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Kenya William Collier.I. RE-THINKINGBIODIVERSITY  INFORESTANDFIELD ColonialMaizeandClimate: LimitsofAgriculturalDevelopmentfor AdaptationinRiftValley.OL JVUZLX\LUJLZ VM [OLZL WYLKPJ[PVUZ ^PSS ILTVZ[HJ\[LPU[LYTZVMMHTPULHUKMVVKZOVY[HNLZ PU 2LU`H ^OPSL L_WSVYPUN HS[LYUH[P]L H]LU\LZ for future development and climate adaptation.OLZL L]LU[Z HYL UV[ VUS` SPURLK [V JSPTH[PJ HJ[P]P[`" :[\K`:P[L they are also deeply historical and political. MESc 2010 Introduction  *VUJLYUZ HIV\[ NSVIHS JSPTH[L JOHUNL OH]LIYV\NO[OLPNO[LULKH[[LU[PVU[V[OLWV[LU[PHSS` KHUNLYV\Z PTWHJ[Z VM JSPTH[L ]HYPHIPSP[` VU MHYTPUN systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. of years. I examine the recent history HWWYV_PTH[LS`ZXRTJVU[HPUPUNHKP]LYZP[` VMHNYPJ\S[\YHSKL]LSVWTLU[PU2LU`H[OYV\NOHJHZL VMHNYVLJVSVNPJHSaVULZPUJS\KPUNO\TPKHUKZLTP Z[\K`VM<HZPU.  2LU`H OHZ H [V[HS NLVNYHWOPJ HYLH VM In this article.PZO\+PZ[YPJ[PU9PM[=HSSL`7YV]PUJL O\TPK WSH[LH\Z OPNOSHUK Z[LWWLZ ZLTPHYPK aVULZ I discuss several historical adaptations to climate HUK HYPK SHUKZ -PN  >P[OPU LHJO aVUL L_PZ[Z H variability embedded within the broader political ZPTPSHYS` KP]LYZL Z\P[L VM SP]LSPOVVK Z[YH[LNPLZ [OH[ LJVUVT` VM 2LU`H 0U KVPUN ZV 0 IYPUN [V X\LZ[PVU coincide with local cultures and environmental [OLVY[OVKV_]PL^ZKYP]PUNHNYPJ\S[\YHSKL]LSVWTLU[ JVUKP[PVUZ YHUNPUN MYVT ZLKLU[HY` HNYPJ\S[\YL [V UVTHKPJWHZ[VYHSPZT6]LY. if not thousands. JOHUNLZPUJSPTH[L[OH[OHZILLUSHYNLS`V]LYSVVRLK -HTPUL HUK MVVK ZOVY[HNLZ OH]L ILLU PU[PTH[LS` by national policies and research objectives. Local populations in the Rift Valley have adapted to variable climatic conditions over hundreds VM`LHYZ(]HYPL[`VMPUKPNLUV\ZMHYTPUN[LJOUPX\LZ HUKJ\S[\YHSWYHJ[PJLZOLSWLK[VTHUHNLYPZRPU[PTLZ VMJSPTH[PJ\UJLY[HPU[`*VSVUPHSL_WHUZPVUPU2LU`H YLWSHJLKTHU`VM[OLZLOPZ[VYPJHSJVWPUNTLJOHUPZTZ ^P[OT\JOYPZRPLYTVUVJ\S[\YLTHPaLHUKJHZOJYVW Z`Z[LTZ. ^V]LU PU[V [OL SP]LZ VM [OL 2LU`HU WLVWSL .OLZLOVTLNHYKLUZYLZLTISL[OLPUKPNLUV\Z  *SPTH[L ]HYPHIPSP[` HUK KYV\NO[ OV^L]LY Z`Z[LTZ[OH[ÅV\YPZOLKILMVYLJVSVUPHSLUJYVHJOTLU[ OH]L ILLU YLVJJ\YYPUN JOHYHJ[LYPZ[PJZ VM 2LU`H»Z and they may provide an avenue to adapt to future climate for hundreds.VKH` THU` ZTHSSOVSKLY MHYTLYZ PU 2LU`H HYLOPNOS`]\SULYHISL[VJSPTH[PJZOVJRZ[OH[KPZY\W[ THPaL J\S[P]H[PVU +\YPUN [OLZL [PTLZ MHYTLYZ [\YU [OLPYH[[LU[PVUHUKSHIVY[VZTHSSNHYKLUZILZPKL[OLPY OVTLZ. Increased variability PUYHPUMHSSYLZ\S[PUNPUTVYLKYV\NO[HUKÅVVKL]LU[Z ^PSS OH]L KYHZ[PJ PTWHJ[Z VU HNYPJ\S[\YHS WYVK\J[PVU [OYV\NOV\[ :\I:HOHYHU (MYPJH )VRV L[ HS " :JOSLURLY HUK 3VILSS  0U 2LU`H [OL 4PUPZ[Y` VM (NYPJ\S[\YL HU[PJPWH[LZ [OH[ PUJYLHZLZ PU YHPUMHSS variability and temperature in the Rift Valley will ULNH[P]LS` PTWHJ[ [OL WYVK\J[PVU H]HPSHIPSP[` HUK HJJLZZPIPSP[` VM JLYLHS JYVWZ UH[PVU^PKL >HPN^H   .

