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STEAM TURBINE
0PERATION & MAINTENANCE
INSTRUCTIONS

NO.STENO.STE-TFTF-266-MS

KHAPERKHEDA, 1X500 MW

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BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED
RANIPUR, HARIDWAR – 249403 (INDIA)

Steam Turbine
General

Preface

This manual contains information on the
operation and maintenance of steam turbine.
The information has been prepared with the
assumption that the O&M personnel have
basic knowledge of power plant engineering
and operation.

turbine. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
can not be responsible for any malfunction
occurring as a result of operation beyond
rated limits and such operation, if
undertaken by utilities, must be at their own
risk.

It is an essential prerequisite for satisfactory
operation and maintenance of the steam
turbine that the operating and maintenance
personnel are fully familiar with the design of
the steam turbine plant and receive thorough
training in operating and maintaining the
unit.

The part numbers of components, indicated
in the Description section of the manual
should not be used for ordering spare parts.
Please refer the chapter on Ordering of
spares for that purpose.

Extensive operation beyond rated design
values will eventually result in increased
maintenance expenses or a corresponding
reduction in the useful life of the steam

Effort has been made to include adequate
information in this manual. For any further
information or clarification please contact:
Field Engineering Services, Steam Turbine
Engineering, BHEL, Haridwar– 249403,
Uttarakhand, India.

KHAPERKHEDA, 1X500MW: Document No. STE-TF-266-MS
KJ
Prepared
by

Issued by

BHEL Haridwar

SM

VS
Checked
by

STE (FES), BHEL, Haridwar

SRP

PCK
Approved
by

Issue
Date

19.08.09

5.0-0001-66

Steam Turbine
Description

Subject

Contents

Document No

GENERAL

Preface
Contents
DESCRIPTION

5.0-0001-66/1
5.0-0002-66/3

Brief Description
Sectional arrangement
General description
Fixed points
Technical Data

5.1-0001-04/1
5.1-0002-04/2
5.1-0003-02/2

Construction, speed &
Steam pressure
Steam and casing
temperatures
Bearing metal temperatures,
vibration, weights

5.1-0100-66/3

Oil supply, oil pumps
Control fluid system and
control fluid pumps
Limit curves: HP stop &
control valve casing
Limit curves: HP casing
Limit curves: HP shaft
Limit curves: IP shaft
Steam purity values
Oil specification standard
Fire resistant fluid (FRF) for
turbine control system
HP Turbine
Valve arrangement
Casing
Blading
Shaft seals and balance
piston
Front bearing pedestal
Rear bearing pedestal
Combined journal and thrust
bearing
Journal bearing, HP front
Casing supports and guides
IP Turbine

5.1-0103-66/2
5.1-0104-66/4

Casing
Blading
Shaft seals
Rear bearing pedestal

5.1-0310-01/3
5.1-0320-02/1
5.1-0330-01/2
5.1-0340-02/1





















BHEL Haridwar

Document No

Journal bearing IP rear
Casing supports and guides
LP Turbine
Casing
Atmospheric relief
diaphragm
Blading, drum stages
Blading, LP stages
Shaft seals
Rear bearing pedestal
Journal bearing
Turning Gear

5.1-0345-01/2
5.1-0350-01/2



Hydraulic turning gear
Manual turning gear
Hydraulic lifting device
Control System

5.1-0510-01/1
5.1-0520-01/1
5.1-0530-66/2











General description
Start-up procedure
Speed control
Electrical speed measuring
Protective devices
Over speed trip test
Testing of stop valves
LP bypass System (General)
Extraction check valve
Swing check valve (CRH)
Testing of check valves in
cold reheat line
Automatic turbine tester
general
Automatic turbine tester
for protective devices
Automatic turbine tester
stop and control valves
HP actuator
Electro hydraulic seal steam
pressure control
Governing scheme
Control system diagram
legend
Lubrication chart
Control System Parts

5.1-0600-01/2
5.1-0610-01/2
5.1-0620-01/2
5.1-0621-02/1
5.1-0630-01/2
5.1-0631-01/1
5.1-0632-02/1
5.1-0640-01/1
5.1-0650-01/1
5.1-0651-01/1
5.1-0652-02/1






Subject





5.1-0101-66/2
5.1-0102-66/1

5.1-0110-01/1
5.1-0111-01/2
5.1-0112-01/2
5.1-0113-01/1
5.1-0120-01/1
5.1-0130-04/2
5.1-0140-04/2

5.1-0205-00/1
5.1-0210-01/3
5.1-0220-02/1
5.1-0230-01/2



5.1-0240-01/2
5.1-0250-02/2
5.1-0260-01/2


5.1-0270-01/2
5.1-0280-01/2




5.1-0410-00/4
5.1-0420-00/1
5.1-0430-01/1
5.1-0440-01/2
5.1-0450-01/1
5.1-0460-02/1
5.1-0470-00/2

5.1-0660-00/1
5.1-0661-00/7
5.1-0662-01/4
5.1-0665-00/1
5.1-0670-01/4
5.1-0680-01/1
5.1-0681-01/5
5.1-0690-01/3

Hydraulic speed governor with 5.1-0710-00/2
starting and load limiting device

5.0-0002-66/1

























Subject

Document No

Adjusting gear
Electro hydraulic converter
for turbine control system
Hydraulic amplifier for
turbine control system
Electrical speed pick-up
Pressure converter
Steam valves and
accessories
Combined main stop and
control valve
Servomotor for main &
reheat stop valves
Hydraulic servomotor for
main & reheat control valves
Test valve for emergency
stop valve
Combined reheat stop &
control valves
Hangers for reheat stop &
control valves
Steam strainer
Changeover valve for
bleeder check valve
Auxiliary valve of extraction
check valve
Rotary vane actuator for
reheat swing check valve
Pilot valve for rotary vane
actuator of swing check valve
Auxiliary pilot valve for
rotary vane actuator of
reheat swing check valve
Gland steam control valve
Leakage steam control valve
Protective Devices
Main trip valve
Emergency trip valve for
manual trip out
Solenoid valve for remote
trip out
Over speed trip
Over speed trip releasing
device
Over speed trip test device
Low vacuum trip
Condenser safety device

5.1-0720-00/1
5.1-0730-02/3

5.1-0740-02/3


5.0-0002-66/2

5.1-0760-01/1
5.1-0761-00/1

5.1-0810-01/2
5.1-0811-00/1
5.1-0812-00/2
5.1-0813-00/1
5.1-0814-00/2












5.1-0815-01/1
5.1-0816-00/1
5.1-0840-00/1

5.1-0841-00/2


5.1-0853-01/1

5.1-0854-00/1
5.1-0855-00/1




5.1-0860-02/1
5.1-0870-02/1


5.1-0910-00/2
5.1-0911-00/1


5.1-0912-00/1
5.1-0920-00/1
5.1-0921-00/2
5.1-0922-00/2
5.1-0935-00/1
5.1-0940-00/1








Subject

Document No

Solenoid valve for temperature controlled interlock
Vacuum breaker
Changeover valve for
testing device
Oil Supply
Oil supply system
Oil vapor extraction system
Oil discharge & vent system
Oil purification system
Main oil tank
Main oil pump with hydraulic
speed transmitter
Auxiliary oil pump
DC emergency oil pump
Jacking oil pump
Oil throttle
Oil throttle
Three way control valve for
Lubricating oil temp. control
Control Fluid Supply
HP control fluid pump with
LP extraction
Plate-type filter
Duplex filter for pilot control
of control valves
Regenerating plant
Other Systems
Drain system (MAL)
System diagram index
Component diagram index
Shaft seal system
Operation
Introduction
Specification of steam, oil &
control fluid
Testing of turbine
Components - General
Turbine systems testing
testing intervals
Controllers
Automatic turbine tester
Automatic turbine tester
Protective devices
Safety devices
Valves
Monitoring devices
Operating parameters

5.1-0950-00/1
5.1-0960-02/2
5.1-0980-00/1

5.1-1000-66/4
5.1-1001-66/2
5.1-1002-66/2
5.1-1003-66/1
5.1-1010-01/2
5.1-1020-01/2
5.1-1030-01/1
5.1-1040-01/1
5.1-1050-00/2
5.1-1080-00/1
5.1-1081-00/1
5.1-1090-01/1

5.1-1110-00/1
5.1-1120-00/1
5.1-1130-00/3
5.1-1140-00/3
5.1-1210-66/2
5.1-1220-66/3
5.1-1230-66/11
5.1-1240-66/5
5.2-0001-01/1
5.2-0002-00/1
5.2-0020-00/1

5.2-0021-01/1
5.2-0022-01/1
5.2-0023-01/1
5.2-0024-01/1
5.2-0025-01/1
5.2-0026-01/1
5.2-0027-01/1
5.2-0028-01/1

Subject































Start-up
Starting the turbine
Startup & shutdown
diagrams, symbols
Startup diagram
General
Preparation for startup
Operating position of
manually operated valves
Oil System & Turning Gear
Control fluid system
start-up diagram
Condensing Plant
Bypass System
Warm-up & startup of turbine
Temperature criteria
Controllers
On-load Running
Load operation, Introduction
Synchronization and loading
Power operation, controllers
Actions to prevent
unallowable heat-up
through blade wind age
Shut-down
Introduction
Shutdown diagram
General
Turbine-generator
Condensing plant
Oil system
Fast cooling down of turbine
Preventing corrosion in
idle turbine
Fault Tracing
Introduction
Serious faults
Vibration
Bearing temperature
Casing temperatures
Turbine stress controller:
measures to avoid
impermissible operation
Stop & control valves
Protective devices
Automatic turbine tester

Document No

5.2-0110-01/1
5.2-0111-00/1



5.2-0112-00/2
5.2-0113-00/1
5.2-0120-00/1
5.2-0130-02/5
5.2-0135-02/4





5.2-0140-02/4
5.2-0150-00/3
5.2-0160-02/6
5.2-0170-01/4
5.2-0180-00/4




5.2-0200-00/1
5.2-0210-00/5
5.2-0220-00/9
5.2-0230-00/4





5.2-0300-00/1


5.2-0310-01/1
5.2-0320-02/5
5.2-0330-01/2
5.2-0340-01/2
5.2-0350-01/1
5.2-0360-00/2







5.2-0400-00/1
5.2-0410-00/8
5.2-0420-00/5
5.2-0421-01/1
5.2-0423-02/2
5.2-0430-01/5




Subject

Document No

Oil system
Control fluid system
Gland steam system
Bypass System
MAINTENANCE
Introduction
Inspection schedule
Maintenance schedule
Turbine
Oil system, seal steam
system, drains
FRF system
Testing during start-up
Testing during power
operation
Acquisition & archiving of
operating data
Remedial actions for offnormal operating conditions
Measurement of internal
efficiency
Testing during shut down
Testing during standstill
Testing of safety valves
Testing of signaling devices
Testing of TSC
Steam washing of turbine
Turbine Oil care
Grease and Oil lubrication
Care of control fluid
Determination of FRF purity
Vibration dampers
Instructions for overhaul
Turbine restart after boiler
repairs
Turbine restart after major
inspections or repairs
Environmental protection
Fluorelastomer products
safety notice
Safe disposal of turbine oil
Ordering of spares

5.2-0460-00/6
5.2-0470-00/3
5.2-0480-01/1
5.2-0490-00/3
5.3-0001-01/1
5.3-0010-04/3
5.3-0021-02/1
5.3-0022-01/3
5.3-0023-01/2
5.3-0030-02/7
5.3-0035-02/5
5.3-0037-03/3
5.3-0040-01/6
5.3-0050-02/3
5.3-0060-01/5
5.3-0061-02/6
5.3-0062-01/1
5.3-0063-00/2
5.3-0064-01/4
5.3-0070-02/3
5.3-0080-03/11
5.3-0081-00/1
5.3-0082-02/9
5.3-0083-01/2
5.3-0100-00/2
5.3-0200-05/8
5.3-0210-00/1
5.3-0220-00/3
5.3-0250-00/1
5.3-0251-00/1
5.3-0252-00/1
5.3-0300-00/1

5.2-0440-01/2
5.2-0450-01/7
5.2-0455-00/9

5.0-0002-66/3

Steam Turbine
Description

BHEL Haridwar

Cross Sectional Arrangement

5.1-0001-04

Steam turbine
Description

General Description

Construction, Steam Flow

LP Turbine

The turbine is a tandem compound machine with
separate HP,IP and LP sections. The HP section
being a single-flow cylinder and the IP and LP
sections double-flow cylinders. The turbine
rotors and the generator rotor are connected by
rigid couplings.
The HP turbine is throttle controlled. The initial
steam is admitted ahead of the blading via two
main stop and control valve combinations. A
swing check valve is installed in the line leading
from HP turbine exhaust to the Reheater to
prevent hot steam from the reheater flowing
back into the HP turbine.
The steam coming from the Reheater is passed
to the IP turbine via two reheat stop and control
valve combinations. Cross around pipes connect
the IP and LP cylinders. Connections are
provided at several points of the turbine for
feedwater extraction purpose.

The casing of the double-flow LP cylinder is of
three-shell design. The shells are horizontally
split and are of rigid welded construction. The
innermost shell, which carries the first rows of
stationary blades, is supported so as to allow
thermal expansion within the intermediate shell.
The intermediate shell rests at four points on
longitudinal girders, independent of the outer
shell. Guide blade carriers, carrying the last
stationary blade rows are also attached to the
intermediate shell.

HP Turbine, Barrel Type Casing
The outer casing of the HP turbine is of the
barrel type and has neither an axial nor a radial
flange. his prevents mass concentration which
would have caused high thermal stresses. The
almost perfect asymmetric design of the casing
permits moderate and nearly uniform wall
thickness at all sections. The inner casing is
axially split and supported so as to be free to
move in response to thermal expansion. As only
slight pressure differences are effective, the
horizontal flange and joint bolts of the inner
casing can be kept small. The barrel type casing
permits flexibility of operation in the form of short
start-up times and a high rate of change of load
even at high initial steam conditions.

IP Turbine
The IP turbine section is of double flow
construction with horizontally split casings.
Allowance is made for thermal movement of the
inner casing within the outer casing. The inner
casing carries the stationary blading. The
reheated steam enters the inner casing from top
and bottom. The provision of an inner casing
confines high steam inlet conditions to the
admission section of this casing, while the joint
flange of the outer casing is subjected only to
the lower pressure and temperature effective at
the exhaust from the inner casing.

BHEL Haridwar

Blading
The entire turbine is provided with reaction
blading. The stationary and moving blades of the
HP and IP sections and the front rows of the LP
turbine are designed with integrally milled
inverted T -roots and shrouds. The last stages of
the LP turbine are fitted with twisted drop -forged
moving blades with fir-tree roots engaging in
grooves in the shaft with last stage stationary
blades made from sheet steel.

Bearings
The HP rotor is supported on two bearings, a
journal bearing at its front end, and a combined
journal and thrust bearing immediately next to
the coupling to the IP rotor. The IP and LP rotors
have a journal bearing each at rear end. The
combined
journal
and
thrust
bearing
incorporates a journal bearing and a thrust
bearing which takes up residual thrust from both
directions. The bearing metal temperatures are
measured by thermocouples directly under the
babbit lining. The temperature of the thrust
bearing is measured in two opposite thrust pads.
The bearing pedestals are anchored to the
foundation by means of anchor bolts and are
fixed in position.
The HP and IP turbines rest with their lateral
support horns on the bearing pedestals at the
turbine centerline level. The HP and IP casings
are connected with the bearing pedestals by
casing guides, which
establish the centerline alignment of the turbine
casing.
The axial position of the HP and IP casings is
fixed at the support brackets on HP-IP bearing
pedestal.

5.1-0002-04/1

The fixed point for the LP casing is at the front
point of support on the longitudinal girder.
Thermal expansion of the casings originates
from the fixed points.
Shaft Seal and Blade Tip Sealing
All shaft seals, which seal the steam in the
casings against atmosphere, are axial-flow
type. They consist of a large number of thin seal
strips which, in the HP and IP turbines are
caulked alternately into grooves in the shafts
and the surrounding seal rings. In the LP
turbine, the seal strips are caulked only into the
seal rings. Seal strips of similar design are also
used to seal the radial blade tip clearances.

Valves
The HP turbine is fitted with two main stop and
control valves. One main stop valve and one
control valve with stems arranged at right angles
to each other are combined in a common body.
The main stop valves are spring-action singleseat valves; the control valves, also of singleseat design, have diffusers to reduce pressure
losses.
These valve combinations are located at both
sides of the turbine with their stems horizontal.
The HP valves are connected to the turbine by
easily separable collar couplings, which contain
self-sealing U-rings as sealing elements.
The IP turbine has two reheat stop and control
valves. The reheat stop valves are spring-action
single-seat valves. The control valves, also
spring-loaded, have diffusers. The control valves
operate in parallel and are fully open in the
upper load range. In the lower load range, they
control the steam flow to the IP turbine and
ensure stable operation even when the turbinegenerator unit is supplying only the station load.
The reheat stop and control valves are
supported free to move in response to thermal
expansion on the foundation cover plate below
the operating floor and in front of the turbinegenerator unit. All valves are actuated by
individual hydraulic servomotors.

Turbine Control System
The turbine has an electrohydraulic control
system. An electric system measures speed and
output and controls them by operating the
control
valves
hydraulically
via
an
electrohydraulic converter. The electrohydraulic
controller ensures controlled acceleration of the
turbine-generator up to rated speed and limits
speed overshoot in the event of sudden load
rejection.
The
linear
power
frequency
droopcharacteristic can be adjusted in fine steps
even
when the turbine is running.

Turbine Monitoring System
In addition to measuring and display instruments
for pressure, temperatures, valve lifts and
speed, the monitoring system also includes
instruments for measuring and indicating the
following parameters:
Rotor expansion measured at the rearbearing pedestal of the LP turbine
Axial shift measured at the HP-IP pedestal
Bearing pedestal vibration, measured at all
turbine bearings
Shaft vibration measured at all turbine
bearings

Oil Supply System
A common oil supply system lubricates and
cools the bearings . The main oil pump is driven
by the turbine shaft and draws oil from the main
oil tank. Auxiliary oil pumps maintain the oil
supply on start-up and shutdown, during turning
gear operation and when the main oil pump is
faulted. DC Emergency oil pump supplies oil to
the bearings during AC power failures.
A Jacking oil pump forces high-pressure oil
under the shaft journals to prevent boundary
lubrication during turning gear operation. The
Jacking oil pump also supplies the high pressure
oil to the Hydraulic Turning gear motor. The
lubricating and cooling oil is passed through oil
coolers before entering the bearings.
The control fluid pumps situated on a control
fluid tank supply the hydraulic turbine and
bypass control system and the protective
devices and valve actuators with HP and LP
control fluid.

5.1-0002-04/2

The HP and IP casings are connected with the bearing pedestals by casing guides which establish the centerline alignment of the turbine casings. Hence. Rotor Expansion The thrust bearing is housed in the rear bearing pedestal of the HP turbine. The axial position of HP and IP casings is fixed at the HP-IP pedestal. HARIDWAR Fixed Points Centering of LP outer casing is provided by guides which run in recesses in the foundation cross beam.Steam Turbine Description Design of the supports for the turbine has to allow for the expansion of the turbine during thermal cycling. originating from the thrust bearing and the casing expansion. which originates from the fixed points on the LP turbine longitudinal beams. The LP Turbine outer casing is held in place axially. when there is a temperature rise. Differential expansion between the rotor and casing of the LP turbine results from the difference between the expansion of the shaft assembly. The HP turbine rotor expands from the thrust bearing towards the front bearing pedestal of the HP turbine and the IP turbine rotor from the thrust bearing towards the generator. the outer casings of the HP turbine expand from their fixed points towards Front pedestal. Casing of IP Turbine expand from its fixed point towards the generator. towards the generator. Differential Expansion Differential expansion between the rotors and casings results from the difference between the expansion of rotor and casing originating from the HP-IP pedestal. Axial movement of the casings is unrestrained. The largest differential expansions of the HP and IP turbines thus occur at the ends farthest from the thrust bearing. The following components form the fixed points for the turbine: „ The HP. The HP and IP turbines rest with their lateral support horns on the bearing pedestals at the turbine centerline level. at turbine end of longitudinal girder by means of fitted keys.1-0003-02/1 . originating from the thrust bearing.IP Pedestal „ At turbine end of longitudinal girder of the LP Turbine „ The thrust bearing in the HP turbine rear bearing pedestal Casing Expansion The bearing pedestals are anchored to the foundation by means of anchor bolts and are fixed in position. IP and LP turbine bearing pedestals „ The horn supports of the HP and IP turbine at HP. Thermal expansion of the casings originates from the fixed points. LP Casing expands from its fixed point at front end. BHEL. Constrained thermal expansion would cause overstressing of the components. Free lateral expansion is allowed. The method of attachment of the turbine components is also critical to the magnitude of the differential expansion between the rotor and turbine casings which is given careful attention in the determination of internal clearances. The LP turbine rotor is displaced towards the generator by the expansion of the shaft assembly. 5.

1-0003-02/2 .5.

Trichy Extraction 4. Trichy 2 Bypass Stop and Control Valves with actuators & HPSU M/s Bomafa (High Pressure EJA based) Extraction Swing Check Valves Extraction 1 : No valve Extraction 2 : 1 Swing Check Valve with actuator and 1 Swing Check Valve without actuator DN 800 Make : BHEL. Trichy Extraction 5 : 1 Swing Check Valve with actuator and 1 Swing Check Valve without actuator DN 400 Make : BHEL.1-0100-66/1 . Trichy Extraction 4. Trichy Extraction 3 : 1 Swing Check Valve with actuator and 1 Swing Check Valve without actuator DN 500 Make : BHEL.2 : 2 Swing Check Valves with actuator DN 500 Make : BHEL.2 MW Construction Three cylinder reheat condensing turbine Single flow HP Turbine with 17 reaction stages Type : H30-100-2 Double flow IP Turbine with 12 reaction stages per flow Type : M30-63 Double flow LP Turbine with 6 reaction stages per flow Type : N30-2x10-2 2 Main Stop and Control valves (HP casing mounted) Type : EV 320-1 2 Reheat Stop and Control Valves (Floating) Type : IV 560 1 Swing Check Valve in cold reheat line DN-800 Make : BHEL.1 : 2 Swing Check Valves with actuator DN 500 Make : BHEL.Steam Turbine Description Technical Data Construction. Trichy Extraction 6 : No valve BHEL Haridwar 5. Speed & Steam Pressure Load Rated Load 500 MW Maximum Load under valve wide open (VWO) condition 524.

63 45.8 bar HP cylinder exhaust 44.5 c/s Permissible for maximum 2 hours during the life of LP blading Speed below Speed above 47.35 bar Extraction 2 1. Speed.84 bar Extraction 5 16.1013 bar condenser back pressure with all heaters in service and rated steam conditions. 55.84 IP cylinder stop valve inlet 39.35 3.0 c/s Speed limitation in load and station operation Max. ♠ The safety valves must be set so that short time values are not exceeded.64 52.42 0.5 to 60 c/s Speed exclusion range at operation without load * 7 to 47.55 Extraction 6 44.5 c/s Standard over speed trip setting Max. no time limitation 47.84 19.469 1.87 bar Extraction 4 6.42 bar LP cylinder exhaust 0. no time limitation 51.1-0100-66/2 .87 19. ♣ Long time operation: Upper limit value.97 47. ♥ Short time operation: Permissible momentary value.33 8.94 8.81 1.0 200.744 3.03 50.03 50.8 169. Speed.5 c/s Min. The aggregate duration of such swings must not exceed 12 hours in any one year All pressures are absolute pressures 5.342 0. permissible without time limit.7 175.81 bar Extraction 1 0.64 52.5 c/s * This speed range should be passed through in one smooth operation to avoid endangering the blades due to resonance Steam Pressures Rated Initial Steam ♦ ♣ Long time operation ♥ Short time operation Unit 166.4 169.3 0.33 bar Extraction 3 2.1013 0.5 c/s 51.0 bar Before 1 HP drum stage 154.3 bar st ♠ ♠ bar bar ♦ These values correspond to 500 MW load with 3 % make-up and 0.Speed Rated speed 50.

6 bar Seal steam supply system Pressure in seal steam header (above atmospheric) 35 mbar Axial shift Alarm ± 0.Low vacuum trip.0 mm Direction of rotation Anti clock wise when viewed from Front Pedestal towards the Generator 5.3 bar Hydraulic low vacuum trip bypass operation 0.3 bar Electrical low vacuum trip 0.5 mm Trip ± 1. standard setting Hydraulic low vacuum trip 0.1-0100-66/3 .

3 579.Steam Turbine Description Technical Data Steam & Casing Temperatures Steam Temperatures Rated value.0 573.0 Extraction 5 444. subject to annual average 400 hrs.0 70.1 500. per year 80 hrs. per year Max.4 70.1 428.0 Extraction 6 336.2 221.8 °C Extraction 4 309.0 °C HRH steam at IP Stop valve inlet 565.2 268. in individual case In special cases at no load HP turbine exhaust 336.4 °C Extraction 3 208. ♦ These values correspond to 500 MW Load with 3% makeup and 0. The turbine is immediately re-loaded or the boiler immediately reduced to minimum load if no load operation is maintained.8 449.8 484.3 167.3 551.2 °C Extraction 2 147. Casing Metal Temperatures Wall Temperatures Alarm at Machine must be shut down at Unit HP turbine casing exhaust 485 500 °C Outer casing of LP cylinder 90 110 °C 0 Spray water to LP turbine must be switched on at 90 C BHEL Haridwar 5.2 142. For individual case approx. 15 minutes. Max. per year.0 565.0 °C Steam Temperatures Rated value ♦ Long term operation 80 hrs.1027 bar back pressure with all heaters in service and rated steam conditions.1-0101-68/1 .0 °C Unit ♥ °C ♥ °C Long-term operation : upper limit value permissible without time limit.0 92. 15 min in individual case Unit Main steam at HP stop valve inlet 537. ♥ Only valid for the no load period with high reheat pressure after trip-out from full load operation. Annual average Long-term value.0 °C LP turbine exhaust 46.0 593. 15 min.0 545.1 428.3 °C Extraction 1 72.1 500.1 338.4 359.1 338.4 319.3 212.

middle ± 90 ± 100 °C Between upper & lower casing halves of IP turbine. certain turbine components are heated up by windage power of the blading. A5 (Both strings out) Output Limit during Testing with Automatic Turbine Tester Testing of main steam stop and control valves < 300 MW Testing of HRH steam stop and control valves 300 MW Motoring Motoring is the condition in which the turbine is driven by the generator at rated speed with the stop and control valves closed. motoring must not be allowed to continue for more than 4 seconds. front & rear ± 30 ± 45 °C * For IP turbine during cooling down. To prevent heat-up beyond permissible temperatures. If the condenser low vacuum limit of 0. MW 369 500 Extraction A6. Kg/s (indicative) Load. during restart once steam is admitted to the turbine the temperature difference will come down. 5. However. casing top bottom temperature difference can exceed these limits.1-0101-68/2 . motoring must not be allowed to continue for longer than one minute. In this operating mode.Casing Metal Temperature Differences Temperature Difference Alarm at Machine must be tripped at Unit Between upper & lower casing halves of HP turbine. Permissible differential temperature between parallel steam supply lines No time limitation 17 °C Short time period (15 min) 28 °C In the hottest line the limitations indicated for main and reheat steam temperature must not be exceeded Feedwater Heater out of service Operation with feedwater heaters out of service Main steam flow.3 bar is exceeded.

The above values are also given in peak to peak. Slings chosen must provide sufficient security. complete with blading 100 T Main stop and control valve. complete with blading. top half outer casing 26 T IP turbine. guide blade carriers & diffusers 37 T HP turbine rotor. complete with blading 23 T LP turbine rotor. ƒ Vibration readings indicated in control room are peak to peak.1-0102-66 . complete with blading 16 T LP turbine. Weights Bearing babbit metal temperatures Alarm at Machine must be shut down at Operation temperature below 75 °C 90 °C 130 °C Operation temperature 75 to 85 °C 100 °C 130 °C Operation temperature 85 to 90 °C 110 °C 130 °C Operation temperature above 90 °C 115 °C 130 °C Vibration Absolute bearing housing vibration Absolute shaft vibration 50 μm above normal level Standard alarm setting Maximum alarm setting 84 μm 200 μm Limit value for tripping 106 μm 320 μm ƒ The normal level is the reproducible vibrational behaviour typical for the machine & dependent on the operating conditions. complete with servo motors. Weights HP turbine. BHEL Haridwar 5. top half inner outer casing. without bend & pipe section 32 T All weights have been calculated with safety allowances. top half inner casing. complete with blading 16 T IP turbine rotor. without bend & pipe section 22 T Reheat stop and control valve. completely assembled 95 T IP turbine.Steam Turbine Description Technical Data Bearing Metal Temperatures Vibration. top half outer casing complete 43 T LP turbine. complete with servo motors.

full flow.55 dm /s Estimated oil requirement for Bearing 4 9.2. unit in operation Oil temperature at cooler outlet.5 – 5. number 1 No. 75 °C Temperature rise of oil in bearings Normal Max. 38 45 47 °C Oil temperature at cooler outlet. Oil Pumps OIL supply 3 Main oil tank. Nb 150 Make: MS HYDAC FILTER TECHNIK GMBH. Oil cooler for reserve. Filtration particle size of duplex filter element 37 µm Filtration particle size of main oil tank filter element 250 µm Safety valve in jacking oil system.70 dm /s Estimated oil requirement for Hydraulic Barring at 4.8 dm /s Estimated oil requirement for Bearing 2 15.0 bar 57. setting 178 bar BHEL Haridwar 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5. unit shut down Max.92 dm /s Estimated oil requirement for Generator rear bearing 7.68. 3 3 Min. Type: 2. 20 25 °C Estimated oil requirement for Bearing 1 0. setting 200 bar Pressure limiting valve in jacking oil system.92 dm /s Estimated oil requirement for Exciter bearing 0. size 355/750. rated capacity 25/40 M First oil filling (estimated) 53 M Flushing oil quantity (estimated) 32 M Oil cooler for operation. 1 No.29 dm /s Estimated oil requirement for Generator front bearing 7.1-0103-66/1 .4 dm /s Duplex oil filter. number 1 No.4 dm /s Estimated oil requirement for Bearing 3 4. Normal Max.Steam Turbine Description Technical Data Oil Supply.

1-0103-66/2 DC: 1 AC motor DC motor 3 .85 dm /s Discharge pressure 8.48 100 30 1.3 178 bar gauge Speed 3000 2970 1500 2900 rpm Drive Turbine AC motor DC motor 5. 540 rpm.Duplex oil filter for jacking oil. 510 rpm to avoid damage to bearings. Oil pumps Main oil pump Auxiliary oil pump DC emergency oil pump Jacking oil pump Quantity 1 2 1 AC: 1 Make BHEL KBL M&P Tushaco Type 350m3/hr KPDS/125/26L 4/5 SR 12KL Model 70 T 38/46 Rated Capacity 87. Type: DFDK 330 D40 W/HC/-V-So212 Make: K&H Eppensteiner. Germany 1 No Filtration particle size of jacking oil filter 37 µm Jacking oil pump.3 2. Jacking oil pump should be cut-out at speeds above approx. cut-in and cut-out speeds   Jacking oil pump must be in operation at turbine speeds below approx.4 6.

Type: PR 100. 3 3 Control fluid regeneration system Gear pump Make: Tushaco Fluid flow 0.1 3 1 No.55 KW Control fluid purification system Make: Rotring. Control fluid cooler for reserve 1 No. Fine filter BHEL.1-0104-66-1 . Drying filter 2 Nos.Steam Turbine Description Technical Data Control Fluid System & Control Fluid Pumps CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM A Fire Resistant Fluid (FRF) is used for the control system 3 Control fluid tank.25 dm /s Gauge pressure 3 bar speed 1405 rpm Motor power 0. rated capacity 10/16 M First fill quantity (estimated) 15 M Flushing fluid quantity (estimated) 12 M Control fluid cooler for operation 1 No. Fueller’s earth filter 1 No. HARIDWAR 5.

Control Fluid Pumps Control fluid pumps 2 Manufacturer KSB.0 High pressure leakage fluid & high pressure control fluid 16.60 11.5 Operating point I (normal operation) Operating point II (during start & opening of stop valve servomotors) Low pressure leakage fluid & low pressure control fluid 20.16 37.16 38.5 High pressure leakage fluid 6.60 10.1-0104-66-2 .0 Operating point III (during opening of CV servomotors) All pressures are gauge pressures. Type: WKVM80/1+3 Speed 2982 Drive A.8 Low pressure leakage fluid 7.C.8 High pressure leakage fluid 6. Manufacturer – Siemens AG Type: ILG4313-2AB94-Z Enclosure IP 55 Voltage 415 V Frequency 50 Hz Motor rating (at 50ºC) 121 KW Motor rating (at 40ºC) 132 KW Rated current 224 A Starting current 1614 A Control fluid pumps operating characteristics Nos.16 31.60 10. motor. 5. rpm Fluid flow 3 (dm /s) Discharge Pressure (bar) Low pressure leakage fluid 7.

Steam Turbine Operation Technical Data Limit Curves Permissible temperature difference Δθ in the wall of HP stop and control valve casing during Sliding Pressure Operation Mode 140 Δθ = f(θm ) 120 Heating up 100 F 80 N 60 S 40 OPERATION MODE F=Fast N=Normal S=Slow Δθ[K] 20 0 -20 -40 Cooling down -60 -80 100 0 200 300 400 500 600 θm [°C] BHEL Haridwar Δθ = (θi .1-0110-01 .θm) on the wall temperature sensor θi = temperature of inner layer θm = temperature of middle layer 5.

θm) on the wall temperature sensor θi temperature of inner layer = θm = BHEL Haridwar 200 500 600 θm [°C] temperature of middle layer 5.1-0111-01/1 .Steam Turbine Operation Technical Data Limit Curves Permissible temperature difference Δθ in the wall of HP casing during Sliding Pressure Operation Mode 140 Δθ = f(θm) 120 Heating up 100 80 F 60 N 40 OPERATION MODE F=Fast N=Normal S=Slow Δθ[K] 20 S 0 -20 -40 Cooling down -60 -80 100 0 300 400 Δθ = (θi .

θm) on the wall temperature sensor θi = temperature of inner layer θm = temperature of middle layer 600 .Permissible temperature difference Δθ in the wall of the HP casing during Constant Pressure Operation Mode 140 Δθ = f(θm ) 120 100 Heating up 80 F 60 N 40 S OPERATION MODE F=Fast N=Normal S=Slow 20 Δθ[K] 0 -20 -40 Cooling down -60 -80 0 100 200 300 400 500 θm [°C] 5.1-0111-01/2 Δθ = (θi .

Steam Turbine Operation Technical Data Limit Curves Permissible temperature difference Δθ in the HP turbine shaft during Sliding Pressure Operation Mode 200 180 Δθ = 160 f (θm) Heating up 140 120 F 100 Δθ[K] 80 N 60 S 40 OPERATION MODE F = Fast N = Normal S = Slow 20 0 -20 -40 Cooling down -60 -80 0 200 100 300 400 500 600 θm [°C] 220 200 180 160 Δθ[K] 140 120 100 80 60 0 Δθ θo θm θax BHEL Haridwar = = = = 20 40 60 80 100 120 θax [° C] (θo .θm) on the wall temperature sensor outer layer temperature of the shaft temperature of middle layer in the shaft (calculated) temperature of axis in the shaft (calculated) 5.1-0112-01/1 .

θm) on the wall temperature sensor outer layer temperature of the shaft temperature of middle layer in the shaft (calculated) temperature of axis in the shaft (calculated) .Permissible temperature difference Δθ in the HP turbine shaft during Constant Pressure Operation Mode 180 160 Δθ = 140 f (θm) Heating up 120 100 F 80 Δθ[K] 60 N 40 S 20 OPERATION MODE F = Fast N = Normal S = Slow 0 -20 -40 -60 Cooling down -80 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 θm [°C] 200 180 160 140 Δθ[K] 120 100 80 60 40 0 Δθ θo θm θax 5.1-0112-01/2 = = = = 20 40 60 80 100 120 θax [° C] (θo .

θm) on the wall temperature sensor outer layer temperature of the shaft temperature of middle layer in the shaft (calculated) temperature of axis in the shaft (calculated) 5.Steam Turbine Operation Technical Data Limit Curves Permissible temperature difference ∆θ in the IP turbine shaft during Sliding Pressure Operation Mode 200 180 ∆θ = 160 f (θm ) Heating up 140 120 F 100 N 80 ∆θ[K] 60 S 40 OPERATION MODE F = Fast N = Normal S = Slow 20 0 -20 -40 Cooling down -60 -80 0 100 200 300 400 500 θm [°C] 600 220 200 180 160 140 ∆θ[K] 120 100 80 60 0 ∆θ θo θm θax BHEL Haridwar = = = = 20 40 60 80 100 120 θax [°C] (θo .1-0113-01 .

020 0. with the values in the normal operation column preferable.010 Sodium (Na) mg/kg < 0.010 0.2 0. for example.9. If an alkaline method is used. however. the sodium concentration should be measured in addition to this.3 with brass condenser piping.020 0. the water steam circulation is for the customer to decide. Compliance with the target values is mandatory in continuous operation. In order to determine slight impurities.1 < 0. Wherever possible every effort should be made to Steam Purity values for main steam condensate achieve the values in the normal operation column.5.005 < 0. ** The target values must show a noticeable downward trend. There is no limitation for the pH value with noncorroding steel or titanium. it is recommended that values be kept below the target values and into the range of the values for normal operation. With the commissioning of a new plant and starting-up operation. has an adverse effect on the fatigue strength of the blade material when the steam is in the transition zone between the superheated and the saturated state. The corrosion stressing caused by active deposits. 0. On initial start-up of new plants the values given for normal operation must be achieved within 2 to 3 days and within 2 to 3 hours for other start-ups. the turbine is to be immediately washed with saturated steam to remove salt deposits.Steam Turbine Description The deposits which occur in turbines due to impurities in the steam can lead to thermodynamic and mechanical inefficiencies and. A recording instrument may be used to continuously monitor the electrical conductivity of the main steam and turbine condensate following a strongly acid cation exchange unit.001 < 0. especially chlorides. with the presence of salts.050 Total iron (Fe) mg/kg < 0. continuous measurement at sampling point µS/cm < 0. It should be pointed out that adherence to the target values does not rule out deposition in the turbine with absolute certainty. these values cannot be attained with an economical outlay. The values listed in the column “starting-up operation “are then valid. the oxygen content in the main steam condensate can be max. the pH value must not exceed 9. When the condenser piping is of copper-nickel alloys. Recommended values for main steam condensate Quantity Target Value * Normal Operation Start Up ** Conductivity at 25°C. down stream of highly acidic sampling cation exchanger. Whether an alkaline.020 * To avoid any drop in efficiency.002 < 0. BHEL Haridwar 5.003 0. neutral or combined method is used for conditioning. and sodium hydroxide also cause damage to turbine parts.02 mg/kg and the pH value in the turbine condensate max.005 < 0. Should saline contamination occur.050 Total copper (Cu) mg/kg < 0.50 Silica (SiO2) mg/kg < 0.1-0120-01 .

For obvious reasons. 130°C and oil tank temperature of max. if the same brand of oil is not available and where it is intended to mix in different products that individually conform to this standard. Viscosity Index 98 3. water washing or filtering. Pour point ≤-6 °C IS: 1448. Samples of both the oils in equal volume should be mixed and centrifuged for about 40 hrs. Test Method IS: 1448. Kinematic Viscosity at 40ºC Kinematic Viscosity at 50ºC 41.Steam Turbine Description Oil Specification Standard Introduction This standard specifies the turbine oil recommended for use in governing and lubrication systems of BHEL make steam turboset. Description Oil of viscosity class ISO VG 46 shall be used. a compatibility test should be conducted before actually mixing the oils. Rust preventing characteristics ≤ 0-B --- DIN: 51585 ASTM D665 BHEL Haridwar (Total ≤ 0. The finished oil shall be clear and free from water. it is preferable if the oil used is of the same brand and quality as that already in the system. P-56 ----- mg KOH/g IS: 1448. and then mixture must comply fully with the requirements of this standard. Properties Value Unit 1.85 --- IS: 1448. Colour 5. However. IS: 1448. No.90 --- 6. P-12 ASTM D1500 Specific gravity at 50 ºC Specific gravity at 15 ºC 0. The oil shall be a petroleum product with or without additives to meet the requirement of this standard. P-10 ASTM D97 9. P-25 ASTM D445 Min. IS: 1448. P-69 ASTM D92 7. we do not give any special recommendation to a particular brand of oil to be used in the oil system of our turbo sets.20 5. 80°C without physical and chemical degradation. P-15 ----- 8. Properties of turbine oil ISO VG 46 shall be as follows: Sl. The properties of the oil shall not be affected by centrifuging. The turbine oil shall not contain additives having any negative effect on the materials of the oil system. P-32 ASTM D1298 0. sediment and other impurities. dust.4 – 50.1 100 ºC for 3 hrs. Any brand of the oil complying with the above standards may be used. Copper strip corrosion test at Not worse than No.1-0130-04/1 .6 cst 28 cst 2. suspended matter. --- IS: 1448. Properties The oil should comply with the requirements given in table below when tested according to the test methods given in the respective standards mentioned against each property. Compatibility For topping up of the oil system. acidity) 4. Flash point (Cleveland open cup) > 200 °C IS: 1448. The turbine oil must be capable of withstanding bearing temperature of max. Neutralization No. P-1 ASTM D974 ≤2 Max.

2 mg KOH/g DIN: 51587 ASTM D943 12.3-0080: Turbine oil Care 5. No. Power Turbo-46 Indo Mobil Ltd. Solid particles by weight ≤ 0.01 % IS:1448. Ash (by weight) ≤ 0.Properties contd.Foaming tendency ----- ASTM: D892 .01 % DIN: 51777-1 ASTM: D1744 16.05 % DIN: 51592 ----- 17.Foaming stability 3 ≤ 400 cm ≤ 450 s s minutes DIN: 51381 ASTM: D3427 13. P-4 ----- 15. Water release (NAS: 1638) ≤ 300 s DIN: 51589-1 Following brands of oil are acceptable Supplier Brand Supplier Brand lOC Servo Prime 46 Castrol lndia Ltd. Sl. Total acidity after 2500 hrs oxidation ≤ 0. Deaeration capacity at 50°C ≤4 14. Emulsion characteristics ≤ 20 minute DIN: 51599 ASTM D1401 11.1-0130-04/2 . Properties Value Unit Test Method 10. Castrol Perfecto T-46-Superclean Gulf Oil India Ltd Gulf Crest 46 Bharat Petroleum Turbol 46 Apar Ltd. Mobil DTE Medium / DTE798 Caltex Regal R&O 46 Savita Chemicals Daphne Super Turbine oil 46 HPCL Turbinol 46 Bharat Shell Ltd. Shell Turbo oil T46 TOTALFINAELF Total Preslia 46 Also refer to the following sections: [1] 5. Particle distribution -/17/14 Minimum ISO: 4406 (Class-8) 18. Foaming characteristics at 25°C . Water content by weight ≤ 0.

Neutralisation number . if any.maximum variation ± 5% with reference to delivery condition. Zinc. Foaming at 25 °C -Tendency maximum 200 ml. It should not contain any viscosity index improver. There BHEL Haridwar 5. must not ignite or burn in contact with hot surfaces (up to 550 ºC). Note: Before using regeneration agents other than Fuller’s earth (e. The FRF must be miscible with traces (max.20 mg KOH/g with reference to delivery condition. The FRF must provide sufficient corrosion protection to the materials used in the FRF system. liquid material should be incinerated and material absorbed on sand should be disposed off as hazardous solid waste. The FRF shall not cause corrosion to Steel. The FRF must be free of ortho-cresol compounds.) of TXP of another brand. The following limit values are not to be exceeded during the life time : Kinematic viscosity .Steam Turbine Description This specification is valid for Fire Resistant Fluids (FRF) recommended for BHEL make steam turbine control system. provided that the requisite hygiene regulations are observed. According to ISO 6743/4. Disposal FRF leaking from the system. Stability maximum 450 sec. The FRF must be capable of withstanding continuous operating temperatures of 75 °C without physical or chemical degradation.1-0140-04/1 .g. Supplier to be contacted for ‘Buy Back’ of used fire resistant fluid. Copper and its alloys. ion exchangers) BHEL and FRF manufacturer or supplier shall be contacted. General Requirements Fire Resistant Fluid (FRF) for Turbine Control System should be no deterioration of the FRF in presence of such trace quantities. The air release of the FRF should not deteriorate in presence of fluoroelastomer seals and packing used in the FRF system. Limit values The FRF shall be continuously regenerated with Fuller’s earth or an equivalent regeneration agent. 3 % by vol. The FRF must not pose a safety or health hazard to the persons working with it. Tin or Aluminum. The FRF must not cause any erosion or corrosion on the edges of the control elements. In consultation with supplier. The FRF must be shear-stable.maximum increase 0. FRF is a fluid based on triarylphosphate ester marked ISO-L-HFDR. Air release -maximum 12 minutes.

