detective know it was murder and not a suicide? Arroyo 2007 39 . Who holds each position? 3. Short. “Are you a politician?” The first native answers the question. How many of these three natives are politicians? 4. The second prisoner confessed he couldn’t tell. The jailer did not bother making the offer to the blind prisoner.

. New York: Appleton-Century-Cofts..geocities... Logic: A Textbook in deductive Reasoning. 1963. Philosophy and Logic: An Introduction to Philosophy. Logic: The Essentials of deductive Reasoning. Rhodel T. 1991.. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING BIBLIOGRAPHY Agapay. 4th ed. USA: Prentice Hall. Andrew H.uk/users/ambrose. 1967. Philosophy for beginners. John A. 2006. Oesterte. 101 – INTRO. 1980. Manuel OP. Richard. Copi. Merchandizing. The Art of Defining and Reasoning. USA: Writers and readers Publishing Incorporated.htm http://www.freeinternet. Pasig City: Capitol Publishing House. 1979. Liwanag.. Quezon City: Publishing House. Piñon. Logic and Symbolic logic. Osborne. Logic primer.jones/Headscratch_stickman. Salvador.com/heartland/plains/4484/lp9702. Fr. 1992. New York: The MacMillan Co.. 2nd ed. Introduction to Logic.. Irving M.htm http://www. Inc.jpg Arroyo 2007 40 . http://www.. Manila: Rez Printing Company.co. Philippines: Liwanag Gen. Ramon B. Introduction to Logic. 1972. Inc. Inc... Inc.geocities.com/oosterwal/puzzle. Martinez T. Bachhuber. Inc.PHILO.