GA. He received a MESc in Social ZLJ[VYPU[OL2LU`HULJVUVT`HJJV\U[PUNMVYTVYL Ecology from the Yale School of Forestry and Environ. He holds a BS HNYPJ\S[\YL[V[OLJVHZ[HSJLU[YHSHUK^LZ[LYUYLNPVUZ in Ecology and a Certificate in Environmental Ethics from VM[OLJV\U[Y`(NYPJ\S[\YLPZ[OLZPUNSLTVZ[PTWVY[HU[ the University of Georgia.[OHU. Collier is from Free Home.VM[OLSHUKPU2LU`H PZ JVUZPKLYLK HYPK VY ZLTPHYPK YLZ[YPJ[PUN JYVW William M.

VMLJVUVTPJWYVK\J[HUKTVYL[OHU.

 mental Studies. VM LTWSV`TLU[ )H[LZ . 2010 . focusing on agricultural development. and food security in Sub-Saharan Africa.OL THQVY Z[HWSL JYVW climate change. WYVK\JPUN YLNPVUZ PU [OL JV\U[Y` HYL MV\UK THPUS` 10 Volume 29.

[OL SH[[LY VM ^OPJO PZ [OL SVJH[PVU VM T` ÄLSK ZP[L  <HZPU . Map courtesy of Nations Online Project.PZO\ PZ SVJH[LK PU [OL 9PM[ =HSSL` commonly known as the breadbasket of the country. located northeast of Eldoret. Fieldwork was conducted in Moiben Division. Political map of Kenya.Colonial Maize and Climate in Kenya Figure 1. HUK WYV]PKLZ HU L_JLW[PVUHS SHIVYH[VY` [V HUHS`aL HNYPJ\S[\YHS KL]LSVWTLU[ PU 2LU`H 0U [OL TVKLYU 2LU`HULJVUVT`TVYL[OHU. Rift Valley Province. in the Western Province and the Rift Valley Province.

. the WHZ[VYHS4HHZHP5HUKPMHYTLYZNYL^THPUS`LSL\ZPUL HSZVRUV^UHZÄUNLYTPSSL[HUKYHPZLKZTHSSSP]LZ[VJR Z\JOHZNVH[ZHUKZOLLW2PWRVYPY   >OPSL PUKLW[O PUMVYTH[PVU JVUJLYUPUN cultivation practices is sparse.VM[OLZ[HWSLJLYLHS JYVWZVMTHPaL^OLH[ZVYNO\THUKTPSSL[JVTLMYVT [OLYLNPVU. a stark contrast to their famous nomadic contemporaries. Interview KH[H HYL JVU[L_[\HSPaLK ^P[O HYJOP]HS KVJ\TLU[Z HUK TPZZPVUHY` TLTVPYZ WLY[HPUPUN [V HNYPJ\S[\YL HUK JSPTH[L 0U JVYYLZWVUKPUN YLZLHYJO 0 LTWSV` HNYPJ\S[\YHS HUK TL[LVYVSVNPJHS Z[H[PZ[PJHS HUHS`ZLZ [V LS\JPKH[L IYVHKLY OPZ[VYPJHS [YLUKZ VM HNYPJ\S[\YHS development in the Rift Valley.OLYL PZ HSZV L]PKLUJL [OH[ trade in foodstuffs between different tribes in the Rift Valley was a common practice.OL KP]LYZL HNYVLJVSVNPJHS aVULZ PU [OL Rift Valley have provided fertile soils and favorable