Recommended Properties of new batches of FRF
Property

Numerical
Value

Unit
2

Test method
DIN / ISO

ASTM

Kinematic Viscosity at 40 °C
(ISO VG 46)

41.4 - 50.6

mm /s

DIN 51 562-1

D 445

Air release at 50 °C

≤3

minutes

DIN 51 381

D 3427

Neutralisation number

≤ 0.1

mg KOH/g

DIN 51 558-1

D 974

Water content

≤ 1000

mg/kg

DIN 51 777-3

Tendency

≤ 100

ml

Stability

≤ 450

sec

Water separability

≤ 300

sec

Demulsification

≤ 20

minutes

Foaming at 25 °C

D 892
(Seq. 1)
DIN 51 589-1

3

DIN 51 599

D 1401

DIN 51 757

D 1298
D 92

Density at 15 °C

≤ 1250

kg/m

Flash point (Cleveland open cup)

> 235

°C

DIN/ISO 2592

Ignition temperature

> 550

°C

DIN 51 794

Wick flame persistance time

≤5

sec

DIN/ISO 14935

Pour point

≤ −18

°C

DIN/ISO 3016

Particle distribution *

≤ 15/12

Code

ISO 4406

Chlorine content

≤ 50

mg/kg

DIN 51 577-3

Oxidation stability

≤ 2.0

mg KOH/g

DIN 51 373

Hydrolytic stability
Change of neutralisation number

≤ 2.0

mg KOH/g

DIN 51 348

Electrical resistivity

> 50

MΩm

IEC 247

D 97

* The required system cleanliness is dependent upon the system design. Suitable measures (e.g.
filtration, separation) have to be taken to achieve this cleanliness level.

Following fire Resistant Fluids are approved:
Brand
Supplier
1. Reolube Turbofluid 46XC
M/s. Chemtura, UK
2. Fyrquel EHC-N
M/s. Supresta, USA

Also refer to the following sections:
[1] 5.3-0082 : Care of control fluid

5.1-0140-04/2

Steam Turbine
Description

HP Turbine
Valve Arrangement

General Arrangement
The HP turbine has 2 main stop valves and 2
control valves located symmetrically to the right
and left of the casing. The valves are arranged
in pairs with one main stop valve and one
control valve in a common body.

The short length of the admission section
between the control valves and the casing
results in a very low steam volume in this
section, which has a beneficial effect on the
shutdown characteristics of the turbinegenerator unit.

Valve Actuation
Steam flow
The main steam is admitted
steam inlet passing first the
and then the control valves.
valves the steam passes
casing(1).

BHEL Haridwar

through the main
main stop valves
From the control
to the turbine

Each main stop valve and control valve has a
dedicated hydraulic servomotor(3;5). The
servomotors are mounted above floor level so
that they are accessible and can be easily
maintained.

5.1-0205-00

Steam Turbine
Description

Barrel type Casing
The HP outer casing is designed as a barreltype casing without axial joint. An axially split
inner casing (4) is arranged in the barrel-type
casing(3)
Because of its symmetrical construction, the
barrel - type casing retains its cylindrical shape
and remains leakproof during quick changes in
temperature (e.g. on start-up and shut down, on
load changes and under high pressures). The
inner casing too is almost cylindrical in shape as
the joint flanges

HP Turbine
Casing

are relieved by the high pressure acting from the
outside and can thus be kept small. For this
reason, turbines with barrel type casing are
especially suitable for quick start-up and loading.

Seals
The pretensioned U-shaped seal ring(12),
that is forced against the axial sealing surfaces
by the steam pressure and the I shaped seal
ring (16), that allows axial displacement of the
inner casing (4), seal the space between the
inner casing (4) and the barrel type outer casing
(3) from the adjacent spaces.

Fig. 1 HP Turbine
BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0210-01/1

Fig.2 Inlet Connection
3
4
6
7
8
9

Outer casing
Inner casing
U seal ring
Cylindrical pin
Breech nut
Inlet pipe from main stop and control valve

Connection to Main Stop and Control Valves
The steam lines from the main stop and control

3 Outer casing
4 Inner casing
11 Fitted Key

Fig. 3 Centering and support of
Inner casing (Admission side)
5.1-0210-01/2

valves are connected to the inlet connections
of the outer casing by Breech Nuts(8) (Fig.2)
through buttress threading. Sealing is achieved
by U-seal rings(6) which is forced against the
outer sealing surface by inlet steam pressure.
The annular space around the sealing ring is
connected to the condenser through a steam
leak-off line. Cylindrical pins(7) located at the
joint flange prevent rotation of the inlet pipe with
respect to the outer casing.

3 Outer casing
4 Inner casing
10 Fitted Key
Fig.
4 Centering
and support
of
Fig.
4 Centering
and support
inner casing (Exhaust side)

Inner casing (Exhaust side)

of

Attachment of Inner Casing
The inner casing (4) is attached in the
horizontal and vertical planes in the barrel-type
casing(3) so that it can freely expand radially in
all directions and axially from a fixed point when
heating up while maintaining concentricity
relative to the turbine rotor.
On the admission side, four projections of the
inner casing (4) and on the exhaust side three
projections fit into corresponding grooves in the
barrel-type casing (3). In the horizontal plane
these projections rest on fitted keys (10) and in
the vertical plane they are guided by the fitted
keys (11) (Fig.3&4). Radial expansion is
therefore not restricted by this suspension.
As shown in fig.6 the axial fixed point of the
inner casing is provided by a shoulder in the
barrel-type casing (3) against which a collar of
the inner casing(4) rests. The axial thrust to
which the inner casing is subjected is
transmitted to and absorbed by the thrust ring
(14) via thrust pads(13). The thrust ring is held
in position by support ring (15).

Outlet Connections
The exhaust end of HPT has single outlet
connection from bottom. At the flange
connection a U-seal ring (19) is provided to
prevent any leakage (Fig.1)

3 Outer casing
4 Inner casing
12 U- seal ring

3
4
16
17
18

Outer casing
Inner casing
I-seal ring
Holding ring
Hexagon head screw

Fig. 5 I-Ring seal (Detail A from Fig. 1)

13 Thrust pads
14 Thrust pads
15 Support ring

Fig. 6 Axial Retention ofInner casing and Centering in vertical plane (Detail E from Fig.1)

5.1-0210-01/3

HP Turbine
Blading

Steam Turbine
Description
Moving and Stationary Blades
The HP turbine with advance blading consists of
17drum stages. All stages are reaction stages
with 50% reaction. The stationary and moving
blades of all stages (Fig.1) are provided with
inverted T-roots which

1

A

2
3
.

B
4

5

The moving and stationary blades are
inserted into corresponding grooves in the
shaft( 4) and inner casing (1) and are caulked
at bottom with caulking
piece (5) .The
insertion slot in the shaft is closed by a
locking blade which is fixed by taper pins or
grub screws. End blades are used at the joint
plane in L/H & U/H of inner casing along with
predetermined interference.

Gap sealing
Fig. 1 Drum Stages

1 Inner casing
2 Guide blade
3 Moving blade

4 Turbine shaft
5 Caulking piece

also determine the distance between the
blades. The shrouds are machined integral with
the blades and forms a continuous shrouding
after insertion.
st
th
From 1 . to 8 . stages are provided with ‘3DS’
th
th
blades, 9 . to 13 . stages with ‘TX’ blades and
th
14 . to 17 th. stages with ‘F’ blades.

BHEL Haridwar

Sealing strips(6) are caulked into the inner
casing(1) and the shaft (4) to reduce leakage
losses at the blade tips. Cylindrically
machined surface on the blade shrouds are
opposite the sealing strips. The surfaces have
stepped diameters in order to increase the
turbulence of the steam and thus the sealing
effect. Should an operational disturbance
cause the sealing strips to come into contact
with opposite surfaces, they are rubbed away
without any considerable amount of heat
being generated. They can easily be renewed
at a later date to provide the specified
clearance.

5.1-0220-02

Steam turbine
Description

Function

HP Turbine
Shaft seals and Balance Piston

diameter is suited to the requirements for
balancing the axial thrust.

The function of shaft seals is to seal the interior
of the casing from the atmosphere at the ends of
the shaft on the admission and exhaust
sides.The HP Turbine has shaft seals in front
and rear. The front shaft seal is of labyrinth type,
while the rear shaft seal is of ‘see through’ type.
The difference in pressure before and after the
raised part of the shaft seal on the admission
side serves to counteract the axial thrust caused
by steam forces.The raised part is called
Balance piston. The effective seal

Sealing between the rotating and stationary
parts of the turbine is achieved by means of seal
strip(6) caulked into seal rings (2,7,9) and into
the rotor (3) (details D and E). The pressure
gradient across the seal is reduced by
conversion of pressure energy into velocity
energy which is then dissipated as turbulence as
the steam passes through the numerous
compartments according to the labyrinth
principles.

Fig. 1 Shaft Seal Admission side

Seal Rings

1
3
4
5
6

Inner casing 2 Seal ring
Turbine rotor
Shaft seal cover
Caulking wire
Seal strip

Gap Seals

The seal rings (2), the number of which
depends on the pressure gradient to be sealed
are divided into several segments as shown in
Section A-A,
B-B and C-C and mounted in
T -shaped annular grooves in the inner casing
(1 ) and shaft seal cover (4) such that they are
free to move radially. Each segment is held in
position against a shoulder by helical springs
(11). This provides the proper clearance for the
seal gaps. Should rubbing occur, the segment
concerned can retreat. The heat developed by
light rubbing of the thin seal strip (6)

Fig. 2 Shaft seal Exhaust side
BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0230-01/1

is so slight that it cannot cause deformation of
the rotor (3). When the turbine is started from
the cold or warm state, the seal rings naturally
heat up faster than the casing. However, they
can expand freely In the radial direction against
the centering force of the helical spring (11).
The shaft seals are axial-steam flow noncontacting seals.
In the region subjected to the low relative
expansion in the vicinity of the combined
journal and thrust bearing, the seal strips are
caulked alternately into the shaft and into
spring-supported segmented sealrings in the
casing, forming a labyrinth to impede the
outflow of steam (Detail D).
In the region subject to greater relative

5.1-0230-01/2

expansion at the exhaust end, see through
seals are used in which the seal strips are
located opposite each other, caulked into the
shaft and into seal rings centered in the outer
casing (Detail E).
The outer seal rings can be removed for
inspection and if necessary, seal strips can be
replaced during short turbine shut down.

Steam Spaces
Steam spaces are provided within the shaft
seals. From spaces ‘Q’ and ‘R’ leakage is drawn
off to another part of the turbine for further use.
The steam seal header is connected to space
’S’. The slight amount of leakage steam which
are still able to pass the seal ring are conducted
from the space ‘T’ into the seal steam
condenser.

which gives a considerable vibration damping effect. On completion of alignment. Its function is to support the turbine casing and bear the turbine rotor.1-0240-01/1 . the space beneath the bearing pedestal is filled with special non-shrinking grout. On completion of alignment. HP Turbine Front Bearing Pedestal Connection Foundation of Bearing Pedestal and Journal bearing [1] Hydraulic turning gear [2] Main oil pump with hydraulic speed transducer [3]  Electric speed transducer [4]  Overspeed trip [5]  Shaft vibration pick-up  Bearing pedestal vibration pick-up Details of casing supports and casing guides are given in description 5.1 Axial Section through HP Turbine Front Bearing Pedestal BHEL Haridwar 5. It houses the following components and instruments. The bearing pedestal is anchored to the foundation by means of anchor bolts (13). The defined position of the bearing pedestal on the foundation is established by a projection in the middle of the bearing pedestal base engaging in a recess in the Foundation. The bearing pedestal (1) is aligned to the foundation by means of hexagon head screws that are screwed into it at several points. The anchor bolt holes are filled with gravel. the remaining space in this recess is likewise filled with grout . 1 Bearing pedestal 2 Main oil pump 3 Hydraulic speed transducer 4 Electric speed transducer 5 Gear coupling 6 Over speed trip 7 Hydraulic turning gear 7 Hydraulic turning gear 8 Bearing 8 Bearing pedestal pedestal vibration vibration pick-up pick-up 9 Shaft vibration pick-up 9 Shaft vibration pick-up 10 10 Journal bearing Journal bearing 11 11 HPHP turbine rotor turbine rotor 12 12 Foundation Foundation    Fig.1-0280.Steam Turbine Description Arrangement The front bearing pedestal is located at the turbineside end of the turbine generator unit.

1-0240-01/2 [4] 5.1-0760 5. 2 Cross section of main oil pump Fig.1-0760 Electric Speed Transducer Also refer to the following information [1] 5.1-0270 Journal Bearing [2] 5. 3 Cross Section of Journal Bearing 10 Journal bearing Also refer to the following information 12 Foundation 13 Anchor bolts 14 Hex head screw 5.1-0510Electric Hydraulic Turning Gear [5] trip with Hydraulic Speed Transducer [3]5.1-0510 Hydraulic Turning Gear [3] 5.1-0270 Journal Bearing [4] Speed Transducer [2]5.1-0920 Overspeed trip .Fig.1-0920 5.1-1020Overspeed MainOilPump [5] 5.1-1020 Main Oil Pump with Hydraulic Speed Transducer [1] 5.

On completion of alignment. 1 Axial Section through the HP Turbine Rear Bearing pedestal BHEL Haridwar 5. The bearing pedestal is anchored to the foundation by means of anchor bolts.1-0250-02/1 8 . which gives a considerable vibration damping effect. The defined position of the bearing pedestal on the foundation is established by a projection in the middle of the bearing pedestal base engaging a recess in the foundation. the space beneath the bearing pedestal is filled-in with special non-shrinking grout. The bearing pedestal houses the following turbine components: Combined journal and thrust bearing Shaft vibration pick-up Bearing pedestal vibration pick-up Thrust bearing trip (electrical) Details of casing supports and casing guides are given in descriptions 5.1-0350.     Connection Foundation of Bearing Pedestal and The bearing pedestal is aligned on the foundation by means of hexagon head screws that are screwed into it. the remaining space in the recess is likewise filled with grout. On completion of alignment.1-0280 and 5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 HP turbine rotor Combined journal and thrust bearing Bearing pedestal vibration pick-up Shaft vibration pick-up Thrust bearing trip (electrical) Coupling bolts IP turbine rotor Foundation Fig. The anchor bolt holes are filled with gravel. Its function is to support the turbine casing and bear the HP and IP turbine rotors.Staem Turbine Description HP Turbine Rear bearing Pedestal Arrangement The bearing pedestal is located between the HP and IP turbines.

9 2 Combined journal and thrust bearing 8 Foundation 9 Hex head screw Fig. 3 Connection between Bearing Pedestal and foundation 5. 2 Cross Section through Combined Journal and Thrust Bearing 10 11 12 13 14 15 8 Straight pin Anchor bolt Plate Round nut Hex nut Guard cap Fig.1-0250-02/2 .

17). This fixing is of great importance for axial clearance in the whole turbine. 16) and keys (10. The spherical block (14) with shims (13. it is pivotmounted on spherical support (16). The magnitude and direction of axial thrust to be carried by the bearing depends on the load conditions of the turbine. spherical blocks (14. upper 7 Bearing liner 2 Cap 3 Key 4 Bearing shell upper 5 Cowling with all baffle 6 Thrust pad BHEL Haridwar 8 Turbine shaft 9 Brg. The bearing is supported axillay against the bearing pedestal (1. A transverse projection in the upper part of the cap (2) and the fitted key (3) prevent the bearing shells from rising.lower 13 Shim 14 Spherical block 15 Shim 16 Spherical support 25 Key “a” Shaft jacking oil 5.Steam turbine Description Combined Bearing Function The function of the combined journal and thrust bearing is to support the turbine rotor and to take the residual axial thrust. Section A-A 1 Bearing pedestal. The upper and lower halves (4. In order to prevent the bearing from exerting a bending moment on the shaft. is bolted to the lower bearing shell (12). Located at each end of the bearing shell. The bearing shells are located laterally by keys (10). cap (2). 18) (Section H-H). This bearing is located in the bearing pedestal between HPT & IPT. thrust pads (6). 12).15). additional scraping is neither necessary nor allowable. Section B-B 12 Bearing shell.9) by means of keys (17. pedestal lower 10 Key 11 Oil line Journal and Thrust The journal bearing is constructed as elliptical sleeve bearing. The bearing liners are provided with a machined babbit face.1-0260-01/1 . The thrust bearing maintains desired axial clearances for the combined turbine generator shaft system. babbitted thrust pads (6) form two annular surfaces on which the integralily machined shaft collars run. Construction and Mode of Operation The combined journal and thrust bearing consists of the upper and lower bearing shells (4. 12) of the bearing shell are bolted and doweled at the horizontal joint by means of 4 taper pins and 4 stocket-head screws.

. Temperature Measurement Metal temperature of the journal bearing and thrust pads is monitored by the thermocouples (19. oil is discharged into the drain area in the pedestal (9) JackingOil Passages are located at the lowest point in the lower bearing shell through which high pressure jacking oil is supplied under the journal at low speed of the turbine rotor (on start up or shutdown). Any leakage passing the seal will drain off to the bearing pedestal through a groove in the lower bearing shell. Thus dry friction is prevented and the breakaway torque on start-up with turning gear is reduced. As shown in section N-N. O-ring (24) located between the bearing liner (7) and the lower bearing shell (12) prevents any oil from penetrating between the two elements (Detail “C”). Through the two oil return cowlings (5).1-0260-01/2 21 Spring 22 Key 23 Dowel pin High pressure oil “a” flows under the journals via the oil line and via openings in the lower bearing shell (12). the thrust pads are of the tilting type. Oil leaving the journal bearing flows to the two annular grooves adjacent to the bearing surface and then to the thrust pads (6). 4 Bearing shell upper element 6 Thrust pad 12 Bearing shell. lower 5. This arrangement ensures that no oil penetrates between the bearing liner and the bearing shell. 19 Thermocouple 20 Thermocouple Oil Supply Lubricating oil is admitted to the bearing shells from one side via oil line (11) from where it flows to the oil spaces milled into the upper and lower bearing shells at the horizontal joint.These collars and thrust pads permit equal loading of the thrust bearing in either direction.20) (Section E-E and G-G). secured in place by pins (23) and flexible mounted on split spring element (21).

The bearing shells are fixed laterally by key (11) which are bolted to each other. A projection in cap (1) with shims (9) fits into a Journal Bearing HP front bearing shells. spherical block (7). Keys (8) are fitted on both sides of the projection. In order to prevent the bearing from exerting a bending moment on the rotor (5).1-0270-01/1 .The bearing shells are provided with a babbit face. Each key is held in position in the bearing pedestal (10) by two lateral collars.6).13) is bolted to the bearing shell (6) . Oil Supply Lubricating oil is admitted to the bearing shells from one side and flows to oil spaces that are milled into the upper shell at the horizontal joint and are open to the rotor. Both bearing shells are fixed by means of taper pins and bolted together. bearing cap (1). The temperature of the bearing bodies is monitored by thermocouples (19) as shown in section c-c.Steam Turbine Description Construction The function of the journal bearing is to support the turbine rotor. Essentially the journal bearing consists of the upper and lower shells (3.The oil emerges from the bearing shell where it is collected in the oil return cowling (4) and drained into the bearing pedestal(10). corresponding groove in the bearing shell (3) and prevents vertical movement of the 1 2 3 4 5 Cap 6 Lower baering shell Tab Washer 7 Spherical block Upper bearing shell 8 Key Oil return Cowling 9 Shim Turbine Rotor 10 Bearing pedestal BHEL Haridwar 11 12 13 14 15 Key Shim Shim Spherical support Shim 5. The rotor (5) picks up oil from oil pocket machined into the babbitting . it is pivotmounted in the spherical support (14). spherical support (14) and the key (11) . The babbit surface of the bearing is precision machined and additional scraping is neither necessary nor permissible. For this purpose the spherical block (7) with shims (12.

Removal of Bearing Shells Not only the upper shell(3) but also the lower bearing shell(6) can be removed without the removal of rotor (5). 5. Any leakage oil can drain through passages in the bearing shell below the ring. To enable this to be done the shaft is lifted slightly by means of jacking device but within the clearance of the shaft seals. The lower bearing shell can then be turned upwards to the top position and removed.1-0270-01/2 16 Ring 17 Threaded nozzle 18 Sealing ring 19 Thermocouple . A seal (18) prevent high pressure oil from penetrating the space between threaded nozzle and ring (16) and thus from lifting the babbit. a threaded nozzle( 17) is arranged at the lowest point of the lower bearing shell (6) through which high pressure lift oil is supplied to the space below the journals when the rotor is turning at low speed (on startup and shutdown).Jacking oil As shown in Detail B.This high pressure oil floats the shaft to prevent dry friction and overcome breakway torque during start-up on the hydraulic turning gear.

Steam Turbine Description Supports The turbine casing is supported on the support horns such as to make allowance for the thermal expansion. It is essential for the casing to retain concentric alignment with the rotor. 1 2 3 HP Turbine Casing Supports and Guides The turbine casing (2) is supported with its two front and two rear support horns on the horn supports of the bearing pedestal (1. which is supported independently.1-0280-01/1 .3) at the turbine centerline level.1 Connection between Turbine Casing and Bearing Pedestals BHEL Haridwar 5. This arrangement determines the height of the casing and also allows thermal expansion to take place in the horizontal plane by the support horns Front bearing pedestal HP turbine Rear bearing pedestal Fig.

Guides to the turbine centerline is provided by the guides shown in section B-B and E-E. These guides allow the turbine casing to expand freely. holders (4) hold down projections of the support horns which engage in mating recesses in the bearing pedestal. Fixed Point The fixed point for the turbine casing (2) is located at the horn support on HP-IP pedestal at the turbine centerline level and is formed by the parrallel keys (16). a clearance ’s’ is maintained between the thrust bar(5) and the turbine casing support horn projection.sliding on the sliding pieces (6) of the bearing pedestals (1 . To prevent lift-off of the turbine casing (2). The central location of the turbine casing at right angle 1 Front bearing pedestal 2 HP turbine 4 Holder 5 thrust bar 6 sliding piece 7 Plate 8 parallel key 9 plate 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Sliding piece Plate Parallel key Scale indicating casing expansion Sliding piece Plate Parallel key Fig. 2 Details of Casing Supports and guides 5.3). When the turbine is being erected. Axial expansion of the turbine casing (2) originates from this point.1-0280-01/2 .

The centre flow prevents the steam inlet temperature from affecting the support horns and bearing sections.4) is supported in the outer casing (2.5) (Fig. are avoided. . difficulties arising from deformation of a casing with flange joint due to non uniform temperature rise e.g.1) Steam from the HP turbine after reheating enters the inner casing from top and bottom through two admission branches which are integral with the mid section of the outer casing. BHEL Haridwar 5. While the joint flange of the outer casing is subjected only to the lower pressure and temprature effective at the exhaust from the inner casing.Steam Turbine Description Double Shell Construction The casing of the IP turbine is split horizontally and is of double shell construction. on start-up and shut down. In this way. This means that the joint flange can be kept small and material concentrations in the area of the flange reduced to a minimum. A double-flow inner casing (3.1-0310-01/1 . This arrangement provides opposed double flow in the two blade sections and compensates axial thrust. IP Turbine Casing The provision of an inner casing confines the steam inlet conditions to the admission section of this casing. The joint of the inner casing is relieved by the pressure in the outer casing so that this joint has to be sealed only against the resulting differential pressure.

Attachment of Inner Casing Due to the different temperatures of the inner casing relative to the outer casing.1-0310-01/2 While providing a tight seal. The steam admission connections and the extraction connections are designed to avoid any restrictions due to thermal expansion. The steam pressure prevailing on the inside. One leg of the angle ring (9) at such a connection bears against the back of the collar of the threaded ring (7) in the outer casing while the other fits into an annular groove in the inner casing. The threaded ring (7) is fitted in such a way that the short leg of the angle ring can slide freely between the collar of the threaded ring and the outer casing. . The inner casing is attached to the outer casing in the horizontal and vertical plane.Steam Inlet and Extraction Connection The angle ring (9) are provided at the connection of admission and extraction branches with the inner casing (3. . the inner casing is attached to the outer casing in such a manner as to be free to expand axially from a fixed point and radially in all directions. while maintaining the concentricity of the inner casing relative to the shaft.4) (Detail ‘D’ Fig. The tolerances of the annular grooves in the inner casing are dimensioned to allow the long legs of the angle ring (9) to slide in the groove. this arrangement permits the inner casing to move freely in all directions. 2 & 3). The angle rings are flexibly expanded by the pressure on the inside and their outer areas forced against the annular grooves to provide the desired sealing effect 5. forces the angle ring against the face of the outer casing.

4 & 5) the four support horns of the top half inner casing (3) rest on plates (13) which are supported by the joint surface of the bottom half outer casing (5). as they are free to slide in the recesses of the bottom half outer casing. This ensures concentricity of the inner casing relative to the rotor (1) in this plane. The shoulder screws (12) are provided with sufficient clearance to permit the inner casing to expand freely in all directions in the horizontal plane. Thermal expansion in the axial direction originates from these points.1-0310-01/3 .In the horizontal plane. As shown in details E. Located on top of each support horn is a spacer disc (11) whose upper surface has a clearance ’s’ to the flange face of the top half outer casing (2). Thermal expansion in the vertical direction originates from the point of support at the joint. The support horns provided at the bottom half inner casing (4). 4) in the transverse plane This arrangement allows axial and radial expansion of the inner casing relative to the outer casing while the fitted keys (14) maintain transverse alignment. Radial expansion is not prevented by these fitted keys. project into the recesses in bottom half outer casing (5) with clearance on all sides. as shown in details E and F (Fig. Shoulders on the bottom half outer casing (5) project into corresponding recesses in the bottom half inner casing (4) and together with the fitted keys (14) provide a centering system for the inner casing (3. This clearance thus determines the lift of the inner casing. 5. the inner casing is located axially by the fitted keys (10) arranged on both sides of the support horns of the bottom half inner casing (4).

they are rubbed away without any considerable amount of heat being generated. End blades. The stationary and moving blades of all stages are provided with inverted T -roots in moving blade and hook type roots in Guide blade which also determine the distance between the blades. They can then easily be renewed at a later date to provide the specified clearances. Moving and Stationary Blades The IP turbine with advance blading consists of 2x12 (double flow) drum stages. The insertion slot in the rotor is closed by a locking blade which is fixed by grub screws. which lock with the horizontal joint are used at the horizontal joint of the inner casing (1). In case of an operation disturbance. which after installation form a continuous shroud. causing the sealing strips to come into contact with opposite surfaces. The moving and stationary blades are inserted into appropriately shaped grooves in the rotor (4) and in the inner casing (1) and are bottom caulked with caulking material (5). All these blades are provided with integral shrouds.IP Turbine Blading Steam Turbine Description Gap SealIng Sealing strips (7) are caulked into the inner casing (1) and the rotor (4) to reduce leakage losses at the blade tips. All stages are reaction stages with 50% reaction.1-0320-02 . 1 1 Inner Casing 2 Guide Blade 3 Moving Blade 4 Turbine Shaft 5 Caulking piece 6 Sealing strip 7 Caulking wire 5 2 6 4 7 5 BHEL Haridwar 5. These surfaces have stepped diameters in order to increase the turbulence of the steam and thus the sealing effect. Cylindrically machined surfaces on the blade shrouds are opposite the sealing strips.

5. in which the seal strips are located opposite each other. The outer seal rings can be removed for inspection and if necessary seal strips can be replaced during a short turbine shut down keeping module in place.5) and into the rotor (4) (details A and C). In the region subject to greater relative expansion at the exhaust end.Steam Turbine Description Function The function of the shaft seals is to seal the interior of the turbine casing against the atmosphere at the front (thrust bearing end) and rear shaft penetrations of the IP turbine. Gap Sealing Sealing between the rotating and stationary elements of the turbine is achieved by means of seal strip (9) . the seal strips are caulked alternatively into the shaft and into springsupported segmented rings in the casing. forming a labyrinth to impede the outflow of steam.1-0330-01/1 .caulked into seal rings (3. The shaft seals are axial-steam-flow noncontacting seals. In the region subject to low relative expansion in the vicinity of the combined journal and thrust bearing. BHEL Haridwar IP Turbine Shaft Seals caulked into the shaft and into seal rings centered in the outer casing. see-through seals are used. The pressure gradient across the seal is reduced by conversion of pressure energy into velocity energy which is then dissipated as turbulence as the steam passes through the numerous compartments according to the labyrinth principle.

5. The slight amount of leakage steam which are still able to pass the seal ring are conducted from the space ‘R’ into the seal steam condenser. Steam Spaces Steam spaces are provided within the shaft seals.Seal Rings The seal rings (3). the number of which depends on the pressure gradient to be sealed are divided into several segments as shown in Section BB and mounted in grooves in the rings such that they are free to move radially. . they can expand freely in the radial direction against the centering force of the helical springs (6). However. This provides the proper clearance for the seal gaps. The heat developed by light rubbing of the thin seal strips (9) is so slight that it cannot cause deformation of the rotor (4). the seal rings naturally heat up faster than the mounting rings.1-0330-01/2 When the turbine is started from the cold or warm state. From space ‘P’ leakage is drawn off to the steam seal header. Each segment is held in position against a shoulder by helical springs (6) and by the steam pressure above the seal rings (3). Should rubbing occur the segments concerned can retreat.

1-0340-02 . Its function is to support the turbine casing and bear the weight of IP and LP rotors.IP Turbine Steam Turbine Description RearBearing Pedestal Arrangement The bearing pedestal is located between the IP and LP turbines. BHEL Haridwar 5. The anchor bolt holes are filled with gravel which gives a considerable vibration damping effect. On completion of alignment the space beneath the bearing pedestal is filled with special non shrinking grout. The bearing pedestal houses the following turbine components: • • • • Journal bearing Shaft vibration pick-up Bearing pedestal vibration pick-up Hand barring arrangement Connection Foundation of Bearing Pedestal and The bearing pedestal is aligned on the foundation by means of hexagon head screws that are screwed into it at several points. The bearing pedestal is anchored to the foundation by means of anchor bolts.

Oil Supply Lubricating oil is admitted to the bearing shells from both sides. cylindrical support (14) and the keys (10). Essentially. the torus piece (7) with shims (12. BHEL Haridwar IP Rear Journal Bearing The bearing shells are fixed laterally by spacers (10) which are bolted to each other. torus piece (7). In order to prevent the bearing from exerting a bending moment on the rotor (5). from where it flows to oil spaces milled into the upper and lower shells at the horizontal joint that are open to the rotor end. bearing cap (1). 6). 13) is bolted to the bearing shell (6). it is pivotmounted in the cylindrical support (14).1-0345-01/1 . A projection in cap (1) with key (9) fits into a corresponding groove in the bearing shell (3) and prevents vertical movement of the bearing shells. For this purpose. 5. Both bearing shells are fixed by means of taper pins and bolted together.Steam Turbine Description Construction The function of the journal bearing is to support the turbine rotor. Each spacer is held in position in the bearing pedestal (11) by two laterall collars. Additional scraping is neither necessary nor permissible. the journal bearing consists of the upper and lower shells (3. Oil from the oil space machined in the babbitting is carried through the rotor (5) and emerges from the bearing shell from where it is collected in the oil return cowling (4) and drained into the bearing pedestal (11). The temperature of the bearing bodies is monitored by thermocouples (15) as shown in section C-C. The bearing shells are provided with a babbit face which is precision machined. Centering of the bearing shells in the vertical plane is achieved by means of keys (8).

the shaft is lifted slightly by means of jacking device but with in the clearance of the shaft seals. two threaded nozzles (17) are arranged at the lowest point of the lower bearing shell (6) through which high pressure oil is supplied to the space below the journal when the rotor is turning at low speed (on start-up and shutdown). To enable this to be done.1-0345-01/2 . Any leakage oil can drain through passages in the bearing shell below the ring.Jacking Oil As shown in section B-B. thus reducing torque requirements of the hydraulic turning gear. This high pressure oil floats the shaft to prevent dry friction and overcome breakaway torque during startup. 5. The lower bearing shell can then be turned upwards to the top position and removed. Removal of Bearing Shells Not only the upper shell (3) but also the lower bearing shell (6) can be removed without the removal of rotor (5). A seal (18) prevents high pressure oil from penetrating the space between threaded nozzle and ring (16) and thus from lifting the babbit.

It is essential for the casing to retain concentric alignment with the rotor which is supported independently 1 HP Turbine rear bearing pedestal 2 IP turbine 3 IP turbine rear bearing pedestal Fig.Steam Turbine Description IP Turbine Casing Supports and Guides The turbine casing is supported on the support horns such as to make allowance for the thermal expansion.1 Connection between turbine casing and bearing pedestal BHEL Haridwar 5.1-0350-01/1 .

The turbine casing (2) is supported with its two front and two rear support horns on the bearing pedestals(1. To prevent lift off the turbine casing (2).10). holders (4. 5.14) and the turbine casing (2) support horn projection.3). When the turbine is being erected.1-0350-01/2 Fixed Point The fixed point for the turbine casing (2) is located at the front horn support at the turbine centerline level and is formed by the parallel keys ((7. a clearance ’s’ is established between the thrust bars (5.15) hold down projections of the support horns which engage in mating recesses in the bearing pedestal.3) at the turbine centerline level. This arrangement determines the height of the casing and also allows thermal expansion to take place in the horizontal plane by the support horns sliding on the sliding pieces (6.B .16) of the bearing pedestals (1. Guides The central location of the turbine casing at right angles to the turbine centerline is provided by the guides shown in section B.These guides allow the turbine casing to expand freely. Axial expansion of turbine casing (2) originates from this point .

5 6 7 8 Inner inner casing. 1 LP Turbine (Longitudinal section) BHEL Haridwar 5. upper half Diffuser.1-0410-00/1 .inner casing. lower half Inner outer casing lower half Diffuser lower half Outer casing lower half Fig.5) from both sides through steam inlet nozzles before the LP blading Expansion bellows are provided in the steam piping to prevent any undesirable deformation of the casings due to thermal expansion of the steam piping.Steam Turbine Description LP Turbine Casing Construction The LP turbine casing consists of a doubleflow unit and has a triple shell welded casing. The outer casing consists of the front and rear walls. The front and rear walls as well as the connection areas of the upper part are reinforced by means of circular box beams. upper half Inlet Connections Steam admitted to the LP turbine from the IP turbine flows into the inner casing (4. 1 2 3 4 Outer casing. The outer casing is supported by the ends of the longitudinal beams on the base plates of the foundation. the two lateral longitudinal support beams and the upper part. upper half Inner outer casing upper half Inner.

2).5) on the turbine side are fixed in the axial direction by fitted keys (16) as opposed to the brackets on the generator side (detail D Fig.1.6) which are not fixed. The inner shell is suspended in the outer shell to allow thermal movement and carries the front guide blade rows. The rear guide blade rows of the LP stage are bolted to the outer shell of the inner casing. In the lower area of the circular beams which reinforce the front and rear walls of the outer casing. The guiding piece (12) which is rigidly connected to the foundation crossbar. . The clearance of these spacer bolts in the holes of the brackets is dimensioned to permit the inner casing to expand horizontally on sliding piece (15) of the fixed support transverse to the axis of the machine. and on sliding piece (18) of the nonfixed support transverse and parallel to the machine axis. 3) which takes the radial and axial expansion into account. This inner casing is a double shell construction and consists of the outer part (3.5).Arrangement of Inner Casing in Outer Casing The LP casing has a double-flow inner casing. 5.2).6) and the inner part (4. 18) placed in the plates bolted to the longitudinal support beam of the casing.8) in a manner permitting free radial expansion concentric with the shaft and axial expansion from a fixed point (Fig. the casing is guided in the vertical centre plane (Fig. fits between these plates. The spacer bolts( 17) prevent lifting of the inner casing. Any thermal expansion in the axial direction thus originates from here. Support and Guiding of Outer Casing The outer casing rests with the brackets at the end of the longitudinal beam on the base plates fixed to the foundation crossbeam. Fitted pieces(11) inserted between the square guiding piece(12) and the plates maintain alignment of the casing in the centre plane and permit expansion transverse to the axis of the machine. As thermal expansion in the vertical direction originates at approximately the level of the horizontal. The outer casing of the LP turbine is axially fixed at the respective front brackets (Fig. The two brackets (detail C Fig. The complete inner casing is supported in the LP outer casing (1.1-0410-00/2 Two guide plates are welded vertically to the lower inner bend of each of the beams. Support and Guiding of Inner Casing in Outer Casing The complete assembled inner casing rests in the horizontal plane with 4 brakets on the sliding piece(15.

Fig. serve to align the inner shell.6) in the horizontal plane and is guided axially in the vertical plane (Fig. 2 fitted keys (19) are inserted between each bracket and recess. lower half (6) These brackets are provided with clearance on all sides and 5.3 Guiding of the Outer Casing joint. Radial and axial expansions is not prevented by fitted keys(14) in these casing guides Suspension of the Inner Shell The inner shell (4. lower half (5) project into recesses of the outer shell.9 & 10). The brackets of the upper part (3) of the outer shell which project over the cover plates (20) .22) located at L and M of the joint face of the lower half of the outer shell (Fig.2. On the IP turbine side.1-0410-00/3 . the upper half (4) of the inner shell is supported by four brackets resting on the support plates (21. lower half (5) in the outer shell. In the horizontal plane. This ensures concentricity of the inner shell with the shaft in this plane. these fitted keys fix the inner shell in the axial direction and thermal expansion thus originates from here The brackets of the inner shell. As shown in detail E (Fig. the concentricity of the inner casing with the shaft is ensured in this plane.7and 8). prevent lifting of the inner shell. Thermal expansion in the vertical plane originates at the joint face. The slight clearance between these cover plates and the brackets permits free horizontal expansion of the inner shell in all directions at the support points. lower half (6) by the use of jacking bolts during erection.5) is suspended in the outer shell (3. As shown in detail L.4) two casing guides are located at the lower half (6) of the outer shell to prevent any transverse displacement of the inner casing from the centerline of the turbine.

lower half Fig. The bushings (25) have an eccentric bore and by turning them during alignment of the inner casing. 11. 7 Inner Casing. upper half 4 Inner shell. upper half 5 Inner shell. Thermal expansion transverse to the axis of the unit originates from these keys so that concentricity of the inner shell with the shaft is also maintained in this plane. 5. the inner shell can be moved laterally. The lower ends of the centering pins are fitted into keys (27) which slide in axial grooves in the inner shell. This arrangement permits axial displacement of the inner shell relative to the keys (27) and vertical displacement along the axis of the centering pins(26) while displacement transverse to the axis of the unit prevented by the keys.1-0410-00/4 . lower half 6 Outer shell. the bushings are fixed in position by grub screws. After the alignment has been completed. Longitudinal Section In the vertical plane 4 centering pins (26) which are guided in bushings (25) are provided for the suspension as shown in detail A Fig.3 Outer shell.

The diaphragm BHEL Haridwar Atmospheric Relief Diaphragm consists of a thin rolled lead plate. As long as there is a vacuum in the condenser the atmospheric pressure forces the breakable diaphragm and the rupturing disc against the supporting flange (3). 5. In the event of failure of the low vacuum trips the pressure in the LP turbine exhaust rises to an excessively high level until the force acting on the rupturing disc (1) ruptures the breakable diaphragm (2) thus providing a discharge path for the steam. To insure that the remnants of the diaphragm and rupturing disc are not carried along by the blow-off steam a cage with brackets (5) is provided.1-0420-00 .Steam Turbine Description Atmospheric relief diaphragms are provided in the upper half of each LP exhaust end section to protect the turbine against excessive pressure.

These can be renewed at a later date to provide the correct radial clearances. They are Located in the inner-Inner casing and form the initial stages of the LP blading. tip to tip sealings are provided in these stages. In the event of rubbing due to a fault . Inter stage Sealing In order to reduce blade tip losses.In casing. The LP stages following these drum stages are described in detail in next chapter. They are inserted into the matching grooves in the turbine shaft (5) and inner casing (1) and are caulked in place with caulking material (6). Thin sealing strips (9) are caulked in inner casing (1) and turbine rotor (5).1-0430-01 . The sealing fins are machined on the shrouds of moving and stationary blades opposite to the sealing strips in inner casing or rotor (Detail A). The moving blades (7) of the last drum stage are tapered and twisted. Guide and moving blades All guide and moving blades of drum stages have integral shrouds. The insertion slot in the rotor is closed by means of a locking blade which is secured in its position by means of grub screws between shaft and lock blade .Steam Turbine Description LP Turbine Blading. Drum Blading Arrangement The drum blading stages 1 to 3 of the double flow LP turbine are of reaction type with 50% reaction. All stationary and moving blades have T -roots which also determine the distance between the blades. blades at joint planes are fixed by means of grub screws. which after installation form a continuous shrouding. little heat will be generated due to rubbing of thin sealing strips. BHEL Haridwar 5.

that are bolted to inner outer casing (1). twisted and have integral shrouds with T -root. 7) are made by welding inner ring. Low Pressure Stages from steel sheets to form hollow blades. Axial movement of the blades 5. 5.Steam Turbine Description Guide and Moving Blades The last three stages of the LP turbine are also reaction stages. The moving blades (3) of first LP stage are tapered. Through these slits water particles on the surface of these last stage guide blades are drawn away to the condenser.8) have curved fir-tree roots (View-X) which are inserted in axial grooves in the turbine shaft (4) and secured by means of clamping pieces (11). The blades of rows 2 & 5 are of precision cast steels and the blades of row 7 are made BHEL Haridwar LP Turbine Blading. Each stage is made up of guide and moving blades. blades and outer ring together to form Guide Blade Carriers in two halves. Suction slits are provided in the blades of row (7). The last two stages of moving blades (6.1-0440-01/1 . The stationary blade rows (2.

They can be easily replaced at a later date to restore the required clearances. In case of rubbing. 5. sealing strips (9) are caulked into turbine shaft. Opposite to this. sealing strips are also caulked on the inner ring of stationary blade rows as shown in Detail A.5.7).is prevented by segments of locking plate segments (12) and the end segments are spot welded at joint. The difference in circumferential speed at the root and tip of the moving blades is taken into consideration by the twisted design of the blades. . the thin seal strips are worn away without generating much heat. This arrangement permits favourable radial clearances to be attained.1-0440-01/2 Inter stage sealing In order to reduce blade tip losses at the stationary blade rows (2.

When the plant is started up and in operation. Steam Spaces Steam spaces are provided within the shaft seal. Should rubbing occur. the number of which depends on the pressure existing in the turbine. strips (4) due to this light pressure are so slight that it cannot cause deformation of the rotor (5). are split into several segments as shown in section A-A and arranged in Tshaped annullar grooves in the steam seal casing (1) so that they can move radially. Several helical sprir1gs (3) force each segment against a shoulder and hold it in this position. the segments concerned retreat. The frictional heat developed by the thin BHEL Haridwar 5. the sealing rings naturally heat up more quickly than the steam seal casings. sealing steam enters space “Q” to prevent air penetrating the space. They can then expand radially without hindrance against the centering force of the helical springs. When the turbine is started from the cold or semi-warm state. The slight amount of steam that passes the center seal ring is drawn off from space “R” into the seal steam condenser.Steam Turbine Description LP Turbine Shaft Seals Function The function of the axial shaft seals situated between the bearing casings and the LP exhaust casing is to seal the inner space of the LP exhaust casing against atmospheric pressure at the passages through the shaft. Gap Sealing The sealing effect between the moving and stationary parts of the turbine is achieved by means of sealing strips (4) which are caulked into the individual seal rings (2). The prevailing pressure is reduced according to the labyrinth principle by conversion into velocity with subsequent turbulence in many sections. Sealing Rings The sealing rings (2).1-0450-01 . which is under a vacuum. This permits the correct clearance in the sealing gaps.

balls are arranged under the heads of these hexagonal screws. To overcome friction resistance. The bearing pedestal is also connected to the foundation by means of anchor bolts.Steam Turbine Description LP Turbine Rear Bearing Pedestal Arrangement The bearing pedestal is situated between the LP turbine and generator.1-0460-02 . After alignment the space under the bearing pedestal is filled in with special nonshrink grout. BHEL Haridwar 5. The bearing pedestal following turbine components: contains the Bearing pedestal vibration pick-up • Journal bearing • Shaft position measuring device • Shaft vibration pick-up Connection Foundation of Bearing Pedestal and The bearing pedestal is aligned on the foundation by hexagonal screws that are bolted into the bearing pedestal. Its function is to bear the weight of LP rotor. resistant to expansion and contraction.

Oil Supply Lubricating oil is admitted to the bearing shells from both sides. 1 2 3 4 Cap Tab washer Upper bearing shell Oil return cowling BHEL Haridwar 5 6 7 8 Rotor Lower bearing shell Torus piece Key The bearing shells are fixed laterally by the keys (10) which are bolted to each other. Oil from the oil space machined in the babbitting is carried through the rotor (5) and emerges from the bearing shell from where it is collected in the oil return cowling (4) and drained into the bearing pedestal (11). The bearing bore is precision machined and additional scraping is neither necessary nor permissible. the journal bearing consists of the upper and lower shells (3. Essentially. In order to prevent the bearing from exerting a bending moment on the rotor (5). cylindrical support (14) and the keys (10). the torus piece (7) with shims (12. from where it flows to oil spaces milled into the upper and lower shells at the horizontal joint that are open to the rotor end.. 13) is firmly bolted to the bearing shell (6). A projection in cap (1) with shims (9) fits into a corresponding groove in the bearing shell (3) and prevents vertical movement of the bearing shells. Both bearing shells are fixed by means of taper pins and bolted together. bearing cap (1). it is pivot-mounted in the cylindrical support (14).1-0470-00/1 .Steam Turbine Description Journal Bearing Construction The function of the journal bearing is to support the turbine rotor. Each key is held in position in the bearing pedestal (11) by two lateral collars. For this purpose. The bearing shells are provided with a babbit face. The temperature of the bearing is monitored by thermocouples (15) as shown in section C-C. torus piece (7). Centering of the bearing shells in the vertical plane is achieved by means of keys (8). 6). Lift Oil As shown in section B-B threaded nozzles (17) are arranged at the lowest point of the lower bearing 9 Shim 10 Key 13 Shim 14 Cylindrical support 11 Bearing Pedestal 12 Shim 5.

