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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA

Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City


Proposed design of sustainable drainage system using permeable
CONCRETE SIDEWALKS in Valenzuela City

ABSTRACT
Increasing urbanization has caused problems in our country especially in
Valenzuela City with increased flash flooding after sudden rain. As areas of
vegetation are replaced by concrete, asphalt, or roofed structures, the area loses
its ability to absorb rainwater. This rain is instead directed into surface water
drainage systems, often overloading them and causing floods. The idea behind
sustainable drainage system is to try to replicate natural systems that use cost
effective solutions with low environmental impact to drain away dirty and surface
water run-off through collection, storage, and cleaning before allowing it to be
released slowly back into the environment, such as into water courses. This is to
counter the effects of conventional drainage systems that often allow for flooding,
pollution of the environment and contamination of groundwater sources used to
provide drinking water. This design aims to achieve lower flow rates, increase
water storage and reduce the transport of pollution to the water environment.
The increased flash flooding after sudden rain. Urbanization makes the
area loss its ability to absorb water. The design aims to prevent clogging. Also to
prevent overflowing that causes flood.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

Proposed design of sustainable drainage system using PERMEABLE


CONCRETE SIDEWALKS in Valenzuela City

Chapter I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
1.1 Introduction
Storm water runoff gradually increases with rapid Urbanization and
extensive rainfalls. Urbanization also contributes to water pollution for lakes,
estuaries and rivers. Storm water runoff becomes contaminated as it flows
across the land and picks up pollutants on its way. During typhoon Ondoy in
2011, the flood level in some areas of Valenzuela rapidly increased that
submerged several parts of barangays on it. In a matter of hours leaving a
devastation and damages estimated at more than a million pesos. The rapid
increase of storm water run-off which results to floods that harms life and
damages to properties urged the researchers to utilize permeable concrete on
flood prone areas in barangays of Valenzuela City.
Permeable pavement or concrete can infiltrate significant amount of storm
water which allows them to filtrate in a natural way. Furthermore, permeable
pavement is found to be an effective measure to mitigate the impact of

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City
urbanization on the environment and to develop a more environmentally friendly
infrastructure and yet provides multiple benefits, promotes infiltration, reduces
peak flows and runoff volume, improves water quality, and reduces water
pollution.
Permeable concrete is an advanced construction material that offers
numerous Economical and Environmental benefits. Permeable concrete with
pervious surface replaces traditional pavement, allowing storm water to infiltrate
directly that permits a naturally occurring form of water treatment. The high
porosity is attained by a highly interconnected void content. The ideal application
for pervious concrete pavement is around buildings, sidewalks and parking
areas, as well as low-volume roadways. Pervious concrete pavement may also
have some application on highways, where it could be used in shoulder and
median construction for storm water runoff mitigation.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

1.2 Theoretical Framework


This study aims to design a permeable concrete system in areas of
Valenzuela City that can help to reduce the pollution in water by filtrating the
storm water in each drainage path leading the water to its catchment without any
sediments or debris which can cause blocking of water leading to flood in some
areas. To attain this, the researchers will have to be familiarized with the
Components of Permeable Concrete Pavement system to provide a suitable
design for the system. The National Building Code of the Philippines as the basis
for the standard requirements. Also, the Rainfall Count data have to be an
observing data to determine if the design will comply for the amount of rainwater
that will be available at a certain period of time.

After all the collection of data, the researchers will use different methods
of designing a best proportions of mixture for permeable pavement which will be
used for the design of the system.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

1.3 Conceptual Framework


INPUT

OUTPUT

PROCESS

Existing problem in
flood.

Proposed

design
of
sustainable
drainage
system
using PERMEABLE
CONCRETE
SIDEWALKS
in
Valenzuela City

Areas observation
Data gathering and
analyzing
rainfall
count (2015-2016).

Rainfall Count data


analysis.
Components
of
Permeable Concrete
Pavement system.

Planning
and
designing of the
permeable concrete
pavement system.

Drainage design in
Valenzuela City by
the municipality.

Review
evaluation
design.

National
Building
Code
of
the
Philippines.

and
of the

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

1.4 Statement of the Problem


1.4.1 General Statement of the Problem
Permeable concrete pavement system provide a suitable ways in filtrating
water to its catchment without any debris that cause a clogged in its way. It is
also a way to minimize the cost in annual maintenance of a drainage in the areas
of Valenzuela City enabling some budget in other sufficient projects.
Water is a limited resource. Therefore, it has to be conserve while taking
full advantage of it for the development purposes for the benefit of individuals.