climatic conditions to farmers for thousands of years.PZO\ SPLZ HWWYV_PTH[LS`  RT UVY[O^LZ[ VM 5HPYVIP Interviews with small.PZO\ Pre-colonial agrarian history  . medium. and SHYNLZJHSL MHYTLYZ HZ ^LSS HZ WVSP[PJHS VMÄJPHSZ LU]PYVUTLU[HS WYVMLZZPVUHSZ HUK NV]LYUTLU[ employees form the basis of the study. especially K\YPUN [PTLZ VM OLPNO[LULK JSPTH[L ]HYPHIPSP[` (SVUN ^P[O [YHKP[PVUHS JYVWZ HUK HNYPJ\S[\YHS [LJOUPX\LZ [YHKL HUK Z[VYHNL VM NYHPU ^LYL OPNOS` ZWLJPHSPaLK MVYTZ VM YPZR H]LYZPVU K\YPUN [PTLZ VM Tropical Resources Bulletin 11 . it is clear that 5HUKP NYL^ H ]HYPL[` VM NYHPUZ MVY MVVK ILLY HUK [YHKL 2PWRVYPY   . (NYPJ\S[\YHS+L]LSVWTLU[PU<HZPU.OL 5HUKP HYL ILSPL]LK [V IL VUL VM [OL LHYSPLZ[ KVTPUHU[ L[OUPJ NYV\WZ PU [OL 9PM[ =HSSL` H[ SLHZ[ ZPUJL [OL TPKZP_[LLU[O JLU[\Y` 2PWRVYPY   5HUKP ^LYL WYPTHYPS` HNYPJ\S[\YHSPZ[Z [OH[ NYL^ tremendous varieties of millets and tubers.OLMLY[PSL9PM[=HSSL`JVU[HPUZH]HYPL[`VM HNYVLJVSVNPJHSaVULZJVUZPZ[PUNTHPUS`VMHU\WWLY OPNOSHUK^OLH[HUKIHYSL`aVULHUKHSV^LYOPNOSHUK THPaLW`YL[OY\THUKZ\UÅV^LYaVUL<HZPU.

12 Volume 29. Rift Valley.  0U [OLJVSVUPHSNV]LYUTLU[\UKLY[VVR )YP[PZO ZL[[SLYZ Z[HY[LK NYV^PUN THPaL PU SHYNLY TLHZ\YLZ[VPUJYLHZLMVVKZ\WWS`KL]LSVWPUNWVSPJPLZ X\HU[P[PLZ HUK JVSVUPHS SHUKV^ULYZ \ZLK THPaL H [VZ[PT\SH[LHNYPJ\S[\YHSWYVK\J[PVU.OPZL]VS\[PVUMYVTSVJHS]HYPH[PVU mercantilism and formal colonialism in the sixteenth [VOVTVNLUPaH[PVUPZHKLÄUPUNJOHYHJ[LYPZ[PJVMIV[O JLU[\Y` ^OLU 7VY[\N\LZL ZL[[SLYZ NYL^ P[ HSVUN [OL THPaL WYVK\J[PVU HUK HNYPJ\S[\YHS KL]LSVWTLU[ PU :^HOPSPJVHZ[-PN4J*HUU0[ZSV^S`ILJHTL JVSVUPHS:\I:HOHYHU(MYPJH4J*HUU a staple of the local diet. 2010 . as the main form of sustenance ¸\UOLZP[H[PUNS` YLJVTTLUKLK  [OH[ MHYTLYZ ZOV\SK Figure 2. and by the mid-nineteenth JLU[\Y` THPaL ^HZ ^LSSLZ[HISPZOLK HZ H WYPUJPWSL Policies for monoculture cash crops JYVW PU :^HOPSP [YHKL JHYH]HUZ HUK HNYPJ\S[\YHS +YV\NO[ZHUK[OLYLZ\S[HU[KPZW\[LZV]LYMVVK Z`Z[LTZ[OYV\NOV\[[OLYLNPVU4J*HUU.HZ[ (MYPJH MVSSV^PUN ZVYNO\THUKTPSSL[. Desiccated maize field.William Collier LU]PYVUTLU[HS