The lift oil flows into the above mentioned threaded nozzles (17) through passages in the lower bearing shell (6). This high pressure oil relieves the bearing to overcome breakaway torque and prevent dry friction. To enable this to be done. thus reducing the torque requirements of the hydraulic turning gear. Removal of bearing shells Not only the upper shell (3) but also the lower bearing shell (6) can be removed without the removal of the shaft (5).1-0510 Hydraulic Turning Gear 5. A seal (18) prevents high pressure oil from penetrating the space between threaded nozzle and ring (16) and thus from lifting the babbit. the shaft is lifted slightly by means of the jacking device but within the clearance of the shaft seals.1-0470-00/2 . 15 16 17 18 Termocouple Ring Threaded nozzle Sealing ring Also refer to tne following sections [1] 5.shell (6) through which high pressure oil is supplied during start-up. Any leakage oil can drain through passages in the bearing shell below the ring. The lower bearing shell can then be rotated to the top position and removed.

the shafts are lifted slightly.1-0510-01 . This oil passes via a check valve into the nozzle box (1) and from there into the nozzles (2) which direct the oil jet in front of the blading. Lifting of Shaft To overcome the initial break-away torque on start-up and to prevent dry friction. the shaft system is rotated by a blade wheel which is driven by oil supplied by the auxiliary oil pump. Operation During turning gear operation. Hydraulic Turing Gear Function The function of the hydraulic turning gear is to rotate the shaft system at sufficient speed before start-up and after shut-down in order to avoid irregular heating up or cooling down and thus avoid any distortion of the turbine rotors. BHEL Haridwar 5. The air flow set up by the blades along the inner wall of the casing during turning operation provides good heat transfer conducive to temperature equalization between upper and lower casing halves. the bearings are relieved during turning gear operation by lifting oil supplied from below i. the oil drains into the bearing pedestal and flows with the bearing oil into the return flow line. Manual Turning Gear A manual turning gear is provided in addition to the hydraulic turning gear to enable the combined shaft system to be rotated manually. Return Oil Flow After passing the blading.e.Steam Turbine Description Arrangement The hydraulic turning gear is situated between the main oil pump and the journal bearing in the HP turbine front bearing pedestal.

The lever (1) is held in position by latch (7). It is located at IP . Barring of lever (1) will rotate the combined turbine generator shaft system. BHEL Haridwar Mechanical Barring Gear Operation Take the following steps to make the barring gear ready for operation: Remove cover (2) unlatches at (7) and attach a bar to lever (1). The barring gear may only be operated after the shaft system has been lifted with high-pressure lift oil. return lever (1) and pawl (6) to the position shown in figure and secure lever (1) by means of latch (7) Replace cover (2). which enables the combined shaft system to be rotated manually in the event of a failure of the normal hydraulic turning gear. corrective action must be taken 5. this may be due to incorrect adjustment of the jacking oil system or due to a rubbing shaft. After barring has been completed. Before steam is admitted to the turbine. If it is hard to start turning by means of the mechanical barring gear.1-0520-01 .Steam Turbine Description Function The turbine generator is equipped with a mechanical barring gear. The pawl (6) is shown disengaged and the lever (1) resting against a stop. This pawl engages the ring gear and turns the shaft system when operated by means of a bar attached to laver (1).LP pedestal Construction The barring gear consists of a gear machined on the rim of the turning gear wheel (10) and pawl (6).

the jacking oil pump must be switched on below a certain speed. The pressure oil piping of the jacking oil pump that is not in operation is closed by the check valve (12). thus raising the rotor. The superfluous flow from the pump is conducted into the main oil tank. The necessary torque from the hydraulic turning device or from the manual turning device is reduced in this way. The pressure-limiting valve can be relieved by the bypass valve (9). Jacking Oil Pump The jacking oil pumps. which are connected laterally to the bearing pedestals. one number AC (13) and one number DC(14) are jack-screw immersion pumps situated on the tank (10) supply the high pressure oil for the lifting device. Valve Arrangement The fine control valve (7) of the turbine bearings. the check valves (6) and the pressure gauges are arranged in boxes. The necessary pressure in the system is kept constant by means of the pressure-limiting valve (8). Speed Limit Values In order to avoid damage to the bearings.1-0530-66-01 . The oil is drawn off directly by one of the two pumps. In order 1 HP turblne 2 IP turblne 3 LP turblne 4 Generator 5 Exciter 6 Check Valve 7 Fine control valve 8 Pressure Limiting Device 9 Bypass Valve 10 Main Oil Tank BHEL Haridwar Hydraulic Jacking Device to protect the jacking oil system from damage due to improper switching ON of the jacking oil pump when the check valve (12) is closed. The exact speeds for switching on and off can be seen in the Technical data 2-0103. The high-pressure oil is forced under the individual bearing. the hydraulic jacking device is used to maintain the oil film between rotor and bearings. 11 12 13 14 15 AC Motor driven lifting oil pump 16 Valve DC Motor driven lifting oil pump c Drain Spring loaded safety valve Check valve Duplex filter 5. Check valve (6) in the jacking oil pipes prevent oil from flowing out of the bearings into the header during turbine operation when the jacking oil system is naturally switched off. The necessary jacking oil pressures are set for each bearing by the fine control valves (7) in the oil pipes. The highpressure oil also provides motive force to hydraulic turning gear motor installed in front bearing pedestal. a spring-loaded safety valve (11) is situated in the piping between the jacking oil pump (13) and the check valve (12).Steam Turbine Description Function When the turbine is started up or shut down.

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1-0600-01/1 . The system not exercising control is in its maximum position. thus causing the HP by pass valve to open. The special operating conditions existing in reheat condensing turbines necessitate additional control elements. the steam pressure in the main steam line would increase after sudden closure of the main steam control valves. The hydraulic speed governor adjusts control valves MAA10+20AA002 and MAB10+20AA002 by way of hydraulic amplifier MAX45BY011 whilst the electric turbine controller acts on these control valves by way of electro-hydraulic converter MAX45BY001. 5. On start-up of the high-pressure boiler it is necessary to BHEL Hardwar General Description start up the turbine straight away with a considerable steam rate and. and for the primary oil circuit. generator. an automatic turbine tester for the protective devices. The turbine has a hydraulic speed governor MAX46BY001 and an electric turbine controller. Index Turbine generator unit MAA50HA001 MAB50HA001and MAC10HA001 comprises three-cylinder reheat condensing turbine with condenser MAG10BC001 and a directdriven three-phase a. General Automatic Turbine Tester. to supply oil for bearing lubrication. main and reheat “Stop & Control Valves” and an automatic functional group control. The turbine is equipped with an electrohydraulic seal steam control system. driven directly by the turbine shaft. The IP turbine must be fitted with its own control valves to prevent steam remaining in the reheater from entering the turbine via the IP and LP section and causing further acceleration of the turbine after the main steam control valves have been closed in the event of load rejection or trip. the rejected steam is routed directly to the reheater via HP bypass valve. reheat control valves are supplied by two full-load control fluid pumps installed in the control fluid tank. Protective Devices Automatic Turbine Tester.c.Steam Turbine Description The turbine control system description for 500 MW steam turbine comprises the following: General Description Start-up Procedure Speed Control Electrical Speed Measuring Protective Devices Overspeed Trip Test Testing of Stop Valves LP Bypass System (General) Extraction Check Valve Swing Check Valve in CRH line Testing of Swing Check Valves in the Cold Reheat Line Automatic Turbine Tester. pressure in which is generated by hydraulic speed transmitter MAX44AP001.Two Electrically driven auxiliary oil pumps are provided for auxiliary oil supply. for the oil circuit for the overspeed trip test. In addition. The steam from the reheater which cannot be accommodated by the IP section with its control valves MAB10+20AA002 and reheat stop valves MAB10+20AA001 is routed into condenser MAG10BC001 by way of LP bypass stop & control valves. Stop Valves HP Actuator Electro-hydraulic Gland Steam Pressure Control Control System Diagram List of Parts Lubrication Chart Lubrication Chart. As long as the HP section of the turbine is unable to accommodate all the steam supplied by the boiler. The LP control fluid circuit (8 bar) and the HP actuators of the main steam control valves. with the result that even more steam would flow into the IP section of the turbine. LP bypass (EHA Type). Hydraulic amplifier MAX45BY011 and electro-hydraulic converter MAX45BY001 are switched in parallel to form a minimum gate. It is the function of main oil pump MAV21 AP001. due to the high temperature in the reheater to admit steam to the reheater immediately.

thereby moving them into their normal operating position and permitting trip fluid to flow to test valves MAX47AA011+012 and MAX47AA021+022 of the main stop valves and reheat stop valves. In this case the speed reference from the electric controller is at maximum. The pressure upstream of solenoid valve MAX48AA202 is maintained via orifice MAX42BP022 during this period. The pressure difference thus created lifts both pistons together into their upper limit position. The trip fluid now flows to the space above servomotor piston KA01 of stop valves MAA10+20AA001 and MAB10+20 AA001 forcing it down against piston discs KA002. the control fluid is allowed to drain first from the auxiliary startup fluid circuit and then from the start-up fluid circuit. At the same time. overspeed trip release devices MAY10AA001 and 002 are latched in if they have been tripped. The start-up fluid flows to the space above the pilot valve of test valves MAX47AA011+012 and MAX47AA021+ 022. If the hydraulic controller is to govern start-up. The auxiliary start-up fluid raises the pilot valves of main trip valves MAX51AA005 and MAX51AA006. Turning hand-wheel KA01 clockwise or operating motor MAX47BY001M of start-up and load limiting device MAX47BY001 in the close direction releases spring KA06 in auxiliary follow up piston KA08 via the linkage. since the pressure in the system is subject to no significant change during start-up. thus causing main stop valves MAA10+20 AA001 and reheat stop valves MAB10+20 AA001 to 5.1-0610-01/1 . Operation of the start-up and loadlimiting device is continued until their lower limit position is reached. the reference speed setter MAX46BY001 must be set to minimum speed during this process. When hand-wheel KA01 is turned back or motor MAX47BY001M of start-up and load limiting device MAX47BY001 is operated in the open direction. If conversely. forcing them down against the action of the springs. The hydraulic amplifier MAX45BY011 with follow-up pistons KA01 and KA02 is now in the control valves closed position so that a buildup of secondary fluid pressure is prevented when main trip valves MAX51AA005 and MAX51M006 are latched in. as this would have an in admissible effect on the trip fluid system while the latching operation with the solenoid valves MAX48AA201 and MAX48AA202 during testing is taking place. start-up is to be governed by the electric controller. whereupon the trip fluid above servomotor piston KA01 slowly drains off. the trip fluid circuit is closed. thereby preventing a buildup of auxiliary secondary fluid pressure. reference speed setter MAX46 BY001 is set to maximum and the speed reference from the electric controller to minimum. because the pressure drops in this line considerably for a short time as a result of the high flow of fluid required to fill the drained trip fluid system during this latching in-period. After latching in. The auxiliary start-up fluid circuit at the start-up and load-limiting device MAX47BY001 is fed from the system down stream of filter MAX42BT003 (fluid supply during testing). The pilot valve of test valves MAX47AA011+012 and MAX47 AA021+022 are forced upwards by the springs. admitting control fluid first into the start-up fluid circuit and then into the auxiliary start up fluid circuit. The function of non return valve MAX42AA011 is to interrupt BHEL Hardwar Start-up Procedure transiently the fluid supply to solenoid valve MAX48AA202 from the connection downstream of filters MAX42BT001 and MAX42BT 002 during latching in of main trip Valves MAX51AA005 and MAX51AA006 by means of start-up and load limiting device MAX47BY001. It is not possible to supply the hydraulic fluid connection of solenoid valve MAX48AA202 from this system. The combined stop and control valves are closed because the trip fluid circuit is not yet pressurized. This ensures that the solenoid valve remains in the position shown. Further turning of hand-wheel KA01 moves pilot valve KA02 of start-up and load limiting device MAX47BY001 further downwards.Steam Turbine Description Mode of Operation The turbine is started up and brought up to speed with the assistance of the control valves MAA10+20AA002 and MAB10+20 AA002.

actuation of the reference speed 5. Start-up and load limiting device MAX47BY001 is brought into its open position once the stop valves have been opened. Turning hand-wheel KA01 of the reference speed setter or operation of motor MAX46BY001M increase the tension of speed setting spring KA02 to increase speed. This means that opening of the control valves MAA10+20AA002 and MAB10+20 AA002 is limited to an adjustable setting. Slowly raising the speed reference from the electric controller cuts in the electric speed control system. Load Limitation Start-up and load limiting device MAX47BY001 engages mechanically in controller bellow KA09 of hydraulic speed governor/controller MAX46BY001 so that it can serve simultaneously as a load-limiting device. Speed controller MAX46BY001 now cuts in to maintain turbine speed. cause lever KA03 and sleeve KA04 to move further downwards.open. Reference speed setter MAX46BY001 is used for further speed run-up for connecting the turbine-generator unit in parallel and for bringing it on load. Since in interconnected operation speed is determined by grid conditions. Further loading is governed by the electric power controller by increasing the load reference within the admissible rate of load change. Start-up and load limiting device MAX47BY001 is then brought into the fully open position. Once the main & reheat stop valves are open. as a result of which the auxiliary secondary fluid pressure begins to increase and acts via hydraulic amplifier MAX45 BY011 and follow up pistons KA01 and KA02 to gradually open control valves MAA10+20AA002 and MAB10+20AA002. Main trip valves MAX51AA005 and MAX51AA006 are now held in their operating position by the fluid pressure beneath the differential piston.1-0610-01/2 setter has the effect of changing turbine output. A pressure gauge MAX44CP501 and electric speed transducer MYA001CS011-013 are used to measure speed. further turning of hand-wheel KA01 or operation of motor MAX47BY001M of the start -up and load limiting device in the open direction will after passing through a certain dead range. and the turbine-generator unit is brought up to rated speed and synchronized. This brings the turbine up to about 85 to 90% rated speed. the reference signal from the electric speed controller must first be set to minimum so that this takes over running up the turbine generator unit from turning speed. Electro-hydraulic Turbine Controller If the turbine is to be started up with the electro-hydraulic turbine controller. This setting is made manually or from the control room via motor MAX47BY001M. .

Steam Turbine Description Speed control may be exercised either hydraulically or electro-hydraulically. A feedback system stabilizes the position of pilot valve KA07 and piston KA08 of hydraulic amplifier MAX45BY011. Any change in the position of linkage KA03 results in a proportional change of the BHEL Hardwar Speed Control secondary medium pressures in the follow-up pistons of the hydraulic amplifier. This auxiliary secondary medium pressure acts as a pulse signal via pilot valve KA07 of hydraulic amplifier MAX45 BY011. The control sleeve determines the position of pilot valve KA07 in the manner of a follow-up piston. which form a minimum value gate. Piston KA08 of this hydraulic amplifier assumes a position corresponding to the auxiliary secondary medium pressure and operates the sleeves of follow-up piston KA01and KA02 via a linkage system. Two differential transmitters CG001A and CG001K are located at piston KA08 of electro-hydraulic converter MAX45 BY001 as feedback transmitters to the electro-hydraulic controller.1-0620-01/1 . The further mode of action is the same as that of the hydraulic speed governor. Change-over from Hydraulic to Electrohydraulic Control As already mentioned. The varying secondary medium pressure in the follow-up pistons of the hydraulic amplifier in turn effects changes in the positions of their associated control valves or other control devices. This stabilizes the control process. This means that 5. the pistons KA05 of which are held against the medium pressure by spring KA06. Hydraulic Control Main oil pump MAV21AP001 supplies the bearing and primary oil circuits with control oil whilst hydraulic speed transmitter MAX44AP001 acts as a pulse generator for the control circuit. Medium drains off according to the amount of port overlap between piston and sleeve and a medium pressure corresponding to the tension of spring KA06 is built up. which can be limited by starting and load limit device MAX47BY001. This oil pressure can also be read directly from speed indicator pressure gauge MAX44CP501. Change-over from one control system to the other is possible even during operation as the two controllers are connected in parallel downstream of the associated follow up piston batteries.The travel of diaphragm KA09. The secondary medium circuits and the auxiliary secondary medium circuits are supplied from the trip medium circuit by way of orifices. is transmitted by linkage KA03 to sleeves KA04 of auxiliary follow-up pistons KA08. The electro-hydraulic converter constitutes the link between the electrical and hydraulic parts of the governing system. For this purpose electrical speed transducers MYA01CS011 to 013 are mounted on the high-pressure end of the turbine shaft. Electro-hydraulic Control The speed of the turbine is measured digitally. The signal from the electro-hydraulic controller actuates the control sleeve via the plunger coil system. providing a primary oil pressure proportional to the speed. The electrohydraulic converter consists of the speed control converter MAX45BY001 and a plunger coil system CG001T. This primary oil pressure acts on diaphragm KA09 of hydraulic speed governor MAX46BY001 against the force of speed setting spring KA02 which is tensioned by reference speed setter MAX46BY001. a secondary medium pressure corresponding to the position of the sleeves and to the related spring tension builds up in the follow up pistons of hydraulic amplifier MAX45BY011. As already described for auxiliary follow-up piston KA08.

This adjustment may only be performed manually and must always be performed on both follow-up piston batteries MAX45BY001 and MAX45BY011. If the turbine is operated with the hydraulic governor. via a linkage.1-0620-01/2 regulating cylinders MAX45BY001 KA10 and MAX45BY011 KA10 by way of energizing solenoid valve MAX42AA051. If the condition “Turbine load less than set minimum load and the ratio of HP exhaust steam pressure to main steam pressure greater than a set value is fulfilled”. Under these operating conditions. When this occurs. to ensure that changeover from hydraulic to electro-hydraulic control and vice versa is possible at all times. First reduce the set point at reference speed setter MAX46BY001 until the secondary medium pressures drop slightly. This manual adjustment must always be reversed before the HP or LP bypass station is brought into operation. Change-over from Electro-hydraulic to Hydraulic Control Change-over is performed in the reverse sequence. which makes it possible to change the setting response of the HP and IP control valves. the electrohydraulic controller has taken over. The electro-hydraulic controller is then fully effective and can operate over the entire load range. the speed set point of the electrohydraulic controller is set at “maximum speed” which prevents the electro-hydraulic control system from coming into action. operation of the turbine may immediately be continued by means of the hydraulic speed governor. Then the reference speed setter of hydraulic governor speed MAX46BY001 is set to “maximum speed”. control medium is admitted to the space below the pistons of 5. In this case. To bring in the electro-hydraulic control system. which leads. In normal operation. is provided for limiting the HP exhaust steam temperature. after a load rejection. thereby cutting off the flow of control medium to the regulating cylinders and allowing the control medium under the pistons to drain off. Adjusting Device for Valves An adjusting device. whereby the pistons move into their upper end positions against the force of the spring and. tension the springs of follow-up pistons KA02 of the control valves in such a way that this produces the desired setting response of the IP control valves in relation to the HP control valves. The hydraulic speed governor also acts as a speed limiter in the event of failure of the electro-hydraulic controller. . e. with the result that the HP exhaust steam temperature is lowered. solenoid valve MAX42AA051 is de-energised. solenoid valve MAX42AA051 is energised and an interlock is provided to prevent de-energisation. a manual adjusting mechanism KA11 is also provided for adjusting the relationship between the valves such that the reheat valves open before the main steam valves.g. This indicates that the hydraulic speed governor has taken over.it is always the controller with the lower set point. The pistons are moved into their lower end position by the restoring springs and the springs of follow-up pistons KA02 are adjusted so that the IP control valves do not begin to open until the HP control valves have opened to a greater extent. the speed set point of the electrohydraulic controller must be reduced slowly until the secondary medium pressures drop slightly. Then set the set point of the electro-hydraulic controller to maximum. The hydraulic speed governor is then completely effective and can operate over the entire load range. For operation of the plant without the HP and LP bypass stations.

Output signals are available for purchaser’s remote speed indicators and functional group automatic (FGA). The speed-measuring unit incorporates two speed ranges. The frequency of these voltages is proportional to the rotational speed of the turbine. The teeth of the wheel act upon the four stationary speed probes. MAY01CS011 to 014 (one as spare) and a toothed wheel with 60 teeth made around its circumference located on the main oil pump shaft. The three values for the rotational speed obtained by this process are continuously monitored for failures. electrohydraulic controller and speed target unit. 5. The output of these speed probes are fed to the input modules which provide digital output signals. the control circuit continues to operate without interruption. A speed indicator mounted on the hydraulic control equipment rack provides local speed-readings. automatic turbine tester and recorders. If one of the speed probes fail. using two BHEL Hardwar Control System Electrical Speed Measuring remaining speed probes. speed signals are also provided to the turbine stress evaluator/controller.1-0621-02 . When turbine rotates. The lower range covers 0360 rpm and the upper range 0-3600 rpm. From the speed-measuring unit.Steam Turbine Description The electrical speed signals originate from the electrical speed transducers which consist of four ferromagnetic type speed probes. The output is then fed to the speed measuring unit. The changeover from one range to the other is completely automatic. square wave signals are generated in the probes. Indicating lights located near the speed indicator show which range is engaged.

causing the trip fluid pressure to drop and all stop and control valves of the turbine to close. by the electrical low-vacuum trip or the thrust bearing trip or other protective devices. The annunciation Turbine trip initiated is transmitted simultaneously to the control room. closing the auxiliary trip fluid circuit so that the trip devices can be latched in. When the turbine is shut down there is no primary oil pressure and so the auxiliary piston is unable to tension the adjustable compression spring arranged above the diaphragm system. Each trip device consists of an eccentric bolt/striker fitted in the emergency governor shaft with its center of gravity displaced from the axis of rotation and held In position against centrifugal force by a spring up to an adjustable preset speed of 10 to 12 % above the normal turbine operating speed. To make it possible to latch-in the trip devices and thus to build up trip fluid pressure for adjusting and testing the control loop or similar purposes when the turbine is shut down and no vacuum exists. In doing so it strikes the pawl which releases the piston of the overspeed trip release device KA01. centrifugal force overcomes the spring force and the eccentric bolt/striker flies outwards into its extended position.1-0630-01/1 . This closes the control fluid inlet to the trip fluid circuit and at the same time opens the main trip fluid circuit to drain. Thus the low-vacuum trip is reset for initiation of turbine trip before the turbine has reached rated speed. As soon as the turbine is started up and brought up to speed. The spring below the diaphragm system lifts the valve. primary oil enters the space above the auxiliary piston. 5. The right-hand valve is moved into its lower position by a spring and thus opens the auxiliary trip fluid circuit. the lowvacuum trip has an auxiliary piston which is loaded with primary oil pressure above the adjustable compression spring. Remote Solenoid Trip Remote solenoid trip is activated via solenoid valves MAX52 AA001 and MAX52 AA002. This action depressurizes the space below the right-hand valve. BHEL Hardwar Protective Devices Low-Vacuum Trip for Turbine Protection An increase of pressure in the condenser causes the valve of low-vacuum trip MAG01 AA011 to move downwards from its upper position under the force of the pre-tensioned spring. Thrust-Bearing Trip Thrust bearing trips MAD12CY011/012/013 are tripped electrically in the event of excessive axial displacement of the turbine shaft. At the preset overspeed. The remote solenoid trip may be initiated manually from the control room by push button. Opening the auxiliary trip fluid circuit depressurizes the fluid below the differential pistons of main trip valves MAX51AA005 and MAX51AA006 and the differential pistons are activated by a spring. Limit switch MAG01 CG011C indicates in the control room that turbine trip has been initiated by the lowvacuum trip.Steam Turbine Description Overspeed Trip Two overspeed trips MAY10 AA001 and 002 are provided to trip/shut down the turbine in the event of overspeed. the piston opens the auxiliary trip fluid circuit to the main trip valves MAX51 AA005 and MAX51AA006. Pressure Switch Installed in the trip fluid circuit are two pressure switches MAX51CP011 and MAX51CP012 which bridge the longtime delayed relays of the reverse-power protection system in such a way that the generator is shut down by response of the short-time delayed relays as soon as it begins to motor. forcing in into its lower end position at a turbine speed far below rated speed. Limit switch MAG01CG011B signals to the control room that the low-vacuum trip is not in its normal operational position. Through combined spring force and fluid pressure.

Piston KA08 moves to its upper end position. Pilot valve KA07 of hydraulic converter MAX45BY011 moves upward and allows the control fluid to flow to the area below piston KA08 of the converter. thereby depressurizing all secondary fluid circuits. close. spring loading separates the upper and lower pistons of main stop valves MAA10+20 AA001 and reheat stop valves MAB10+20 AA001. opening the drain passage for the trip fluid and closing the control fluid inlet. and all the stop valves close very rapidly. Solenoid valve MAX45AA001 opens the IP secondary fluid circuit directly. A small delay is involved in closing all other control valves by depressurizing the auxiliary secondary fluid circuit. . permitting secondary fluid pressures corresponding to the reduced load to build up again. These solenoid valves are actuated by the load shedding relay if the rate of load drop relative to time exceeds a predetermined value. the IP control valves (which control the major portion of the power output) close without any appreciable delay.1-0630-01/2 via main trip valve MAX51AA005 and MAX51AA006 and flows both to the secondary fluid circuits and to the stop valves MAA10+20AA001 and MAB10+20AA001. At the same time. as the secondary fluid circuits are fed from the trip fluid circuit. all turbine stop and control valves close. the control valves and extraction check valves also close. the extraction check valves. Turbine Trip Gear The trip fluid is taken from the control fluid 5. If the pressure below the differential piston of main trip valves MAX51 AA005 and MAX51AA006 drops below a preset adjustable value. the solenoid valves are reclosed. but his action is still performed before an increase in turbine speed causes the speed controller to respond.Solenoid Valves for Load Shedding Relay Solenoid valves MAX45 AA001 and MAX46 AA011 are provided to prevent the turbine from reaching trip-out speed in the event of a sudden load rejection. After an adjustable interval. Since the reheat IP secondary fluid circuit opens directly. Solenoid valve MAX46 AA011 opens the auxiliary secondary fluid circuit. Thus on trip initiation. thus opening the drain passage for the auxiliary trip fluid. the piston in each valve is forced downwards by the spring. Manual local Trip Method of Initiating Turbine Trip Manual local initiation of turbine trip is performed by way of local trip valve MAX52 AA005. The two limit switches MAX52CG005C and MAX52 CG005E indicate in the control room that trip has been initiated locally by hand. At the same time. which are dependent on secondary fluid via extraction valve relay MAX51AA011. The valve must be pressed downwards manually. The main trip valves serve to rapidly reduce the fluid pressure in the trip fluid circuit. If the pressure in the trip fluid circuit drops below a predetermined value.

When this happened. a defect in the overspeed trip may be assumed. The auxiliary trip medium pressure must then remain at its full value (readable at pressure gauge MAX52CP501). The actual speed at which trip occurs can be read off at pressure gauge MAX44CP501. then collapses. The control oil pressure thus builds up and moves the eccentric bolts/strikers outwards against the spring force. releasing the pawls of the overspeed trip releasing device. BHEL Hardwar The buildup of pressure in the auxiliary startup medium circuit between the overseed trip test device and the overspeed trip release device can be followed at pressure gauge MAX48CP501. pilot valve KA03 is first pushed downwards and held in this position. As soon as the auxiliary trip medium pressure drops to 0 at pressure gauge MAX52CP501. The test is completed. the bolt may be made to move freely by rapidly operating the pilot valve by means of hand-wheel KA01 several times in succession. If this is the case. the auxiliary start-up medium pressure returns to 0 pressure. when valve KA02 is released. Subsequent operation of hand-wheel KA01 moves the center pilot valve downwards. the turbine must be shut down and the emergency governor to be inspected. pilot valve KA02 must be pushed downwards again and must be held in this position a little longer. as a results of which the pilot valve moves rapidly inwards. 5. If. If during operation at rated speed. pilot valve KA03 may be released. Operation is followed by observing the reading at pressure gauge MAX52CP501. which presses linkage KA03 downwards. If this measure does not have the desired result. pilot valve KA02 must be pushed downwards to admit control medium into the auxiliary start-up medium circuit to the differential pilot valve of the overspeed trip device.Steam Turbine Description Overspeed Trip Test Testing with Turbine under Load Condition Overspeed trips MAY10 AA001 and 002 can be tested using test device MAX62AA001 with the turbine running under load or noload conditions. This action blocks the drain and allows the control oil to flow through the center bore of the pump shaft into overspeed trips. This is done by operating lever KA07 of hydraulic speed governor MAX46BY001. The trip pressure is read off at pressure gauge MAX62CP501. This isolates the auxiliary trip medium circuit from the overspeed trips and prevents the main trip being initiated by the overspeed trips. up to the over speed trip test device. Limit switches MAY10CG001&002C of overspeed trip release device MAY10 AA001 and 002 indicate in the control room that main trip valves MAX51AA005 and MAX51AA006 have been actuated by overspeed protective device. If the trip pressure is too high. The pressure in the auxiliary rip medium circuit. thus increasing the secondary medium pressures. To operate the test device. the center pilot valve must be returned to its original position using hand-wheel KA01. as can be read off at pressure gauge MAX62CP501. Testing with Turbine under No-Load Condition Overspeed trips MAY10AA001 and 002 must be tested at regular intervals by running the unloaded turbine up to trip speed. The pilot valve moves towards the right and latches the overspeed trip device in again. This causes the control valves to open and the turbine starts to overspeed. The bolts/strikers of the overspeed trips should return to their original position. The pressure in the test line should then return to 0. the auxiliary trip medium pressure collapses. this pressure should deviate from the baseline value as recorded in the test report.1-0631-01 . It is essential that the auxiliary trip medium pressure must remain steady before valve KA03 is released. When pilot valve KA02 is then released.

It is to be reopened immediately. This. the main stop valves may only travel out of the open position to about 50% closed at the most and are to be reopened immediately. It is a precondition for testing the main stop valves that there should be a mixing header in the steam leads between the boiler and the stop valves.Steam Turbine Description Main Steam Stop Valves The stop valves can be tested for freedom of movement independently of each other even during operation with the aid of the test valves MAX47AA011 to 012 attached to each of them. is conditional upon the response time of the initial pressure controller being high enough to keep the initial pressure constant even during the testing procedure. BHEL Hardwar Testing of Stop Valves The main control valves may be closed for testing purposes for not longer than 4 to 5 minutes so that the unbalanced steam flow is only present for a short period to avoid significant effects on the HP turbine casing. Once the control valve has been closed the stop valve can be closed. As for the main steam stop valves it is a precondition for testing the reheat stop valves that there should be a mixing header in the steam leads between the boiler and the stop valves.1-0632-01 . If the test is conducted with the initial pressure controller out of operation. First the main control valve concerned MAA10 or 20AA002. Then the reheat stop valve MAB10 or 20 AA001 is closed by actuating test valve MAX47AA021 and 022 and reopened. Reheat Stop Valves Testing of a reheat stop valve must be conducted at a power output at which the reheat control valves MAB10 and 20 AA002 are fully open. is to be closed by pressing of pushbutton in the supply unit. First the associated reheat control valve is to be closed by pressing of pushbutton in the supply unit. however. The main stop valves MAA10 and 20AA001 may only be tested at a load that is less than 80% of the maximum output. If the initial pressure controller is in operation complete closure of a main stop valve may be performed. 5. If in operation. On completion of the test the reheat control valve is to be reopened. the initial pressure controller opens the other main control valve accordingly.

Hydraulic fluid. thus permitting very precise positioning of the actuator. load shedding or trip out. Water Injection System During LP Bypass operation a part or entire steam flow produced by boiler is routed to the condenser. Operation of any one trip solenoid valve is sufficient to close the stop valve. Hydraulic Power Supply Unit (HPSU) The hydraulic unit serves to supply the necessary pressurized fluid to the actuators.1-0640-01-1 .g. a phosphate ester is chosen for high pressure hydraulic system. The hydraulic power unit has two pumps. The unit has a solenoid valve for opening & closing of stop valve and two trip solenoid valves for fail close/positive close function. Refer O&M manual supplied alongwith equipments by vendor for detail description. Electro-hydraulic Actuator for LP Bypass Stop Valve LP Bypass System (General) Electro-hydraulic Actuator for LP Bypass Control Valve The LP bypass control valve actuator is an electro-hydraulic actuator with an external control fluid supply from centralized Hydraulic Power Unit (HPSU). Note:. under normal startup and shut down conditions. the amount of excess reheat steam bypassed to the condenser. The unit is designed to operate a single acting cylinder with a spring in closing direction. the volume of steam not utilized by the IP and LP cylinders of the turbine must be bypassed to the condenser via the LP bypass valves. e.This is a general description of LP Bypass System (EHA Type). BHEL Haridwar 5. During start-up and shutdown. A regeneration unit for hydraulic fluid is provided to maintain its properties/quality. The fluid has good lubricating properties and allows a comparatively easy maintenance. The LP bypass stop valve actuator is an electro-hydraulic actuator with an external control fluid supply from centralized Hydraulic Power Supply Unit (HPSU). Two nos. One pump is always in operation and the other is stand-by. filtration circuits are provided in order to maintain the cleanliness of system for proper functioning of hydraulic system. A separate flow controller is provided to regulate the spray water valve. which ensures good fire protection.Steam Turbine Description Function The function of the LP bypass control system (EHA Type) is to monitor the pressure in the reheat system and to control it under certain operating conditions. In the event of disturbances. The control block converts the electrical signal from the controller into flow of hydraulic fluid. Actuator for water injection valve may be hydraulic or pneumatic type. and at operation below minimum boiler load. a regulating type water injection system to optimize the water quantity to be mixed with LP Bypass steam is provided. In order that the condensate pumps do not have to supply the injection water flow required for the full boiler capacity and to prevent the amount of excess water flow becoming too high. The control block will position the valve as well as block the cylinder in case of hydraulic fluid failure. It controls the intake and discharge of hydraulic fluid to and from the piston chambers of the actuator in a continuous mode. This requires the bypass control system to maintain the pressure in the reheater constant in accordance with the preset reference value.

where as depressurization beneath the piston is delayed by a check valve and the pressure in fluid accumulator MAX45BB001. BHEL Hardwar 5. A4 and A5. closure of the swing check valves is assisted for a short time by means of pistons KA01 of auxiliary slide valve MAX51 AA011. Extraction valve relay MAX51 AA011 actuates the swing check valves in accordance with the secondary fluid pressure. The resulting differential pressure moves the piston upward to interrupt the trip fluid supply to the swing check valves. The swing check valve in extraction lines A4 can also be triggered by differential pressure switch LBS42CP002. MAX51AA051 etc. LBS31. LBS41 and LBS42 AA001and 002 is to prevent the backflow of steam into the turbine from the extraction lines and the feed water heaters. suitable adjustment of the spring in relation to piston KA02 sets the turbine load at which the swing check valves are released for opening or assisted in closing. the valves close automatically. Two free-swinging check valves are installed in each extraction lines A2. In this case. The mechanical design of the swing check valves is such that they are brought into the free -swinging position by means of trip fluid pressure via actuator KA01 and the disc is moved into the steam flow by means of spring force acting via the lever. The trip supply to actuator KA01 is controlled by extraction valve relay MAX51 AA011. In the event of flow reversal in the extraction lines. whose closing movement is assisted by the spring force of actuator via a flow restrictor. Extraction Check Valve there is a danger that the contents of the feed water heaters will flash into steam. thereby further assisting the closing action of the swing check valve. whereby actuator KA01 assists the closing movement of the disc. LBS21.Steam Turbine Description The function of extraction check valves LBQ50. The release setting for opening cannot be arbitrarily adjusted towards higher turbine output. The pilot valve moves back into its original position to open the way for the trip fluid to release the swing check valves. Turning the handwheel on the changeover valves MAX51AA048. In normal operation pilot valve KA01 passes trip oil to pilot valve KA02. A3.1-0650-01 . as the swing check valve will open even without the release action if the steam pressure difference exerts a greater force than the closing spring. The position of all swing check valves is indicated via position transmitters-CG001A and CG002A. close the associated swing check valves within the bounds of the effectiveness of the spring. In the event of an abrupt output drop. the pressure on the top side of pilot valve KA01 drops. In the event of major output drops above the opening point of the swing check valves. MAX51AA031 etc. shaft and disc lever and closes if differential pressure is either lowered or reversed. This differential pressure switches energizes solenoid valves MAX51AA028 and MAX51AA031 if the steam flow drops below a preset rate (differential pressure). changeover valves MAX51AA028.

the steam pressure on the inlet side of the valve and at the same time the secondary medium pressure is not yet sufficient to open the valve. additional pressure losses during normal operation are avoided. the BHEL Hardwar Swing Check Valve Cold reheat steam line check valve is closed by the actuator KA01 and prevent the steam in the cold reheat line from returning to the turbine. during start-up.Steam Turbine Description In order that the turbine may be completely separated from the steam when it is stationary. the steam pressure will open the swing check valve against the medium pressure in the manner of a safety valve. Thus when the steam flow in the normal direction ceases. Only when the control valves reach this point again as they are being closed. 5. The swing check valve opens fully when the control valves reached approx. 5 to 10% of their full-power travel. the swing check valve brought into steam flow again by the hydraulic actuator.1-0651-01 . If. an additional check valve LBC10 AA001 is fitted in the line between the HP cylinder and the reheater and operating through pilot valve MAX42AA001 +002 and the rotary actuator KA01 depending on the pressure in the associated secondary medium circuit. The Open and Control position of the swing check valve are indicated in the control room via the limit switches. By removing the valve from the steam flow during operation above 5 to 10% of maximum power.

Steam Turbine Description The check valve LBC10AA001 in cold reheat line is wide open during normal operation by its associated rotary servomotor KA01. the open position limit switch will change position. For testing the movability. With this indicator the regular movement of the check valve can be checked after closing shut-off valve MAX45AA566 nearby upto this value. the check valve can be moved in closing direction by interrupting the connection between pilot valve MAX42 AA002 and HP secondary fluid line with closing of shut-off valve MAX45AA566 (pilot valve and shut-off valve are installed in the turbine hydraulic control rack). The check valve is moved then in its wide-open position. By closing the shut-off valve the pilot valve MAX42AA002 is reversing and rotary servomotor is moving the check valves in closing direction. 5. When the check valve starts moving. After this check the shut-off valve has to be reopened. which is indicated in the control room. At the position indicator in the control room it can be checked if the check valve has reached again its wide-open position.1-0652-01 . the check valves can not be closed completely. This BHEL Hardwar Testing of Check Valves in Cold Reheat Line can be brought only in an intermediate position. Because the torque of these servomotor is limited.

The automatic turbine tester is realised in digital technology. There are manually operated devices for testing the free operation of the stop and control valves. However. the control panel in the control room and schematic circuit diagrams are contained in the separate electrical section of the “Operating Manual” for the automatic turbine tester. Full protection for the turbine during testing is also assured by suitable circuit arrangements. etc). Protective devices Description: “Automatic Turbine Tester. Hence. Each group contains the device itself and all necessary transmission elements for initiation of a normal trip. The automatic turbine tester is divided into the following 2 subgroups: BHEL Hardwar Automatic Turbine Tester General 1. Protective device”. Economy has dictated longer intervals between turbine overhauls. Nature of the description The descriptions mentioned above contain the practical sequence of the tests on the individual devices and gives details of possible irregularities. The complete testing of all components which must operate when an automatic trip becomes necessary is assured. stop and control valves”. it is essential that these equipments are always kept in a fully serviceable condition. interlock modules. The description of equipment contained in the automatic control cubicle (stepping switches. This increases the operational reliability and availability of the plant. 2. System adaptation The system is subdivided into functional groups for each device. 5.Steam Turbine Description Function Healthiness of the protective devices and the stop and control valves is vitally important for the operational reliability and availability of the turbine. For the understanding of the automatic turbine tester from these descriptions it is assumed that the reader is fully conversant with the functioning of the individual protective devices and valves within the overall turbine governing and protection system. The system Any possible mal-operation associated with manually operated devices are avoided with fully automatic tests by means of the automatic turbine tester. with the result that testing of the equipments and devices is now necessary at regular intervals during normal operation. despite the subdivision into two testing groups (protective devices.1-0660-00 . these tests do not cover all components involved in an automatic trip with the result that the conditions only party corresponds to those prevailing during a real trip. Main stop and control valves Description: “Automatic Turbine tester. stop and control valves). because the main trip valves which store the trip signal by mechanical hydraulic means are operated together with each protective device and subsequent satisfactory reduction of the trip oil pressure after the valves are monitored.

all annunciations are activated as for actual trip.Steam Turbine Description Scope of Testing The Automatic turbine tester (ATT) subgroup for the protective devices is divided into a preliminary test and the following four individual testing systems.  Interruption if the running time of any program step is exceeded or if trip is initiated. The remote trip solenoids MAX52 AA001 and MAX52 AA002.In order to keep the trip fluid circuit effective. Further selected tests must be started individually by pressing the Test push-button to start the program. Once the first test selected has been completed and the protective device has latched in again. it is isolated from main trip valves MAX51 AA005 and MAX51AA006 by means of change-over valve MAX51AA211 and supplied with fluid via solenoid valves MAX51AA201 and MAX51AA202 (remote trip during testing). Testing of the protective devices for normal turbine operation can only be performed if the preliminary test has run without fault and the protection of the turbine during testing is assured. of the devices that protect the turbine during that test. two electrical speed signals are formed to provide protection against turbine overspend. over speed trips MAY10AA001/MAY10AA002 and low vacuum trip MAG01AA011 actuate main trip valves MAX51AA005 and MAX51AA006 by opening the auxiliary trip fluid circuit.  Remote trip solenoid MAX52AA001  Remote trip solenoid MAX52AA002  Over speed trips MAY10AA001/MAY10 AA002  Low vacuum trip MAG01AA011 One or more systems can be selected for testing at the control panel and the selection is stored. The start of the test program automatically causes a preliminary test to be carried out on the protective channels which are to be effective during actual testing and then establishes the test circuit. For the duration of testing of the protective devices. The appropriate section of the alarm annunciation system is thus also tested. BHEL Hardwar Automatic Turbine Tester for Protective Device Trip Initiation during Testing To provide normal protection for the turbine during testing. the electric trip action is prevented however.  Protection of the turbine during testing provided by special test protective devices. For the duration of testing. General During normal operation. upon selection of a test.  Automatic reset of the test program after a fault.  Monitoring of all program steps for execution within a certain time. a test circuit is established .1-0661-00/1 . During all electrical testing of the protective devices. the test circuit is restored to its normal operational configuration. 5. the protective devices act via main trip valves MAX51 AA005 and MAX 51AA006 on the stop and control valves and extraction swing check valves. Features of the Automatic Turbine Tester The automatic turbine tester is distinguished by the following features:  Individual testing protective device. any trip initiation signals from the protective devices will de-energize the solenoid valves for remote trip during testing and the same time initiate the reset program. of each turbine  Automatic testing. This also applies to all normal electrical remote trips such as generator protection. etc.

Setting Data
The setting data for the pressure switches
are listed in the setting record Measuring
Point List. The actually set values are
logged in the Commissioning Test
Record.The test running times, etc. are
entered in the functional diagrams.
Test Sequence
Start of Testing
The test begins with the selection of the
protective devices subgroup. This is
performed by pressing the subgroup On/Off
push button.
The subgroup remains on until switched off
when the program has been completed.
While the protective devices subgroup
program is running, the other subgroups are
blocked.
The On/Off push-button is also used to
acknowledge alarms.
Selection
After the subgroup has been switched on,
the protective device to be tested is selected
by pressing the selection push button for the
individual device.
A separate selection push-button is provided
for each protective device. Only one
selection may be made at a time. Selection
of a further test is possible only once all
other programs have ended
Test Push-Button
The automatic test program is started by
pressing the Test push-button
Cancel Push-Button
This push-button can be used to terminate
the test program running at any time and to
initiate the reset program. The reset
program has priority over the test program.
Lamp Test Push-Button
All the signal lamps on the control panel can
be tested by pressing the Lamp Test PushButton.