1.4.2 Specific Statement of the Problem


One of the problems in Valenzuela is flood. Geographically, some of the
areas in it have low elevation. When the rain comes, some part of the Valenzuela

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City
became catch basin of the flood because storm water couldnt pass through the
drainages. This is due to some drainage which is blocked by the trash that
causes the overflowing leading to flood.

1.5 Objective
1.5.1 General Objective
The general objective of this study is to mitigate the flood in
Valenzuela City by designing a drainage with permeable concrete
pavement.

1.5.2 Specific Objective


1. To determine the efficient and effectiveness of having a
permeable concrete pavement.
2. To eliminate the expense of curbs and gutters for prevention
of waste materials in drainage system and eradicate water
clogging problems.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City
3. To minimize the cost and long-term maintenance for local
authorities and developers of storm water management.
4. To prevent and reduce pollutants in storm water run-off.

1.6 Scope and Limitation


This research study will focus mainly in the flood prone area in Valenzuela
City by using a permeable concrete pavement as a solution in heavy rainfall
runoff. The researchers will also conduct studies for the improvement design of
drainage system with the help of standards specifications in National Building
Code of the Philippines that is capable of using Permeable Concrete Pavement.

1.7 Significance of the Study


The application of permeable concrete pavement is significant in
Valenzuela City because this allows the water from heavy rainfall to infiltrate
directly that permits a naturally occurring form of water treatment.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City
This study will be beneficial in the field of engineering construction,
Geotechnical engineering, Environmental engineering, and others. Because this
study can be develop the idea to prevent flood on other area in the Philippines.

1.8 Definition of Terms


1. Infiltration the process of passing through something
2. Urbanization - the process by which towns and cities are formed and
become larger as more and more people begin living and working in
central areas.
3. Permeable Concrete a modified concrete that allows liquids or gases
to pass through it.
4. Sustainable Drainage Design a drainage design that is able to last or
continue for a long time.
5. Run-off - water from rain that flows over the surface of the ground
into streams
6. Pavement - the hard surface of a road, driveway, etc.
7. National Building Code of the Philippines the standard that provide rules
of construction in the Philippines.
8. Clogging blocking of water way

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

Chapter II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents various literatures and studies pertinent to the
development of this particular area.
2.1 Related Studies
2.1.1 Foreign Studies
In 1997 study of Kejin Wang, Et. Al., on Permeability Study of Cracked
Concrete stated that when the crack opening displacement increases from 50
microns to about 200 microns, concrete permeability increases rapidly. After the
crack opening displacement reaches 200 microns, the rate of water permeability
increases steadily.
This will guide the present study on how much crack displacement is
suitable for permeable concrete to be used in side walk pavements. Also,
depending on the environment, the study will provide the present study an insight

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City
to develop design criteria for a durable concrete and in predicting service life of a
concrete structure.
In the study on Effects of a porous pavement with reservoir structure on
the quality of runoff water and soil of Legret et al. (1996). The installation also
limited further migration of heavy metals into the subgrade beneath the structure
(less than 15cm in the investigation by Legret et al., 1996). In addition,
permeable pavements provide the surface roughness necessary to provide
sufficient depression storage to manage pollutants before they wash off.
This study will provide benefits on the present study on the filtration of the
runoffs. The present project can be useful on the reduction of water pollution. If
the water will be filtered, the prevention of drainage clogging will be initialized.
Since it was stated in the study of Pratt et al. in 1989. Permeable
pavements also exhibit good pollutant removal characteristics, closely mimicking
the pollutant removal properties of natural soil.