OHaHYK VY \UJLY[HPU[` MVY 5HUKP MVY[OLPY(MYPJHUMHYTSHIVYLYZ+\YPUN[OLWLYPVKMYVT  THPaLNYHK\HSS`ILJHTLHZ[HWSLMVVKPU[OL 2LU`HUKPL[^OPJO^HZWYL]PV\ZS`KVTPUH[LKI`[OL Colonial rule and New World crops TPSSL[Z[\ILYZSLN\TLZHUKRHSLZJVTTVUS`MV\UK Western exploration and expansion in PU [YHKP[PVUHS MHYTPUN Z`Z[LTZ 9LW\ISPJ VM 2LU`H (MYPJH OHK H WYVMV\UK PUÅ\LUJL VU HNYPJ\S[\YHS   +\YPUN [OPZ [PTL THPaL J\S[P]H[PVU ZOPM[LK and economic development.OLNV]LYUTLU[ cheap food source. Kenya. have played a fundamental role in contemporary OPNOS`SVJHSPaLK]HYPH[PVUPUIYLLKPUNHUKJ\S[P]H[PVU 2LU`HU WVSP[PJZ HUK HNYPJ\S[\YHS KL]LSVWTLU[ )H[LZ 4HPaL ^HZ VYPNPUHSS` PUJVYWVYH[LK PU[V [YHKP[PVUHS 6ULVM[OLLHYSPLZ[JVSVUPHSHNYPJ\S[\YHSWVSPJPLZ TP_LK WSV[Z HUK Z^PKKLU Z`Z[LTZ 2PWRVYPY   PUÅ\LUJPUN THPaL KL]LSVWTLU[ VJJ\YYLK HZ H YLZ\S[ VMHZL]LYLKYV\NO[HUK^PKLZWYLHKMVVKZOVY[HNLPU In the early part of the twentieth century. A field of maize intercropped with beans is withering due to insufficient rains.HYS`  THPaL HNYPJ\S[\YL PU 2LU`H ^HZ JOHYHJ[LYPaLK I` policy. Perhaps one of the [V PUJYLHZLK \UPMVYTP[` HUK Z[HUKHYKPaH[PVU :THSS SVUNLZ[SHZ[PUN YLSPJZ VM [OPZ LUJYVHJOTLU[ ^HZ [OL MHYTZ^P[OOPNOS`SVJHSPaLK]HYPHIPSP[`^LYLYLWSHJLK establishment and proliferation of Western cereals ^P[OSHYNLTVUVJ\S[\YLWSHU[H[PVUZ4HPaLHUK^OLH[ HUK JHZO JYVWZ 4HPaL Zea mays H 5L^ >VYSK became substitutes for the traditional varieties of JLYLHS JYVW ÄYZ[ HWWLHYLK PU . Photo by William Collier. Moiben Division.

Tropical Resources Bulletin 13 .OL HYLH \UKLY THPaL WYVK\J[PVU PUJYLHZLK[VHYLJVYKOPNOI` HUKMVY[OLÄYZ[[PTL PU[OLHNYHYPHUOPZ[VY`VM2LU`HHKVTPUHU[Z`Z[LTVM THPaLWYVK\J[PVULTLYNLK-PN9LW\ISPJVM2LU`H   -PM[LLU `LHYZ SH[LY THPaL KL]LSVWTLU[ ^HZ HNHPU JH[HS`aLK HZ [OL YLZ\S[ VM H ULHYMHTPUL [OH[ VJJ\YYLKPU .OLJVTTPZZPVUJVUJLYULK^P[O[OL M\[\YLVMHNYPJ\S[\YHSWYVK\J[PVUHUKKL]LSVWTLU[PU PUKLWLUKLU[ 2LU`H X\PJRS` JYP[PJPaLK [OL WYL]PV\Z JVSVUPHS YLNPTL Z[H[PUN  ¸.OL \U^PZKVT VM [OL WVSPJ` VM TVUVJ\S[\YL HNYPJ\S[\YL OHK UV[ ILJVTL HWWHYLU[HZVM`L[¹9LW\ISPJVM2LU`H . The