5.1-0661-00/2

Individual Tests
The individual test is performed after
completion of the preliminary test and after
the test circuit has been established.
Successful completion of each individual
test is annunciated by the limit switches on
main trip valves MAX51AA005 and MAX51
AA006, pressure switch MAX52CP211 in
the auxiliary trip fluid circuit and pressure
switch MAX 51CP209 in the trip fluid circuit
between change-over valve MAX51AA211
and the main trip valve MAX51AA006. The
associated limit switch also annunciates
when a protective device (except for the
remote trip solenoids) has been activated.
On completion of each individual test, all
activated protective devices are returned to
their normal operating position by reset
solenoid valves MAX48AA201 and MAX48
AA202 and the test circuit is deactivated.
Whenever several of the same types of
protective device are provided, only one will
be described in the following, as the test
procedure is the same for all.
Preliminary Test
Pressing the Test push-button automatically
initiates a test of the protective circuits to be
effective during testing.
Function
The function of the preliminary test is to
detect any faults in the protective circuits to
be used during testing, and, if any are
detected, to inhibit testing of the protective
device, as this would leave the turbine
without protection.
Test Sequence
In the course of the preliminary test,
solenoid valves MAX51AA201 and MAX51
AA202 (remote trip during testing) are
automatically tested before the test circuit is
established. These valves (MAX51AA201
and MAX51AA202) are first energized,
resulting in a buildup of control fluid
upstream of changeover valve MAX51AA
211.lnitiation of Schmitt triggers (in the
speed
measuring
unit)
de-energizes
solenoid valve MAX51AA201 and the control

fluid up stream of changeover valve MAX51
AA211 is drained. Successful completion of
testing is annunciated by pressure switch
MAX51CP207 between solenoid valve MAX
51AA201 and changeover valve MAX51AA
211. Subsequently, solenoid valve MAX51
AA202 is de-energized via the second
channel of its Schmitt trigger, thereby
depressurizing the control fluid still present
between solenoid valves MAX51AA201 and
MAX51AA202. This process is monitored by
pressure
switch
MAX51CP205.
On
successful completion of the preliminary
test, the test circuit is automatically
established, which permits realistic testing of
the protective devices without initiating
turbine trip.
Solenoid valves MAX51AA201 and MAX51
AA202 (for remote trip during testing) are
again energized whereupon control fluid is
supplied to change over valve MAX51
AA211. Then solenoid valve MAX61AA201
is energized, effecting changeover from trip
fluid to control fluid. The control fluid in this
line drains off, and the pressure difference
drives changeover valve MAX51AA211 into
its test position (lower end position), thereby

actuating limit switch MAX51CG211C which
annunciates this status.
De-activating the Test Circuit
The test circuit is deactivated in the reverse
order on completion of the selected test and
after automatic latching of the protective
device concerned in its normal operating
position.
Hydraulic Test Signal Transmitters
The function of the hydraulic test signal
transmitters is to activate the related
protective device (with the exception of the
remote trip solenoids). Each protective
device has an associated test signal
transmitter. For testing the over speed trip
device, the associated test signal transmitter
builds up a test pressure relatively slowly
and passes it to the overspeed trips, for
testing the low vacuum trip, an air pressure
signal is introduced to the device via an
orifice. The testing signals to remote trip
solenoids MAX52AA001 and MAX52AA002

are formed within the automatic turbine
tester itself and not by a test signal
transmitter.

5.1-0661-00/3

Main Trip Valves
MAX 51 AA005 and MAX 51 AA006
Only one of the two main trip valves is
described in the following, as they are
constructional and functionally identical.

Function
The function of the main trip valve is to
amplify and store the hydraulic or
mechanical (manually initiated local) trip
signal. It must respond in the course of
every successful protective device test.
Operation
Each main trip valve is kept in its position by
auxiliary trip fluid pressure. If a protective
device is actuated, the auxiliary trip fluid
circuit is depressurized and the main trip
valve is activated. This connects the trip fluid
and auxiliary trip circuits to drain and shuts

off the control fluid supply to the turbine
valves. At the same time, limit switch 1 is
actuated.
Auxiliary start-up fluid pressure forces
differential piston (3) into its normal
operating position. Control fluid IV is then
free to pass through to buildup the pressure
in the trip fluid and auxiliary trip fluid circuits.

5.1-0661-00/4

Pressure switches MAX48CP201 and
MAX48CP202 monitor the orderly pressure
collapse of auxiliary start-up fluid circuit after
latching-in of main trip valves.
Attention: The lever for manual actuation of
the main trip valve must not be test operated
during turbine automatic testing operation,
as the electrical trip action is always initiated
via the manual trip-out limit switch.
Remote Trip Solenoids
MAX52 AA001 and MAX52 AA002
The twin electrical remote trip feature
consists of the two remote trip solenoid
valves MAX52AA001 and MAX52AA002.
0ne trip channel is described here, as the
test procedure is the same for both.
Function
The function of the remote trip solenoids is
to depressurize the auxiliary trip fluid circuit
in the shortest possible time, thereby
bringing main trip valves MAX51AA005 and
MAX51AA006 into their trip positions, in the

event of a malfunction requiring electrical
trip initiation.
During normal operation, the remote trip
solenoid isolates the auxiliary trip fluid circuit
from the drain. For testing, the automatic
turbine
tester
switches
over
the

solenoid valve so that the auxiliary trip fluid
circuit is connected to drain. Trip initiation is
monitored downstream of the main trip
valves by pressure switches MAX51CP209
and MAX52CP211 in the auxiliary trip fluid
circuit. In addition, the limit switch of each
main trip valve must annunciate successful
completion of the test.
Latching -in
On successful completion of testing, remote
trip solenoids MAX52AA001 and MAX52
AA002 are de-energized. The reset program
is then started.

Overspeed Trips
MAY10AA001/MAY10AA002
Function
The two over speed trips are provided to
protect the turbine against over speeding in
the event of load rejection coincident with
failure of the speed controller. As they are
particularly important to the protection of the
turbine, they can also be locally tested by
manually with the aid of the over speed trip
test device MAX62AA001 (hydraulic test
signal transmitter) during turbine operation
at rated speed. (For description see Over
Speed Trip Test).

Operation
When the preset over speed is reached, the
eccentric flybolt/striker (2) of each over
speed trip activates piston (5) and limit
switch (6) annunciate via pawl (4). This
connects the auxiliary trip fluid circuit to

drain, thereby depressurizing it. The loss of
auxiliary trip fluid pressure causes the main
trip valve to drop which in turn causes the
trip fluid pressure to collapse.
To activate the over speed trip at rated
speed, as the test routine performed by the
automatic turbine tester requires, a specific
force, equivalent to the increase in
centrifugal force between rated speed and
preset trip over speed, is needed .For
testing, this force is exerted by the test oil
pressure, acting on the flybolt /striker (2) .On
the basic of the existing defined geometry,
the test oil is reproducible measure for the
trip speed, and can therefore be used to
check whether the over speed trip responds
at the desired setting.
Test Sequence
The test oil pressure is produced using the
hydraulic test signal transmitter, which is
also used for manual testing. First the
command is given to the actuator motor to
go into the trip position (down). After a
certain idling time, the test oil pressure
builds up to act on the two over speed trip
flybolts/strikers (2).
If the two bolts are functioning correctly, they
will fly outwards into the trip position when
the defined pressure is reached, thereby
activating the main trip valve via pawl (4),
piston (5) and the auxiliary trip fluid circuit.
The two over speed trips are monitored for
activation at the given test oil pressure by

the two pressure switches MAX62CP211
and MAX62CP212 in the test oil line, and
the limit switch (6). Pressure switches MAX
62CP211 and MAX62CP212 are preset to
respond at a certain level (approx.O.15 bar)
below and above the test oil reference

5.1-0661-00/5

pressure respectively. This test oil reference
pressure
is
determined
during
commissioning
and entered
in the
commissioning test record. Limit switch (6)
must respond within the pressure range
between the settings of pressure switches
MAX62CP211 and MAX62CP212. A slow
buildup of pressure is required for this
operation, that is why a relatively long
monitoring period equivalent to the running
time of the actuator, has to be selected.
Premature response of the over speed trips
is annunciated.
Latching-in
Once the trip has been initiated, the actuator
of the hydraulic test signal transmitter is
driven back until the limit switch annunciates
that normal position has been reached.
Monitoring must be continued until the test
oil pressure at pressure switch MAX62
CP213 is less than 0.1 bar.

operation, the pressure in the turbine
condenser exceed a preset valve.
Operation
When the condenser pressure exceeds the
adjusted limit, the piston (6) is moved
downwards by this pressure, which acts
against diaphragm {4), and the spring force
(3). Thereby pressure below piston (7) drops
and this piston moves in its lower end
position by spring force connecting the
auxiliary trip fluid circuit to the drain. The
resultant depressurization of the auxiliary
trip fluid circuit actuates main trip valves
MAX51AA005 and MAX51AA006, thereby
closing all turbine valves.

This double check-back of the hydraulic test
signal transmitter having returned to normal
position ensures that, after completion of
testing, the over speed at which the turbine
will trip is not reduced due to test oil
pressure remaining effective and that the
over speed trip will not be set off
prematurely in the event of load reduction.
While test oil pressure is decreased, the two
over speed flybolts/strikers spring back into
their normal positions at a pressure well
above 0.5 bar.
Subsequently, piston (5) is brought back into
its normal position by the pressure of
auxiliary start-up fluid II and latched-in with
pawl (4). At the same time, piston (5) shuts
off drain channel IV, so auxiliary trip fluid III
can build up pressure. Once this has been
done, the auxiliary start-up fluid can be
depressurized.

Low Vacuum Trip
MAGO1 AAO11
Function
The function of the low vacuum trip is to
operate the main trip valve if, during normal

5.1-0661-00/6

Test sequence
After energizing of test signal transmitter
(solenoid valve) MAG01AA201, fitted in the
signal line to the condenser, this signal line
is blocked off and simultaneously the space
above diaphragm (4) is connected to
atmosphere. The air flow via orifice causes a
slow increase of pressure by which the
pistons (6) and (7) move to their trip position
connecting the auxiliary trip fluid circuit to
the drain.

The low vacuum trip is monitored for
operation within the specified vacuum range
by observing pressure switches MAG01
CP202 and MAG01CP204.
Latching-in
When test signal transmitter (solenoid valve)
MAG01AA201 has been de-energized and
the connection between low vacuum trip and
the condenser re-established, condenser
pressure builds up again above diaphragm
(4). Piston (6) moves into its upper end
position thereby opening the passage for the
control fluid flow to piston (7). When piston
(7) is in its upper end position, the auxiliary
trip fluid circuit is closed again. Restoration
of normal operating configuration is
annunciated by the limit switch of the low
vacuum trip and by pressure switches
MAG01CP201

Dispersion of the auxiliary start-up fluid
pressure is monitored by pressure switch
MAX48CP201. The second reset solenoid
MAX48 AA202 is then de-energized to
disperse the pressure between the twosolenoid valves. This is monitored by
pressure switch MAX48 CP202. The use of
two reset solenoids ensures that main trip
valve MAX51AA005 and MAX51AA006 and
over speed trip will always be sure to be
actuated if either one of the two reset
solenoids is de-energized.

Reset Solenoids
MAX48 AA201 and MAX48 AA202
Function
The function of the reset solenoids is to
restore the tripped protective devices to their
normal operating positions during the ATT
reset program.
Operation
The reset solenoids are two 2/3-way
solenoid valves, fitted in the auxiliary startup fluid line. Both solenoid valves are
energized in the course of the reset program
conducted after each subtest, so that
auxiliary start-up fluid II is supplied with
control fluid III. The control fluid pressure
forces all protective devices back into their
normal operating positions and the trip fluid
and auxiliary trip fluid pressure can build up
again.
When the protective devices have latched-in
again, reset solenoid MAX48AA021 is deenergized first to shut oft the control fluid
supply through this value.

1 Compression
spring
2 Coil
3 Valve disc

I Aux. start-up fluid
II Aux. start-up fluid
to protective devices
III Control fluid

Fig. 7 –Reset Solenoid

5.1-0661-00/7

Steam Turbine
Description

The following description refers to a
standard stop and control valve assembly.
The same text applies analogously to both
the main stop and control valves and the
reheat stop and control valves. The valve
assembly described is drawn in the closed
position (ready for start-up).
General
The stop and control valves of the turbine
are the final control elements actuated by
the protective devices arid it is, therefore,
equally important that these, as well as the
protective
devices,
should
function
reliably. The testing of these valves in
conjunction with testing of the protective
devices, as already described in
Automatic Turbine Tester, General
ensures that all elements which must
respond on turbine trip are tested for their
ability to function reliably.
Each stop valve is tested together with its
associated control valve. The automatic
turbine tester is designed so that only one
valve assembly may be selected and
tested at any time.
Test Requirements
To avoid turbine output changes and initial
pressure variations due to the closing of
the control valve under test during ATT,
the electro-hydraulic turbine controller
must be in operation prior to testing. To
facilitate compensation by the controller,
the closing time of the control valves is
relatively long, and to enable initial
pressure to be maintained constant,
testing is only permissible when the
turbine output is below a certain value.
Special Conditions during Testing
The main stop and control valves may only
be tested if no other ATT subgroup is
running.
During testing the selected control valve
(MAA10+20AA002) is closed completely

BHEL Hardwar

Automatic Turbine Tester
Stop and Control Valves

by means of a motor operated actuator
(-AA002M) acting on pilot piston (KA06)
parallel to pilot value (KA05). This result in
a closing movement simulating that which
occurs when the associated secondary
fluid pressure drops. The resultant,
constant slow closing movement is
necessary in order to keep the output
constant. Thus the conditions for actuation
of the valve are the same during testing as
during normal actuation by the controller.
The stop valves, which are held in the
open position by trip fluid pressure during
normal operation, are subjected to exactly
the same hydraulic conditions during
testing as would be the case in the event
of actual turbine trip, as the action of the
protective devices is simulated by the
solenoid valve (MAX61AA211 and 212).
The steam side conditions during testing
are somewhat more severe than during
actual trip, as the pressure downstream of
the stop valve can not drop off during
closure because the control valve is
closed. This means that the steam
pressure acting against the spring closure
force is greater than in the event of normal
trip.
The automatic turbine tester intervenes
only in the fluid circuits normally used to
control the valves and uses only trip fluid
to actuate the test valves (MAX47AA011
and 012) and to reset and open the stop
valves. Thus closure of the valves cannot
be impeded in the event of a genuine trip
during testing, regardless of the stage,
which the test has reached. This also
applies to the control valves, as the ATT
does not interrupt the secondary fluid
circuit and secondary fluid can thus be
depressurized in the normal manner in the
event of a trip.
Features of Automatic Turbine Tester
The ATT has the following features: 

Separate part-testing of each valve
assembly.

5.1-0662-01/1

 Time-related monitoring of all program
steps, and their implementation. 
Interruption due to running
exceeded or turbine trip.

time 

Automatic reset of test program after a
fault. 

Protection of the turbine during testing
provided by special test protective
circuits.

Setting Data
The setting data for the pressure switches
used to monitor the individual valve
movements are listed in the setting record
Pressure Switch settings. The actual set
values are logged in the Commissioning
Test Record. The test running times, etc.,
are entered in the functional diagram.
Test Selection Units
There are two nos. of combined main
steam and control valves” and two nos.
of combined reheat stop and control
valves, each of which is tested as a
separate unit and has a separate selection
push-button on the ATT control panel.
They are as follows:
Selection1:
Main stop and control valve (LHS)
Selection 2:
Main stop and control valve (RHS)
Selection 3:
Reheat stop and control valve (LHS)
Selection 4:
Reheat stop and control valve (RHS)
Test Procedure
Start of Test
The test starts with the selection of
subgroups by pressing the On/Off pushbutton.
The subgroup remains on until it is
switched off after the programme is

5.1-0662-01/2

concluded. When one subgroup program
is running, the other subgroup is blocked.
The
On/Off
push
button
also
acknowledges signals:
Selection
If the test requirements have been fulfilled,
the valve, assembly (e.g. main stop and
control valve (LHS)) to be tested is
selected by switching in the subgroup by
pressing title selection push-button.
A separate selection push-button is
provided for each combination of stop and
control valve assembly. Only one selection
may be made at a time. Selection of a
further test is not possible until the
programme already selected has ended.
Operation Push-button
The test run is started by pressing the
Operation push- button in the Stop and
Control valves tile.
Shutdown Push-button
This push-button can abort the current unit
test and introduce the reset program,
which has priority over the test
programme.
Lamp Test Push-button
All lamps on the panel are tested by
pressing the Test push-button.
Closure of Control Valve
If all the test requirements have been
fulfilled and the selection and operation
push buttons pressed, the control valve
(MAA10 and 20AA002) is closed by
means of the associated actuator (test
motor –AA002M). Operation of the
actuator (KA01) is continued until limit
switch (-CG002C) and limit switch (AA002M S72, S73) on the actuator is
tripped to annunciate that the control valve
being tested is in closed position.

admitting trip medium to the underside of the piston disc KA02 and after a certain amount of further travel. and thus on completion of the spring tensioning action. Test valve MAX47 AA011 and 012 switches over. solenoid valve MAX47AA211 and 212 is energized (test position) and trip medium is admitted to the control surface of the piston in the test valve MAX47 AA011 and 012. If the control valve is functioning properly. after a certain amount of over travel. monitoring of the stop valve closure time starts. slowly connects the space above piston KA01 with the drain. 226. the stop valve is opened by de-energizing solenoid valve MAX47AA211 and 212 (operating position). Again the initial pressure and output are kept constant by the appropriate controller. This is monitored by pressure switch MAX51CP221. The running time for closure of the control valve is monitored. it will close within the preset running time. Re-Opening of Control Valve If the conditions are fulfilled within the specified monitoring period. Opening of Stop Valve Next. the control valve is reopened. so that trip medium is once again able to flow to test valve MAX47AA011 and 012 and the drain is blocked off again. When the pressure at this pressure switch has dropped slightly below the breakaway pressure of piston disc (KA02). This allows trip fluid to flow to the space below changeover slide valve (MAX61AA011 and 012). The motor of positioner –AA002M is operated in the opening direction. Testing of the stop valve is now completed. Closure of Stop Valve Then the solenoid valve (MAX61AA211 and 212) energized. If the control valve is functioning properly. thereby tensioning the spring between piston KA01 and piston disc KA02 and finally pressing against piston disc KA02. Positioner –AA002M moves the control valve into its original position in the reverse sequence to the closing action. being equal to the spring force acting against it. Operation of positioned -AA002M is continued until. the selection is automatically cancelled and the programme is shut down. is detected by pressure switch MAX51CP222. As soon as the open position is reached. Cancellation of Selection On conclusion of testing of each combination of valve assembly. the full trip medium pressure builds up. 5. Up to this point the medium pressure above piston KA01 is relatively low.During this time. it will open within the preset running time. The associated limit switch (-CG001E) annunciates entry of the valve into its closed position. solenoid valve MAX61AA211 and 212 is de-energized (operating position).228). The buildup of trip medium pressure is monitored by pressure switch MAX51CP221. When the pressure is sufficiently high. The spontaneous pressure rise when piston KA01 has made contact with piston disc KA02. This piston is forced downwards by pressure of the medium. it has positively ceased to influence the controller. thus making it possible to monitor the valve closing action for completion within the maximum permissible running time. The pilot moves into its lower end position against the spring force. If all conditions are fulfilled within this relatively long monitoring period. 228 and by limit switch –CG001D. which moves into its upper end position and connects the space below piston disc (KA02) with the drain. 227. thus permitting trip medium to flow to the space above piston KA01 of the stop valve.1-0662-01/3 . the turbine output controller compensates for the effects of closure of the valve being tested on the turbine output by opening the remaining control valves. The pressure in this space drops rapidly and is monitored by pressure switch (MAX51CP223. This position is detected by limit switch –AA002 MS61 or –AA002 MS62. The resultant pressure difference causes the tensioned piston relay to open the stop valve.

In either case. If any running time is exceeded during the reset program.1-0662-01/4 Interruption due to Turbine Trip If electrical turbine trip is initiated during testing. .Interruption due to Running Time Exceeded The reset program is automatically initiated if the running time for any step in the test program is exceeded. 5. If the Faults in ATT alarm is displayed. the program halts. all solenoid valves are deenergized and positioner –AA002M is returned to its extreme position and the programme cancelled. the alarms Fails signal and Time overrun generated. the fault lies in the automatic tester itself. All equipments associated with the automatic turbine tester are automatically returned to their normal position.

by main actuator piston KA02 under the force of the control fluid and. i. the pilot valve allows fluid to flow to both sides of auxiliary pilot piston KA06. At the same time. main pilot valve KA07 displaced via the resetting linkage system by auxiliary pilot piston KA06. pilot valve KA05 is displaced which results in movement of auxiliary pilot piston KA06. Consequently the position of the pilot and main actuator pistons are proportional to the secondary fluid pressure in the steady state (on completion of the control action). it incorporates pilot and main control mechanisms. in the opening direction. by the disc spring column. 5. When BHEL Hardwar HP Actuator the signal fluid pressure changes.1-0665-00 . Acting as a 4-way valve. The movement of piston KA06 is transmitted via the resetting linkage of the pilot mechanism to the resetting spring. causing spool valve KA05 to return to the central position which establishes proportionality between the signal fluid pressure and the travel of auxiliary pilot piston KA06. in the closing direction.e. The actuating forces for movement of the HP control valve are generated. During actuation main pilot valve KA07 acts as a 3-way valve to allow the control fluid to flow to the space behind main actuator piston KA02. The actuating signal given by the signal fluid pressure acts on the face of pilot valve KA05 pressing it against the resetting spring on the opposite side. Main pilot valve KA07 is actuated via the resetting linkage by means of auxiliary pilot piston KA06 which is subject to control fluid pressure on both sides.Steam Turbine Description The actuator is of the two-stage amplification type. effects displacement of main actuator piston KA02 whose movement returns main pilot valve KA07 to the central position via the resetting mechanism.

which is common to all shaft seals. Controller The function of the electric controller 1. in turn. Mode of Operation The input signal coming from the controller flows through the solenoid (31). The electric controller is realised in digital technology.1. The amount of leakage steam and seal steam required depends on the pressure at the seals. The supply of steam is taken from the header 1.1-0670-01/1 .9 each via an electro hydraulic converter.4 for admitting extra steam to it. one of the final controlling elements (either the leakoff or steam supply control valve) is adjusted until the actual value again agrees with the set value.g. The actual valve of the control system is acquired continuously by the transducer 1. The actuators 1. If the actual value deviates from the set value. This is effected by exhausting steam from the header (e. All valves are actuated by type HSA-1-K electro hydraulic actuators.6 and compared against the set value in the electric controller 1.1 and seal steam supply control valve 1.3 is used for discharging surplus steam from the header 1. to the condenser) or supplying extra steam to the header 1. e.1. The electro BHEL Hardwar Electro-hydraulic Seal Steam Pressure Control hydraulic converter comprises a control coil. which.g.9 in conjunction with the transducer 1. The function of the control system is to maintain the pressure at the bleed-off points of all seals at the same preset pressure. are all valves operated simultaneously.9. is primarily dependent on the turbine load.11 are under the continuous control of an electric controller 1. Arrangement Leak-off control valve 1.6 and the actuating elements (control valves) is to maintain a controlled variable at a preset valve by adjusting the final controlling elements. according to operating conditions. Those seals. This force reacts against the force generated by the 5. the escaping steam is throttled to a low pressure and fed into a header 1.1. The magnetic field of the solenoid together with the magnetic field of the permanent magnet system (42) exercises a force on the freely pivoted armature (30). which are under vacuum. Only if there is a large control deviation. must be supplied with seal steam to prevent the ingress of air. which adjusts the position of the impingement plate of the hydraulic preamplifier.Steam Turbine Description Function With all shaft seals subject to a positive pressure difference. during a fullload trip.

therefore. Following smaller changes in signal. The baffle plate (29) then covers the tworebound nozzle tips (15) to an unequal extent. the hydraulic cylinder operation is correspondingly slower. The slide gate is deflected and releases the oil flow to or from the hydraulic cylinder (5. the equilibrium will be disturbed and. In the oil flow that flows through two-choke valves (21) to the rebound nozzles (16). the tension in the return spring (36) changes via the return rod (44) and the adjustment lever . At the same time. a pressure differential is created. The deflection of the slide gate is dependent 5.tension of the return spring. The oil pressure existing in the rebound nozzles is applied to the face of the slide gate (1a). The servo-valve enables an extremely sensitive control by virtue of its special construction. therefore. there will be a deflection of the armature retained by the spring (32) and return spring (36). The main cylinder piston moves and in so doing changes the position of the coupled actuator. the fastest change in the Hydraulic cylinder’s position is already achieved with an input signal change of delta I ≥ 3 mA.1).1-0670-01/2 upon the magnitude of an input signal change. The greatest amount of deflection and. If the input signal is changed.

otherwise the controller regulates the pressure to the preset value after it has been switched on. Then the valves can be controlled directly by hand by means of the push-button “Higher/Lower” below the valve position display with the aid of the remote-control manual control setter of the electrical equipment. The pump pressure opens the hydraulically operated check valve (8). Display of control deviation /Adjusting the set value The control deviation is displayed on each of the two desk tiles for the valves. The set value for steam pressure in the header can be adjusted between 0 and 22 mbar at the controller by means of the set value push-button. the oil flow to the cylinder is initially reduced and. the connections to the hydraulic cylinder (5. Thus. Under manual control the equalizing controller automatically tracks the output voltage of the disconnected controller 1. when the slide gate (1a) reaches its middle setting it is completely shut off.(39).1) are free. e. The two instruments are connected in parallel. The inscription “Higher/Lower” refers to the change in pressure when the push-button is operated.1-0670-01/3 . the change-over from manual control to automatic control will be bump less. The armature returns to its mid position. it is quite easy to switch the controller on and off during operation. Manual control is disconnected during automatic control. The position of the main piston or rather the actuator is directly proportional to the input signal on the servo valve. Electric manual control The controller can be switched off by the push button “Controller on/off”. Double Blocking Valve A double blocking valve is connected to the outlet side of the servo-valve. If the control deviation has been reduced to zero by positioning the valves before the controller is switched on. the pressures on the faces of the slide gates (1a) are of equal magnitude. and the main piston of the hydraulic cylinder is in its set position.9 to the manual control voltage. the manual control setter is then automatically tracked to the controller output voltage by the equalizing controller so that when changing over from automatic control to manual control the manual control setter is already in the correct position. both hydraulically operated check valve close.g. until the tension of the springs and magnetic forces reach a state of equilibrium. The hydraulic cylinder’s piston will be retained in its last position. “Higher” means increasing the pressure (the leakoff steam control valve closes or the seal steam control valve opens). If the oil supply fails. 5. The slide gate moves to its mid position.

1-0670-01/4 .5.

1-0680-01/1 .5.

Open Valve Position A9 Limit Switch. Limit Switch.H C.F. Testing Device 100% ATT B10 Travel Limit Switch. Closed Position E7 E7 E7 E7 E7 E7 LBS21 AA001 KA01 LBS21 CG001A Extraction Check Valve A2 Servomotor Remote Position Indicator E12. C.H. B10 Testing Device 0% ATT Remote Position Indicator C10 Limit Switch.J D E MAA10+ 20 AA002 KA01 KA02 KA05 Main Stop Valve Piston Piston Disc ABC7 AB7 B7 Limit Switch. Testing Device 100% ATT B7 MS62 Travel Limit Switch. Alarm Limit Switch. B7 Testing Device 0% ATT MAA10 + 20 CG002 A C MAB10 +20 AA001 KA01 KA02 MAB10 + 20 CG001 B. Closed Valve Position A9 Limit Switch.10 Servomotor C10 Piston C10 Pre Control Pilot Valve C10 Relay Piston for Precontrol Pilot ValveC10 Main Pilot Valve C10 Hand wheel for Testing Device B10 Electrical Motor for Testing Device B10 Torque Limit Switch.13 E12. Open Valve Position ATT A9 Unlit Switch. Testing Device 0% ATT B10 Travel Limit Switch. Open Valve PositionATT B7 Limit Switch.8 C7 C7 Coordinete KA06 KA07 KA09 M AA002 MS61 Relay Piston for Pre Control Pilot ValveC7 Main Pilot Valve C7 Hand wheel for Testing Device B7 Electrical Motor for Testing Device B7 Torque limit Switch.G. Closed Valve Position C10 ATT Electrical Thrust Bearing Trip D8 Low Vacuum Trip. Closed Valve PositionATTB7 Main Control Valve Servomotor Piston Pre Control Pilot Valve BHEL Hardwar BC7. Closed Position Limit Switch.J D E MAB10+ 20 AA002 KA01 KA02 KA05 KA06 KA07 KA09 M MS61 MS62 MS72 MAA10 + 20 AA001 KA01 KA02 Title MS73 MAB10 + 20 CG002 A C MAD12 CY011.1-0681-01/1 . Closed Valve Position ATT C7 Reheat Stop Valve Piston Piston Disc ABC9 A9 A9 Limit Switch. Alarm ATT Condenser Safety Device (Bypass Control) B5 B5 B5 B5 G9 5. Steam before Bypass Valve E8 LBC10 AA001 KA01 LBC10 CG001 B C D E Swing Check Valve of CRH Rotary Servomotor Limit Switch. Not Reset Limit Switch.12 A12 B12 LBQ50AA001 KA01 LBQ50CG001 A Extraction Check Valve A5 Servomotor Remote Position Indicator E9 E9 E9 LBQ5OAA002 LBQ50 CG002A Extraction Check Valve A5 Remote Position Indicator E9 E9 Power Plant identification System MAA10 + 20 CG001 B. Testing Device 100% ATT B10 Torque Limit Switch.012.013 MAG01 AA011 MAG01CG01 B C E MAG01AA016 Remote Position Indicator C7 Limit Switch. Closed Valve Position B7 Limit Switch.F.8 C7.13 LBS31 AA001 KA01 LBS31 CG001A Extraction Check Valve A3 Servomotor Remote Position Indicator E13 E13 E13 LBS31 AA002 LBS31 CG002 A Extraction Check Valve A3 Remote Position indicator E13 E13 LBS41 AA001 KA01 LBS41 CG00 1A Extraction Check Valve A4 Servomotor Remote Position Indicator C10 C10 C10 LBS41 AA002 KA01 LBS41 CG002A Extraction Check Valve A4 Servomotor Remote Position Indicator C10 C10 C10 LBS42 AA001 KA01 LBS42 CG001A Extraction Check Valve A4 Servomotor Remote Position Indicator AB11 A 11 B 11 LBS42 AA002 KA01 LBS41 CG002A Extraction Check Valve A4 Servomotor Remote Position Indicator AB1 1. Open Valve Position B7 Limit Switch.G.Closed Valve Position ATT A9 Main Control Valve BC9. Testing Device 100% ATT B7 MS72 Torque Limit Switch. Open Position Limit Switch.13 E12. Open Position Limit Switch.Steam Turbine Description Control System Diagram Legend Power Plant identification System Title Coordinete LBB01 CP511 Pressure Gauge. Testing Device 0% A TT B7 MS73 Travel Limit Switch.

1-0681-01/2 A7 F6 MAX42CP511 MAX45BY001 KA01 Fluid Filter for Pre Control. Control Fluid Water Injection Valve Open B12 MAX42CP512 Pressure Gauge. Open Position Limit Switch. E D12 F11 E12 Limit Switch. Interlocking Raheater Safety Valves C12 Water Injection Valve Servomotor A13 A13 MAX32BT021 MAX32BT081 G9 MAV21 AP001 Main Oil Pump E1 MAV21BT001 Oil Filter (Hydraulic Control Equipment Rack) D4 D8 MAX42AA011 Non-Return Valve B1 MAX42BT001 Fluid Filter (Hydraulic Control Equipment Rack) C1 Fluid Filter (Hydraulic Control Equipment Rack) C2 Fluid Filter (Hydraulic Control Equipment Rack) B4 Fluid Filter (Hydraulic Bypass Control Equipment Rack) G6 MAX42BT002 MAX42BT003 MAX42BT022 Fluid Filter for Water Injection Valves (Hydraulic Bypass Control Equipment Rack) A12 MAX42CP501 Pressure Gauge.Power Plant identification System Title Coordinete MAN01AA001 MAN AA011 MAN01CP511 MAN01DP001 KA01 Twin Check Valve G9 Hydraulic Pressure Switch E10 Pressure Gauge. Open Valve Position E11 Limit Switch. Closed Position Title MAX41 CP50l D11 pressure Gauge. Control Fluid Water Injection Valve for Sequential Water Injection Open B13 MAX44AP001 Hydraulic Speed Transmitter E1 MAX44CP501 Pressure Gauge. 26 Accumulator for HP Servomotor. Main Control Valves C11 A10 Slide Valve for Swing Check Valve Cold Reheat A13 A13 A 14 Fluid Filter for Pre Control. Closed Valve Position E11 MAN11 +12 AA002 KA01 KA02 KA05 KA06 KA07 MAN 11 + 1 2 CG002 A B MAN11 +12 AA003 KA01 MAN11 + 12 CG003 B C MAN11 + 12 AA004 KA01 MAN11 + 12 CG004 B C MAN11 + 12 CP501 LB Bypass Control Valve D12 Servomotor D11 Piston D11 Pre Control Pilot Valve C11 Relay Piston for Precontrol Pilot Valve C11 Main Pilot Valve C11 Remote Position Indicator Limit Switch. Reheat Control Valves B9 KA02 MAX31 BB021 BB041. Bypass Control Valves 5. Control Fluid (Hydraulic Control Equipment Rack) C2 MAX42BT021 Limit Switch. Control Fluid (Hydraulic Bypass Control Equipment Rack) Pressure Gauge. Primary Oil A5 MAX45BB001 Accumulator for Extraction Valve Relay E4 MAX31 BB21.049 Accumulator for HP Servomotor. Reheat Control Valves MAX42AA001 Water Injection Valve for Sequential Water Injection A14 Servomotor A14 Limit Switch Open Position Limit S witch Closed Position Coordinete Pressure Gauge. Bypass Control Valves D7 Accumulator for HP Servomotor. 016 Power Plant identification System KA04 KA05 KA06 KA07 KA08 KA10 KA11 Electro-Hydraulic Converter Follow-Up Piston for Main Control Valves Follow Up Piston for Reheat Control Valv8S Sleeve Piston Helical Spring Pilot Valve Piston Adjusting Device Control Valves Manual Adjusting Device F4 F5 F5 F4 F4 F4 G4 F4 F5 F5 . D C. Main Control Valves C11 Slide Valve for Swing Check Valve Cold Reheat MAX42AA002 B7 MAX32 BT011 +012 Fluid Filter for Pre Control. Water Injection F10 Electro-Hydraulic Bypass Governor F7 Hand Adjustment F7 MAN11 + 12 AA001 KA01 KA02 LP Bypass Stop Valve Actuator Pilot Valve MAN11 +12 CG001 B. Steam behind Bypass Valve MAX31 BB011.

Alarm ATT B2 B2 B2 MAX47BY001 KA01 KA02 M Starting and Load Limit Device Hand wheel Valve Electrical Motor F1 F1 F1 F1 MAX 52 CP501 Pressure Gauge. Trip Fluid above Piston Reheat Stop Valve A9 MAX47 AA011 +012 Test Valve for Main Stop Valves B6 MAX51 CP543 548 Pressure Gauge. Secondary Fluid Reheat Control Valves E2 MAX46BY001 KA01 KA02 KA03 KA04 KA05 KA06 KA07 KA08 KA09 M Hydraulic Speed Governor Hand wheel Speed Setting Spring Link Sleeve Piston Helical Spring Overspeed Tester Lever Auxiliary Follow-up Piston Governor Bellows Electrical Motor G1 F2 F1 F1 F2 F2 F2 F2 F2 G1 F1 MAX46CG001 A B Remote Position Indicator Limit Switch 100% (Start-Up Automatic) F2 F2 MAX 51 CP523 528 Pressure Gauge. Operation without Bypass Valves and Adjusting Device Blocked F3 C Limit Switch. Trip Fluid D3 MAX53 AA021 Solenoid Valve Temperature Dependent Interlocking Magnet Coil Open Magnet Coil Closed MAX46CP501 MAX47CG001 A B C D Remote Position Indicator Limit Switch. Auxiliary start-up fluid G1 G1 MAX51 AA005 +006 Main Trip Valve B2 MAX 51 CG005+006 C E Limit Switch. Down. Start-up Fluid Pressure Gauge. 100% Limit Switch. Displacement of Control Valves F5 MAX45BY011 KA01 KA02 Hydraulic Converter F2 Follow-up Piston for Main Control Valves F3 Follow-Up Piston for Reheat Control F3 valve KA04 Sleeve G3 KA05 Piston G3 KA06 Helical Spring F3 KA07 Pilot Valve G2 KA08 Piston G3 KA09 Proportional Band Adjustment G2 KA10 Adjusting Device Control Valves F4 KA11 Manual Adjusting Device F4 MAX45CG011 B Limit Switch. Alarm Limit Switch. Trip Fluid MAX51 CP522 527 Pressure Gauge. Alarm. up Normal Position ATT B3 Limit Switch.1-0681-01/3 . ATT B2 B2 MAX51 AA011 KA01 KA02 Extraction Valve Relay Valve Valve D5 D5 D5 MAX51AA041 Slide Valve for Extraction Check Valve A2 MAX51 AA044 E3 E12 Slide Valve for Extraction Check Valve A3 Slide Valve for Extraction Check Valve A4 C12 Slide Valve for Extraction Check Valve A4 A 11 Slide Valve for Extraction Check Valve A4 C12 Slide Valve for Extraction Check Valve A4 A11 Slide Valve for Extraction Check Valve A5 E9 MAX51AA211 Changeover Valve B3 MAX51 CG211B C Limit Switch. Trip Fluid above piston Main Stop Valve A6 MAX51 AA047 MAX51 AA048 MAX 51 AA 050 E13 Pressure Gauge. 56% Pressure Gauge. Auxiliary Secondary Fluid F2 MAX51 CP542 547 Pressure Gauge. 0% Limit Switch.Power Plant identification System MAX45 CG001 A K T B C Title Coordinete Remote Position Indicator F4 Remote Position Indicator F4 Moving Coil F4 Limit Switch Operating Without Bypass Valves and Adjusting Device Blocked F5 Limit Switch. Alarm Limit Switch.Test Position ATT B3 MAX51CP501 Pressure Gauge. Trip Fluid below piston Disc Main Stop Valve B6 Pressure Gauge. Displacement of control valves F4 MAX45CP501 MAX45CP511 Pressure Gauge Secondary Fluid Main Control valves F2 Power Plant identification System MAX47CG001F MAX47CP501 MAX48 CP501 Title Coordinete Limit Switch. Trip Fluid below Piston Disc Reheat Stop valve B9 MAX47 AA021 +022 Test Valve for Reheat Stop Valves A9 MAX52AA005 MAX52 CG005 C E Local/Manual Trip Valve Limit Switch. 42% F1 G1 G1 G1 MAX 51 AA051 MAX 51 AA056 A B A3 F11 F11 F11 5. Aux.

1 C 12 Solenoid Valve for Extraction Check Valve A4. Signal Fluid Water Injection Valve Solenoid Valve for Testing Low Vacuum Trip MAX46AA011 F7 G6 MAX 53CP511 E1 Solenoid Valve for Load Shedding Relay in Secondary Fluid to Reheat Control Valves E5 Remote Piston Indicator Moving Coil Pressure Gauge.2 Solenoid Valve for Extraction Check Valve E12 Solenoid Valve for Extraction Check Valve E13 Solenoid Valve for Extraction Check Valve A4. Test Oil Overspeed D1 MAX53AA051 Solenoid Valve for Sequential Trip Water Injection MAX51 AA201 MAY10 AA001 +002 KA01 Overspeed Trip Releasing Device E2 E2 MAY10 CG001 +002 C E Limit Switch. Adjustment of Control Valves F11 MAX51 AA030 MAX61 AA011 +012 B4 Solenoid Valve for Load Shedding Relay in Auxiliary Secondary Fluid G2 MAX51AA024 Pressure Gauge.Title tification System MYA01 CS011-013 MAG01 AA201 G6 F6 F7 F7 G7 G7 G7 G7 G7 F7 MAX42AA001 MAX47 AA211 +212 MAX 47 AA221 +222 MAX48 AA201 +202 MAX51AA021 MAX53 BY 011 KA01 LP Bypass limiting Regulator Jet Pipe F8 F8 MAX51AA027 MAX51 AA028 F5 Solenoid Valve for start -up Fluid.2 A11 Solenoid Valve for Extraction Check Valve A5 E9 Solenoid Valve for Control Fluid Supply during Test B3 Solenoid Valve for Control Fluid Supply During Test B4 C12 MAX51AA031 Test Valve for Main Stop Valves Solenoid Valve. Alarm Limit Switch Alarm ATT E3 E3 5.1-0681-01/4 MAX51AA202 MAX61AA201 C13 Solenoid Valve for Changeover from Trip Fluid to Control Fluid C3 . Down. Signal Fluid LP Bypass Valve Electrical Speed Transmitter MAX45AA001 MAX53CG001 A T MAX53 CP501 +502 Coordinate B6 MAX51 AA036 MAX61 AA021 +022 Test Valve for Reheat Stop Valves B8 MAX62AA001 KA01 KA02 KA03 KA001M Overspeed Trip Test Device Valve for Test oil Valve for Auxiliary Start-up Fluid Valve For Auxiliary Trip Fluid Electrical Motor C4 C4 C4 C4 C4 MAX52AA001 Remote Trip Solenoid C2 MAX62CG001 B C Limit Switch. Main Stop Valve B5 Solenoid Valve for Start-up Fluid.2 A10 Solenoid Valve for Extraction Signal Fluid Check Valve A4.Test Position ATT C4 MAX52AA002 Remote Trip Solenoid C2 MAX62CP501 Pressure Gauge. Reheat Stop Valves B8 Solenoid Valve for Auxiliary Start-Up Fluid B1. up-Normal position ATT C4 Limit Switch.Power Plant Identification System Title MAX53CG021B C Limit Switch 100% Limit Switch 0% F11 F11 MAX53 AA022 Solenoid Valve Temperature Depending Interlocking Magnet Coil Open Magnet Coil Closed F11 F11 F11 MAX53CG022B C Limit Switch 100% Limit Switch 0% F11 F11 MAX53AA031 Slide Valve for Water Injection Valve A12 MAX53 AA041 Slide Valve for Water Injection Valve (Sequential Water Injection) A 13 A B MAX 53BY001 KA01 KA02 KA03 KA04 KA05 KA06 KA07 KA08 KA09 Coordinate Converter for Electro-Hydraulic LP Bypass Governor Jet Pipe Follow -up Piston for LP Bypass Control Valves Follow -up Piston for Water Injection Valves Sleeve Piston Helical Spring Limit Pressure Amplifier Piston Differential Pressure Amplifier Piston Setting Device for Differential Pressure Amplifier Piston Power Plant Iden.1 C12 Solenoid Valve For Extraction Check Valve A4.

6 MAX51 CP011 +012 Solenoid Valve for Testing of Reheat Stop Valves C8 Pressure Transducer Hot Reheat steam E8 Differential Pressure Monitor for Extraction Check Valve-A4 (Batron -Cell) B11 Pressure Transducer 1st State Pressure (By Pass Control) E7 Pressure Switch. Vacuum min. Vacuum min. B5 Pressure Switch. Vacuum max. B5 Pressure Switch.Power Plant identification System MAX61 AA211 +212 MAX61 AA221 +222 LBB001 CP011 LBS42 CP002 MAA50CP006 MAG01CP201 MAG01CP202 MAG01CP203 MAG01CP204 MAG10CP011 MAG 10CP012 Title Coordinete MAX48 CP202 Solenoid Valve for Testing of Main Stop Valves C5. B4 Pressure Switch. low-Vacuum Trip. B4 Pressure Switch. Electrical low Vacuum Trip. low-Vacuum Trip. Test Valve B6 MAX51CP222 +227 Pressure Switch for Pressure above Piston of Main Stop Vale B7 MAX51 CP223 +228 Pressure Switch for Pressure below Piston Disc of Main Stop Vale A7 MAX51CP242 +247 Pressure Switch for Trip Fluid above Piston of Reheat Stop Valve A9 MAX51 CP243 +248 Pressure Switch for Trip Fluid Below Piston Disc of Reheat Stop Valve B9 MAX52CP211 Pressure Switch for Auxiliary Trip Fluid B3 Pressure Switch for Test oil of overspeed Trip max D1 Pressure Switch for Test oil of overspeed Trip max. Electrical Low Vacuum Trip. Alarm E13 Pressure Switch Electrical low Vacuum Trip Interlocking MAG10CPO12 E14 MAG10CP016 Pressure Switch for Energizing of Vacuum Breaker MAN01CP001 Pressure Switch for Sequential Water Injection MAX45 CP211 Pressure Switch For Reheat Control Valves Secondary Fluid Pressure Switch For Auxiliary Start-up Fluid MAX51 CP013 MAX51 CP205 +206 MAG10CP013 MAX48 CP201 Power Plant identification System E13 MAX51 CP207 +208 MAX51 CP209 +210 Coordinete Pressure Switch for Auxiliary Start-up Fluid Between Solenoid Valves MAX48AA201 and202 B1 Pressure Switch for Trip Alarm A1 Pressure Switch for Trip Fluid (Automatic Start-up) A1 Pressure Switch for Trip Fluid Between Solenoid Valves MAX51 AA201 and 202 B3 Pressure Switch for Trip Fluid Ahead of Changeover Valve MAX51 A211 B3 Pressure Switch for Trip Fluid Ahead of Changeover Valve MAX51 AA211 B2. D1 Pressure Switch for Test oil of overspeed Trip Pressure Collapsed D2 MAX62 CP 211 G8 MAX62 CP 212 E2 Title MAX62 CP 213 C2 MAX45 AA031 Pressure Converter for IP secondary Oil E4 5. low-Vacuum Trip. Signal Pressure to high E13 Pressure Switch.1-0681-01/5 . low-Vacuum Trip Vacuum max.3 MAX51CP 221 +226 Pressure Switch for Trip Fluid ahead of Main Stop Valve.