2.1.2 Local Studies

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City
2.2 Related Literature
2.2.1 Foreign Literature
2.2.2 Local Literature
In the article of razorbackconcrete.com last January, 2016, Manilas
Chinatown Walk pervious concrete Dragon bomanite group international 61211 In
Manila, Philippines, architects chose pervious concrete to pave Binondo main
walkway. This walkway is beautifully designed in a gold and red dragon motif,
which welcomes visitors to Manilas Chinatown. The architects originally planned
to use concrete pavers for the walkway, but chose pervious concrete instead.
The pervious concretealong with resin-bonded aggregatemade for a more
durable and highly decorative walkway that could handle the heavy rainfalls
common in the Philippines.
Since the vicinity of the project is within the Metro, the article will benefit
the present study because the same data can be used to make the present
study better for the environment.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

Chapter III
METHODOLOGY
Method of Research
The researchers collect rainfall data from Philippine Atmospheric,
Geophysical and Astronomical Service Administration (PAG-ASA). After collecting
necessary records, construction of new plans using the standard properties of

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City
permeable concrete and standard drainage plan obtained from the City
Engineers Office of Valenzuela as basis for the design of sustainable drainage
system using permeable concrete sidewalks. The researchers will use the
attained data to calculate the required strength of the sidewalks and infiltration
rate necessary to manage floodwater runoff.

Research Design
In this study, quantitative research design will be conducted for obtained
numerical data, such as rainfall count data and permeable concrete standard
properties which is necessary for design of sustainable drainage system using
permeable concrete sidewalks in Valenzuela City.

RESEARCH PROCEDURE
The Study Area
The setting of the study will be located at the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng
Valenzuela where the proposed design of sustainable drainage system using
permeable concrete sidewalks will be made.The researchers choose Valenzuela
City as the subject for the study.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City
Data Gathering
The researcher gather rainfall count data from the rain gauges located
around the Valenzuela City to determine the anticipated annual precipitation in
Valenzuela City. The rain gauge is located at Polo Valenzuela City.

Compressive strength and the infiltration rate of pervious concrete are


important factors to be consider for the design. The following table demonstrate
the standard properties pervious concrete using different void ratio.
Table 1: Pervious concrete mixture for the 20%, 35%, and 45% voids

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

Table 2: pervious concrete mixture for 15% voids

Table 3: pervious concrete mixture for 25% voids

Table 4: concrete properties

The researcher chose the sample with 25% void ratio as the basis for the design.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City
An

appropriate

rainfall

event

must be

used

to

design pervious

concrete elements. Two important considerations are the rainfall amount for a
given duration and the distribution of that rainfall over the time period specified.

RAINFALL COUNT DATA:


Table 5. Polo, Valenzuela City
2014

2015

JANUARY 0mm

JANUARY 23.2mm

FEBRUARY 6.2mm

FEBRUARY 6.8mm

MARCH 30.2mm

MARCH 11.5mm

APRIL 17.9mm

APRIL 10.6mm

MAY 86.5mm

MAY 66.3mm

JUNE 198.5mm

JUNE 283.8mm

JULY 430.1mm

JULY 608.9mm

AUGUST 258.15mm

AUGUST 484.4mm

SEPTEMBER 323.4mm
OCTOBER 241.5mm
NOVEMBER 40.0mm
DECEMBER 76.7mm

The researcher chose precipitation for the month of July which is the peak
amount of daily precipitation as the benchmark for the design.
INFILTRATION RATES:

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City
`Table 6: Typical Infiltration rates (CIRIA, 2007)
Soil type
Range of infiltration rates
(x10-3 m/s)
Gravel
10 - 1000
Sand
0.1 - 100
Loam
0.001 - 0.1
Chalk
0.001 - 100
Clay
<0.0001
Rock
0.00001 0.1
Note Type A: infiltration rate > 0.001x10-3m/s
Type B: infiltration rate between 0.001x10-3m/s and
0.00001x10-3m/s
Type C: infiltration rate < 0.00001x10-3m/s

The runoff coefficient, C, expresses the ratio of rate of runoff to rate of rainfall.

Table 7. Values of relative imperviousness for use in rational formula. (American