agricultural landscape is dominated by large tracts of maize and wheat.OLZL NHYKLUZJVU[HPUH]HYPL[`VMRHSLZSLN\TLZHUK[\ILYZ [OL JYVWZ [OH[ KVTPUH[LK 2LU`HU MHYTPUN Z`Z[LTZ ILMVYLLZ[HISPZOTLU[VMJHZOJYVWHNYPJ\S[\YL.OPZ[PTLOV^L]LY[OLJVSVUPHS NV]LYUTLU[ X\LZ[PVULK [OL WVSPJPLZ JYLH[LK ZL]LYHS `LHYZ LHYSPLY. Agricultureforest mosaic in Moiben Division.O\Z HS[OV\NO [OL NV]LYUTLU[ YLJVNUPaLK [OL SPTP[H[PVUZ [VTVUVJYVWWPUNJLYLHSJYVWZHUKHS[OV\NOP[^HZ Z\NNLZ[LK [V KL]LSVW V[OLY H]LU\LZ VM HNYPJ\S[\YHS KL]LSVWTLU[ [OL JVSVUPHS NV]LYUTLU[ JVUJS\KLK that the only practical option was to develop a Z`Z[LT VM PUJYLHZLK KLWLUKLUJ` \WVU THPaL PUX\PYLPU[V[OLZ[H[\ZVMTHPaLPU[OLJV\U[Y`9LW\ISPJ VM2LU`H . Kenya.OLZL ]LNL[HISLZ HYL PU[LYJYVWWLK HUK NYV^U PU H ]HYPL[` VMZTHSSWSV[ZHYV\UK[OLOVTLZ[LHKPUJYLHZPUN[OL  0U Q\Z[MV\Y`LHYZHM[LYPUKLWLUKLUJLPU U\[YP[PVUHSIHZLHUKKP]LYZPM`PUN[OLYPZRVMJYVWMHPS\YL 2LU`HHNV]LYUTLU[JVTTPZZPVU^HZLZ[HISPZOLK[V HJYVZZT\S[PWSLWSV[ZHUKJVUÄN\YH[PVUZ)L`VUK[OL Figure 3. Rift Valley.OL +PYLJ[VY VM(NYPJ\S[\YL Z[H[LK ¸[OL correct policy would be to return at the earliest possible moment to a reduced production of cereals and an PUJYLHZL PU SLN\TPUV\Z HUK V[OLY JYVWZ¹ 9LW\ISPJ VM 2LU`H    )\[ K\L [V [OL \YNLUJ` VM [OL ZP[\H[PVUHUK[OLYLZV\YJLZH]HPSHISL[OLNV]LYUTLU[ JVUJS\KLK[OH[[OLYL^HZ¸UVHS[LYUH[P]L[VNP]PUNHSS WVZZPISL LUJV\YHNLTLU[ [V [OL WYVK\J[PVU VM THPaL HUKV[OLYJLYLHSZ¹9LW\ISPJVM2LU`H . But now. A relic of a colonial plantation is located in the center of the valley. Photo by William Collier.OL UL^S` MVYTLK PUKLWLUKLU[ NV]LYUTLU[ YLJVNUPaLK [OH[ [OL WYL]PV\Z HNYPJ\S[\YHS KL]LSVWTLU[ WH[O was unwise.Colonial Maize and Climate in Kenya JVUJLU[YH[L VU [OL NYV^PUN VM THPaL¹ 9LW\ISPJ VM 2LU`H   . after more than four decades VM PUKLWLUKLUJL WVSPJPLZ WYVTV[PUN TVUVJ\S[\YL JLYLHSZ HUK JHZO JYVWZ Z[PSS KVTPUH[L HNYPJ\S[\YHS KL]LSVWTLU[PU[OL9PM[=HSSL`HUK[OYV\NOV\[2LU`H Future Climate Adaptation Homegardens and climate variability  -HYTLYZ PU [OL 9PM[ =HSSL` JVTTVUS` RLLW ZL]LYHS ZTHSS NHYKLUZ ILZPKL [OLPY OVTLZ .