4 kg Every 1 to 2 months Every 1 to 2 months Top-up Quantity Every 1 to 2 months After every dismantling After every dismantling Every 1 to 2 months Molykote U 0.4 kg Lubrication Interval Grease Servogem-2 Use no oil or grease Use no oil or grease Use no oil or grease Use no oil or grease Use no oil or grease After every dismantling Every 1 to 2 months Use no oil or grease ≈ 10g 5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Lubrication Point Overspeed test device Reduction gear of overspeed trip test device Bearing of low vacuum trip Main control valve stem Main stop valve stem Limit Switch attachment on main stop valve Limit Switch attachment on main control valve Hinge of main control valve position indicator LAWA actuator VR 16 of main control valve Reheat control valve stem Reheat stop valve stem Limit switch attachment on reheat stop valve LAWA actuator VR 16 of reheat control valve Hinge of reheat control valve position indicator Limit switch attachment on reheat control valve Hinge of extraction swing check valve Adjusting gear of starting and load limit device BHEL Hardwar Filling Quantity Lubrication Chart Lubricant Turbine oil* 200g Grease Servogem-2 Turbine oil* ≈ 10g Molykote M30 Molykote M30 Every 1 to 2 months Use no oil or grease Molykote M30 Every 1 to 2 months Use no oil or grease Calypsol SF7-026 Every 104 Operating hours After every dismantling After every dismantling Every 1 to 2 months 0.Steam Turbine Description No.1-0690-01/1 .4 kg 0.4 kg Molykote M30 Every 104 Operating hours Every 1 to 2 months Molykote M30 Every 1 to 2 months Molykote U Molykote U Molykote M30 Calypsol SF7-026 Molykote U 200g Remarks Use no oil or grease Use no oil or grease Use no oil or grease Molykote U 0.

thereafter every12 months. Turbinol 47 of HPCL or equivalent HLP 46 (VG) ISO of IOC 5. Lubrication point not shown Lubrication point not shown Molykote M30 Molykote U Molykote U Hydraulic oil to DIN 51517 and VDMA 24318 H-LP oils** 1stoil change after 6 months.No. 7 to 9 kg Turbine oil 46/Servoprime 46 of IOC. 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 * ** Lubrication Point Journal for hydraulic speed governor Adjusting gear of reference speed setter Bearing of trimming device Hinge of cold reheat swing check valve Journal of Converter for bypass governor Bearing of condenser safety device for bypass operation Hinge of bypass control valve position indicator Limit switch attachment on bypass control valve Bypass control valve stem Limit switch attachment on bypass stop valve Bypass stop valve stem Stem guides of shaft seal steam valve Shaft seal steam valve actuators Filling Quantity Lubricant Turbine oil* 200g Grease Servogem-2 Turbine oil* Molykote U Top-up Quantity Every 1 to 2 months Every 1 to 2 months ≈ 10g Every 1 to 2 months After every dismantling Use no oil or grease Every 1 to 2 months Turbine oil* Every 1 to 2 months Molykote M30 Every 1 to 2 months Use no oil or grease Molykote M30 Every 1 to 2 months Use no oil or grease After every dismantling Every 1 to 2 months Use no oil or grease Use no oil or grease After every dismantling After every dismantling Use no oil or grease Use no oil or grease.1-0690-01/2 Remarks Turbine oil* Molykote U 7 to 9 kg Lubrication Interval .

5.1-0690-01/3 .

the leakage oil can be drained off via connection ‘c1 ‘.Steam Turbine Description Function The function of the hydraulic speed governor is to operate the control valves to give the appropriate turbine steam throughput for the particular load condition. When the pre-compression of the speed setting spring (13) is varied with the reference speed setter it changes the relationship between the primary oil pressure and the secondary fluid pressure and hence the relationship between speed and power output. Construction The principal components of the speed governor are the bellows (8). control fluid from connection ‘a’ can flow simultaneously to the auxiliary start-up fluid circuit (connection ‘u1‘) and as start-up fluid via connection ‘u’ 5. Conversely. the sleeve (5) and the follow-up piston (4). The primary oil supply from the hydraulic speed transmitter is available at connection ‘a1‘. the speed setting spring (13). The primary oil pressure (connection ‘a1‘) is dependent on the speed and determines the position of the link (11) via the bellows (8) and the push rod (10). to provide a second means of overspeeding the machine for testing the overspeed trips in addition to the overspeed trip tester. Each steady-state position of the link (11) and hence of the sleeve (5) corresponds to a specific force from the tension spring (3) and hence to a specific secondary fluid pressure which in turn determines the position of the control valves. which at normal overlap allow sufficient fluid to escape to produce equilibrium between the auxiliary secondary fluid pressure and the force of the tension spring (3). e. The lift of the control valves is increased in this manner by the increased secondary fluid pressure. BHEL Haridwar Hydraulic Speed Governor with Starting and Load Limiting Device Mode of Operation If the primary oil pressure falls (as a result of increasing load and the resulting drop in speed). Starting and load limiting device Before start-up. With the pilot valve (21) in the bottom limit position. the link (11). A fire resistant fluid is used as the hydraulic fluid in the governing system. The follow-up piston is held against the auxiliary secondary fluid pressure (connection ‘b’) by the tension spring (3). This causes the bellows to be compressed via the lever (6) and the pin (7) until the governor assumes the position “Control valves closed”. The sleeve (5) which can slide on the bottom end of the follow-up piston (4) is attached to the link (11). An additional bellows (9) prevents primary oil getting into the control fluid circuit if there be a leakage in the governor bellows (8). the pilot valve (21) is brought to its bottom limit position either by hand or remotely by the motor (20). Lever (12) allows the link (11) to be depressed by hand to give a lift signal to the governor. The speed setting spring (13) opposes the primary oil pressure. Its pre-compression can be varied either by hand or remotely by the motor (16). The follow-up piston and the sleeve have ports. a rise in primary oil pressure causes the lift of the control valves to be reduced. the control fluid that has leaked in will also be drained off via connection ‘c1’. In case a leak in the bellows (9) occur. This causes the pressure in the auxiliary secondary fluid circuit to rise and the followup piston follows the movement of the sleeve against the increasing force of the tension spring (3) until normal overlap of the ports and equilibrium are restored. In this case.g. the link (11) and the sleeve (5) sliding on the follow-up piston (4) are moved downwards by the speed setting spring (13) so that the overlap of the ports in the sleeve and the follow-up piston is reduced. The arrangement and functioning of the governor within the overall governing system is described in the section on governing.1-0710-00/1 .

1-0710-00/2 causes the pin (7) to release the bellows as with falling primary oil pressure and the control valves are opened. . The release of the bellows can be limited by the pin (7) so that the control valves do not open any further despite a further reduction in primary oil pressure.to the stop valve to prepare these for opening. When the pilot valve (21) is moved back the auxiliary start-up fluid circuit is depressurized and subsequently the start-up fluid connection ‘u’ is opened to the return ‘c’. Further upward movement of the pilot valve (21) 5. This opens the stop valves.

can be moved axially by turning the worm wheel (15). The limit of travel is set by limit rings (14 and 17).1-0720-00 . The spindle (16) is connected with bushing (4) by a feather key so as to permit the BHEL Haridwar Adjusting Gear spindle to slide axially in the bushing (4). Spring (6) forces the thrust rings (18) against bushing (4) which prevents bushing (4) and spindle (16) from turning. Mode of Operation The speed/load adjusting gear is operated either manually or by means of motor (28). Spindle (16) can be moved up or down depending on which direction worm.wheel (15) turns. which can rotate in cover (19). Wormwheel (15) is located axially on the threaded portion of the hand wheel spindle (16) by insert (5) and the gear casing (11). The thrust rings also protect the motor (28) from overload in the event of restrictive movement within the adjusting gear. If either stop has been reached the thrust rings operates as a slip coupling. 5.Steam Turbine Description Function The adjusting gear is used for manual or motor operation of the reference speed setter and the starting and load limiting device. Spindle (16) however. The rotary movement of the motor shaft is transmitted to worm wheel (15) via worm wheel (9) and the worm attached to it.

follow-up pistons (21). When the throttling area is changed by the movement of the sleeve (20). The pilot valve and sleeve have ports which depending on the overlap. The secondary fluid pressures are determined by the tension of springs (22) which BHEL Haridwar counter balance the fluid pressure acting on the follow-up pistons (21). Bushings and follow-up pistons ‘A’ are connected to each other via the adjusting screws (24). This sleeve slides up and down on the top end of the pilot valve (6) and determines the position of the valve in the manner of a follow-up piston. control fluid from connection ‘a’ is admitted to the space above or below the amplifier piston (3) with the opposite side of the piston opened to the fluid drain. the pilot valve is in its center position and the trip fluid pressure acting on the face of the pilot valve is in equilibrium with the force of compression spring (9). This varies the tension of springs (22) until equilibrium is regained between the spring force and the new secondary fluid pressure. The resulting motion of the amplifier piston is transmitted via lever (13) to the sleeves (20) which in turn can slide on the following-up pistons (21). When the pilot valve is deflected from its center position. 5.Steam Turbine Description Electro-hydraulic Converter for Turbine Control System Function The electro-hydraulic converter is the connecting element between the electrical and hydraulic parts of the turbine control system. which control the secondary fluid flow according to their overlap. The secondary fluid circuits. which are fed from the trip fluid circuit via throttles and supply the various actuating devices. amplifier piston (3). it also changes the pressure in the follow-up piston causing it to follow the movement of the sleeve. Each follow-up piston and sleeve (20) has ports.1-0730-02/1 . It converts the signals from the electric controller into the hydraulic signals and amplifies them before transmitting them to the actuating devices. spring end pieces and the springs (22). sleeve (10). pilot valve (6). Each position of the amplifier piston (3) thus corresponds to a specific position of the sleeves (20) and. In the steady-state condition. control the amount of trip fluid flowing from connection ‘x’. The control signals from the electro-hydraulic controller operate the sleeve (10) via the moving coil system (12). Construction The principal components of the converter are moving coil system (12). differential transformer (1) and actuator (17). are connected at point ‘b’. The pilot valve is kept in rotation by control fluid flowing from tangential holes in an integral collar to give greater freedom of reciprocal motion and achieve high response sensitivity.

The position of the follow-up piston is the determining factor for the secondary fluid pressure at point ‘b’. The sleeve (10) is moved back until the new position of the amplifier piston causes the pilot valve (6) to assume its center position and equilibrium is restored between the fluid pressure below the pilot valve and the compression spring force (9). the sleeve (10) is moved upwards by the moving coil system (12). This causes the pressure below the pilot valve (6) to increase and the pilot valve moves upwards and opens the way for control fluid from connection ‘a’ to flow to the space below the amplifier piston (3). The motion of the amplifier piston (3) produces a simultaneous feedback action on the pilot valve (6) via the differential transformers (1). causing the pressure in the follow-up pistons and secondary fluid circuits to rise.1-0730-02/2 . The initial tension of the follow-up piston springs can be varied by means of the setscrews (24).Controlling action with the Elctrohydraulic Converter When the electric controller gives a command to open the control valves. thus decreasing the fluid drain area. the follow-up pistons (21). The following movement of the amplifier piston (3) then slides the sleeves (20) downwards over the levers (13. Adjusting Device for Valves The follow-up pistons ‘B’ and the lever (14) 5. When a command is given to close the control valves.19) reducing the drain area between the sleeves and the follow-up pistons. the controlling action is similar but in the reverse sequence. therefore.

Limit switch (29) indicates: Setting device engaged. 5.1-0730-02/3 . for example after load shedding. Stop (34) locked in normal position by pin and the initial tension of the tension springs (22) of the follow-up pistons ‘B’ is adjusted by means of the lever (28. The lever (28) then rests on the precisely set stop (34). the hand wheel (32) is set in the upper end position. For this purpose. the solenoid valve will be deenergized. This blocks the flow of control fluid to the actuator (17) and allows control fluid under the piston (25) to flow into the return pipe. During normal operation an energized solenoid valve allows control fluid ‘a1’ to flow under the piston (25) of the actuator (17). 14) which results in the IP control valves opening in relation to the HP control valves as intended for this operation.of the rotary shaft (15) situated above it are connected by the springs (22) of follow-up pistons ‘B’. Signal from limit switch (33): Setting device in operation without bypass system position. The piston (25) is moved upwards against the forces of the spring (26). the guide pin (16) and the setscrews (30). the IP/reheat stop and control valves must open before the main steam stop and control valves. If the condition turbine load less than a set minimum load and the ratio of HP exhaust steam pressure to main steam pressure greater than the set pressure ratio is fulfilled. Setting Device for start-up without Bypass Valves If the plant is started up without bypass system. The force of the spring (26) moves the piston into the lower end position and the tension springs (22) of the follow-up pistons ‘B’ are adjusted so that the IP control valves do not begin to open until the HP control valves are wider open.

1-0740-02/1 . slide on the follow-up piston (2).Steam Turbine Description Function The function of the hydraulic amplifier is to amplify the signals from the hydraulic speed governor (connection ‘b1’) so that they are sufficient for the actuating devices. follow-up piston (2) with sleeves (3). mechanical feedback system (6) and actuator (21). In the steady-state condition. which are fed from the trip fluid circuit via throttles and supply the various actuating devices. the pilot valve is in its center position and the pressure in the BHEL Haridwar Hydraulic Amplifier for Turbine Control System auxiliary secondary circuit and the force of spring (8) are in equilibrium. spring end pieces and springs (11). pilot valve (7). Auxiliary secondary fluid flows over the pilot valve (7) via connection ‘b1’. admitted to the space above or below the amplifier piston (1) with the opposite side of the piston opened to the fluid drain. Bushings and follow-up pistons ‘A’ are connected to each other via the setscrews (10). Construction The principal components of the amplifier are amplifier piston (1). are 5. The resulting motion of the amplifier piston is transmitted via lever (5) to the sleeves (3) which in turn. The pilot valve is kept in rotation by control fluid flowing from tangential holes in an integral collar to give greater freedom of reciprocal motion and high response sensitivity. When the pilot valve is deflected from its center position control fluid from connection ‘a’ is. The secondary fluid circuits.

connected at point ‘b’. The secondary fluid
pressures are determined by the tension of
springs (11), which counterbalance the fluid
pressures acting upon the follow-up pistons.
Each follow-up piston (2) and sleeve (3) has
ports, which control the secondary fluid flow
according to their overlap. When the
throttling area is changed by movement of
the sleeve (3), it also changes the pressure
in the follow-up piston causing it to follow the
movement of the sleeve, This varies the
tension of spring until equilibrium is regained
between the spring force and the new
secondary fluid pressure. Each position of
the amplifier piston (1) corresponds to a
specific position of the sleeve (3) and the
follow-up piston (2). The position of the
follow-up piston is the determining factor for
the secondary fluid pressure at point ‘b’.

5.1-0740-02/2

The initial tension of the follow-up piston
springs can be varied by means of the
adjusting screws (10, 14), and the levers
(15, 16).
Controlling action with the Hydraulic
Governor
The pressure above the pilot valve (7) is
varied by the hydraulic governor via varying
the auxiliary secondary fluid pressure
connected at ‘b1’. An increasing auxiliary
secondary fluid pressure causes the
secondary fluid pressure at the connection
‘b’ to rise and open the actuating devices; a

reduction in the secondary fluid pressure
causes the actuating device to close. The
motion of the amplifier piston produces a
simultaneous feedback via lever (6) and
causes the pilot valve to assume its center
position when the new position of the
amplifier piston is reached. Each auxiliary
secondary fluid pressure corresponds to a
certain position of the piston (1) which, in
turn, results in a certain secondary fluid
pressure at connection ‘b’ with each
auxiliary fluid pressure. The degree of
proportionality of the hydraulic governor can
be adjusted by varying the position of lever
pivot (6) with the setscrew (9).
The follow-up piston ‘B’ and the lever (15) of
the rotary shaft (12) situated above it are
connected by the springs (11) of follow-up
pistons ‘B’, the guide bolts (13) and the
setscrews (14).
During normal operation, an energized
solenoid valve allows control fluid ‘a1’ to flow
under the piston (20) of the actuator (21).
The piston (20) is moved upwards against
the force of the spring (19). Stop (25) locked
in normal position by pin and the initial
tension of the tension spring (11) of the
follow-up piston ‘B’ is adjusted by means of
the lever (15, 16) which result in the IP
control valves opening in relation to the HP
control valves as intended for this operation.

If the condition Turbine load less than a
set minimum load and the ratio of HP
exhaust steam pressure to main steam
pressure greater than the set pressure
ratio is fulfilled, for example after load
shedding, the solenoid valve will be de deenergized. This blocks the flow of control
fluid to the actuator (21) and allows control
fluid under the piston (20) to flow into the
return pipe. The force of the spring (19)
moves the piston into the lower end position
and the tension springs (11) of the follow-up
pistons ‘B’ are adjusted so that the IP control
valves do not begin to open until the HP
control valves are wider open.
The lever (16) then rests on the precisely set
stop (25). Limit switch (17) indicates:
Setting device engaged.
Setting Device for Start-up without
bypass valves
If the plant is started up without bypass
system, the IP/reheat control valves must
open before the main steam control valves.
For this purpose, the hand wheel (24) is set
in the upper end position.
Signal from limit switch (23): Setting device
in operation without bypass system
position.

5.1-0740-02/3

Steam Turbine
Description

Construction and Mode of Operation
The electrical speed pick-up located in the
front bearing pedestal indicates the exact
speed through all speed ranges of the
turbine.
The
measuring
procedure
functions as follows: A toothed wheel (1) is mounted on shaft
(2) of main oil pump. The speed probes
are installed around the periphery of the

BHEL Haridwar

Electrical Speed Pick-Up

toothed wheel, which rotates, with the
rotation of the turbine shaft. On rotation of
the toothed wheel (1), electrical impulses
are generated as a result of alternating
effect between the speed probe (3) and
the toothed wheel (1). The output
frequency is conducted to the speedmeasuring unit.

5.1-0760-01

Steam Turbine
Description

Pressure Converter

Function
The pressure converter is installed in the IP
secondary oil circuit. It does not permit to
raise the IP secondary oil pressure beyond
certain value.
Construction
The pressure converter is provided with a
follow up piston (3), which slides in the
bushing (6) at the top, and in the sleeve (2)
at the bottom. The bushing and follow up
piston are connected to each other via the
set screw (9, 10) and the spring (4). There
are drainage slots in the follow up piston (3)
and sleeve (2), through which a larger or
smaller amount of fluid can flow into the fluid
return line ‘c’ depending on how much they
overlap. The fluid pressure prevailing in the
follow up piston (3) is connected to the
reheat control valves for speed control via
connection ‘x’.
Mode of Operation
When the setscrew (9) of the pressure
converter has been appropriately set, IP
secondary fluid pressure is permitted to
increase to certain value.

1 Ring
2 Sleeve
3 Follow up piston
4 Spring
5 Casing
6 Bushing
7Cover

BHEL Haridwar

8 Cap
9 Set Screw
10 Set Screw

c Return flow
x IP secondary fluid

5.1-0761-00

Steam Turbine
Description

Function and Arrangement
One stop and one control valve are
combined in a common body. The main stop
valve provides a means of isolating the
turbine from the main steam line and can
rapidly interrupt the supply of steam to the
turbine. The function of the control valve is
to regulate the flow of steam to the turbine
according to the prevailing load.

BHEL Haridwar

Combined Main Stop
and Control Valves

Stop Valve
The steam enters the valve casing (13) via
the Inlet connection and remains above the
stop disc (1). The main valve disc
incorporates a pilot disc formed from the end
of the valve steam (3). The valve stem is
sealed by packing rings (6). On the back of
the valve disc is a raised seat which comes
into contact with a neck bush (4) when the

5.1-0810-01/1

valve is fully open and so provides extra
sealing at this point for the stem. Both stem
and disc are secured against torsion. The
valve body cover (2) is held in the valve
casing (13) by a threaded ring (8). There is a
U-shaped gasket (5) between cover and
casing. The two legs of the gasket are
pressed against the sealing face to give a
tight joint .The stop valve is opened
hydraulically and closed by spring force.
Testing Main Stop Valve
Each stop valve must be tested at regular
intervals to ensure proper functioning. A
testing valve is provided for this purpose.

5.1-0810-01/2

Control Valves
The stem and disc (16) of the control valve
are in one piece. Balancing holes in the
valve disc reduce the operating force
required. The valve stem and disc (16) are
guided in the cover (17) and the stem is
sealed by packing rings (20). When the
valve is fully opened, the raised seat of the
valve disc rests against the neck bushing
(18) and provides additional sealing. As with
the stop valve, the valve body cover (17) is
held in the casing by a threaded ring (21)
and is sealed by U-shaped gasket (19). The
control valve is actuated by the piston of the
servomotor (26) that is operated by a cup
spring in the closing direction and
hydraulically in the opening direction.

Steam Turbine
Description

The operative part of the servomotor
consists of a two-part piston, the lower discshaped part of which is connected via piston
rod to the valve stem. The other part of the
piston is bell-shaped and moves within the
housing, which is in the form of a cylinder.
Two spiral springs are placed between the
two halves of the piston at the lower end a
spring plate is interposed between the
springs and the piston disc. When trip fluid
is admitted to the space above the bellshaped part of the piston, it moves this half
of the piston downwards, compressing the
springs, until it seats against the piston disc.

Servomotor for Main
and Reheat Stop Valves

the piston and the piston disc connected to
the valve stem moves to close the valve.
Just before the valve disc seats, the piston
disc enters a part of the cylinder where the
diametral clearance is reduced. This
arrangement restricts the flow of fluid past
the piston disc and so produces a braking
action, which causes the valve disc to seat
gently.
All fluid connections are routed through a
test valve. All operations can be controlled
by means of the test valve and the starting &
load limiting device and main trip valve.

After the main stop valves have been
opened, the turbine is started by the control
valves. Before the main stop valves can be
opened,
however,
they
must
be
“pressurized”, i.e. prepared for opening, by
admitting trip fluid from the trip fluid circuit to
the space above the piston to press it down
against the piston disc after overcoming the
resistance of the springs. The edge of the
bell-shaped half of the piston is designed to
produce an fluid tight seal with the piston
disc.
To open the valve, fluid from the trip fluid
circuit is admitted to the space below the
piston disc and, simultaneously, the space
above the bell-shaped half of the piston is
opened to drain. This causes both halves of
the piston to move together in the direction,
which opens the valve. In order to reduce
fluid leakage past the bell-shaped part of the
piston when the valve is open, a back seat is
provided in the housing against which the
collar of the piston can seat.
When the valve is tripped, the pressure in
the trip fluid circuit, and hence in the space
below the piston disc, falls, with the result
that the springs separate the two halves of

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0811-00

Steam Turbine
Description

The flow of steam to the turbine is regulated
by varying the lift of the control vale by
means of its servomotor.
The control valve is actually moved by the
piston (9), which is loaded, on one side by
the disc springs (10) and on the other side
by hydraulic pressure. The position of the
valve is determined by the secondary fluid
pressure, which is controlled by the
governor. Since large operating forces are
required, the servomotor is of the highpressure type (approx. 32 bar) and has a
pilot control system. The supply of
secondary fluid (connection ‘b’) controls the
auxiliary pilot valve (14) which directs control
fluid from connection ‘a1’ to the appropriate
side of the pilot piston (4). The pilot piston
operates the main pilot valve (3) through
lever (5) so that when the valve is being
opened, control fluid from connection ‘a’ is
directed to the underside of piston (9). When
the valve is being closed, fluid drains
through the main pilot valve.
Pilot Control System
When the turbine is running and the valve is
steady at any particular value of lift, the
auxiliary pilot valve (14) will be in the center
position shown in the drawing. In this
position the force exerted by the spring (13)
and the secondary fluid pressure acting on
the auxiliary pilot valve are in equilibrium.
When the governor varies the secondary
fluid pressure to open or close the control
valve, the auxiliary pilot valve is deflected
from this center position. This allows control
fluid (connection’ a1 ‘) to flow to one side of
the pilot piston (4) while the other side of the
piston is opened to drain. The movement of
the pilot piston returns the auxiliary pilot
valve to its center position by means of the
feedback
linkage
(12)
thus
giving
proportionality between secondary fluid
pressure and pilot piston travel. The degree
of proportionality of the pilot control system
can be adjusted by varying the position of
the feedback lever pivot (12). The auxiliary
pilot valve is continuously rotated by the
action of fluid issuing from tangential
drillings in a disc mounted on its spindle in

BHEL Haridwar

Hydraulic Servomotor for
Main and Reheat Control Valves

order to ensure that the valve moves freely
at all times.
Main Control System
The movement of the pilot piston (4) deflects
the main pilot valve (3) from its center
position by means of lever (5) so that either,
control fluid from connection ‘a’ is directed to
the underside of piston (9) and the control
valve opens, or the underside of piston is
opened to drain so that the disc springs can
close the control vale. Shortly before the
main valve disc actually comes into contact
with the seat, the servomotor piston (9)
enters a recess turned in the body and
throttles the flow of fluid draining from the
underside of the piston. This slows down the
valve closing motion and the disc seats
gently. The spring (1) pre-loads the linkage
and prevents any slackness or lost motion at
the pivots. The straight feedback cam (7)
mounted on the end of the servomotor
piston rod (8) returns the main pilot vale (3)
to its center position by means of a lever
system. The slope of the feedback cam is in
two stages to give two degrees of
proportionality, which produce good linearity
of the steam flow characteristics.
Testing Device
The control valve can be operated either by
hand or under power independently of the
governor by means of the testing device (11)
in order to check the free movement of the
valve. The testing device acts on the lever
(5) in the same manner as the pilot piston
(4); the system demanding the smaller valve
lift being in control,
Damping Device
Fig.2 illustrates the auxiliary pilot valve (14)
and the damping device in the secondary
fluid circuit. Any signals in the secondary
fluid circuit are damped out by passing the
secondary fluid through capillary tube (16)
before it enters the auxiliary pilot vale (14).
Any air carried by the secondary fluid is
conducted to the free space in the actuator
via the screw plug (18) and holes in the
casing of the damping device and pilot
valve.

5.1-0812-00/1

1-0812-00/2 .5.

5. Arrangement Each test vale (6) and auxiliary valve (5) is arranged in series behind a solenoid valve (1. either by BHEL Haridwar Closing the Emergency Stop Valve by Automatic Testing Device When trip fluid is admitted under the auxiliary valve (5) via connection v. After this. Trip fluid (connection ‘x’) can then flow to connection ‘x1’ and on over the piston in the emergency stop valve.1-0813-00 .Steam Turbine Description Test Valve for Emergency Stop Valve Function The function of the test valve is to open and close the emergency stop valve. this will be forced upwards against the force of the spring (4). Fluid thus drains under the piston disc in the emergency stop valve and the valve closes suddenly. and then connection x2 Iinked to drain c. This can either be done by start-up fluid (connection ‘u’) or manually with the hand wheel (3). the valve (6) must first be forced downwards against the force of the spring (7). the hand wheel (3) is slowly turned back and the emergency stop valve opens again. which closes the emergency stop valve. whereby a test valve (6) is combined with an auxiliary valve (5) in a common casing. The trip fluid can now flow from connection ‘x’ to connection ‘x2’ via the auxiliary valve (5) and ducts in the casing. This procedure is accordingly the reverse of the closing procedure. Opening of the Emergency Stop Valve In order to open the emergency stop valve. The valve must then be returned to the upper position. Each emergency stop valve is served by one test valve. trip fluid is admitted to connection x1. These blocks of test valves are arranged in frames immediately next to the relative emergency valve groups. either by start-up fluid circuit or manual operation especially when the emergency stop valve is being checked for easy movement. the valve (6) is moved slowly downwards by means of the hand wheel (3). In this way. 2). Testing the Emergency Stop Valves For testing the emergency stop valve. lowering the pressure in the start-up fluid circuit or by manually turning the hand wheel (3). and thus under the piston disc. This links connection x2 with drain ‘c’ via valve (5).

A pilot valve.1-0814-00/1 . Metal packing rings (3) seal the valve stem. thereby reducing the force necessary for opening. Testing Stop Valves Each stop valve must be checked for correct operation at regular intervals. Further details of the arrangement of the valve combination in the control system can be seen under section “Governing system”. The checking procedure is described in section “Test valve”. Steam enters via the BHEL Haridwar Combined Reheat Stop and Control Valves inlet of the valve body (2) and remains above the valve disc (7) when the stop valve is closed. The stop valve is opened hydraulically and closed by spring force. The valve disc (7) slides in the bushing of the valve cover (4) and has a bead on the back which lies against the base bushing (5) and provides additional sealing at this point. A test valve is provided for this purpose. integral with the valve stem (6) is provided for relieving.Steam Turbine Description Function and Construction One stop and one control valve are combined in a common body with their stems arranged at right angles to each other. start-up & shutdown and remains fully open in the upper load range to eliminate any throttling losses. Reheat Stop Valve The stop valve is a single seat valve with integral pilot valve. The stop valve can interrupt the supply of steam from the reheater to the IP and LP turbines extremely quickly. 5. The control valve controls the steam flow to the IP and LP turbines on load rejection.

both stop valve and control valve close rapidly. . Asbestos/graphite packing rings (10) seal the valve stem (13) in the valve cover (11). The control valve is operated by the piston of the servomotor (9) i.1-0814-00/2 when the valve is fully open.e. A ring fixed in the bushing of the valve cover prevents the valve disc from rotating. is opened hydraulically and closed by disc springs. This valve disc also has a back sealing that operates 5.Control Valve The control valve has a pipe-shaped valve disc (14) that is bolted to the valve stem (13) and slides in the bushing in the valve cover (11) The valve disc is provided with relieving holes to reduce the necessary controlling force. In the event of a disturbance in the system or on trip-out.

Tie rod (6) is screwed into rod cap (5) and when the correct elevation of the reheat stop and control valve (3) has been established. 5. Tensile forces are taken up via the disk spring (8) and tie rod (6) by girders (1) that rest horizontally on shims in a recess in the foundation and are connected to the foundation via clamping plates. The ball-and-socket design of the tie caps (5) and spring body (9) and the disk spring stack (8) arrangement permit free movement of the reheat stop and control valve (3) in all BHEL Haridwar Hangers for Reheat Stop and Control Valves directions. is secured to prevent turning.Steam Turbine Description The reheat stop and control valves arranged beneath the turbine operating floor in front of the turbine-generator unit are suspended at three points from girders in the upper foundation plate in such a way that they can follow thermal expansion of the steam lines.1-0815-01 .

6) and a number of rods (5) welded between the rings. The strainer is used for both initial commissioning of the turbine and for regular operation. The strainer is designed for a single direction of flow from the outside inwards. is 1. 3 Corrugated metallic` strip 5. This design offers a high degree of resistance. For longer strainers. even to particles impinging at high velocity. Construction The strainer screen (2) is made of corrugated strip wound on a frame. which inner diameter determined by the height of the corrugations. They protect the admission elements of the HP and IP turbines from foreign objects.1-0816-00 . The rods are additionally held by reinforcing rings (4) welded inside them. The end turns of the corrugated strip are then tacked to the T -section intermediate rings (3).Steam Turbine Description Function Steam Strainers are installed in the main steam lines and in the hot reheat lines from the boiler. Fig. The effective area is made atleast three times the crosssectional area of the pipe. The frame consists of two rings (1.6 mm. the screen is made up of several BHEL Haridwar Steam Strainer parts. The maximum mesh size of the strainer. which could be picked up in the boiler or associated piping.

The spring of the actuator can then initiate the closing of the check valve. In this way the fluid drain of the actuator is also freed. 1 Hand wheel 2 Spindle 3 Cap nut 4 Bush 5 Lip ring 6 Cover 7 Bush 8 Spring 9 Ball 10 Valve 11 Cover c Drain fluid x Trip fluid x1 Trip fluid to actuator BHEL Haridwar 5. Mode of Operation The trip fluid (connection x) holds the valve (10) in the upper end position (illustrated) against the force of the spring (8).1-0840-00 .Steam Turbine Description Changeover Valve for Bleeder Check Valve Function The function of the changeover valve is to manually operate the actuator of the bleeder check valve. the spring (8) pushes the valve (10) downwards. The valve can be moved downwards by means of hand wheel (1). The trip fluid flows via the holes in the valve to connection x 1 and then on to the actuator of the bleeder check valve. In this way connection x1 is connected to the fluid drain ‘c’ and the fluid drains away from the actuator of the bleeder check valve. If the pressure drops at the trip fluid connection x.

the valve is held in the lowest position by the force of the spring (7). Mode of Operation Trip fluid is admitted through connection ‘x’ on the body (10) (section A-B). the trip oil ‘x’ can flow to the other valves and as soon as these valves have been switched to the upper position by secondary fluid from follow-up piston of reheat control valves-on to the changeover valves of the extraction check valves (connection ‘x1‘). The auxiliary valve serves several check valves. the pressure above the valve (11) is reduced accordingly while the Pressure below the valve is retained for a while.1-0841-00/1 . The check valves are then free to open. BHEL Haridwar Auxiliary Valve of Extraction Check Valve With this position of the valve. This is made possible by the fact that the pressure reduction below the valve is retarded by the ball (15) and the pressure in the accumulator (connection ‘b’) until the equilibrium is re-established 5. On a reduction in load.Steam Turbine Description Function The auxiliary valve controls the fluid supply to the extraction check valve actuators and its function is to give the check valves a signal to close in the case of a drop in load or trip-out so that steam can not flow out of bleeder lines back to the turbine. as mentioned above. Secondary fluid from follow-up pistons of main control valves is admitted to the spaces above and below the valve (11) through connection ‘b2’ As the pressure above and below the valve (11) are equal under normal conditions.

it can be ascertained at which secondary fluid pressure i.e. the bleed valves thus receiving an impulse to close. the valves are pushed downwards by the force of the springs and the inlet ports from the trip fluid circuit are cut off. If the secondary fluid pressure exceeds the value set by adjusting the springs. the check valves receive a closing impulse and close at reduced or reversed differential steam pressure. By appropriately setting the springs (14) to the valves. The fluid in the line to the changeover valves can drain off through the opened fluid return ‘c’. The lift of the valves is limited by a collar at their lower end.between the pressure in the accumulator and the new pulse fluid pressure (connection ‘b2’) via the equalizing passage in the cover (12). The valves (16). .1-0841-00/2 upwards against the action of the springs and open the path for the trip fluid to the changeover valves of the extraction check valves. the valve (11) is forced upwards against the action of the spring (7). the check valves open or receive an impulse to close. at which turbine load. If the pressure in the secondary fluid circuit drops. As a result of this. these valves are forced 5. (section C-D) are acted upon from below (connection ‘b1’) by the load -dependent secondary fluid pressure of the control valves. thus cutting off the trip fluid supply to the check valves and opening the fluid return. Owing to the brief differential surge.

6) closes the swing-check valve. 5. Conversely. Leaking fluid ‘c’ is drained to the header. This rotary movement. Fixing Actuator shaft (8) is guided in bushings (11) at both ends of the segments (1) and is sealed off by seal ring (10).Steam Turbine Description Function The function of the rotary vane actuator flanged to the swing-check valve is to open or close the swing-check valve fitted in the cold reheat line.1-0853-01 . transmitted by actuator shaft (8) to shaft (3) of the swing-check valve via coupling (5. the swing-check valve is opened when control fluid is admitted through connections ‘d1’ Seals. Operation When the pilot valve operated by the transformer of the speed controller passes control fluid via connections ‘d’ to the interior of the actuator. The segments (1) are fixed in body (12) and in cover (13) by means of fitted pins. the adjacent connection ‘d1’ is depressurized. The control fluid then flows through bores in the body into the two diametrically opposite chambers turning rotary vane (2) on actuator shaft (8) into contact with the BHEL Haridwar Rotary Vane Actuator for Reheat Swing-Check Valve segments (1).

To prevent the valve (10) from seizing in its sleeve (9) during operation control fluid is passed through the center bore and out through the tangential bores at the wheel disc (8) to impart rotary movement to the valve (10). Connection ‘a1’ then communicates with the fluid return ‘c’ via passages in the body. If signal fluid enters the body via connection ‘b’. The initial tension of this spring and thus the point at which the swingcheck valve opens can be adjusted. the control fluid entering at connection ‘a’ flows on to a chamber of the actuator via connection ‘a2’ to open the swing-check valve. the valve (10) is lifted against the action of the spring (5). If the valve (10) is lifted beyond the center position illustrated. permitting the fluid to drain away from the actuator chambers not supplied with control fluid. the control fluid will then be conversely admitted to the actuator chambers in such a way that the swing-check valve closes. Mode of operation The swing-check valve is kept open as long as the pressure in the secondary fluid circuit does not drop below a definite limit value. a thrust ball bearing (7) and a ball (13) is fitted for this purpose. 1 Throttle capillary tube 12 Slotted nut 2 Cap nut 13 Ball 3 Setscrew 4 Hood 5 Compression spring 6 Spring disc 7 Thrust ball bearing 8 Wheel disc 9 Valve bush 10 Valve 11 Bush c Return a Control fluid b Signal fluid a1 Control fluid(closes swing check valve) a2 Control fluid(opens swing check valve) BHEL Haridwar 5.Steam Turbine Description Pilot Valve for Rotary Vane Actuator of Swing-Check Valve Function The function of the pilot valve is to control the admission of control fluid to the moving vane actuator in such a way that the swingcheck valve is operated in accordance with the pressure in the secondary fluid circuit.1-0854-00 . For this reason. If the valve (10) drops below the center position illustrated.

the control fluid entering at connection ‘a’ flows on via connection ‘a1” to connection ‘b’ of the pilot valve to open the swing. To prevent spool (7) from seizing in its sleeve (6) control fluid is passed through the center bore in the spool during turbine operation and out through tangential bores in the upper part of spool (7) to impart rotary motion to the spool. If spool (7) is lifted beyond its central position as illustrated.Steam Turbine Description Auxiliary Pilot Valve for Rotary Vane Actuator For Reheat Swing-Check Valve Function The function of the auxiliary pilot valve for the pilot valve for the reheat check valve actuator is to control the admission of control fluid to the pilot valve in such a way that the swing-check valve is actuated in accordance with the pressure in the secondary fluid circuit. control fluid is admitted to the opposite chambers of the rotary actuator. Operation The swing-check valve is kept open as long as the pressure in the secondary fluid circuit does not drop below a definite limit value. The initial tension of this spring and thus the point at which the swing-check valve opens can be adjusted. so that the swing-check valve closes.1-0855-00 . BHEL Haridwar 5.check valve via the rotary actuator. If spool (7) drops below its central position as illustrated. Secondary fluid entering body (9) via connection ‘b’ lifts spool (7) against the action of the spring (3). A deep-groove ball bearing (5) between spool (7) and spring retainer (4) reduces friction from the rotary motion.

Thane (Maharashtra) 5. Ltd. is to supply the shaft seals with seal steam during startup and in the lower load range. 1-Body 26-Bonnet Bush 2-Seat 27-Extended Bonnet 3-Plug 28-1½ “ -6UNC-2B Nut 4-Bush 29-1½ “ -6UNC-2A Stud 5-Packing 30-Flow Divider 6-Spring 7-Washer 8-Threaded Bush 9-Washer 10-Body Gasket 11-Adaptor 12-Nut 13-Yoke Bonnet 14-Travel Indicator 15-Wiper Ring 16-Oil Seal 17-Coupling 18-Diaphragm Plate 19-Diaphragm 20-Actuator 21-Spring 22-Actator Nut 23-Bush 24-Hand Wheel Position Indicator 25-Needle Roller Bearing BHEL Haridwar Supplier’s catalogue may be referred for complete details. A further function is to keep the set pressure in the header constant in order to prevent air penetrating the vacuum of the shaft seals. which is situated in the grand steam pipe of the seal steam system. 27.Steam Turbine Description Gland Steam Control Valve along with Actuator Function One function of the gland steam control valve. The cross section view of gland steam control valve alongwith actuator of gland steam system is also given here. Valve alongwith actuator is supplied by M/S Samson Controls Pvt. B-43. Wagle Industrial Estate. The gland steam pressure controller feeds 4 to 20 mA control signal to the positioner which in turn gives the corresponding air pressure to the actuator for the operation of gland steam control valve. Construction and Mode of Operation The gland steam control valve is operated by the pneumatic actuator which is moved in the open direction by air pressure and in closed direction by the spring force. Road No.1-0860-02 .

Road No. 27. is to drain excessive steam from the header in order to keep the set pressure in the seal steam header. Wagle Industrial Estate. Construction and Mode of Operation The leakage steam control valve is operated by the pneumatic actuator. 1-Body 2-Seat 3-Plug 4-Bush 5-Packing 6-Plug stem 7-Lock Nut 8-Threaded bush 9-Retainer Ring 10-Body Gasket 11-Adaptor 12-Ext. which is situated in the leakage steam pipe of the seal steam system. The gland steam pressure controller feeds 4 to 20 mA control signal to the positioner which in turn gives the corresponding air pressure to the actuator for the operation of leakage steam control valve. Ltd. Valve alongwith actuator is supplied by M/S Samson Controls Pvt.1-0870-02 . Valve is moved in the open direction by the air pressure and moved in closed direction by spring force. Thane (Maharashtra) 5.Steam Turbine Description Leakage Steam Control Valve along with Actuator Function The function of the leakage steam control valve. The cross sectional view of leakage steam control valve alongwith actuator of gland steam system is given here. Bonnet 13-Yoke 14-Travel Indicator 15-Coupling (Clamp) 16-Diaphragm plate 17-Diaphragm 18-Actuator casing 19-Spring 20-Actuator nut 21-1 ½ “ – 6UNC-2B Nut 22-1 ½ “ – 6UNC-2A Stud BHEL HarIdwar Supplier’s catalogue may be referred for complete details. B-43.

thereby closing the valves and thus shutting off admission of steam to the turbine.1-0910-00/1 . 5. Control fluid flows into the casing (11) via connection ‘a’ and with a tripping device latched in (in the position shown). into the trip fluid circuit via connection ‘x’. Via passage drilled in the body (11) (Section A-A) fluid flows to the auxiliary trip fluid circuit.6). The trip fluid circuit leads to the stop valves and the secondary fluid circuits. which leads to the hydraulic protection devices.Steam Steam Turbine Description Function The Function of the main trip valve is to open the trip fluid circuit in the event of abnormal conditions. Construction The main trip valve consists of mainly two valves (12) that slide in the casing (11) and are loaded by the springs (5. The valves BHEL Haridwar Main Trip Valve (12) are designed as differential pistons being forced tightly against the body assemblies (10) by the rising pressure of the fluid.

1-0910-00/2 (12) move downwards due to the spring force and their own weight. thus connecting connections ‘x’ and ‘x1’ with the fluid back flow ‘c’. The limit switches (1) transmit electrical signals to the control room. The pressure in the auxiliary trip fluid circuit keeps the valve in the position shown while the aux. Should the fluid in the pressure in the auxiliary trip fluid circuit drop below a specific value for any reason (e. In this way pressure is build up in the trip fluid circuit (x) and the auxiliary trip fluid circuit (x1).g. start up fluid drains through the start up device. the valves (12) are lifted by the aux. . The two valves (12) work independently of each other so that even if one valve fails the function of the tripping device is not impaired. The fluid supply to the secondary fluid circuits is also shut off. This depressurizes the trip fluid circuit which causes the main and reheat stop valves to close.6) and forced tightly against the assemblies (10). by tripping of a protection device) the valves 5.Operation When starting the unit. start up fluid (connection ‘u1 ‘) against the force of the springs (5. thus causing the control valves to close.

the ball head (1) is pushed downwards. The limit switch (2) shows the tripping of the valve. the valve (8) is forced upwards against the bushing by the auxiliary start-up fluid (connection ‘u1‘). before the auxiliary trip fluid is pressurized. The drop in pressure in the auxiliary trip fluid circuit actuates the emergency tripping device. and the ball head (1) with the spindle (4). On start-up. The valve consists of the valve cone (8).Steam Turbine Description Emergency Trip Valve for Manual trip out The emergency trip valve enables the machine to be manually tripped out. To actuate the trip. which slides in the bushing (9) and is loaded by the spring (7). This opens the valve and connects the auxiliary trip fluid circuit (connection ‘x1 ‘) with the fluid back flow ‘c’.1-0911-00 . During normal operation the valve (8) is forced tightly against the bushing (6) by the pressure of the auxiliary trip fluid arising at connection ‘x1 ‘. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Ball head Limit switch Cover Spindle spring Bushing Spring Valve cone Bushing Casing Cover x1 Auxiliary trip fluid u1 Auxiliary start-up fluid c Return fluid BHEL Haridwar 5.

when operated. e. from the control room or from a protective device. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 a c Magnet casing Spring Armature Solenoid sleeve Hexagonal nut Casing Ring Stem with two valve discs Valve seat O-ring Plug Ventilation screw Auxiliary trip fluid to automatic trip gear Drain BHEL Haridwar 5.g. The armature and the valve discs are drawn upwards against the force of the spring (2) so that the auxiliary trip fluid ‘a’ is linked with the drain ‘c’ and the pressure in the line to the automatic trip gear collapses. The solenoid valve is operated by energizing the solenoid (1).Steam Turbine Description Solenoid Valve for Remote Trip-out Function The solenoid valve is installed in the auxiliary trip fluid line to the automatic trip gear and. The two valve discs (8) seal the valve seats (9). The solenoid sleeve (4) is bolted to the casing (6) and is inserted in the magnet casing (1) with the armature (3). Construction The directions of flow are indicated by arrows on the body. The solenoid valve and the line to the automatic trip gear are ventilated by means of the screw (12). the armature (3) is moved downwards by the spring (2) so that the valve disc (8) is pressed against the valves seats (9) to provide sealing. Mode of Operation When the solenoid (1) is not energized. The complete valve element is placed in the body (6) and held by the plug (11). The solenoid valve is remote-controlled electrically.1-0912-00 . causes the auxiliary trip fluid circuit to be opened and the turbine stopped.

spring (5) and the screw plug (1). the centrifugal force overcomes the force of the spring (5) and forces the bolt/striker (4) out of the turbine rotor (7). 1 2 3 4 Screw plug Guide bushing Guiding foil Bolt/striker 5 Spring 6 Adjusting screw 7 Turbine rotor 8 Guide ring Fig. adjusting screw (6).Steam Turbine Description Over speed Trip Function and Construction The function of the overspeed trip is to stop the turbine when the permissible speed is exceeded.1-0920-00 . the center of gravity of bolt/striker (4) is positioned eccentrically to the turbine shaft so that below the tripping speed the bolt is held in the position shown by the spring (5) against the centrifugal force. 1 Arrangement of overspeed trip in turbine rotor BHEL Haridwar 5. Mode of Operation The overspeed trip mechanism is set by the adjusting screw (6). This activates the turbine automatic stop mechanism. the bolt bears against the screw plug (1). It is fitted in the turbine rotor (7) and consists of the eccentric bolt/striker (4). In this position. If the turbine rotational speed exceeds the overspeed setting. By appropriate adjustment of the screw.