Iron and Steel Institute, 1971).
Type of Surface
Sandy soil, flat, 2%

Factor C
0.05-0.10

Sandy soil, average, 2-7%

0.10-0.15

Sandy soil, steep, 7

0.15-0.20

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City
Heavy soil, flat, 2%

0.13-0.22

Heavy soil, average, 2-7%

0.18-0.22

Heavy soil, steep, 7%

0.25-0.35

Asphaltic pavements

0.80-0.95

Concrete pavements

0.70-0.95

Gravel or macadam pavements

0.35-0.70

Table 8: Values for roughness coefficient in Mannings Equation


Manning's Roughness
Surface Material

Coefficient

Gravel, firm

-n0.023

Lead

0.011

Masonry

0.025

Metal - corrugated
Polyvinyl Chloride PVC - with smooth inner

0.022
0.009 - 0.011

walls
Rubble Masonry

0.017

Steel - Coal-tar enamel

0.010

Steel - smooth

0.012

Steel - New unlined

0.011

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City

Chapter IV
DISSERTATION
The following results are drawn as product of a computations conducted
by the researchers to get if the research is feasible by getting into consideration
the flow rate and infiltration rate of the permeable concrete.
The average discharge at earths surface is given by:

Rainfall intensity ( i )

608.9

Run-off coefficient of concrete pavement ( c )

0.825[2]

Area covered ( A )

50 m

50 m

mm
day

[1]

x1 m

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City
The discharge at the top surface at a span of 50m is computed by getting
the product of the run-off coefficient (C), rainfall intensity (i) that is obtained in
PAGASA and the area (A) of drainage of observation.
Q=CiA

(1)
50 m

Q=(0.825)(608.9

mm
) )
day

[1] SEE TABLE 5, [2] SEE TABLE7

Q=(0.825)(0.6089

Q=25.117

m3
Q= 25.117
day

m
)(50 m2 )
day

m
day

1 hour
=2.907 x 10
)( 241day
)(
hours 3600 secs )

Q=2.907 x 10

-4

-4

m3
s

m3
s

The flow rate computed in equation 1 is needed to determine how fast the
water in top of the permeable concrete will enter the system. It will set the initial
input of water rate in the system.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City
The rate of infiltration through permeable concrete with 25% void ratio is
obtained by the given formula:
Q=

conc

(2)

conc

Where:

conc

= infiltration rate of concrete =

conc

12
1 ft

780
hr

= Area of concrete covered


m
5.642 x 10
( 0.8 x 1 ) m
-3)
Q=
s

4.514 x 10 -3

m
s

The research also requires the discharge infiltration of the sand. This can
be obtained by also using the equation (2).
m
5 x 10
( 0.8 x 1 ) m
Q= -3) s

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City
Q

4 x 10 -3

m
s

The equation (2) is also useful for getting the flowrate in the gravel.
m
10 x 10
( 0.6 x 1 ) m
-3)
Q=
s

6 x 10 -3

m
s

The flow rates obtained in equation 2 for the permeable concrete, sand
and gravel will determine how fast the seepage of water in those materials. It will
tell the researchers if the water will stay or not in the system.
The intake of pipe needs to be computed by the formula below where the
intake flow of the pipe is equal to the discharge in that of water.
Q= Av

(3)
Where in AT occupied by gravel can be computed by the subtracting the

area of the drainage by the area of the pipe. This is done to obtain the velocity of
water in the gravel.
A

rectangle

0.6 x 0.65 = 0.39m

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City
A

2
[ 16 ( 0.0254 ) ] x =0.1297 m
4

circle

0.390.1297

0.2603 m

(4)
Q

6 x 10

m
s

-3

rectangle

circle

v =?

6 x 10 -3

m
s

v =0.02305

0.2603 m 2(v )

m
s

The result in equation (3) can be used for getting the diameter of the
pipe and furthermore, the diameter of the holes in the pipe.

0.2603 m2= D
4

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City
D=0.5757 m

D 6 holes every 1 mm

D=0.096=0.1 m

D=100 m=100 mm

And now the computation for the flow inside the pipe is computed. For
this process, the inside area of the pipe, the wetted perimeter and slope* are the
requirement for the flow.

A=

A=

2
D
4

(0.381)
4

A=0.114 m

P=D

P=0.381

P=1.19 7

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City
*Standard for slope

R=

0.114 m
1.197 m

R=0.09524

12
0.0625

S=

S=0.0052 1

1
Q= A R
n

Q=

2/3

S1/2 ; n=0.009

1
(0.114 m2 )(0.09524 m)
0.009

0.1907

2/3

(0.00521)1/2

m
= Av
s

v =1.6728

m
s

Based on the result of the measurements and computation, the


probability of stagnant water and over-flowing is very low because of the flow rate

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG VALENZUELA


Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela City
inside the pipe (Q6) is faster than the flow rate on top of the surface before
entering the system (Q1)