these crops exhibit a variety VMJOHYHJ[LYPZ[PJZHK]HU[HNLV\ZMVYMHYTLYZ(IV]LHSS [OL`HYLOLHY[`X\PJRNYV^PUNHUKYLZPZ[HU[[VKYV\NO[ Implications for adaptation When weather conditions are unfavorable. Photo by William Collier. maize. This small home garden -containing pumpkin. ZTHSSNYLLUTVZHPJVM]LNL[HISLZ[OLZLOVTLNHYKLUZ also provide a window into the broader history of HNYPJ\S[\YLPU2LU`H>LSSHKHW[LK[V[OLJSPTH[PJHUK environmental conditions. Home garden in Moiben Division. . cassava. Kenya. and political JVU[L_[Z VM HNYPJ\S[\YHS KL]LSVWTLU[ HUK MVVK ZLJ\YP[`PU2LU`H<UKLYZ[HUKPUN[OLOPZ[VYPJHSYVV[Z VM [YHKP[PVUHS HNYPJ\S[\YL HUK [OL JVU[LTWVYHY` JVUZLX\LUJLZ VM H TVUVJ\S[\YL HNYPJ\S[\YHS Z`Z[LT TH` WYV]PKL PUZPNO[Z VU OV^ [V HKHW[ [V M\[\YL JSPTH[L [OYLH[Z ^OPSL YL]VS\[PVUPaPUN HNYPJ\S[\YL [V PUJYLHZLMVVKZLJ\YP[`PU2LU`H  (NYVMVYLZ[Y` [LJOUPX\LZ HUK Z`Z[LTZ Z\JO HZ OVTLNHYKLUZ JHU WYV]PKL H ^PKL YHUNL VM U\[YP[PVUHSHUKLJVUVTPJILULÄ[Z[V2LU`HUMHYTLYZ /PZ[VYPJHSS`OVTLNHYKLUZOH]LWYV]LUHK]HU[HNLV\Z MVYZWYLHKPUNYPZRKP]LYZPM`PUN[OLLJVUVTPJIHZLHUK WYV]PKPUN PUJYLHZLK ZV\YJLZ VM U\[YP[PVU [V 2LU`HU MHTPSPLZ -PN  :PTPSHY [V ZTHSSOVSKLY MHYTLYZ PU  0U [OL WHZ[ [^V KLJHKLZ HNYPJ\S[\YHS scientists and policy planners have heralded the YHWPK HK]HUJLTLU[ VM THPaL HZ H THQVY MVVK JYVW PU (MYPJH (NYPJ\S[\YHS LJVUVTPZ[Z OH]L ]PL^LK [OL KVTPUHUJLVMTHPaLPU. there will ILHULLK[VIHSHUJLZOVY[[LYTTLHZ\YLZMVYO\UNLY YLSPLM ^P[O SVUN[LYT Z[YH[LNPLZ MVY HKHW[H[PVU HUK YLZPSPLUJL 0[ PZ PTWVY[HU[ [V YLJVNUPaL [OL JVTWSL_ economic.]LU 5VILS 3H\YLH[L 5VYTHU )VYSH\N MH[OLY VM (ZPH»Z ^OLH[HUKYPJL 14 Volume 29.OLZL NHYKLUZ UV[ VUS` YLWYLZLU[ [OL J\YYLU[Z\JJLZZHUKZ\Y]P]HSI\[HSZV[OLPUKPNLUV\Z LU]PYVUTLU[HS RUV^SLKNL WHZZLK KV^U MYVT WYL]PV\Z NLULYH[PVUZ .provides a diverse source of subsistence for smallholder farmers during drought and climate variability. MHYTLYZ [OYV\NOV\[ [OL 9PM[ =HSSL` ZOPM[ [OLPY KHPS` SHIVY ZJOLK\SLZ [V ZWLUK ZPNUPÄJHU[S` TVYL [PTL ^VYRPUN PU [OLZL ZTHSS NHYKLUZ SLH]PUN [OL SHYNLY SLZZ THUHNLHISL ÄLSKZ VM THPaL HUK ^OLH[ [V ^PS[ MVY MVKKLY .OLZL HNYPJ\S[\YHS Z`Z[LTZ ÅV\YPZOLK MVY [OV\ZHUKZ VM `LHYZ PU 2LU`H WYPVY [V JVSVUPHS LUJYVHJOTLU[ HUK [OL RUV^SLKNL ZRPSSZ HUK [LJOUPX\LZ KL]LSVWLK [V THRL [OLT Z\JJLZZM\S HYLH[LZ[HTLU[[V[OLPYOLYP[HNL  (Z [OL PTWHJ[Z VM JSPTH[L JOHUNL HYL anticipated to exacerbate food insecurity. kales. and bananas -.HZ[(MYPJHHZHTPYHJSLVM[OL MYLL THYRL[ 4J*HUU  . environmental. social. 2010 0UKVULZPHOVTLNHYKLUZPU2LU`HWYV]PKLHUH]LU\L for farmers to rely on and develop their own resources despite the transformations of the colonial experience (Dove 1990).William Collier Figure 4. Rift Valley.

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