Construction The overspeed trip releasing device located in the bearing pedestal consists of valve bodies (4. When the turbine is started up.1-0921-00/1 . the eccentric bolts/striker fly out radially and strike pawls (12). the pilot valve. in turn. The electrical trip signal is transmitted to the control room by the limit switches (1).8). pawls (12) and limit switch (1).5. The latches of the pawls release rod (8) which. rods and pawls are latched by auxiliary start-up fluid ‘u1 ‘. The impact of the bolt/striker rotates the pawls outwards against the force of torsion springs (11). 5. moves towards the shaft (13) due to the force of spring-loaded pilot valve (3) and force of the auxiliary trip fluid ‘x1’.7. This movement opens fluid drain ‘c’ to the auxiliary trip fluid and the resulting loss in pressure and trips the turbine. BHEL Haridwar Overspeed Trip Releasing Device Turbine Trip by Overspeed Trip Device When the overspeed trip operates. The bellows 16) on the pilot valves and rods prevent hydraulic control fluid from entering bearing pedestals and lubrication system. pilot valve and rods (3.Steam Turbine Description Function The function of the overspeed trip releasing device is to open the auxiliary trip fluid circuit and thereby shut down the turbine when an overspeed is reached which would subject the rotor to high centrifugal force.10).

5. The auxiliary start-up fluid flow is interrupted and auxiliary start-up fluid flows via a hole to fluid drain ‘c’.1-0921-00/2 Start-up Before restarting the turbine following a trip. 8) without interrupting operation of the turbine. 5. . 7. This is done by admitting auxiliary startup fluid ‘u1’ into pilot valve body (4) and forcing the respective pilot valve (3) outwards until rod (8) engages the latch of the pawl. latch in the overspeed trip. The overspeed trip test device makes it possible to check the bolts/strikers as well as pilot valves and rods (3.Testing the Overspeed Trips for Free Movement Proper functioning of the overspeed trips is important since severe damage may result from excessive over speeds.

1-0922-00/1 .10. Perfect BHEL Haridwar Overspeed Trip Test Device functioning of the overspeed trip is of the utmost importance.Steam Turbine Description Function The function of the overspeed trip test device is to test and exercise the overspeed trip. The bolt/striker strikes a pawl and thus opens the auxiliary trip fluid circuit and in turn trip fluid circuit so that the stop and control valves immediately interrupt the admission of steam to the turbine. Construction The overspeed trip test device consists of three pilot valves (4. Pilot valve (11) is held in the position by spring (9). In this position auxiliary trip fluid can pass to the overspeed trip release device via connection ‘x’ and ‘x1‘. If the pilot valve (11) is pushed 5. 11) combined in valve block (12). which bears against guide piece (15) and rod (7). The overspeed trip consists of bolts/strikers which protrude against the force of a spring under the effect of centrifugal force during an overspeed condition.

A center bore with radial openings is provided in the pilot valve. By means of handwheel (5). connections ‘u’ and ‘u1’ provide a passage for auxiliary start-up fluid for latching in the overspeed trip release device. control fluid can flow from connection ‘a’ to ‘u1. 5. During start-up. After the test operation. the pilot valves (4. bore of the pilot valve. the auxiliary trip fluid circuit (connection ‘x’ and ‘x1’) is separated from the overspeed trip release apart from a small quantity of fluid which is permitted to pass to fill up the empty pipe after the test operation. thus latching in the overspeed trip device.1-0922-00/2 .11) are blocked. Control oil can now flow from connection ‘a1’ via the bushing (13) and the pilot valve (10) to connection ‘a2’ and the bolts/strikers of the overspeed trip. Pilot valve (10) performs the function of admitting test oil to the eccentric bolts/strikers of the overspeed trips. causing them to protrude from the turbine shaft during the overspeed trip test operation.14). This prevents the emergency trip from being actuated by the overspeed trip. Pilot valve (10) is guided in guide bushings (13. the pilot valve (10) can be moved inwards so that the passage from connection ‘a2’ is blocked from drain ‘c1’. In the position shown oil is prevented from entering the Pilot valve (4) is used for resetting the overspeed trip release device after the test operation. An annular chamber in the bushing (13) is connected to test oil connection ‘a1’. When pilot valve (4) is pushed inwards against the force of spring (3).inwards and held by means of the knob (6).

Operation The condenser vacuum is connected via ‘I’ (connection to condenser) to the top side of the diaphragm (8). As primary oil pressure builds up with the increase in turbine speed. 5. auxiliary pilot valve (9) is lifted by means of the spring (10) so that drain ‘c’ is shut off. This establishes a connection between ‘x1’ (control fluid) and drain ‘c’ so that the auxiliary trip fluid circuit is BHEL Haridwar Low Vacuum Trip depressurized and the main trip valve operates. This lower position is reached when the speed is still far below the rated value at which time the low vacuum trip safety device is ready to operate. thus moving valve (9) downwards. The space below the diaphragm is at atmospheric pressure. thus tripping out the main and reheat stop and control valves and shutting off the supply of steam to the turbine within the shortest possible time. thereby establishing pressure in the auxiliary trip fluid circuit when no vacuum exists. The range in which the vacuum safety device operates can be varied by adjusting the initial tension of the spring (7) by means of the adjusting screw (5). In order to isolate the auxiliary trip fluid circuit during starting. Upon failure of the condenser to maintain proper vacuum. which initiates an alarm contact.1-0935-00 . diaphragm (8) is forced downwards by the increase in pressure and the force of the spring (7) against the force of spring (10).Steam Turbine Description Function The purpose of the low vacuum trip is to operate the main trip valve when a failure of vacuum occurs in the condenser. valve (11) actuates the limit switches (15). piston (2) is forced into the lower position. Concurrently.

Any leakage fluid can drain off through passages in the valve sleeve (7) and the casing (8). Mode of Operation The steam space in the condenser is connected with the spring space above the diaphragm (5) via connection ‘I’. If the pressure in the condenser increases excessively. The pressure range in which the vacuum safety device operates can be varied by adjusting the initial tension of the spring (4) by means of the adjusting screw (2). is forced downwards out of the upper end position by the increasing pressure and the force of the spring (4). This shuts off the connection ‘a1” to the bypass valve from connection. by opening the control fluid lines so that the resulting drop in pressure causes the bypass valves to close. After this. when there is an excessive increase in pressure in the condenser. As already mentioned. BHEL Hardwar 5. and thus the valve (6). where it keeps the control fluid circuit closed. this end position is not reached until there is sufficient vacuum. the lever (10) and cam (9) drop down and do not impair the functioning of the vacuum safety device.1-0940-00 . ‘a’ which is from the converter and connects it to drain ’c’. the diaphragm (5). During commissioning the valve (6) is automatically moved into the upper end position. The space below the diaphragm is at atmospheric pressure. the valve is lifted via the lever (10) and cam (9) but is not yet brought into its upper end position. In order to be able to close the control fluid circuit when there is still insufficient vacuum in the condenser.Steam Turbine Description Condenser Safety Device Function The function of the condenser safety device situated in the control fluid circuit of the bypass control system is to protect the condenser. as soon as the negative pressure in the condenser falls below the preset value.

If the temperature in the condenser rises to an unallowable value.1-0950-00 . Mode of Operation During normal operation. Simultaneously. BHEL Hardwar 5.Steam Turbine Description Solenoid Valve for Temperature Controlled Interlock Function When there is an unallowable rise in condenser temperature due to lack of injection water a temperature sensor situated in the condenser dome sends electric signals to the solenoid valve which open the signal fluid circuit of the bypass valve actuators. the control fluid ‘a’ holds the main control valve (7) against the force of the compression spring (8) in the center position as shown here. thereby closing the bypass valves so that the steam flow to the condenser is interrupted. This provides the connection between the signal fluid from pressure switch for injection water ‘b’ and the stop and control valve operator of the bypass stop valve ‘b1 “. the solenoid valve (3) is moved downwards against the force of the compression spring (4) so that the control fluid ‘a’ arising before the main control valve (7) is connected with the drain ‘c’. the control fluid ‘a’ can flow behind the main valve (7) so that the main valve moves forwards against the force of the compression spring (6) and the signal fluid circuit ‘b1’ is opened and connected to the drain ‘c’ and the bypass stop and control valve closed’.

1-0960-02-1 . the permissible operational condenser pressure of 0. Automatic Control The vacuum breaker is also actuated automatically by the turbine fire protection system to shut the turbo set down more quickly. This control achieves a rapid passing through the speed range up to hydraulic shaft turning operation. it can not go into the closing position until the close key provided for closing is used. It closes automatically when the pressure in the condenser rises. the total vacuum breaking is employed. the ventilation of the turbine blading is increased.3 bar should not be exceeded. This key opens the vacuum breaker valve. Electrical Control of Partial Vacuum Breaker The vacuum breaker valve is actuated to open once by a manual key. Electrical Control of Total Vacuum Breaker So that the vacuum can also be broken without limitation due to condenser pressure.18 bar so that the condenser pressure will not exceed 0. the function of the vacuum breaker is to cause an increase in condenser pressure by conducting atmospheric air into the condenser together with bypass steam flowing into the condenser from the bypass station. Taking blade stress into consideration. It is switched back manually using the close key in this case. a manual key is provided. In special cases requiring a rapid shut down of the turbo set. BHEL Haridwar 1234567- LP Turbine Pressure Transmitter Solenoid Valve Vacuum Breaker Valve with actuator Condenser Condensate Pump Water Injection Valve d Steam from IP Turbine d1 Bypass Steam k Condensate I Atmospheric air c Drain This control enables a complete equalization of condenser and ambient pressure.2 bar.2 bar after the valve has closed. 5. When the pressure in the condenser increases. For this reason the limiting value for the condenser pressure has been set at 0. The pressure transmitters installed in the condenser for registering the pressure increase is set at 0. which causes the turbo set to slow down so that the running down time of the turbo set and the time needed for passing through critical speeds are shortened? Partial and Total Vacuum Breakers The partial vacuum breaker is used when the running down time is to be shortened with normal shut down and plant conditions are free of disturbance. However.Steam Turbine Description Vacuum Breaker for Reducing the Running Down Time of the Turbine Function With normal shut down or tripping of the machine.

5.Mode of Operation of Vacuum Breaker Solenoid Valve (SV):-When the solenoid valve is energized. Air Filter Regulator (AFR):-This is used to supply air to SV and VB. . Pressurized air from volume booster through quick exhauster valve is supplied to the actuator to open the vacuum breaker valve. Maximum air 2 pressure shall be 7kg/cm . it used to provide the signal air to the volume booster to supply enough air to the actuator to open the vacuum breaker valve.1-0960-02-2 Supplier’s catalogue may be referred for complete details. Quick Exhaust Valve (QEV):-This is used to close the vacuum breaker valve (when supply to solenoid valve fails or solenoid valve gets de-energized to close the vacuum breaker valve) by exhausting the air supplied to the actuator of vacuum breaker valve within the allowable time for its closing. Volume Booster (VB):-This is used to supply exact volume of air to the actuator to meet the required time for opening of the vacuum breaker valve. Working Arrangement:Opening Process:When the magnet of solenoid valve is excited / energized then the signal air is supplied to volume booster for its operation. Closing Process:When the magnet of solenoid valve is not excited/de-energized then the vacuum breaker valve is closed as air gets exhausted from the actuator through quick exhauster valve as well as volume booster and at the same time further signal air supply from solenoid valve is also cut-off. Note:-The vacuum breaker valve is always in closed condition during normal operation of turbine.

1-0980-00 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Limit switch Piston rod Seal Bushing Inset Upper piston Sliding bushing Lower piston BHEL Haridwar 9 Body 10 Cover a Control fluid a1 Control fluid c Fluid drain x Trip fluid from tripping device x1 Trip fluid to trip fluid circuit 5. Mode of Operation During normal operation. which moves the valve into the lower position. In this way. Due to the connection now made between connections ‘a’ and ‘x1’. control fluid ‘a’ can flow freely into the trip fluid circuit. The space above the piston (6) (connection ‘a’) remains depressurized during normal operation. When safety devices are checked for proper operation. Two limit switches (1) transmit the position of the valve to the control room.Steam Turbine Description Changeover Valve for Testing Device Function The function of the changeover valve is to shut off the flow of trip fluid into the trip fluid circuit while the protective devices are being tested for proper operation by means of the Automatic Turbine Tester (ATT) and to allow control fluid ‘a’ to flow in so that the stop valves do not close when the safety devices respond. connection ‘x’ is connected with connection ‘x1’ and trip fluid can flow into the trip fluid circuit. the control fluid ‘a1’ in the space under the lower piston (8) of the changeover valve keeps the valve in the upper end position shown here. the space below the lower piston (8) is depressurized by means of a solenoid valve and control fluid ‘a’ enters the space above the upper piston. which keeps the stop valves open for the duration of the test.

Components of the hydraulic and lubricating oil system Description and function of components of the hydraulic and lubricating oil system The components of the hydraulic and lubricating oil system and their function are described below:  Main oil tank The oil necessary for operation is stored in the main oil tank. Large solid contaminants in the returning oil are removed by the strainers in the main oil tank before the oil reaches the suction section of the main oil tank.  Supplying motive oil to turning gear.g. The turbine oil can be drained from the main oil tank.5. which draws oil directly from the main 'oil tank.  Backflow of the turbine oil to main oil tank. which draws the turbine oil directly from the main oil tank using turbine oil and forwards it to the main oil pump under positive pressure. The main oil tank level is monitored.1-1000-66/4) Process engineering functions of the hydraulic and lubricating oil system The hydraulic and lubricating oil system has the following process engineering functions: • Lubrication and cooling of the turbine and generator bearings with turbine oil drawn from the main oil tank by the oil pumps and forwarded via cooler and filter to the bearings. during start-up or shutdown of the turbine. pressures and flow rates are set with throttle valves. and monitoring equipment. • Main oil pump MAV21 AP00I The main oil pump is driven by the turbine shaft and assumes the function of oil supply just before the turbine generator unit reaches rated speed. BHEL. pumps.Oil cooler 1 Oil cooler 2 Double multiport butterfly valve Oil temperature control valve Lubricating oil filter MAV51 AA001 MAV41 BC001 MAV41 BC002 MAV41 AA521 MAV41 AA001 MAV42 BT001  Lubricating oil supply to bearings lubricating oil valve AA502 upstream of turbine bearing 1 lubricating oil valve upstream of turbine bearing n lubricating oil valve upstream of generator bearing n MAV42 Injector is located upstream of the main oil pump. manually operated valves. The oil pumps draw the turbine oil from the main oil tank and forward it to where it is needed. which draw oil directly from the main oil tank. generator or during turning gear operation  Emergency oil pump MAV24 AP001 The emergency oil pump is a submersible pump.HARDWAR 5. drives. 2-13100-N1101 on Sheet No. The injector is a submersible pump. Air and oil vapour are drawn out of the main oil tank by the oil vapour extractor. • Auxiliary oil pumps auxiliary oil pump 1 auxiliary oil pump 2 MAV22 AP001 MAV23 AP001 The auxiliary oil pumps are submersible pumps. One of the two auxiliary oil pumps supplies the hydraulic and lubricating oil system with turbine oil as long as the main oil pump is unavailable when turbine generator speed is too low for supplying oil. • Injector MAV21 BN001 MAV21 BN002 In addition to piping. coolers.. e. filters and valves are necessary for operation of the hydraulic and lubricating oil system: • Main oil tank and oil pumps Main oil tank Injector feeder pump MAV 21 BN001 Injector feeder pump MAV 21 BN002 Main oil pump driven by MAV 21 AP001 the turbine shaft Auxiliary oil pump 1 MAV22 AP001 Auxiliary oil pump 2 MAV23 AP001 Emergency oil pump MAV24 AP001 • Turning gear oil supply valve  Oil coolers and oil filters . The turbine oil is forwarded by the emergency oil pump while bypassing the oil cooler and oil filter in the lubricating oil system when the auxiliary oil pumps are unavailable for turbine oil supply due to a fault in three-phase power supply. which is driven by the turbine shaft. the following tanks.1-1000-66/1 .Steam Turbine Description Oil Supply System MAV System Description Accompanying system diagram (Drawing No. see below see below There is a lubricating oil throttle valve (coded according to the system diagram) in the lubricating oil line upstream of every turbine or generator bearing. On Sheet No.

Oil coolers and oil filters can be filled and vented. oil filters. type designation. filters. Information for operation and maintenance  Technical Data The Technical information: Data contain the following . Sampling valves are provided for taking oil samples. oil coolers. and design data of oil pump motors . The maximum flow rate of the cooling water . and important oil system valves are installed in separate compartment of the turbine building.  • Oil coolers oil cooler 1 oil cooler 2 The bearing-specific oil flow rates are set with the throttle valves in the lubricating oil lines upstream of the turbine and generator bearings.reference values for the capacity of the lubricating oil system including the oil-side volume of the system tanks. oil pumps. which can collect leak oil and prevent it from contacting machine parts on which it can ignite. oil coolers. The differential pressure across the lubricating oil filter in operation is a measure of filter clogging. This compartment is designed with a sump for catching leak oil.  Lubricating oil throttle valves upstream of turbine and generator bearings Piping and valves The turbine oil is supplied to where it is needed through piping.  Duplex lubricating oil filters lubricating oil filter MAV42 BT001 One element of the switchable duplex lubricating oil filter is always in operation to protect the turbine and generator bearings against solid contaminants. The oil temperature control valve is a multiport valve in which hot and cold turbine oil is mixed to obtain the desired lubricating oil temperature of approx. which are filled during operation .through the oil cooler in operation must be maintained for good heat transfer and preventing deposits in the cooler tubes.manufacturer. The sump volume is the same as that of the main oil tank.. MAV41 BC001 MAV41 BC002 One oil cooler is always in operation to remove the heat generated by the turbine and generator bearings from the turbine oil.peed . and piping.  Oil temperature control MAV41 AA001 valve The lubricating oil temperature upstream of the turbine and generator bearings is maintained by the oil temperature control valve. The second oil cooler is on standby.reference values for the amount of oil which must be filled into the main oil tank for operation of the hydraulic and lubricating oil system and for the amount of oil necessary for flushing the oil system during commissioning or inspection and overhaul . coolers. Air and oil vapour is extracted from the return lines. The oil lines are laid in ducts. Passive turbine fire protection The main oil tanks.• Motive oil valve of the MAV51 AA001 turning gear The motive oil valve of the turning gear is actuated by the associated motor.  Double multiport butterfly valve The double multiport butterfly valve is the changeover valve for the lubricating oil filters.setpoint and limit values of the lubricating oil temperature for operation and shutdown of the turbine generator unit 5.highest and lowest oil level in the main oil tank during turbine generator operation at rated .  Double multiport butterfly MAV41 AA521 valve The double multiport butterfly valve is the changeover valve for the oil coolers.s. The dimensions of the oil lines are a function of oil velocity and the oil pressure during operation.1-1000-66/2 - . Changeover to the standby oil cooler must be made when the oil cooler in operation clogs or leaks. and oil filters are equipped with drain valves. 45-degree C downstream of the control valve.nominal capacity of the main oil tank . Piping.

2 bar in the suction line immediately upstream of the main oil pump.g. If the auxiliary oil pump is still in operation when the takeover criteria of the main oil pump are fulfilled. Setting of the throttle valves of the hydraulic and lubricating oil system The throttle valve settings for the hydraulic and lubricating system are optimised during initial startup when the turbine generator unit is running at rated speed:  Changeover of oil coolers and filters Standby oil coolers and standby lubricating oil filters must be filled and vented before changeover. 20 K. and fineness of the lubricating oil system filter - reference values for oil heatup in the bearings and bearing-specific oil requirement auxiliary oil pump must be switched off. The sub-loop controls of the oil pumps must be in AUTO mode as long as the line of shafting is driven by steam or the turning gear. The INJECTOR (MAV21BN001 / MAV21BN002) ensure a positive pressure of approx. 0.  Venting of the oil coolers - - The oil-side vent of the oil cooler in operation must be open.  Characteristics of the main and auxiliary oil pumps are designed with respect to one another so that the main oil pump assumes the oil supply just before the turbine generator unit reaches rated speed. lubricating oil throttle valve upstream of the first turbine bearing MAV42 AA501. The oil pumps should always be switched on in a certain sequence to ensure the lubricating oil supply to the turbine and generator bearings in the event of a drop in oil pressure in the hydraulic or lubricating oil system. Large amounts of air in the turbine oil are either due to an excessive turbine oil recirculation rate or due to an inadequate air release property of the turbine oil. Dimensioning of the main oil tank Sub-loop controls for the oil Pumps All oil pumps of the hydraulic and lubricating oil system driven by electric motors are controlled by the switching commands of the associated sub-loop controls.1-1000-66/3 . The turbine oil in the system takes up air during every recirculation. Lubricating oil throttle valves upstream of the turbine and generator bearings. The mass flows of the oil necessary for lubricating and cooling are set using the lubricating oil throttle valves upstream of the turbine and generator bearings in accordance with the reference values given in the Technical data. e.   - The main oil tank is dimensioned so that the total oil in the tank is not recirculated more than 8-10 times per hour. Extended parallel operation of the main and auxiliary oil pumps shall be avoided.- manufacturer.  Sub-loop controls of the hydraulic and lubricating oil system. The lubricating oil throttle valve upstream of every bearing should be adjusted so that the turbine oil in the bearing heats up to approx. This air is released from the turbine oil in the course of the dwell time in the main oil tank. type designation .. the 5.

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resuming oil flow. 5. Inadequate oil separation is usually caused by excessive volumetric flow of oil vapour. The negative pressures above the oil surface in the bearing pedestals.1-1001-66/1 . Turbine oil and oil vapour are separated in the oil separator of the oil vapour extractors so that the air released into the atmosphere is virtually free of oil. Consequently. Pressure build-up in the bearing pedestals and discharge of oil through the seal rings can be prevented by filling the system using the emergency oil pump. If the pressure in one bearing pedestal or in the main oil tank is considerably lower than the reference value. Hardwar Oil System MAY Oil Vapour Extraction System System Description Oil vapour extractors oil vapour extractor 1 MAV82 AN001 oil vapour extractor 2 MAV82 AN002 check valve of MAV82 AA001 oil vapour extractor 1 check valve of MAV82 AA002 oil vapour extractor 2 One of the two single-stage oil extractors. brg. and main oil tank prevent turbine oil or vapour from escaping into the atmosphere.  Adjustable throttle valves in the oil vapour extraction lines Volumetric flow in the oil vapour extraction lines is adjusted with throttle valves so that negative pressures in the bearing pedestals equal the reference value of approx. 2-13100-N1103 on Sheet No. The negative pressures in the oil return lines and main oil tank must be matched to this reference value without degrading oil separation in the oil separator due to excessive volumetric flow.Steam Steam Turbine Description Accompanying system diagram (Drawing No. oil return lines.  Oil separator MAV82 BT001 Virtually all of the turbine oil in the vapour phase is removed by the oil separator. Notes on operation of the oil vapour extraction system During extended shutdowns the oil system fills with air as the oil slowly flows back into the main tank. pedestal MAV81 AA507 exciter bearing pedestal MAV81 AA511  Throttle valves of oil return lines throttle valve MAV81 AA521 throttle valve MAV81 AA522 Description and function of components of the oil vapour extraction system The components of the oil vapour extraction system and their function are described in the following : BHEL. The check valves downstream of the oil vapour extractors prevent the extractor in operation from drawing in air tough the standby extractor. due to turbulent flow of turbine oil in the bearing pedestals and due to release of entrained air in the oil return lines and main oil tank is removed by one of the two extractors of the oil vapour extraction system. Components of the oil vapour extraction system In addition to piping the following equipment is necessary for operation of the oil vapour extraction system :  Oil vapour extractors and oil separator oil vapour extractor1 MAV82 AN001 oil vapour extractor2 MAV82 AN002 throttle valve upstream of MAV82 AA511 oil vapour extractor1 throttle valve upstream of MAV82 AA512 oil vapour extractor2 check valve of MAV82 AA001 oil vapour extractor1 check valve of MAV82 AA002 oil vapour extractor2 oil separator MAV82 BT001  Throttle valves downstream of bearing pedestals bearing pedestal 1 MAV81 AA501 bearing pedestal 2 MAV81 AA503 bearing pedestal 3 MAV81 AA505 gen. must be in operation as long as the generator is filled with hydrogen. for example. 5. the throttle valves in the oil vapour extraction lines must not be opened too far and the lid of the main oil tank must be airtight. the air is driven out and accumulates in the bearing pedestals. whose characteristic is matched to volumetric flow of oilenriched air. or leak off steam from the immediate atmosphere being drawn into the oil system.11001-66/2 ) Process engineering function of the oil vapour extraction system Oil vapour forming. there is a risk of dust. When the system is started up again by activating the pump. 5-10 mm of water column. moisture.

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Oil drain valves of the oil tank. or if the main oil tank is to be cleaned during inspection and overhaul. and failure to isolate valves can result in faulty operation. the oil coolers and the oil piping system are to be locked against unauthorised or accidental opening. the following information must also be complied with:  Complete drainage of the oil system before changing the turbine oil fill when changing the turbine oil fill. -Oil cooler 1 MAV41 BC001 -Oil cooler 2 MAV41 BC002 The turbine oil must be discharged from one of the oil coolers if a check on leak tightness or condition is to be performed or if the oil cooler is to be cleaned.1-1002-66-1 . to avoid oil loss during venting.HARDWAR turbine oil to the main oil tank. inadequate protection of valves against unauthorized actuation.  Vent valves The vent valves. must be used to vent the following oil system components: .  Isolation of oil system components Before an oil drain valve is opened. or before corrective action is undertaken to eliminate leaks. Under normal operating conditions. the used oil must be fully removed from the system so that the properties of the new turbine oil are not adversely affected. and the piping required for discharging the turbine oil and venting the oil system components. If necessary. and to vent certain components. . the used oil must be disposed of properly. The vent lines feed into the oil return line or into the oil tank of the oil discharge system.Jacking oil filter MAV35 AT001 Oil filters must be drained on each cleaning operation or whenever the filter elements are changed.  Draining the jacking oil system Note that the jacking oil filter system is drained using the drain line of the jacking oil filter.lubricating oil filter 1 MAV42 BT001 . Information for operation and maintenance Incorrect valve positions. -Lubricating oil filter MAV42 BT001 .Oil cooler 2 MAV41 BC002 The valves in the vent lines of the oil coolers must be open at all times. The discharged turbine oil is temporarily stored and then refilled into the main oil tank. all information on this subject in this system description must be observed. damage. The turbine oil is purified either before or during the refill process. incorrect turbine oil fill and discharge procedures. an appropriately sized stationary or mobile oil tank must be provided. including all components thereof. Before the main oil tank is drained.Main oil tank MAV10 BBOO1 The main oil tank is drained if the entire turbine oil fill is to be discharged. -Oil piping systems The turbine oil in the oil piping systems is discharged when the oil system is drained completely. Components of the oil discharge and vent system The oil discharge and vent system contains valves with ID codes as shown on the system diagram. the ID codes of which are given in the system diagram. the ID codes of which are given in the system diagram.Jacking oil filter MAV35 AT001 The filter housing of the switchable duplex filters of the operating oil systems must be filled and vented after the filter elements have been cleaned. The turbine oil must be discharged into a clean oil tank or into clean oil drums. An oil pump is used to return BHEL. and loss of turbine oil. For this reason.1-1001-66/2) Process engineering functions of the oil discharge and vent system The valves and pipes of the oil discharge and vent system are used to discharge the turbine oil from the components of the oil system. the operating 5. is to be cleaned or if the turbine oil is to be reconditioned or replaced. contamination of waste water or buildings. are used to drain the following oil system components : . In particular. so that the used oil can be completely removed. If the entire turbine oil fill is to be discharged. Description and function of components of the oil discharge and vent system  Oil drain valves The oil drain valves. The entire oil fill is discharged if the oil system. The appropriate valves must be aligned to route oil flow to the jacking oil filter used for drainage. there must be oil-side isolation of the component to be drained. Once discharged. all oil drain valves must be closed in order to avoid interruption of the oil supply. 2-13100-N1103 On sheet 5.Oil cooler 1 MAV41 BC001 . flanges and threaded joints must be disconnected and valve bonnets removed.Steam Turbine Description Oil System MAV Oil Discharge and Vent System System Description ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Accompanying system diagram: (Drawing No.

Due to the amount of time and the large 5. Care should be taken that the reference operating level is not exceeded. nor must they be damaged during transportation.  Discharging the turbine oil into drums To allow rouse of the turbine oil. turbine oil should only be discharged into drums if neither stationary nor mobile oil tanks are available.1-1002-66/2 transportation effort involved. drums into which the oil is discharged must be free of contaminants of any kind.  Oil level in the main oil tank The oil level in the main oil tank must be topped up while the turbine generator unit is operating at rated speed. since this operating condition is used as the basis for defining the reference operating level for the oil. Drums must not overflow when being filled with the discharged oil. .Steam Turbine Description Oil System MAV Oil Discharge and Vent System System Description ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ oil pumps which draw the turbine oil from the main oil tank must be deactivated to prevent the oil pumps from running dry.

5.  Operation and maintenance of the oil conditioning system. Information for operation and maintenance • Valve positioning during normal operation The positions of the manually operated valves of the oil conditioning system during normal operation are given in the position list for manually operated valves appended to the operating instructions. please refer to the manufacturer's instructions.1-1001-66/2) Process engineering function of the oil conditioning system Turbine oil is subjected to stringent requirements in terms of purity.Steam Turbine Description Accompanying system diagram: (Drawing No. ID codes of the oil conditioning system components  Multipurpose oil conditioning station BHEL. which can be kept in continual operation independently of the operating oil systems. Hardwar Oil System MAY Oil Conditioning (Purification) System Description Description of the oil conditioning system arrangement A multipurpose oil conditioning station is available for turbine oil conditioning. The function of the oil conditioning system. since the properties of the turbine oil and the condition and proper functioning of the turbine generator components which come into contact with that oil can be adversely affected by solid or liquid contaminants.. is to either maintain or restore the purity of the turbine oil. For all questions regarding the operation and maintenance of the oil conditioning station.1-1003-66 . 2-13100-N1103 On sheet 5.

Steam Turbine Main Oil Tank Description Function The main oil tank contains the oil necessary for the lubrication and cooling of the bearings.C. The capacity of the tank is such that the full quantity of oil is circulated not more than 8 times per hour. 7 to 8 minutes from entry into the tank to suction by the pumps. This results in a retention time of approx. It not only serves as a storage tank also for deaerating the oil. This time allows sedimentation and detrainment of the oil. Oil overflows from the riser section through the oil strainer (13) into the adjacent section of the tank where it is then drawn off on the opposite side by the suction pipe or the oil pumps. for the jacking system and for the hydraulic turning gear. 10 11 12 13 Inspection port Oil vapour Ehauster Level switch Oil strainer Oil Flow in Tank Oil returning to the tank from the oil supply system first flows through a submerged inlet (8) into the riser section “of the tank where the first stage of deaeration takes place as the oil rises to the top of the tank.1-1010-01/1 . 1 Suction pipe (injector) 2 A. 5. auxiliary oil pump BHEL Hardwar 8 9 Oil inlet Riser section inlet 3 4 5 6 7 D.C emergency oil pump Jacking oil pump Oil level indicator Riser section drain Main section drain .

The auxiliary oil pumps (2. All pumps immerse in the oil contained in the tank and draw oil from the deepest point in order to obtain oil as free of air as possible. The tank is constructed with a sloping bottom with drain connections at the lowest point (6.1-1040 D.3) arranged on the tank are electrically driven rotary oil pumps(2).1-1010-01/2 . Power oil is conducted to the injector via an injection pipe. The driving elements of the pumps are fixed to the base plates of the tank covet. This permits signals to be transmitted when maximum and minimum levels have been reached.C Emergency oil pump (4) 5.1-1020 Main oil Pump (2) 5. This suction pipe is constructed as an injector to aid the suction of the main oil pump which has to overcome a certain suction head. This injection pipe also fills the suction pipe of the main oil pump when the plant is being started up. Also refer to the following sections (1) 5. The basket type oil strainers (13) are mounted in the tank.25 mm filtration particle size and can be exchanged by opening the tank cover. Oil vapour exhausters (11) produce a slight negative pressure in the tank.Oil pumps Oil Strainer The main oil pumps draws the oil through a suction pipe (1) situated at the flow end of the tank (1). are electrically driven jack-screw immersion pumps (3). Extra tank volume is provided between the normal operating level and the tank cover to accept oil from the entire oil supply system when the turbine is shut down. Oil Vapour Exhaust The whole tank is made as airtight as possible.1-1030 Auxiliary oil Pump (3) 5.1-1050 Jacking oil pump 5. The jacking oil pumps(4) also situated on the tank.7). They are of brass wire mesh of 0. Oil Level Indicator The main oil tank has a direct reading oil level indicator and a fluid limitswitch. in the return drain lines and in the spaces in the bearing pedestals so that oil vapour arising is drawn off.

These pumps also convey oil into the suction branch of the main oil pump until the main oil pump has started to draw from the main oil tank which is situated at a lower level [1]. Both bearings are lubricated with filtered 011. cooling the shaft journals and as primary and test oil. auxiliary oil pumps take over the necessary oil supply.Steam Turbine Main Oil Pump with Description Hydraulic Speed Transmitter Function The main oil pump is situated in the font bearing pedestal and supplies the entire turbine with oil that is used for bearing lubrication. Construction the double flow impeller (5) is an integral part of the pump shaft. overspeed trip test oil ‘a’ flows to the overspeed trip devices via the oil tube (16) built into the pump shaft (5). Hydraulic Speed Transmitter The pump shaft (5) also carries the hydraulic speed transmitter (14) which runs in the bearing (7) and in rings (13). The pressure and suction chambers are sealed off from each other by seal rings (4) which are split and secured against turning at the joint. The BHEL Hardwar pump shaft (5) runs in the journal bearing (1) and the combined journal and thrust bearing (7). If the overspeed trip test device. which is described separately [2] is actuated. Any change in speed gives rise to a pressure change in primary oil circuit ‘a1’ which serves as a control impulse for the hydraulic speed controller. The hydraulic speed transmitter (14) is supplied with control oil from the hydraulic control 5. The hydraulic speed transmitter operates on the same principle as a centrifugal pump impeller. The main oil pump is driven direct from the turbine shaft via the coupling (11). If the turbo-set is out of operation or the main oil pump fails.1-1020-01/1 .

~h8 alternating effect between the magnets and the Hall generators. Excess oil drains into the bearing pedestal. When the disc rotates as the pump runs.equipment rack via the oil supply reservoir (9).1-1020-01/2 Hydraulic Speed Transmitter. Cross Section . Electrical Speed Plck-up The pick-up for the electrical speed transmitter (12) is a nonmagnetic disc into which small magnets are inser1ed around the circumference. 2 5. Fig. not shown here. ! \n annular bead in the speed transmitter ensures that its interior is atways covered with a thin layer of oil to maintain a uniform initial pressure. gives rise to a voltage signal which is forwarded to the electrical speed display [3].

5. Assembly The pump is assembled before dispatch and can be mounted on and bolted to the oil tank as a complete unit. The bearings are lubricated from the pressure chamber of the pump. Adjusting Pump Rotor During assembly. the sleeve bearing via a bore in the casing. the rotor rests on the sealing ring of the suction casing. Remove retaining ring (6). The now clearance between split ring and impeller neck is 0. The oil enters the suction connection from underneath and is supplied to the oil system via the pressure pipe (18). It is advisable to renew the split rings (17) when exchanging the impeller. The impeller can be extracted.Steam Turbine Auxiliary Oil Pump Description Description The auxiliary oil pump is a vertical one-stage rotary pump with a radial impeller and spiral casing. Dismounting Exchanging the Impeller After the motor has been disassembled and the pressure pipe disconnected.ia a lube line. When connecting. The pump shaft has: a sleeve bearing (12) in the pump casing and a grooved ball bearing (7) in the bearing yoke. Secure the bearing nut with threaded pin. care must be taken the piping is not stressed when bolted. After the suction casing (14) has been removed and the shaft nut (16) loosened. the grooved ball bearing ‘. It is driven by an electric motor that is bolted to the cover plate (1). Remove coupling halves from the shaft by means of an appropriate device.1-1030-01 . It is fixed to the cover of the oil tank and submerges into the oil with the pump body. loosen bearing nut (6) and detach grooved ball bearing. Exchanging the Bearings When dismantling the pump must be removed as above. Extract pump shaft after the unscrewing of impeller. the pump must be BHEL Hardwar removed from the tank as a complete unit.3 mm in diameter. Lift the rotor by means of the bearing nut (5) until the rotor sits firmly with the shoulder of the shaft and the distance ring (8) at the inner ring of the grooved ball bearing. The pump is reassembled in reverse order. Loosen the pump casing from the pressure line and suspension pipe from cover plate.

The radial ball bearing (7) carries the downward thrust load of the pump and with the lower babbitted sleeve bearing 112) guides the shaft. motor. centrifugal.C. The upper bearing is oil fed by pipe (10) which connects to the pump discharge. The complete pump -motor assembly is attached to mounting plate (1) which is bolted to the top of the main oil tank. The lower bearing is supplied with oil through a drilled oil passage from the discharge side of the pump. BHEL Hardwar The vertical pump shaft (9) is connected to the motor shaft by a flexible coupling equipped with rubber sleeved coupling studs. Location The unit is located on top of the main oil tank and driven by a D. Emergency Oil Pump Description Function The emergency oil pump is of the vertical.C.1-1040-01 . Seal rings (17) form a seal between the impeller suction and the pump discharge.Steam Turbine D. Pressure lubrication is provided to both bearings. Construction Oil is delivered by impeller (15) via the intake (141 to volute (13) from where the oil flows through discharge pipe (18) to the oil supply system. 5. submerged type and serves for lubrication and cooling of the bearings during emergency conditions. The lower sleeve bearing is mounted in volute 113).

Mode of Operation The screw-spindle pump is connected vertically to the cover plate (2) of the main oil tank via a support (5) and immerses with the suction casing (15) into the oil. the axial thrust is compensated by the balancing pistons arranged on the suction side which run in the balancing bushings (21). The oil that leaves the 5. The throttle bushing (11) and the driving spindle (16) form a throttling gap that separates the pressure area from the following area. With the hollow moving spindles.Steam Turbine Jacking Oil Pump Description Function The jacking oil pump is a self-priming screwspindle pump with three spindles and internal bearings The pump supplies the jacking oil that is needed for lifting the shafting at low speeds [1]. The fluid pressure to which the spindle thread is subjected on the pressure side is compensated by the driving spindle by means of the balancing piston (shrunk-on sleeve) running in the throttle bushing (11). The driving spindle (16) and the two moving spindles (20) run in the inner casing (13).1-1050-00/1 . The oil now into the suction branch of the suction casing (15) from underneath and is supplied to the lifting oil system by the pump via the BHEL Hardwar pressure pipe (3). The drive is an electric motor that is bolted to the cover plate (2). Construction.

1-0100 Technical Data [1] 5. The grooved ball bearing is lubricated with this oil. flows via the grooved ball bearing (7) into the support and from there back into the main oil tank.1-0510 Hydraulic Turning Gear [1] 5.throttle gap. the contents of which are continuously being moved axially from the suction side to the pressure side of the pump as the spindles rotate.1-1050-00/2 . Due to the special profile given by the sides of the threads the three spindles form sealed chambers. Also refer to the following sections [1] 5. The driving spindle is fixed by means of the grooved ball bearing in the bearing carrier (9) that is bolted to the pressure casing (12) of the pump.1-0530 Hydraulic Lifting Device 5.

the right half shows the oil throttle in normal operation. the cross section of the passage is then adjusted for normal operation. After the flushing. the oil strainer (7) as well as the screw plug (6) are to be exchanged with the throttle piece (5) and the screw plug (3) with the capped nut (11.1-1080-00 . Operation The flushing process is carried out before the turbine is taken into service. 3) for normal operation are inserted. in which either the oil strainer (7) which is held in place by the screw plug (6). for the flushing process or the adjustable throttle piece (5) with parts (1. 2. Construction The main parts of the oil throttle are the body (8). By means of the adjustable throttle piece. according to the necessary amount of the lubricating oil and consequently the lubricating oil flow adapted to the required oil exit temperature of the bearing.Steam Turbine Oil Throttle Description Arrangement The oil throttles arranged immediately before the bearing in the lubricating lines serve for adjusting the necessary amount of oil for the bearings. BHEL Hardwar 5. While the left half of the sectional view represents the oil throttle during oil flushing.

Fig. The oil strainer (7) as well as the blind cover (6) are to be exchanged with the throttle spindle (1). 2 shows the oil throttle during final stage of oil flushing. the cross section of the oil passage is then adjusted for normal operation.1-1081-00 . 1 represents the oil throttle during normal operation.Steam Turbine Oil Throttle Description Arrangement The oil throttles arranged immediately before the bearings in the lubricating lines inside the bearing pedestals serve for adjusting the necessary amount of oil for the bearings. nut (3) and cover (4). 5. Operation The flushing process is carried out before the turbine is taken into service. By means of adjustable throttle. While the Fig. cap nut (2). The strainer (7) is BHEL Hardwar installed in final stage of flushing. according to the necessary amount of the lubricating oil and consequently the lubricating oil flow adapted to the required oil exit temperature of the bearing.

 All lubricating oil flows through bypass piping.Steam Turbine Three-way Control Valve Description For Lubricating Oil Temp. BHEL Hardwar 5. Control Description The three way temperature control valve has the function of regulating the lubricating oil temperature at 45 °C. Lubricating oil flows through oil cooler and bypass piping. Possible oil flow paths for regulating the oil temperature are: All lubricating oil flows through oil cooler.   Valve Type Three way Angle Valve with Electric Actuator.1-1090-01 .

Control fluid enters the suction casing (10) from below and is conducted into the LP control fluid circuit via the pressure pipe (19) and into the HP control fluid circuit via pressure pipe (23). the pump must be extracted as a unit from the tank. In order to dismantle the other stages. It is attached to the cover of the fluid tank and submerges in the control fluid. BHEL Hardwar 5. remove coupling half from the shaft by means of special device.P. Bearing nut is then secured with threaded pin. loosen pump casing from pressure piping and bearing support from the cover plate. The pump is assembled in the reversed sequence. After the suction casing has been removed and the rotating wheel nut loosened. The pump is assembled in the reversed sequence. loosen nut (2) and ball bearings (25). Control Fluid Pump With LP Extraction Description The extraction or dual pressure pump is a vertical rotary pump in multiple stages.1-1110-00 . Exchanging the Bearings (11 and 25) The pump is first taken apart.Steam Turbine Description H. The pump shaft is guided by a sleeve bearing (11) in the suction casing and by ball bearings (25) in the bearing support (4). The shaft is lifted by means of the nut (2) until the rotor with shaft shoulder and distance ring (24) sits firmly on the inner ring of the ball bearing. The new clearance between seal ring and the neck of the rotating wheel is 0. Assembly The pump is delivered in assembled state and can be placed as a unit on the tank and bolted to it. Adjusting Pump Rotor During assembly the shaft is supported by the sealing ring of the suction casing. Exchanging the Rotors When the motor has been dismantled and the pressure piping removed. the baffle ring and then the stage casing are removed. The ball bearings and the bevel gear coupling are lubricated by oil from the 1st stage pressure chamber via lubricating pipe (22). When connecting the pressure pipe care must be taken that the piping is not stressed when bolted. Drive is provided by an electric motor located on the cover plate (1).The sleeve bearing is lubricated via a passage in the casing. It is expedient to renew the seal rings when exchanging the rotating wheels. remove bearing securing device.3 mm in diameter. the 1 st stage rotating wheel can be extracted.

It is relatively easy to correct this kind of trouble when the machine is shutdown: Remove the element from the body carefully. The handwheel (1) should be turned 2 or 3 revolutions daily. The filtering elements are arranged in parallel inside the casing. Accumulated sludge is to be removed at fairly long intervals when the plant is shut down by removing the screw plug (5). BHEL Haridwar Do not take the cartridges apart. The clean fluid flows out to the machine.Steam Turbine Description Plate-type Filter The plate type filter cleans the oil or fluid used in the governing system. place it back in the position. In such cases no force should be applied under any circumstances. use the handwheel (1) to turn the filter cartridges. The sludge gets arrested on the surface ot the cartridges.1-1120-00 . body (4) and sludge drain plug (5). In such cases tighten the gland nut or replace the packing. The main components of the filter are: handwheel (1). Be sure not to tighten the nut too much so as to prevent the cartridges from being turned. it may happen that the cartridges become so clogged that it is impossible to turn the main spindle. Construction The plate type filters are installed in Governing and LP Bypass racks. filter top (2). Operation and Maintenance To clean the plate type filter. It is possible that the gland in the filter top may become loose or sticky. The filter cartridges need not be removed. Single stage plate type filters are used in LP Bypass racks while in Governing rack the filter has three stages. filter element (3). Mode of Operation The control fluid enters the body at the right hand arrow and passes through the filter element (3). 5. and there is only a very slight flow of fluid through the filter. The cartridges can now be cleaned thoroughly by using a noncorrosive cleaning fluid and with the aid of a brush. The sludge and dirt removed collect at the bottom of the body (4) in the sludge collection chamber. After the filter element has been cleaned. Disturbance If the filter is not given due attention and the handwheel not turned regularly.

At certain red portion of the two viewing windows of the indicating disc which occures for example when filter contamination increases and at specified switching points a particular contact. Each alteration in pressure corresponds to a certain piston setting. Valve discs (4) that control the path of flow in the valve casing are moved by means of a star-wheel via spindle that has a left and right hand thread. Construction The Duplex filter consists of two filter bodies and is fitted with a change-over device which enables the filter to be switched as desired. magnetically i. thus correspond to the prevailing differential pressure. The filter bodies are designed according to the pressure stage and the relevant codes and the filter itself is designed to provide safety taking into account the differential Duplex Filter for Pilot Control of Control Valves Mode of Operation of Differential pressure Gauge The casing is divided into two pressure chambers by a diaphragm sealed piston. Installation of Duplex Filters to the indicating disc and the two contacts outside the pressurized area. the piston is pushed against the tension spring. This also applies when the piping is being connected . with low friction.2 Cylindrical Filter This construction guarantees synchronized movement of the two valves discs whereby one filter chamber is switched on before the other chamber is switched off. Without causing the flow to be interrupted .A visual indicator on the upper valve casing shows the prevailing direction of flow and switching.1-1130-00/1 . The directin of flow is normally marked on the flanges of the filter bodies. When the filter is being bolted to the foundation. This position is transferred pressures.Care must be taken that the fluid flows through in the correct direction.e. In the normal case ( p = O ). On an increase in the differential pressure. the piston is held in the zero position by a tension spring. BHEL Hardwar 5. Fig. The first chamber is connected with the filter enterance and the other with the exit.Steam Turbine Description Function Duplex filters permit the dirty fiter elements to be cleaned during operation. the casing must not be subjected to any external stresses. Differential Pressure Gauge The function of the device is to measure and give a visual indication of’the variation in the differential pressure Fig.3 Differential Pressure Gauge Valve Changeover Device The changeover device consists of two changeover valves arranged one above the other.

Unscrew valve stem with valve disc(4). If necessary change seal. While the first filter chamber is filtering . this relieves the control fluid and gives the possibility of checking whether the changeover device has blocked the flow to the filter chamber. The cock of the pressure equalizing pipe must then be closed so that one filter chamber is hermetically sealed. Start-up and Cleaning  Change-over device in intermediate position. Assemble switching gauge. . Before operating the changeover device. 5.  Close vent. The duplex filter is switched to the other filter chamber by turning the star-wheel (3) in the given direction. the pressure equalizing coak (2) must be open.4 Changeover Valve 1 2 3 4         Switching position indicator Pressure equalizing cock Star-wheel Valve disc Unscrew switching gauge. The valve discs (4) open in the appropriate direction of flow and the change-over process is then completed.  Close casing through cover. The star-wheel (3) is also tightened to the end position by means of this turning lever. the valve discs can be easily loosened.  Open pressure equalizing cock until filter half is deaerated. care must be taken that the fluid in the casings is not under pressure. vent is still open. Check sealing rings and renew if necessary. When the permissible differential pressure has been reached . Screw valve stem with valve disc(4) back again. Before replacing cover take care that condition and position of seal are perfect. By means of a turning lever.one must switch over to the clean filter chamber as follows:  Open pressure equalizing cock and check whether the reserve chamber is full by opening the vents for a short time  Change over  Close pressure equalizing cock.  Remove filter element vertically in an upwards direction.  Re-insert cleaned filter element.the shut off chamber is in reserse until the permissible differential pressure has been reached due to contamination. Removal and Installation of Changeover Valve Belore removing the changeover valve.1-1130-00/2 Fig. Filter half is ready as reserve again.  Disassemble the casing cover of the shutoff filter chamber.  Unscrew Valve stem with valve disc. Close casing with cover. both filter chambers in operation  Open vents in both chambers  Start-up plant slowly  Close vents when air has escaped and fluid begins to come out  Block one filter chamber by opening changeover device.  Disassemble lower cover.  Clean mesh of filter element with appropriate cleaning material and by blowing through the mesh from the clean side (see filter cleaning instructions). Loosen valve discs by turning star-wheel Disassemble upper cover.  Open vent in shut-off half .Operating the Changeover Valve The large arrow on the switching gauge (1) gives the direction of flow and the small arrow the switching direction.

2 Brush the individual elements with a not too hard brush and suitable cleaning agent over a bath or container and rinse.3. etc. loosen all nuts (a) on respective filter element and remove. steam. water. Normal Cleaning 1. petrol.4 3. 3. benzene. Detach lower filter plate (b) Detach filter casing (c) Remove support pipe (d) Clean strainer basket as in Item 2 Clean all parts.3 2.1 3.8 Cleaning Disassembled Filter Elements (Only with bolted construction) Only when absolutely necessary to be performed with great care.5) and suitable agent. 5. Cleaning Agents Suitable cleaning agents are e.3 3.2 3. Care must be taken here that strainer basket and seals sit properly. also upper filter plate (g) and stay rod (e) Check all seals (f) and strainer basket for damage and renew if necessary Assemble filter elements and bolt firmly.1 2. 4. Fig. The application depends on their cleaning capacity and their compatibility with the media to be filtered. Tri-Perchlorethylene. 2. Treat filter elements as described under 1.g.3 Blow compressed air from the clean side through the filter that has been cleaned in this way in order to remove any dirt particles caught in the filter mesh. 5). diesel oil.6 3. Using filter cleaning apparatus (Fig. 5 CIeaning device for filter element 3. 1. Application according to Item 2. 1. air.2 2. The cleaning process can be carried out with filter cleaning apparatus (Fig.2 and 1. blow through filter thoroughly from clean side.3 Cleaning Obstinate Dirt Place complete filter in a container with a cleaning agent for several hours or spray repeatedly at short intervals.Cleaning the Filters 1.5 3.7 3. each element is cleaned in dividually.1-1130-00/3 .1 With multi-part filters.

BHEL Haridwar Regenerating Plant The Fuller’s earth needed for regenerating the fire resistant fluid must be dry with a residual water content of not more than 1% of the weight. The cleaning and deacidifying takes place in a separate circuit. Any acids and ageing products are removed during operation by continuous filtering through Fuller’s-earth and mechanical filters.1-1140-00/1 . The efficiency of the regenerating plant is to be controlled by an exact record of the neutralization value and the degree of purity. The fine filter of this plant retains particles of Fuller’s earth as well as providing the essential cleanliness of the whole system and increasing the life of the filters. the only ones suitable for use with our turbines are phosphoric esters of the group HS-D which have a low water and chlorine content. In addition to the precautions against acidifying of the fluid. 2 Fuller’s earth filters (6) and a mechanical Filter (7).Steam Turbine Description General Of the various types of fire resistant fluid. The mode of operation of this natural earth treatment is based on a ion-exchange reaction. Their chemical composition and structure necessitate certain measures and alterations compared with an oil system. The design of this plant is made to the specifications of the fluid manufacturer. A pump (4) conducts a constant amount of fluid through the filter group and back into the tank (1). Fire resistant fluid systems for our turbines are provided with a bypass regenerating plant. The dust proportion of the granulate must not be used. The amount of earth must not be too little and must be stamped or shaken to avoid the formation of gaps and channels which would reduce the effectiveness of the Fuller’s earth. If required Fuller’s earth must be dried at a temperature not exceeding 105 C. The US strainer number 30/60 mesh is the granular size to be used (or this must correspond to the details from the fluid manufacturer). Construction of Regenerating Plant The filter group consists of one dry filter (10). continuous care is taken that any solid particles are separated by the fine filter so that they can not speed up the reaction. When the filter is contaminated there is an increase 5.

Two filters work in parallel and can not be switched over. the filter material must be changed. The inner layers absorb water and will chemically bond it so that no water will release downstream. Commissioning and Maintenance of the Filter Plants  The filters are to be continuously deaerated by slightly opening the vent valve.  The increasing contamination of the filter can be measured by the constant increase in pressure. the media swells and the differential pressure rapidly increases. 2 Fuller’s Earth Filter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Connection for pressure gauge Connection for air exhaust Connection for safety valve Control fluid Inlet Contrul fluid outlet Connection to drain tank Filter basket with gauge   Lift cover taking care not to damage seal Loosen drain pipe screws and lift basket cover Extract filter basket (7) carefully and centrally Clean inside of filter casing Clean filter basket (7) After cleaning care must be taken that the parts are completely dry Fill filter basket and Insert.2) Loosen cover bolts 5. These inserts retain the finest particles of dirt.  Observe pressure increase on pressure gauge  The acid content must be checked by examining the fluid in the laboratory at certain intervals. 2) The Fuller’s earth filter contains three sections with a special granulate which binds any acid present in the fluid.This signals the operator that the cartrdge must be changed. The cartridges inside the filter remove dirt and water from the fluid.1-1140-00/2 Fig. rust and other particular contaminants. 2)    Switch off pump Open filter drain (6). In this way the fine filter also serves the safety of the control fluid system by trapping any particles of granulate that may be circulating.         . 3) Following the Fuller’s earth filters is a fine filter with textile inserts of finest mesh. Drain Filter (Flg. Dry Filter Fluid first enters the dry filter . The fine filter also separates water particles and other ageing materials which would make it necessary so renew the control fluid too soon. The differential pressure indicator reaches the all-red range. Mechanical Fine Filter (Fig. Replace cover carefully and tighten uniformly by means of screws (pay attention to seal) Switch on pump (4). Exchanging the Earth Filling (Fig. A spring safety valve (3) is installed to protect the system against an excessively high increase in pressure. both metallic and nonmetallic impurities. the granulate is exhausted and must be replaced earlier than originally intended. The differential pressure indicators installed in the system show optically the degree of contamination. Fuller’s earth Filter (Fig.The outer media layer filters out silt.  If there is a constant increase in the acid value.in the fluid pressure. The earth must be carefully pressed down without use of excessive force so that the sections are filled compactly in order to prevent later settling of the earth and the possible formation of channels Insert clean basket cover and tighten well with screw so that no Fuller’s earth can escape Close drain (6). When the white-red segments are only showing red.When the cartridge reaches its water holding limit.

they must be moistened with FRF or a corrosion protection medium compatible with FRF immediately after cleaning. By inserting the rubber and metal discs and the clamping springs in this sequence. benzine. the respective accident prevention rules are to be observed. white spirit. The cartridges must be placed above the standpipes such that the large opening of the filter cartridge faces downwards. Each newly cleaned surface is susceptible to corrosion.1-1140-00/3 . In order to protect the surfaces. Remains of cleaning materials are to be Carefully removed (when chlorinated hydrocarbon is used there must be no increase in the chlorine content of the FRF). the filter cartridges are stressed by means of the clamping screws to equalize an alteration in the length of the filter cartridge column. trichloroethylene.Instructions for Installation of Filter Cartridges of Fine Filter (Fig.3) The filter cartridges (8) are to be immersed in the control fluid before the first commissioning and installed in the filter. 3 Mechanical Fine Filter 5. When using these. perchloroethylene and compressed air. Means of Cleaning The following are to be used for cleaning: Textile and paper cloths without threads. therefore. 1 Connection for pressure gauge 2 Connection for air exhaust 3 Connection for safety valve 4 Control fluid inlet 5 Connection for thermometer 6 Control fluid outlet with flow gauge 7 Connection for sludge outlet and drainage 8 Filter cartridges Fig.

Hardwar Drawing No.1-1210-66/2 5. 1-13100-N1131 on sheet No.1-1210-66/1 . 5. 1-13100-N1131 on sheet No.1-1210-66/2 Drawing No.Steam Turbine Description Drain System MAL System Diagram Index System Diagram MAL MAG Turbine Drains System Turbine Drains System BHEL. 5.

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Steam Turbine Description System Diagram Index System Diagram MAN LCE Condenser Spray System Condenser Spray System Drawing No. 1-13100-N2142 on sheet 5.1-1220-66/1 . 1-13100-N1142 on sheet 5.1-1220-66/3 Drawing No. 1-13100-N1142 on sheet 5.1-1220-66/2 MAA MAB MAC HP-IP-LP Scheme HP-IP-LP Scheme HP-IP-LP Scheme Drawing No.1-1220-66/3 Drawing No.1-1220-66/3 BHEL. Hardwar 5. 2-13100-N1141On sheet 5.1-1220-66/2 Drawing No. 2-13100-N1141On sheet 5.

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Steam Turbine Description Component Diagram Index Component Diagram MAA HP Stop & Control Valves Drawing no. 4-18000-40022 on sheet 5.1-1230-66/4 MAN LP Bypass Valve (ETA Type) Drawing no. HARDWAR 5. 4-18000-40021 on sheet 5.1-1230-66-1 .1-1230-66/6 Drawing no. 4-18000-40022 on sheet 5.1-1230-66/3 MAB IP Stop & Control Valves Drawing no. 4-18000-40022 on sheet 5. 4-18000-40022 on sheet 5.1-1230-66/5 MAW Seal Steam /Leak off Steam Valve Drawing no.1-1230-66/7 MAD Measuring Points on Turbine – Generator Bearings BHEL.

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3 casing rear MAW86AA501 Isolation valve upstream of the MAW80AA001 seal steam condenser MAW80AC001 Isolation valve upstream of MAW80AA011 leakoff steam condenser exhauster 1 Leakoff steam condenser MAW80AN001 exhauster 1 Isolation valve upstream of MAW80AA012 Leakoff steam condenser exhauster 2 Leakoff steam condenser MAW80AN002 exhauster 2 Valve upstream of seal steam MAW10AA011 Supply control valve The control of this valve is temperature dependent and the valve is open as long as the temperature of steam before this valve is more than pre-set value.downstream of leakoff steam MAW50 AA512 control valve BHEL. Seal steam control valve  MAW10AA001 The seal steam control valve is positioned by the shaft seal steam controller.1st casing rear nd . Each valve is equipped with an elctrohydraulic actuator. The valve opens if the amount of leak-off steam is not sufficient to satisfy seal steam requirements. the seal steam leak-off and supply valves may be moved to required position with the help of built-in manual pump. During start up & shut down and at low load operation range up-to 35%. The pressure in the header is maintained at slightly higher than the atmospheric pressure at a pre-set value (1.g..  Leakage steam system exhausting of leakage steam from the leakage steam chambers of the shaft seals. monitoring equipment and manually operated valves. steam from auxiliary source is supplied to system through seal steam control valve.upstream of leakoff steam MAW50AA010 of control valve .HARDWAR Shaft Seal Steam System MAW System Description  Leakage steam system Butterfly valves in the leakage steam lines of the shaft seals st . HRH Steam Stop & Control Valves and LPBP Stop & Control Valves under leak off steam system. the following equipment and valves are necessary for operation of the shaft seal steam system:  Seal steam supply System Seal steam control valve MAW10AA001 Motor-operated bypass valve MAW15AA001 Valve upstream/downstream of seal steam control valve -upstream of seal steam MAW10AA010 control valve -downstream of seal steam MAW10AA512 control valve  Leakoff steam discharge system Leakoff steam control valve MAW50AA001 Motor-operated bypass valve MAW55AA001 Valve upstream/downstream of leakoff control valve .023 ata) by seal steam pressure controller.  Leakage steam condensate system exhausting of leakage steam condensate to the waste water system. Description and function of the components of the shaft seal steam system The components of the shaft seal steam system and their function are described in the following. the spindles of Main Steam Stop & Control valves. extraction of air from the seal steam condenser using one of the leakoff steam condenser exhausters. exhausting of leakage steam to atmosphere during faulted seal steam condenser operation. If the electro hydraulic actuating fails.3 casing front MAW85AA501 rd . The subsystems of the shaft seal steam system have the following functions:  Seal and leakoff steam system exhausting of leakoff steam from shaft seals having a positive internal pressure and from valve stem seals.1-1240-66/5 Process engineering function of the shaft seal steam system The process engineering function of the shaft seal steam system is to prevent the escape of shaft seal steam from the turbine to the atmosphere and the ingress of air into the turbine and the condenser.2 casing rear MAW84 AA501 rd . as a result of faulted seal steam control valve operation. 1-13100-91121 & 3-13100-N1122 on Sheet nos. admission of excess leakoff steam to the condenser.  Motor-operated bypass valve MAW15AA001 The bypass valve can be opened from the control room if the seal steam control valve is not able to satisfy seal steam requirements. in case of failure.Steam Turbine Description ACOMPANYING SYSTEM DIAGRAMS Drg nos.1-1240-66/1 .2 casing front MAW83 AA501 nd . Components of the shaft seal steam system In addition to piping. An electrical pressure controller connected to a valve lift controller acts on the actuator of the seal steam leak-off and supply valves. supplying the shaft seals having a subatmospheric internal pressure with seal steam.:  Valve upstream of the seal steam control valve MAW10AA011 The control of this valve is temperature dependent and the valve is open as long as the temperature of steam before this valve is more than pre-set value.1-1240-66/4 & 5. The provision is also made for drawing the leak off steam from U-Ring. condensing of leakage steam in the seal steam condenser.1 casing front MAW82 AA501 MAW81 AA501 . or if the steam pressure upstream of seal steam inlet valves 5. 5. e.

5.1-1240-66/2 .

Opening and closure of the warmup valve is dependent on the steam temperature upstream of the seal steam control valve. the leakage steam is condensed in the seal steam condenser.1-1240-66/3 . Keeping the seal steam line upstream of the seal steam control valve warm The warmup valve is used to keep the seal steam line upstream of the seal steam control valve warm. If the seal steam condenser is not available.  Exhausting the leakage steam to atmosphere Under normal operating conditions. the leakage steam must be exhausted to atmosphere. 5.

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Beyond this point. This allows turbine operation within a set envelope against various permitted stress types or loading combinations. The turbine can be operated in line with three different stress limits or operating modes viz. Before the TSC enables switch over from F mode to back to N mode or from N to S mode. Normal and Slow. Also. it is possible to switch over from S (slow) to N (normal) mode or from N to F (fast) mode at any time.2-0001-01 . Basic knowledge of operation and monitoring of turbines are taken for granted. 5. Temperature margins are indicated on CRT during all operating conditions. and the turbine dedicated BHEL Hardwar computing channels perform on going calculations of material fatigue. switch over from slow to normal or fast mode is not permitted until the temperature in shaft center line exceeds 100 °C .Steam Turbine Operation of the Turbine Description Introduction In the Operation section of the manual the steps of startup. Further knowledge gained during the commissioning period gives the operating staff a more complete understanding of turbine generator operation. Role of Turbine Stress Controller (TSC) The function of TSC is to continuously monitor and evaluate the main components of turbine viz. it automatically checks whether there will still be a positive temperature margin of 15 °C in the new mode once this change over has been affected. It monitors the operational non steady state thermal stresses affecting the steam admission area. HP rotor. HP casing and IP rotor in respect of their material limits and fatigue life. Main steam stop and control valve. Fast. However. To safeguard shaft material. the activities that must be performed during shutdown to maintain operability are described. which are selected by operator action. power operation and shutdown of the turbine are given.

1-0120 [2] 5. air-release properties and foaming characteristics of the fluid are important to the functioning of the turbine generator unit’s components.1-0310 [4] 5. Also maintenance instruction on Oil Care [4] should be followed. Also refer to the following sections [1] 5. Control Fluid The guideline ‘Control Fluid’ [5] has the requirements for this operating fluid.3-0070 [3] 5. Regular sampling and laboratory checks will indicate that the control fluid complies with the specifications.2-0002-00 .3-0082 BHEL Hardwar Steam Purity Required Values Steam Washing of Turbine Oil Specification Oil Care Fire Resistant Fluid Care of Control Fluid 5. neutralization coefficient as a characteristic for aging. Regular sampling and laboratory checks will indicate that the turbine oil complies with the specifications. Steam Purity The steam purity must comply with the guideline on ‘Steam Purity’ (1) before startup and power operation is begun. The maintenance instruction ‘Care of Control Fluid’ [6] should also be followed. Blade deposits reduce the efficiency. Oil and Operation Control Fluid The efficiency of turbine and functioning of its components depend. Immediate corrective action must be taken to restore the required steam Quality specified in the guideline [1]. on whether the steam quality and the properties of the operating fluids fulfil the requirements listed in the Description section of this manual. Deposits can only be removed by time-consuming processes [2] and occur during power operation when normal values are exceeded. Particular care should always be taken during startup that the purity and the physical & chemical properties comply with the turbine manufacturer’s guidelines.1-0140 [6] 5. The purity (freedom from liquid and solid impurities).Steam Turbine Specification of Steam. The purity (freedom from liquid and solid impurities). air-release properties and foaming characteristics of the oil are important to the functioning of the turbine generator unit’s components.3-0080 [5] 5. Turbine Oil Oil Specifications guideline [3] lists the requirements for the operating fluid. among other things.

BHEL Hardiwar Countermeasures for Abnormal Conditions It is recommended that all abnormal conditions detected in the course of testing be eliminated by the countermeasures specified in the remedial action and maintenance instructions in the turbine manual.Steam Turbine Testing of Turbine Components Operation General Introduction The operational reliability and availability of a turbine is assured only if all the vital components and monitoring equipment for operation are in the specified condition at all times. Use of this opportunity is recommended. such as major inspection. On this basis. In some cases the desired condition may be restored sooner or prevented from deteriorating if the testing intervals are shortened. Performance of Tests Tests are generally performed by the operator’s properly qualified plant personnel. Testing Intervals The following recommendations. 5. requiring consideration. on the basis of experience gained by the turbine manufacturer and the operators. Shorter testing intervals also make it easier to detect and monitor any progressive deterioration in the condition of component. As a rule the performance testing should be executed immediately after maintenance or overhaul activities. This applies particularly to : controllers protective devices safety devices stop and control valves and other important turbine valves  monitoring equipment     The unit’s operating parameters can provide important information on the condition and reliability of the turbine unit and its systems.2-0020-00 . in the presence of concerned qualified personnel form BHEL. for time Intervals between tests have been compiled. the optimum timing for the necessary remedial actions may be determined in the light of other factors.

function .setting Seal Steam Controller .function .Controllers Turbine Governor .setting Plant Status 1 X Load Shedding Relay .Type of test shutdown Steam Turbine Operation X X X X X X 3 X X X X X X X X X X X X X Fluid Temperature Controller .function Oil Temperature Controller .Turbine Systems .function .function Running During or after overhaul After shutdown > 1 month yearly monthly Test Cycle After start-up weekly COMPONENT .2-0021-01 .function BHEL Hardwar 5.setting Bypass Controller .Testing Testing Intervals .

Testing Testing Intervals – Automatic Turbine Tester Automatic Tester for Devices - Running During or after overhaul shutdown Plant Status After shutdown > 1 month yearly monthly Test Cycle After start-up weekly COMPONENT .2-0022-01 .Steam Turbine Operation Turbine Systems .Type of test Turbine Protective functioning of remote trip solenoid functioning & setting of overspeed trips functioning & setting of hydraulic low vacuum trip BHEL Hardwar 2 X X X 5.

Type of test X X 5.free movement of control valves BHEL Hardwar 2 Running During or after overhaul X shutdown Plant Status After shutdown > 1 month yearly monthly Test Cycle After start-up weekly COMPONENT .Testing Testing Intervals – Automatic Turbine Tester Automatic Turbine Tester for Stop & Control valves .free movement of stop valves .Steam Turbine Operation Turbine Systems .2-0023-01 .

functioning and setting 6 Bypass Mode Low Vacuum Trip .functioning at each shutdown .functioning and setting 1 Oil Starvation Trip .functioning shutdown running Plant Status After shutdown>1 month During or after overhaul Test Cycle After start -Up Yearly Component Type of test Weekly - Testing Intervals.Steam Turbine Main Trip Valves .functioning and setting 1 Turbine Fire Control System .functioning and setting during testing by Overspeed x x x x x x x 1 Thrust Bearing Trips .functioning and setting of binary signal transmitters BHEL Hardwar 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 5.Protective Devices Monthly Operation Turbine Systems-Testing x x x Hydraulic Low Vacuum Trip .functioning and setting Electrical Low Vacuum Trip .functioning .functioning and breakaway pressure Overspeed Trips .alarms 1 1 Alarms from Protective Devices .functioning and setting during testing with hydraulic test signal transmitter .functioning and setting Reverse Power Protection .2-0024-01 .

functioning and set pressure x Shutdown Running Plant Status During or after overhaul Test Cycle After start Up After shutdown>1 month Component Type of test Weekly - Testing Intervals-Safety Devices Yearly Operation Turbine Systems-Testing Monthly Steam Turbine x Subloop Control for Auxiliary and Emergency Oil Pumps .functioning and set pressure x Rotary Pump Relief Valves .functioning .2-0025-01 .Safety Valves .functioning .setting of pressure switches 3 X * x x x x Automatic Changeover Units for Control Fluid Pumps . .functioning .setting of pressure switches 3 X * x x x x Extraction NRV Checks .setting of differential pressure switches 1 x x x x x * At each shut-down and startup BHEL Hardwar 5.

free movement (observe control valves lift at each load change) Extraction Valves .functioning at each shutdown CRH NRV . test gear or trip actuation .Valves Control Valve .free movement using starting and load limiting device.breakaway pressure .free movement using starting and load limiting device.Turbine Systems Testing Operation Testing Intervals.leak tightness at each startup Plant Status After shutdown>1month Yearly Test Cycle After start -Up Monthly Component Type of test Weekly - Steam Turbine x x x x x x x x x 5. test valve or trip actuation .leak tightness (in conjunction with test of reverse power protection at each shutdown) .free movement by observation of position indicators 1 BHEL Hardwar x x x x x x x x x x x x x 2-4 1 2 Shutdown x Running x 1 Vacuum Breaker .free movement by operating pushbutton on desk During or after overhaul Stop Valve .2-0026-01 .

Type of test shutdown Steam Turbine Operation X X X X X X 5.functioning and setting Speed Indicators Temperature Gauges Expansion Measuring Devices Vibration Measuring Devices liquid Level Measuring Devices Valve lift Transducers .functioning Binary Signal Transmitters .2-0027-01 .Testing Testing Intervals – Monitoring Devices Plant Status Alarms .Turbine Systems .accuracy of indication BHEL Hardwar 3 X Running During or after overhaul After shutdown > 1 month yearly monthly Test Cycle After start-up weekly COMPONENT .

2-0028-01 .recording of operating values for long term monitoring purposes Plant Status After shutdown>1 month Test Cycle After start -Up Yearly Component Type of test Weekly - Turbine Systems-Testing Testing Intervals.Operating Parameters Monthly Steam Turbine Operation 5.BHEL Hardwar x x Shutdown Running 3 During or after overhaul Steam Pressures Steam Temperatures Steam Mass Flow Rates Casing Temperatures Bearing Metal Temperatures Expansion Vibration liquid Levels Oil Pressures Oil Temperatures Control Fluid Pressures Control Fluid Temperatures .

Steam Turbine Operation Introduction Startup of the turbine and auxiliary systems must always be performed to ensure operational reliability and economy. To maintain operational reliability and economy. certain tests must be performed during all phases of turbine operation. Monitoring of these transient operating state by the monitoring instrumentation demands close attention. The schematics have added instructions that must be followed during startup or operation of the system. startup schematics are prepared to show all control operations and monitoring criteria for the turbine and its auxiliary systems. Instrumentation and control functions are given in ATRS functional schematics. This furnishes information on the condition of turbine generator components.startup schematics. a list of the tests and their intervals [1] is given at the beginning of the system. Startup is a phase where almost all operating values are subject to change. To fulfill these requirements.2-0110-01 . 5. The startup schematics of the turbine manual are compiled so that with their help BHEL Hardwar Starting the Turbine the turbine generator unit can be started up from the control room by operating the control devices by watching the analog displays. It is very important that all control operations are always performed in the recommended sequence. Since some tests must be carried out before or during the startup phase.

An “or” gate between two or more criteria indicates that one of several criteria must be fulfilled. If there are other criteria to be fulfilled before a step can be enabled. the check back from the execution of a switching or control operation also constitutes the enabling criterion for the following switching or operating step. also be performed manually from control room) * switching operation triggered automatically (can.manual switching operation at equipment ** switching operation triggered automatically (can. Normally. however.Steam Turbine Startup and Shutdown Diagrams Operation Symbols The symbols commonly used in other operating documents are used for the startup and shutdown schematics. also be performed manually from local control station) * switching operation triggered automatically (manual actuation not possible) 5. all criteria must be fulfilled. however. as the case may be. Symbols used: + interrogation from the control room = interrogation from the local control station – interrogation at equipment (N) + manual switching operation from control room (N) = manual switching operation from local control station (N) . Insofar as symbols with indices are used instead of values. References to further explanations are identified in the schematics by the number of the instruction concerned.e. i. Unless otherwise stipulated. The symbols and rules apply to all schematic representations of control operations contained in the turbine manual. only the values recorded in the logs shall be used. The operating values given in the schematics are nominal values and may deviate from the actual BHEL Hardwar values recorded in the logs and from the actual settings of the binary signal transmitters.2-0111-00 . the criteria are “and” gated. these criteria are listed prior to the first or next step.

AT OPER. OPERATE RECONDITIONING PLANT CONTINUOUSLY IF NEUTRALISATION NUMBER TENDS TO INCREASE + TEMPERATURE IN CONTROL FLUID TANK > 20°C + CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM START WITH FGA (CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM) OR MANUAL OPER. VACUUM PUMP READY FOR OPRN. TO 5.CONSOLE BHEL Hardwar REF.2-0112-00/1 . + OIL SYSTEM AND TURNING GEAR START START OF OIL SYSTEM APPROX. INSTRUCTIONS OF EXTERNAL SYSTEMS MUST COMPLY WITH TURBINE OPERATION.(01) (02) (03) (04) (05) Steam Turbine Start of Turbine/Generator Operation Startup Diagram (General) + TURBINE/GENERATOR START UP PREPARE + PREPARATION FOR START UP COMPLETED + EXTERNAL SYSTEMS READY FOR OPERATION CHECK CIRCULATING WATER FOR CONDENSER AVAILABLE COOLING WATER FOR COOLERS AVAILABLE AUXILIARY STEAM AVAILABLE DEMINERALIZED WATER SUPPLY AVAILABLE CONDENSATE SYSTEM READY FOR OPRN.AT OPER. TO 5.EXTEND TIME IN ADVANCE OF TURBINE START IF OIL TEMPERATURES ARE EXTREMELY LOW.2-0140 5. CONSOLE FGA=FUNCTIONAL GROUP AUTOMATIC + SHAFT TURNS – CF-RECONDITIONING-PLANT AND HEATERS IN OPERATION PRIOR TO CONTROL FL PUMP OPERATION THE CONTROL FLUID TEMPERATURE SHOULD BE > 20°C TEMP. THE EXTERNAL SYSTEMS DO NOT BELONG TO THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY (TURBINE/GENERATOR). + CONDENSATE PUMPS ON WITH FGA (CONDENSING PLANT) OR MANUAL OPER. INSTRUCTIONS OF THE MANUFACTURER OF THE CONDENSING PLANT MUST AGREE WITH TURBINE OPERATION. POSITION OF VALVES ACCORDING TO SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF SYSTEMS.TO 5. WITH FGA (OIL SUPPLY) OR MANUAL OPERATION AT OPER.CONSQLE + CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM IN OPERATION + CONDENSING PLANT START TIMING OF CONDESING-PLANT START MUST AGREE WITH TIMING OF FIRST STEAM ENTERING THE CONDENSING PLANT THE CONDENSING PLANT DOES NOT BELONG TO THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY (TURBINE/GENERATOR). TO 5. + EXTERNAL SYSTEMS READY FOR OPRN.6 HOURS PRIOR TO TURBINE START.2-0133 REF.2-0135 REF. POSITION OF VALVES ACCORDING TO SINGLE LINE DIAGRAMS OF SYSTEMS.2-0130 REF. RATE DURING HEATER OPERATION 1-2° K / HOUR START OF OPERATION OF RECONDITIONING AND HEATERS IN ACCORDANCE WITH INITIAL TEMPERATURE AND HEATING RATE.

2-0160 WARMED UP FULFILLED + GENERATOR BREAKER WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL) OR AUTOMATIC SYNCHRONISER + GENARATOR + TURBINE/GENERATOR REF.CONSOLE + VACUUM + SEAL STEAM PRESSURE + STATE OF OPERATION OF STEAM GENERATOR + STEAM GENERATOR + CRITERIA FOR BYPASS OPERATION + START OF BYPASS OPERATION + MAIN STEAM (MS) LINE WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL) OR MANUAL OPER. AT OPER. CONSOLE + SEAL SYSTEM SUPPLY WITH SLC (SEAL STEAM) OR MANUAL OPER. CONSOLE + TURBINE/GENERATOR SPEED + CRITERIA FOR SYNCHRONISING ON ON < P AMB > P AMB CHECK IN OPERATION FULFILLED OBSERVE WARM UP WARMED UP CHECK WARM UP SPEED UP REF.2-0112-00/2 REF. AT OPER. TO 5. AT OPER. TO 5.2-0210 .2-0160 ON LOAD REF.+ (06) (07) (08) (09) (10) (11) (12) (13) VACUUM PUMPS WITH FGA (CONDENSING PLANT) : OR WITH SLC(AIR REMOVAL) OR MANUAL OPER. AT OPER. TO 5. TO 5. AT OPER.2-0210 REF. TO 5. CONSOLE + MAIN STEAM (MS) LINE + CRITERIA FOR WARMING UP TURBINE + TURBINE WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL) OR MANUAL OPER.2-0160 3000 RPM FULFILLED SYNCHRONISED + LOADING CRITERIA FULFILLED 5.2-0150 REF. CONSOLE + TURBINE + CRITERIA FOR SPEEDING UP TURBINE/ GENERATOR + TURBINE/GENERATOR TO RATED SPEED WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL) OR MANUAL OPER. TO 5.

2-0020 (10) + + + + + + + + GENERATOR READY FOR OPERATION GENERATOR HYDROGEN SEAL OIL SYSTEM PRIMARY WATER SYSTEM OIL VAPOUN EXTRACTION SUBLOOP CONTROL OIL PL/MPS AND FANS IMPORTANT OPER.3-0061 OBSERVE REFER TO 5.Steam Turbine Preparation for Startup Operation Startup Diagram (01) - PRESERVATION DEVICES AIR DRYER CONNECTING FLANGES AIR OUTLET SOCKETS REMOVE REMOVED CLOSED CLOSED (02) - INSPECTION OPENINGS MAN-OR HANDHOLES IN .CONDENSER CLOSE (03) + + + + + + + + + VOLTAGE SUPPLY DRIVES REMOTE CONTROLS CONTROLS MEASURING DEVICES ALARM DEVICES SUPERVISORY EQUIPMENT PROTECTIVE DEVICES TESTING DEVICES (04) + LIGHT BULBS FOR PANEL AND ALARMS + DEFECTIVE LIGHT BULBS (05) + + + + MEASURING EQUIPMENT READY FOR OPERATION CHECK OF O-SETTING RECORDERS RECORDERS (06) + + + + + LIQUID LEVELS LEVEL OF CONDENSER LEVEL.CROSS AROUND PIPES .2-0113-00 . IN U-LOOPS LEVEL OF OIL TANK LEVEL OF CONTROL FIUID TANK (07) - FILTERS (08) + TEST PROGRAM (STANDSTILL) TESTING INTERVALS CARRY OUT REFER TO 5.2-0020 (09) + TEST PROGRAM (STARTUP) TESTING INTERVALS CARRY OUT REFER TO 5.LP TURBINE . VALUES GENERATOR LIQUID IN GENERATOR BHEL Hardwar SWITCH ON ENERGISED ENERGISED ENERGISED ENERGISED ENERGISED ENERGISED ENERGISED ENERGISED CHECK REPLACED CHECK CARRIED OUT SWITCHED ON TIME ADJUSTED CHECK NORMAL NORMAL NORMAL NORMAL CLEAN CHECK FILLED IN OPERATION IN OPERATION IN OPERATION ON NO ALARM NO ALARM 5.3-0030 OBSERVE REFER TO 5.

2-0120-00 .Steam Turbine Operating Position of Operation Manually Operated Valves Introduction = Most of the manually operated valves in a turbine generator unit have to be in a defined position prior to startup. = Permset Operational = = /FG = Mode-dependent (position varies with mode of operation. All that need then be checked is that the seals are undamaged. the position of which remains unchanged during operation be secured In position with lead seals. control valves) Position cannot be controlled manually (controlled by automatic functional group controls or by medium carried) 5.g. permanently set ready to opetate (e. cannot be classed as Open or Closed) . and this position must be checked before the unit goes into operation. The valves which are secured with lead seals must be identified in the check list. Symbols and definitions • - Measures for the setting of valves manually on location BHEL Hardwar • Operating positions Open Closed Mode-Dep. + manually on the local control console” manually in the control room” * for remote controlled valves only Lead Sealing of Valves It is recommended that all valves.

2-0130-02/1 .Steam Turbine Operation (01) + - Oil System and Turning Gear Startup Diagram SYSTEM READY FOR OPERATION MANUAL OPERATED VALVES )GENERAL) CHECK CHECKED AND IN POSITION OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED IN SERVICE IN SERVICE ADJUSTED ROOT VALVES IN IMPULSE PIPES VALVES AHEAD OF TRANSMITTERS VALVES BEFORE / AFTER PUMPS PERMANENT VENTS VENTS OF COOLERS VALVES IN FILLING LINES (PERMANENT) VALVES BEFORE / AFTER FANS IN SERVICE VALVES BEFORE/AFTER STAND BY FANS DRAIN VALVES OF COOLERS DRAIN V ALVES OF TANKS DRAIN VALVES OF FILTERS VALVES IN TEMPORARY V~NTS VENTS OF COOLERS (WATER SIDE) VENTS OF FILTERS VALVES IN TEMPORARY FILLING LINES V ALVES OF PRESSURE TEST CONNECTIONS VALVES IN SAMPLING LINES VALVES IN IMPULSE PIPES FOR TESTING MULTI WAY VALVES OF COOLERS MULTI WAY VALVES OF FILTERS THROTTLE VALVES IN VAPOUR LINES SPEC. BHEL Hardwar CHECKED AND IN POSITION ADJUSTED ADJUSTED CLOSED OPEN OPEN ADJUSTED READY FOR OPRN MAV22 APOO1 MAV23 APOO1 MAV24 APOO1 MAV31 AP 0 01 MAV32 APOO1 MAV33 APOO1 SWITCH ON SWITCH ON NORMAL ON OR OR READY FOR OPRN OR ON OR OR READY FOR OPRN OR ON MAV82 ANOO1 MAV82 AN002 MAV82 ANOO2 MAV82AN-OO1 MKO31 ANOO1 MKO32 ANOO1 MKO32 ANOO1 MKO31 ANOO1 ---------------------- 5. VALVES OF SYSTEM THROTTLE VALVES IN JACKING Oil LINES RELIEF VALVE OF JACKING Oil SYSTEM COOLING WATER VALVES OF STANDBY OIL COLER DRAIN OF OIL COOLER WATER SIDE FILLING LINE OF STANDBY OIL COOLER OIL SIDE VALVE POSITION OIL PURIFYING PL!ANT + OIL PUMPS OIL PUMPS ON MANUAL CONTROL OR OIL PUMPS ON SUBLOOP CONTROL OIL PRESSURES + OIL VAPOUR FAN (TURBINE) + OIL VAPOUR FAN (GENERATOR) + SUBLOOP CONTROL OIL VAPOUR FAN GEN. OPER. MAN.

ONE OUT OF TWO VAPOUR FANS OF THE TURBINE OIL TANK AND THE GENERATOR MUST BE IN OPERATION AS LONG AS THE GENERATOR IS FILLED WITH HYDROGEN. NO COLLECTION OF WATER AT THE BOTTOM OF THE OIL TANK. ONE OIL COOLER OIL SIDE - - CHECK OIL COOLER(S)IN SERVICE AT THE INDICATOR AT THE CHANGE-OVER VALVE(S).OIL LEVEL IN TANK COMPARE ACTUAL VALUES WITH STANDSTILL CONDITION VALUES OF OIL PUMPS. COOLING WATER”’FOR OIL:COOLER(S) OPERATION OF THE COOLING WATER SYSTEM ACCORDING TO SEPARATE INSTRUCTIONS NOT INCLUDED IN THE TURBINE MANUAL SERVICE O!L COOLER (WATER SIDE) IN SERVICE AVAILABLE FILLED MAV41 BCOO1 AND VENTED OR MAV41 BCOO2 VENTED DRAINED MAV41 BCOO1 AND DRIED OR MAV41 BCOO2 COOLING WATER PIPE STAND BY OIL COOLER WATER SIDE IF THE OIL COOLER IN STANDBY CAN NOT BE DRIED BY OIL FLOWING VIA THE FILLING AND THE VENT LINE.OIL FILTERS INCLUDING STANDBY FILTERS FILTER ELEMENTS CLEANED OR REPLACED OIL PROPERTIES OIL CLEAR. IT ALSO GETS ON/OFF COMMANDS FROM FGA ON FULFILLMENT OF CERTAIN CRITERIA . 5. - (02) + GENERATOR READY FOR OPERATION + MANUAL OPERATED VALVES GENERATOR REFER TO GENERATOR MANUAL + GENERATOR HYDROGEN + HYDROGEN PURITY + SEALL OIL PUMP AIR SIDE + STANDBY SEAL OIL PUMP AIRSIDE + SEAL OIL PUMP GAS SIDE THE DC SEAL OIL PUMP WILL ONLY BE OPERA TED IF THE AC POWER SUPPLY IS FAULTY + SUBLOOP CONTRSCOF SEAL OIL PPS. . THE SEAL OIL PLANT MUST ALSO BE IN OPERATION IF THE TURNING GEAR WILL BE OPERATED EVEN THE GENERATOR IS NOT FILLED WITH HYDROGEN. DO NOT ADJUST ANY INTERMEDIATE POSITION OF CHANGE-OVERVALVE. THE OIL COOLER IN STAND BY MUST BE EXPOSED TO THE FULL FLOW OF THE COOLING WATER ONCE WEEKLY TO PREVENT DEPOSITS CAUSING CORROSIVE ATTACKS TO THE MATERIAL + SLC OIL TEMPERATURE CONTROL THE OIL TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER CAN BE SWITCHED DN/OFF MANUALLY.2-0130-02/2 MAV41 BCOO1 OR MAV41 BC002 ON NORMAL MAV10 CL521 READY FOR OPRN NORMAL CHECK ADJUSTED FILLED > 95% MKG25 CQO01 ON MKW11 APOO1 OR MKW21 APOO1 OFF MKW21 APOO1 OR MKW11 APOO1 AND MKW31 APOO1 ON MKW13 APOO1 ON -------------------AND ------------------- .

+ SEAL OIL SYSTEM + LIQUID IN GENERATOR (O3) NO ALARM NO ALARM + CRITERIA FOR BEGIN OF START UP IF THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA ARE FULFILLED THE SYSTEM WILL BE STARTED UP FROM STANDSTILL + AUXILIARY OIL PUMP CHECK OFF + EMERGENCY OIL PUMP THE DC EMERGENCY OIL PUMP WILL OPERATE IF AC POWER SUPPLY FAILS + TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE AND + SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR + SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUX OIL PUMPS AND + SUBLOOP CONTROL EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS + JACKING OIL PUMPS (04) .2 KG/CM2 NOALARM NO ALARM NOT HIGH NOT LOW NOT INITIATED MAV22 APO01 MAV22 APO01 MAV23 APO01 MAV21 CPO01 MAV42 CPO01 MAV1O CLOO1 MAV42 CP013 MAV42 CPO14 MAV42 B1001 OPEN OPEN MAV51 AAO01 MAV51 AAOOl SWITCH ON ON MA V 51 EEOO1 MAV 51 EEO01 5.2-0130-02/3 . (05) ----------------AND MKA22 CLOO1 AND MKA23 CLOO1 AND MKA23 CL 011 OFF MAV22 APOO1 AND MAV23 APOO1 MAV24 APOO1 CLOSED MAV51 AAO01 OFF OFF MAV51 EEO01 MAV22 EEOO1 OFF OFF MAV24 EEO01 MAV31APOO1 AND MAV32 APOO1 AND MAV33 APO01 AND + SBULOOP CONTROL JACKING OIL PUMPS OFF MA V30 EEOO 1 AND MAV33 EEO01 + START + FGA OIL SYSTEM FOR OPERATION OF PUSH BUTTONS REFER TO MANUAL FOR THE FGA OR OIL SYSTEM MANUAL OPERATED START + AUXILIARY OIL PUMP SWITCH + AUXILIARY OIL PUMP ON MAV22 APO01 OR MAV23 APO01 ON MAV22 APO01 OR MAV23 APO01 OR WITH FGA OIL SUPPLY (05/S) + ’ (06) + + + + + AUXILIARY OIL PUMP 1 OR AUXILIARY OIL PUMP 1 AUXILIARY OIL PUMP 2 MANUAL OPERATION OIL PRESSURE LUB OIL PRESSURE OIL LEVEL IN TANK FILTER LUB OIL SYSTEM DIFERENTIAL PRESSURE ACROSS FILTER PRESSURE BEHIND FILTER LOCAL INDICATOR CHECK STAND BY FILTER BY LOCAL CHANGE OVER + TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE + TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL + SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR + SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR + OR WITH FGA (OIL SUPPLY) ON FAULTED ON > 5 KG/CM2 >1.

(09) + JACKING OIL PUMP SWITCH ON + JACKING OIL PUMP ON OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL 5.5 KG/CM2 MAV21 CP012 AC EMERGENCY Oil PUMP < 1.8 KG/CM2 MAV21 CPO11 AUXILIARY Oil PUMP 2 < 4. DO NOT SWITCH OFF SUBLOOP CONTROL AS LONG AS TURBINE IS IN OPERATION TO MAKE SURE TURNING GEAR CUTS IN IF TURBINE WILL BE SHUTDOWN. OR MAV32 APO01 MAV31 APOOl OR MAV32 APO01 .1 KG/CM2 MAV42 CP011 DC EMERGENCY OlL PUMP < 1. TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE (OPEN) TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE (CLOSED) TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE CLOSES DURING STARTUP AND OPENS WHEN THE TURBINE IS COASTING DOWN AFTER SHUTDOWN. SWITCH ON ON SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS AND ON ON + SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS ON THE SUBLOOP CONTROLS START THE AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS AND THE DC EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS DEPENDING ON PRESSURE.(06/S) + (7) ON MAV51 EEO01 ON < 210 RPM > 240 RPM + + TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE OIL LEVEL IN TANK OPEN MAV 51 AAO01 NO ALARM MAV 10 CLO01 + SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS AND SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY Oil PUMPS AND SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY Oil PUMPS OR WITH FGA (OIL SUPPLY) SWITCH ON + + + (07/S) *+ (08) SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR SUBLOOP CONTROL OPENS AND CLOSES THE TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE DEPENDING TURBINE/GENERATOR SPEED.1 KG/CM2 OR MAV42 CPO 12 SIMULTANEOUSLY ALARMS WILL BE ACTUATED. AUXILIARY Oil PUMP 1 < 4. + + + + + = SEAL OIL PRESSURE GENERATOR END SEAL OIL PRESSURE AIR SIDE TURBINE END SEAL OIL PRESSURE AIR SIDE EXCITER END SEAL OIL PRESSURE GAS SIDE TURBINE END SEAL OIL PRESSURE GAS SIDE EXCITER END SUBLOOP CONTROL OF SEAL OIL PUMPS THE SUBLOOP CONTROL OF THE SEAL OIL PUMPS CHECK > P MIN MKW71 CP511 > P MIN MKW71 CP521 > P MIN MKW73 CP511 < P MIN MKW73 CP521 ON START THE PUMPS DEPENDING ON SEL OIL PRESSURE. LUBRICATING OIL PRESSURE MAV 21 CP011 AND/OR LUBRICATING OIL MAV42 CP011 THE SUBLOOP CONTROLS OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS AND JACKING OIL PUMPS MUST NOT BE SWITCHED OFF UNTIL THE SHAFT STOPS COMPLETELY. P MIN ACCORDING TO ACTUAL H2 PRESSURE.2-0130-02/4 MAV31 APO01.

JACKING OIL PUMP 1 ON JACKING OIL PUMP 1 OFF SWITCH ON MA V30 EEOO1 AND MAV33 EEOO1 ON MAV30 EEOO1 AND MAV33 EEOO1 ON MAV30 EEO01 AND MAV33EEOO1 ON MAV31 APOO1 FAULTED MAV31 APO01 ON MAV32 APO01 OR MAV33 APO01 < 510 RPM > 540 RPM AND SUBLOOP CONTROL STARTS THE JACKING OIL PUMP 2 DEPENDING ON JACKING OIL PRESSURE 5.2-0130-02/5 .+ SUBLOOP CONTROL OF JACK1NG OIL PUMP + SUBLOOP CONTROL OF JACKING OIL PUMP OR WITH FGA(OIL SUPPLY) (09/S)*+ SUBLOOP CO~TROL OF JACKING OIL PUMP + JACKING OIL PUMP OR JACKING OIL PUMP + JACKING OIL PUMP MANUAL OPERATION SUBLOOP CONTROL STARTS AND STOPS THE JACKING Oil PUMP 1 DEPENDING ON TURBINE/GENERATOR SPEED CRITERIA.

ONE OUT OF TWO VAPOUR FANS OF THE BHEL Hardwar CHECKED AND IN POSITION ADJUSTED ADJUSTED CLOSED OPEN OPEN ADJUSTED READY FOR OPRN MAV22 APOO1 MAV23 APOO1 MAV24 APOO1 MAV31 AP 0 01 MAV33 APOO1 SWITCH ON SWITCH ON NORMAL ON OR OR READY FOR OPRN OR ON OR OR READY FOR OPRN OR ON MAV82 ANOO1 MAV82 AN002 MAV82 ANOO2 MAV82AN-OO1 MKO31 ANOO1 MKO32 ANOO1 MKO32 ANOO1 MKO31 ANOO1 ---------------------- 5.Steam Turbine Operation (01) + - Oil System and Turning Gear Startup Diagram SYSTEM READY FOR OPERATION MANUAL OPERATED VALVES )GENERAL) CHECK CHECKED AND IN POSITION OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED IN SERVICE IN SERVICE ADJUSTED ROOT VALVES IN IMPULSE PIPES VALVES AHEAD OF TRANSMITTERS VALVES BEFORE / AFTER PUMPS PERMANENT VENTS VENTS OF COOLERS VALVES IN FILLING LINES (PERMANENT) VALVES BEFORE / AFTER FANS IN SERVICE VALVES BEFORE/AFTER STAND BY FANS DRAIN VALVES OF COOLERS DRAIN V ALVES OF TANKS DRAIN VALVES OF FILTERS VALVES IN TEMPORARY V~NTS VENTS OF COOLERS (WATER SIDE) VENTS OF FILTERS VALVES IN TEMPORARY FILLING LINES V ALVES OF PRESSURE TEST CONNECTIONS VALVES IN SAMPLING LINES VALVES IN IMPULSE PIPES FOR TESTING MULTI WAY VALVES OF COOLERS MULTI WAY VALVES OF FILTERS THROTTLE VALVES IN VAPOUR LINES SPEC. OPER. MAN.2-0130-51/1 . VALVES OF SYSTEM THROTTLE VALVES IN JACKING Oil LINES RELIEF VALVE OF JACKING Oil SYSTEM COOLING WATER VALVES OF STANDBY OIL COLER DRAIN OF OIL COOLER WATER SIDE FILLING LINE OF STANDBY OIL COOLER OIL SIDE VALVE POSITION OIL PURIFYING PL!ANT + OIL PUMPS OIL PUMPS ON MANUAL CONTROL OR OIL PUMPS ON SUBLOOP CONTROL OIL PRESSURES + OIL VAPOUR FAN (TURBINE) + OIL VAPOUR FAN (GENERATOR) + SUBLOOP CONTROL OIL VAPOUR FAN GEN.

OIL FILTERS INCLUDING STANDBY FILTERS FILTER ELEMENTS CLEANED OR REPLACED OIL PROPERTIES OIL CLEAR. COOLING WATER”’FOR OIL:COOLER(S) OPERATION OF THE COOLING WATER SYSTEM ACCORDING TO SEPARATE INSTRUCTIONS NOT INCLUDED IN THE TURBINE MANUAL SERVICE O!L COOLER (WATER SIDE) IN SERVICE AVAILABLE FILLED MAV41 BCOO1 AND VENTED OR MAV41 BCOO2 VENTED DRAINED MAV41 BCOO1 AND DRIED OR MAV41 BCOO2 COOLING WATER PIPE STAND BY OIL COOLER WATER SIDE IF THE OIL COOLER IN STANDBY CAN NOT BE DRIED BY OIL FLOWING VIA THE FILLING AND THE VENT LINE.2-0130-51/2 MAV41 BCOO1 OR MAV41 BC002 ON NORMAL MAV10 CL521 READY FOR OPRN NORMAL CHECK ADJUSTED FILLED > 95% MKG25 CQO01 ON MKW11 APOO1 OR MKW21 APOO1 OFF MKW21 APOO1 OR MKW11 APOO1 AND MKW31 APOO1 ON MKW13 APOO1 ON -------------------AND ------------------- . - (02) + GENERATOR READY FOR OPERATION + MANUAL OPERATED VALVES GENERATOR REFER TO GENERATOR MANUAL + GENERATOR HYDROGEN + HYDROGEN PURITY + SEAL OIL PUMP AIR SIDE + STANDBY SEAL OIL PUMP AIRSIDE + SEAL OIL PUMP GAS SIDE THE DC SEAL OIL PUMP WILL ONLY BE OPERA TED IF THE AC POWER SUPPLY IS FAULTY + SUBLOOP CONTRSCOF SEAL OIL PPS.TURBINE OIL TANK AND THE GENERATOR MUST BE IN OPERATION AS LONG AS THE GENERATOR IS FILLED WITH HYDROGEN. ONE OIL COOLER OIL SIDE - - CHECK OIL COOLER(S)IN SERVICE AT THE INDICATOR AT THE CHANGE-OVER VALVE(S). THE OIL COOLER IN STAND BY MUST BE EXPOSED TO THE FULL FLOW OF THE COOLING WATER ONCE WEEKLY TO PREVENT DEPOSITS CAUSING CORROSIVE ATTACKS TO THE MATERIAL + SLC OIL TEMPERATURE CONTROL THE OIL TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER CAN BE SWITCHED DN/OFF MANUALLY. NO COLLECTION OF WATER AT THE BOTTOM OF THE OIL TANK. DO NOT ADJUST ANY INTERMEDIATE POSITION OF CHANGE-OVERVALVE. 5. . THE SEAL OIL PLANT MUST ALSO BE IN OPERATION IF THE TURNING GEAR WILL BE OPERATED EVEN THE GENERATOR IS NOT FILLED WITH HYDROGEN. IT ALSO GETS ON/OFF COMMANDS FROM FGA ON FULFILLMENT OF CERTAIN CRITERIA .OIL LEVEL IN TANK COMPARE ACTUAL VALUES WITH STANDSTILL CONDITION VALUES OF OIL PUMPS.

2 KG/CM2 NOALARM NO ALARM NOT HIGH NOT LOW NOT INITIATED MAV22 APO01 MAV22 APO01 MAV23 APO01 MAV21 CP901 MAV42 CP901 MAV1O CLOO1 MAV42 CP013 MAV42 CPO14 MAV42 B1001 OPEN OPEN MAV51 AAO01 MAV51 AAOOl SWITCH ON ON MA V 51 EEOO1 MAV 51 EEO01 5.+ SEAL OIL SYSTEM + LIQUID IN GENERATOR (O3) NO ALARM NO ALARM + CRITERIA FOR BEGIN OF START UP IF THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA ARE FULFILLED THE SYSTEM WILL BE STARTED UP FROM STANDSTILL + AUXILIARY OIL PUMP CHECK OFF + EMERGENCY OIL PUMP THE DC EMERGENCY OIL PUMP WILL OPERATE IF AC POWER SUPPLY FAILS + TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE AND + SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR + SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUX OIL PUMPS AND + SUBLOOP CONTROL EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS + JACKING OIL PUMPS (04) . (05) ----------------AND MKA22 CLOO1 AND MKA23 CLOO1 AND MKA23 CL 011 OFF MAV22 APOO1 AND MAV23 APOO1 MAV24 APOO1 CLOSED MAV51 AAO01 OFF OFF MAV51 EEO01 MAV22 EEOO1 OFF OFF MAV24 EEO01 MAV31APOO1 AND MAV33 APO01 AND + SBULOOP CONTROL JACKING OIL PUMPS OFF MA V30 EEOO 1 AND MAV33 EEO01 + START + FGA OIL SYSTEM FOR OPERATION OF PUSH BUTTONS REFER TO MANUAL FOR THE FGA OR OIL SYSTEM MANUAL OPERATED START + AUXILIARY OIL PUMP SWITCH + AUXILIARY OIL PUMP ON MAV22 APO01 OR MAV23 APO01 ON MAV22 APO01 OR MAV23 APO01 OR WITH FGA OIL SUPPLY (05/S) + ’ (06) + + + + + AUXILIARY OIL PUMP 1 OR AUXILIARY OIL PUMP 1 AUXILIARY OIL PUMP 2 MANUAL OPERATION OIL PRESSURE LUB OIL PRESSURE OIL LEVEL IN TANK FILTER LUB OIL SYSTEM DIFERENTIAL PRESSURE ACROSS FILTER PRESSURE BEHIND FILTER LOCAL INDICATOR CHECK STAND BY FILTER BY LOCAL CHANGE OVER + TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE + TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL + SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR + SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR + OR WITH FGA (OIL SUPPLY) ON FAULTED ON > 5 KG/CM2 >1.2-0130-51/3 .

P MIN ACCORDING TO ACTUAL H2 PRESSURE. LUBRICATING OIL PRESSURE MAV 21 CP901 AND/OR LUBRICATING OIL MAV42 CP901 THE SUBLOOP CONTROLS OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS AND JACKING OIL PUMPS MUST NOT BE SWITCHED OFF UNTIL THE SHAFT STOPS COMPLETELY.1 KG/CM2 OR MAV42 CPO 12 SIMULTANEOUSLY ALARMS WILL BE ACTUATED. TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE (OPEN) TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE (CLOSED) TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE CLOSES DURING STARTUP AND OPENS WHEN THE TURBINE IS COASTING DOWN AFTER SHUTDOWN. + + + + + = SEAL OIL PRESSURE GENERATOR END SEAL OIL PRESSURE AIR SIDE TURBINE END SEAL OIL PRESSURE AIR SIDE EXCITER END SEAL OIL PRESSURE GAS SIDE TURBINE END SEAL OIL PRESSURE GAS SIDE EXCITER END SUBLOOP CONTROL OF SEAL OIL PUMPS THE SUBLOOP CONTROL OF THE SEAL OIL PUMPS CHECK > P MIN MKW71 CP511 > P MIN MKW71 CP521 > P MIN MKW73 CP511 < P MIN MKW73 CP521 ON START THE PUMPS DEPENDING ON SEL OIL PRESSURE.5 KG/CM2 MAV21 CP901 DC EMERGENCY OlL PUMP < 1. DO NOT SWITCH OFF SUBLOOP CONTROL AS LONG AS TURBINE IS IN OPERATION TO MAKE SURE TURNING GEAR CUTS IN IF TURBINE WILL BE SHUTDOWN.(06/S) + (7) ON MAV51 EEO01 ON < 210 RPM > 240 RPM + + TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE OIL LEVEL IN TANK OPEN MAV 51 AAO01 NO ALARM MAV 10 CLO01 + SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS AND SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY Oil PUMPS AND SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY Oil PUMPS OR WITH FGA (OIL SUPPLY) SWITCH ON + + + (07/S) *+ (08) SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR SUBLOOP CONTROL OPENS AND CLOSES THE TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE DEPENDING TURBINE/GENERATOR SPEED.2-0130-51/4 ON ON MAV31 APO01 MAV31 APO01 .8 KG/CM2 MAV21 CP901 AUXILIARY Oil PUMP 2 < 4. (09) + JACKING OIL PUMP SWITCH + JACKING OIL PUMP OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL 5. SWITCH ON ON SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS AND ON ON + SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS ON THE SUBLOOP CONTROLS START THE AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS AND THE DC EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS DEPENDING ON PRESSURE. AUXILIARY Oil PUMP 1 < 4.

2-0130-51/5 . JACKING OIL PUMP 1 ON JACKING OIL PUMP 1 OFF < 510 RPM > 540 RPM AND SUBLOOP CONTROL STARTS THE JACKING OIL PUMP 2 DEPENDING ON JACKING OIL PRESSURE 5.+ SUBLOOP CONTROL OF JACK1NG OIL PUMP + SUBLOOP CONTROL OF JACKING OIL PUMP 3 SWITCH ON AND ON MA V31 EEOO1 MAV33 EEOO1 MAV33 EEOO1 OR WITH FGA(OIL SUPPLY) (09/S)*+ SUBLOOP CO~TROL OF JACKING OIL PUMP + JACKING OIL PUMP OR JACKING OIL PUMP + JACKING OIL PUMP MANUAL OPERATION ON AND ON FAULTED ON MAV30 EEO01 MAV33EEOO1 MAV31 APOO1 MAV31 APO01 MAV33 APO01 SUBLOOP CONTROL STARTS AND STOPS THE JACKING Oil PUMP 1 DEPENDING ON TURBINE/GENERATOR SPEED CRITERIA.

2-0140-02/1 .PIPES OPEN VALVES BEHIND VACUUM BREAKER OPEN LEVEL OF CONDENSER NORMAL LEVEL IN U-LOOPS NORMAL U-LOOPS FILLED BY MEANS OF FILLING VALVES SET-POINT SEAL STEAM CONTROLLER >P AMB FIX SETTING BHEL Haridwar 5.OPER.(01) + Steam Turbine Condensing Plant Operation Startup Diagram SYSTEM READY FOR OPERATION MANUAL OPERATED VALVES (GENERAL) ROOT VALVES IN IMPULSE PIPES VALVES AHEAD OF TRANSMITTERS PERMANENT VENTS VALVES IN FILING-LINES (PERMANENT) VALVES BEF/BEH FANS IN SERVICE VALVES BEF/BEH STANDBY FANS ISOLATING VALVES BEF/BEH CONTROL VALVES VALVES IN TEMPERARY VENTS VALVES IN TEMPERARY FILING LINES VALVES IN BYPASS LINES VALVES OF PRESSURE-TEST CONNECTIONS VALVES IN SAMPLING LINES VALVES IN IMPULSE-PIPES FOR TESTING VALVES IN DRAIN-LINES - + CHECK CHECKED AND IN POSITION OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN CLOSED OPEN CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED SPEC.MAN.OF SYSTEM CHECKED AND IN POSITION VALVE AHEAD OF SEAL-STEAM CONDENSER OPEN VALVE IN SEAL STEAM LINE TO ATMOSPHERE CLOSED ISOLATING VALVES BEF/BEH SEAL STEAM SUPPLY LINE OPEN BYPASS VALVE OF SEAL STEAM SUPPLY LINE CLOSED BYPASS VALVE OF SEAL STEAM LEAK-OFF VALVE CLOSED THROTTLE VALVES IN VAPOUR LINES ADJUSTED VALVES IN AIR SUCTION LINES OPEN ISOLATING VALVES IN AIR SUCTION LINES CLOSED VALVES IN AIR SUCTION LINES OPEN FROM AIRCOOLER OF CONDENSER VALVES IN SEALING WATER-LINES OPEN FOR VACUUM VALVES VALVES IN SEALING WATER-LINES OPEN FOR VACUUM BREAKER VALVES IN SPRAY-WATER-LINES OPEN FOR STAND.VVLS .

0130 REF TO S.2. TURNING GEAR CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM + + + + + + + 5.2-0140-02/2 CHECK AVAILABLE DRAIN OF SEAL STEAM HEADER SEAL STEAM CONTROL AND WARM UP VALVE SEAL STEAM AND VACUUM BREAKER AND SEAL STEAM EXHAUST FAN VACUUM PUMPS AIR SUCT-VALVE PUMP IN OPERATION READY FOR OPERATION AVAILABLE CHECK IN OPERATION IN OPERATION CLOSED OFF CLOSED CLOSED OFF AND OFF CLOSED REF TO S. TO SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS + AUX. SYSTEM DO NOT BELONG TO THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY<TURBINE/GENERATOR> POSITION OF VALVES AHEAD OF .0135 MAL81AA001 MAW11AA001 MAW10AA001 MAW80AN002 .SEAL STEAM SUPPLY VALVE ACCORDING TO SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM IF APPLICABLE REFER TO SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS + CRITERIA FOR BEGIN OF START UP IF THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA ARE FULFILLED THE SYSTEM WILL BE STARTED-UP FROM < STANDSTILL> . SYSTEM FOR SHAFT SEALS THE AUX.2.(02) + + - + - (03) EXT SYSTEMS READY FOR OPERATION CIRCULATING WATER OF CONDENSER CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM DOES NOT BELONG TO THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY<TURBINE/GENERATOR> SPECIAL INSTRUCTION FOR CIRCULATING WATER PUMPS VENTING OF THE CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM MUST AGREE WITH TURBINEOPERATING AND HAVE TO BE FOLLOWED NOTEMAXIMUM CIRCULATING WATER SPEED IN CONDENSER TUBES MUST NOT BE EXCEEDED CONDENSING SYSTEM THE CONDENSATE SYSTEM DOES NOT BELONG TO THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY<TURBINE/GENERATOR> SPECIAL INSTRUCTION FOR CONDENSING PUMPS CONDENSER LEVEL CONTROL MINIMUM FLOW CONTROL HEATER MUST AGREE WITH TURBINEOPERATING AND HAVE TO BE FOLLOWED + VACUUM PUMPS THE VACUUM PUMPS DO NOT BELONG TO THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY<TURBINE/GENERATOR> OPERATIONAL READINESS ACC.

VALVE(S) <CLOSEQ> STEAM-TEMP. <SEAL-STEAM> BY STEAM FLOW THROUGH THE WARM-UP VALVE THE STEAMTEMPERATURE UPSTREAM OFTHE SEAL-STEAM SUPPLY VALVE WILL BE INCREASED UNTIL THE REQUIRED TEMPERATURE WILL BE REACHED. <SEAL-STEAM> + WARM-UP CONTR.7 BAR 5. THE SEAL STEAM SUPPLY VALVE MUST NOT BE OPENED UNTIL THE TEMPERATURE CRITERIA IS FULFILLED AND A MINIMUM VACUUM IS REACHED IN THE CONDENSER. <SEAL-STEAM> SLC <SEAL-STEAM SLC=SUBLOOP CONTROL (06/S)*+ SEAL STEAM EXHAUST FAN MALOOEEO01 MAL81AA011 MAW80ANO01 OR MAW80AN001 MAW80ANO01 OR MAW80ANO02 SWITCH ON ON OPEN OPEN SWITCH ON ON ON OR MAW11AA011 MAW11AA011 MAW80ANO01 MAW80ANO02 AND (06/S)*+ SEAL-STEAM CONTROL AND (06/S)*+ WARM-UP CONTR. CRITERIA FOR OPENING THE SEAL STEAM SUPPLY VALVE STEAM-TEMPERATURE VACUUM ON ON > 220 CEL < 0.(04) (05) (06) + DRAIN OF SEAL STEAM HEADER + DRAIN OF SEAL STEAM HEADER OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL + SUBLOOP CONTROL DRAINS + DRAIN OF SEAL STEAM HEADER POSITION OF DRAIN VALVE(S) DEPENDING ON TEMPERATURE CRITERIA IN HEADER VALVE(S) <OPEN> STEAM-TEMP. + AIR SUCTION EQUIPMENT AND + SHAFT SEAL STEAM SUPPLY OR WITH FGA <CONDENSING PLANT> + FGA <CONDENSING PLANT> OPERATION OF PUSH BUTTONS REFER TO MANUAL FOR THE FGA. FGA=FUNCTIONAL GROUP AUTOMATIC OPEN OPEN MALe-1AA011 MAL81AA011 SWITCH ON OPEN < 120 CEL >150 CEL START START START + SEAL STEAM EXHAUST FAN SWITCH ON + SEAL STEAM EXHAUST FAN ON AND + SEAL-STEAM CONTROL + SEAL-STEAM CONTROL AND + WARM-UP VALVE SEAL STEAM + WARM-UP VALVE SEAL STEAM + WARM-UP CONTR.2-0140-02/3 .

\CCORDING TO SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS.2-0140-02/4 ON CFF MAW11AAO01 MAW20CPO01 . FOR AIR REMOVAL PRIOR TO AND DURING OPERATION . OPERATION OF PUMPS AND VALVES ‘.(07) + VACUUM-PUMPS THE VACUUM PUMPS DO NOT BELONG TO THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY OF THE <TURBINE/GENERA TOR>. STANDBY VACUUM PUMPS 5. OBSERVE >P AMB < 0. IOPERATION OF PUMPS AND VALVES FOR AIR REMOVAL PRIOR TO AND DURING OPERATION REFER TO PLANT-MANUAL + VACUUM-PUMPS SWITCH ON ON AND (08) + AIR-SUCT -VALVE VACUUM PUMP + AIR-SUCT-VALVE VACUUM PUMP (08/S)*+ + VACUUM MAJ60ANO01 MAJ70ANO01 MAG10CPO01 + TEMP.7 BAR (09) * + VACUUM PUMP MAJ60ANO01 MAJ70ANO01 VACUUM + VACUUM PUMP OPERATION CHANGE IN OPERATION OF VACUUMPUMPS SERVES THE PURPOSE TO HAVE ALL VACUUM PUMPS IN OPERATION WHICH ARE NECESSARY TO REMOVE AIR AND GAS FROM THE CONDENSER DURINGOPERATION. . SUPPLY VLV > 220 CEL MAW10CTO01 OPENINGOFSEAL-STEAMSUPPLYVLV + SEAL STEAM PRESSURE + (10) OPEN OPEN ON AND < 0. AHEAD OF SEAL-ST.15 BAR CHANGEOVER GENERAL OUTLINE: + SERVICE VACUUM PUMP AND + STARTUP A. OBSERVE ALL CRITERIA INVOLVING VACUUM PUMP-OPERATION.

SYSTEM READY FOR OPERATION INTERNAL SYSTEMS = SYSTEMS WITHIN THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY OFTHETUR8JNE/GENERATOR. + HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SWITCH THE H’(DRAULIC PRESSURE SWITCH MUST ONLY BE BLOCKED FOR THE PURPOSE OF TESTING. THE SETPOINT HAS TO BE RAISED DURING STARTUP TO MEETTHE DESIGN-VALUE FOR MINIMUM LOAD OF THE STEAMGENERATOR. TO LIST OF VALVE-POSITION Bypass-System Start of Operation CHECK CHECKED AND IN POSITION + BYPASS-CONTROLLER ON + BYPASS-CONTROLLER + FIXPRESSUREREFERENCEVALUE THE SETTING OF THE FIX PRESSURE REFERENCE VALUE DEPENDS ON THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE STEAM-GENERATOR F.2-0150-00/1 .MANUAL OPERATED VALVES ACCORD.. SYSTEM READY F.Steam Turbine Description (01) + SYSTEM READY FOR OPERATION . OPERATION EXTERNAL SYSTEMS = SYSTEMS BEYOND THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY OF THE TURBINE/GENERATOR + CIRCULATING WATER OF CONDENSER KG/CM2 .. FIX PRESSURE REFERENCE VALUE AS DESIGNED. (02) + EXT. THE SYSTEM FLOW THROUGH THEREHEATER. BHEL Hardwar < 0.6 KG/CM2 CHECK 5.KG/CM2 DELOCKED CHECK AVAILABLE + CONDENSATE PUMPS IN OPERATION + VACUUM-PUMPS IN OPERATION + VACUUM (03) NOT FAULTED + INT.E.

VALUE RELATION = 1 + START OF BYPASS-OPERATION BYPASS OPERATION STARTS IF THE STEAM PRESSURE UPSTREAM OF THE BYPASS VALVE MEETS THE PRESS-REFERENCE VALUE.6 KG/CM2 CHECK + STEAM-GENERATOR IN OPERATION + REHEAT PRESSURE/FIX PRESS.0 KG/CM2 + REHEATPRESSURE/FIXPRESS.0.6 KG/CM2 < 9. STEAMGENERATOR < 0. * + BYPASS STOP VALVE OBSERVE OPENS AND * + SPRAY WATER VALVES (STAGE 1) DESIGNATLON OF THE SPRAY. VALUE RELATION < 1 + CRITERIA FOR BEGIN OF STARTUP CHECK + BYPASS STOP VALVE CLOSED MAN11AAO01 AND MAN12AAO01 + BYPASS CONTROL VALVE CLOSED AND + HYDR. REF. WATER VALVES ACCORDING TO SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM.+ Oil SYSTEM IN OPERATION + TURNING GEAR IN OPERATION + CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM IN OPERATION + VACUUM-PUMPS IN OPERATION + VACUUM (04) (05) (06) + STATE OF OPERAT.2-0150-00/2 MAN11AAO02 MAN12AAO02 MAN11AAO01 MAN12AAO01 MAN11AAO02 MAN12AAO02 NOT INITIATED > 0. KG/CM2 + SP RAY WATER PRESSURE < 1. OPEN * + BYPASS CONTROL VALVE OPENS AND + INTERLOCKS OF BYPASS-CONTROLS THE BYPASS-CONTROL AND STOP VALVES CLOSE IF THE FOLLOWING CRITERIAARE FULFILLED: VACUUM SPRAYWATERPRESSURE 5.5 KG/CM2 . SIGNAL OF BYPASS CONTROL < 1. REF.

(07) + LIFT OF BYPASS-CONTROL-VALVES 100% + FIXPRESSURE REFERENCE VALUE SETHIGHER + FIXPRESSURE REFERENCE VALVE HIGHER + LIFT OF BYPASS-CONTROL-VALVES THIS CASE CAN OCCUR IF THE FIXPRESSURE REFERENCE VALUE HAS BEEN REDUCED BELOW THE DESIGN VALUE DURING STARTUP.+ LIMIT VALUE OF STEAM FLOW NOT INITIATED THE LIFT OF THE BYPASSCONTROL VALVES WILL BE LIMITED. .2-0150-00/3 . IF THE LIMIT PRESSURE IS REACHED THE BYPASS-CONTROL VALVE CLOSE. < 100% 5.

REFER TO 5.(01) Steam Turbine Warm up and Startup of Turbine Operation Startup Diagram + TURBINE READY FOR STARTUP AND + MAIN STEAM LINES READY FOR WARMUP + MANUAL OPERATED VALVES (POSITION ACCORDING TO LINE DIAGRAM) TEST VALVES OF STOP VALVES HYDRAULIC VALVES OF EXTRACTION NRV + ELECTROHYDRAULIC TURBINE CONTROL + ELECTROHYDRAULIC TURBINE CONTROL + SPEED REFERENCE VALUE NORMALLY THE TURBINE WILL BE CONTROLLED BY THE ELECTROHYDRAULIC CONTROLLER. NO ALARM MAY10 AAO01 AND MAY10 AAO02 > 20 % NO ALARM NO ALARM < 90°C OR IP TURBINE FRONT TOP/BOTTOM < 30°C OR IP TURBINE REAR TOP/BOTTOM < 30°C MAA50 CT051 AND MAA50 CT052 MAB50 CT0 43 AND MAB50 CT044 MAB50 CT06 1 AND MAB50 CT062 CASING DIFFERENTIAL TEMPERATURES DETERMINE THE DISTORTION OF THE TURBINE CASINGS (02) + GENERATOR READY FOR OPERATION ALL REQUIREMENTS AS PER GENERATOR MANUAL FULFILLED BEFORE STARTUP + GENERATOR BREAKER + EXCITATION BREAKER + SEAL OIL PLANT + H2 PRESSURE + HYDROGEN PURITY + H2 TEMPEARTURE CONTROL BHEL Hardwar CHECK OFF OFF IN OPERATION P DESIGN > 95% ON MKG25 CPO03 MKG25 CQO01 5.1-011. APPLIES TO ALL MODES OF OPERATION + TRIPPING DEVICE TURBINE PROTECTION OVERSPEED TRIP IF STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE + ELECTRICAL TRIP + CASING DIFFERENTIAL TEMPERATURES HP TURBINE CENTER TOP/BOTTOM CHECK CHECK OPEN. REF 5.2-0180 FOR CHANGE OVER TO AND OPERATION OF HYDRAULIC GOVERNOR + STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE + SPEED SETTER HYDRAULIC GOVERNOR + TURBINE STRESS EVALUATOR/CONTROLLER (TSE/TSC) + TSE/TSC TSE/TSC TEST POSITIVE NO ALARM . OPEN OPEN ON NOT FAULTED < N TURN GEAR 0% 100 % ON NOT FAULTED MAX47 BYOO1 MAX46 BYOO1 ON REFER TO 5.2-0430 IF TSE/TSC ALLOWANCE IS REDUCED.NO FAULT INDICATOR ILLUMINATED NO UNREASONABLE POSITION OF DISCS + TSE/TSC INFLUENCE ALWAYS EXEMPTION: TSE/TSC FAULTY CHANGE OVER WHEN DISTURBED.2-0160-02/1 .2-0430 REFER TO 5. IF THE TSE/TSC IS FAULTED THE DIFFERENTIAL TEMPERATURE AT THE MEASURING POINTS WHICH REPRESENT THE THERMAL STRESSES OF CASING AND ROTOR MUST BE EVALUATED.

+ H2 TEMPERATURE CONTROL + PRIMARY WATER PUMP + STANDBY PRIMARY WATER PUMP + + + + + PRIMARY WATER PRESSURE SUBLOOP CONTROL PRIMARY WATER PUMPS PRIMARY WATER CONDUCTIVITY PRIMARY WATER TEMPERATATUREV CONTROL PRIMARY WATER TEMPERATURE CONTROL THE CRITERIA FOR THE GENERATOR HAVE TO BE FULFILLED FOR ALL MODES OF OPERATION WHICH CAN OCCURR.5 MYS/CM ON NOT FAULTED MKF12 CPOOl MKF35 COOOl OPEN AND + DRAIN HP OUTER CASING CRITERION: TEMPERATURE HP TURBINE OR + DRAIN HP OUTER CASING CLOSED CRITERION: TEMPERATURE HP TURBINE + DRAIN AHEAD OF SWING CHECK CRH NRV CRITERION: CRH NRV + DRAIN BEFORE IP CONTROL VALVE OPEN < 300 °C MAL22 AAOll > 320 °C OPEN CLOSED OPEN MAL65 AAOll AND + DRAIN DOWN STREAM IP CONTROL VALVE OPEN AND CRITERION: VALVE CASING TEMPERATURE MINUS SATURATION TEMPERATURE OF STEAM OR + DRAIN BEFORE IP CONTROL VALVE MAL11AA011 MAL AA011 MAL22 AAOll MAL26 AAOll MAL27 AAOll MAL31 AAOll MAL32 AAOll <-20 °C CLOSED MAL26 AA011 MAL27 AAOll MAL31 AAO 11 AND MAL32 AAOll AND + DRAIN DOWN STREAM IP CONTROL VALVE MINUS SATURATION TEMPERATURE OF STEAM CRITERION: EXTRACTION VALVE (05) + CRITERIA FOR BEGIN OF START UP IF ALL CRITERIA AS LISTED BELOW ARE FULFILLED THE TURBINE/GENERATOR WILL BE STARTED FROM -TURNING GEAR -STOP VALVES + MAIN STEAM STOP VALVES CLOSED > 50 °C ‘ CLOSED CHECK IN OPERATION CLOSED CLOSED + REHEAT STOP VALVES CLOSED + HP CONTROL VALVES CLOSED + IP CONTROL VALVES CLOSED + SWING CHECK VALVE COLD REHEAT L4NE CLOSED + EXTRACTION VALVE CLOSED (06) + DRAINS AHEAD OF MS/RH STOP VALVES CHECK (07. + DRAIN UPSTREAM OF MCV NOT FAULTED ON OFF MKF12 APO01 OR MKF22 APO01 MKF22 APO01 OR MKF12 APO01 > P MIN ON < 1.2-0160-02/2 START MAA10 AAOOl AND MAA20 AAOO 1 MAB10 AAOOl AND MAB20 AAOOl MAA 10 AAO02 AND MAA20 AAO02 MAB 10 AAO02 AND MAB20 AAO02 LBC10 AAOOl .) + PREWARMING OF TURBINE OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL) PROGRAMME (STARTUP) START 5.

LEADING PARAMETER IS THE TEMPERATURE ALLOWANCE OF THE TSE/TSC CHANNEL (ADMISSION).YO01 MAX47 BYO01 MAX47 BYOO 1 MAB10 AAO01 WAIT WARM UP PROCEDURE WILL BE GUlDED BY THE WARM.UP CONTROL OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL) (14/S) + SLC WARMUP CONTROL TRACKING DEVICE (15) + STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL) (15/S)+ STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE + STARTING AND LOAQ. CRITERIA INCLUDED IN THE FGA PROGRAMME HA VE BEEN FULFILLED (11) + STATE OF OPERATION OF STEAM GENERATOR + STEAM GENERATOR IN OPERATION (12) + STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE OR WITH OF FGA (TURBINE CONTROL) (12/S) + STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE + MAIN STEAM STOP VALVES (13) + SLC WARM.UP CONTROL IS DISTURBED OR NOT IN 5. THE DRAINS OF THE CONTROL VAL VES WILL BE OPENED AND CLOSED DEPENDING ON THE MAGNITUDE OF TSC ALLOWANCE.0170 < 100 °C CHECK SET HIGHER MAX47 BYO01 SET HIGHER > 42% OPEN MAX47 BYO01 MAX47 BYO01 MAA10 AAO01 MAA20 AAO01 + STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA + STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA FOR CRITERIA REFER STEP (10) (14) (16) CHECK FULFILLED FULFILLED MAL11 AA011 AND MAL12 AA01 1.ON SET HIGHER + RAISE > 56 % OPEN MAX4B.2. CHECK FULFILLED SWITCH ON. LIMIT DEVICE + REHEAT STOP VALVES REFER TO 5.UP CONTROL. OFF OFF DRAIN AHEAD OF HP CONTROL VALVES CLOSED MAL11 AA011 MAL AA011 MAL11 AA011 AND MAL12 AA01 1 AND + DRAIN AHEAD OF HP CCNTROL VALVES CLOSED OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL) DRAIN AHEAD OF HP CONTROL VALVES CLOSED (09/S)*+ (10) + STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA + MAIN STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA + REHEAT STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA OR + MAIN STEAM VALVE TEMPERATURE RELEASE OF STEP(05) OF THE FGA (TURBINE CONTROL) OCCURS AFTER THE SLIDING TEMP.2-0170 REFER TO 5.OPERATION OF PUSH BUTTONS REFER TO MANUAL FOR THE FGA (08) + SLC WARM-UP CONTROL + SLC WARM-UP CONTROL OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL) (08/S) + WARM-UP CONTROL (09) + SWITCH OFF.2-0160-02/3 . IF THE WARM. SWITCHED ON SWITCHED .

OPERATION OPERATE DRAIN VALVES OF THE HP CONTROL VALVES MANUALLY. REFER 5.L. 5.2-0170 FIG. OPEN ON INCREASING TSE/TSC ALLOWANCE. CRITERIA INCLUDED IN THE FGA PRO(1RAMME HAVE BEEN FULFILLED CHECK FULFILLED FULFILLED (19) + LOAD REFERENCE VALUE + LOAD REFERENCE VALUE (20) + SPEED REFERENCE VALUE + SPEED REFERENCE VALUE THE WARMUP SPEED’MUST NOT EXCEED THE MINIMUM SPEED OF THE BARRED SPEED RANGE IN ORDER TO AVOID OPERATION IN RANGES WHERE NATURAL FREQUENCY OF FREE STANDING LP BLADES IS TO BE EXPECTED. THE SPEED WILL BE REDUCED IF THE TSE/TSC ALLOWANCE IS REDUCED TO ZERO. OR WITH FGA (TURBINE) (20/S)*+ SPEED REFERENCE VALUE THE PREWARMING PROCEDURE IS GUIDED BY THE TSE/TSC INFLUENCE TO THE ELECTRO HYDRAULIC CONTROL. 5.5 MYA01 DUO01 MYAOL DUOOL SET HIGHER > 650 RPM SET HIGHER > 240 APM CLOSE MAV51 AAOOL CLOSED MAV51 AAOOL > 540 RPM SWITCH OFF OFF MAV31 APOOL OR MAV32 APO01 MAV31 APOO1 AND MAV32 APOO1 .2-0160-02/4 CHECK > 10 % REF.2-0170 FIG. CLOSE ON DECREASING TSE/TSC ALLOWANCE. (17) + DRAINS MAIN STEAM LINE + DRAINS MAII’J’STEAM LINE THE DRAINS OF MS LINE DO NOT BELONG TO THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY (TURBINE/GENERATOR) CRITERION: STEAM IN MS LINE SUPER HEATED CLOSE CLOSED (18) + STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA + MAIN STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA + REHEAT STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA THE RELEASE OF STEP (12) OF FGA (TURBINE CONTROL) OCCURS AFTER THE SLIDING TEMP. IF THE TSE/TSC IS FAULTED THE DIFFERENTIAL TEMPERATURES AT THE MEASURING POINTS WHICH REPRESENT THE THERMAL STRESSES OF CASING AND ROTOR MUST BE EVALUATED. IF THE TSE/TSC IS FAULTY OPERATE DRAIN V ALVES ACCORDING TO WALL TEMP AT THE TSE/TSC RECORDER.1. REFER TO TECHNICAL DATA FOR LIMITS OF DIFFERENTIAL TEMPERATURES OF THE TSE/TSC.4 REF.2-0430 IF TSE/TSC ALLOWANCE IS REDUCED + SPEED OF TURBINE/GENERATOR + TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL (21/S)*+ TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE (21) 22) + SPEED OF TURBINE/GENERATOR + JACKING OIL PUMP + JACKING OIL PUMP 5.

DO NOT HOLD THE TURBINE IN THE CRITICAL SPEED ZONE. THE SPEED GRADIENT WILL BE REDUCED IF REDUCTION OF THE TSE/TSC ALLOWANCE OCCUR. ALLOWANCE OCCURS. THE TURBINE SPEED WILL BE REDUCED TO WARM UP SPEED.2-0160-02/5 . IF THE TSE/TSC IS FAULTED THE DIFFERENTIAL TEMPERATURES AT THE MEASURING POINTS WHICH REPRESENT THE THERMAL STRESSES OF CASING AND ROTOR MUST BE EVALUATED REDUCE SPEED REFERENCE VALUE TO WARMUP SPEED WHEN OPERATING WITHOUT TSE/TSC INFLUENCE AND THE TSE/TSC ALLOWANCE REDUCED TO ZERO.2-0170 FIG. 5.. 3000 RPM CHECK NORMAL NORMAL NORMAL CLOSE MAL 11 AAO11 5.6 + + + + + SPEED REFERENCE VALUE OPERATIONAL VALUES OF TURBINE BEARING VIBRATION SHAFT VIBRATION BEARING TEMPERATURES + DRAIN AHEAD OF HP CONTROL VALVES REFER TO 5. THE TSE/TSC INFLUENCE WILL BE EFFECTIVE VIA THE REFERENCE LIMITER.1-011.OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL (22/S)*+ JACKING OIL PUMP OFF MAV31 APO01 AND MAV32 APOO1 (23) + STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA + + + + + AND OPERATIONAL VALUES OF TURBINE CHECK STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA FULFILLED TURBINE STRESS MARGIN > 30 OK BEARING VIBRATION NORMAL SHAFT VIBRATION NORMAL DEFINITION OF NORMAL VALUES OF VIBRATION: VIBRATION PREVIOUSLY OBSERVED WHEN OPERATING WITH SAME SPEED AND OTHER PARAMETERS (24) + (24) + (25) + + (25/S)* + (26) CHECK WARM-UP CONTROL WARM-UP CONTROL OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL) WARM-UP CONTROL SWITCH OFF OFF SPEED REFERENCE VALUE SPEED REFERENCE VALUE OR WITH FGA (TURBINE) SPEED REFERENCE VALUE SET HIGHER > 3000 RPM OFF (28) MYAO1 DUO01 MYA01 DUOO1 > 3000 RPM + WAIT THE LIMITED SPEED REFERENCE VALUE FOLLOWS THE SPEED REFERENCE VALUE WITH THE PRESET GRADIENT. (27) REF. IF A SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION OF THE TSE/TSC .

AND MAL 12 AA011 + DRAIN AHEAD OF HP CONTROL VALVES CLOSED MAL 11 AA011 AND MAL 12 AA011 (28/S)* + OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL) DRAIN AHEAD OF HP CONTROLVALVES CLOSED MAL 11 AA011 AND MAL 12 AAO1 1 (29) AUXILIARY OIL PUMP + SWITCH OFF MAV22 APO01 AND MAV23 APO01 OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL) + + STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA GENERATOR 5.2-0210 .2-0160-02/6 CHECK SYNCHRONIZE REFER TO 5.

Note : The following criteria represent approximate values.  Minimum main steam temperature θms>θs Fig. Criteria for the opening of stop valves When opening the main stop valves the main steam parameters should meet the following recommended values.2-0170-01/1 Des . which can be optimized by operational experience.Steam Turbine Description Warming-up and Starting the Turbine Temperature Criteria Warming-up and Starting the Turbine The admission steam temperature should meet the metal temperature as shown in the diagram below in order to start and load the turbine in shortest possible time.2 = Main steam temperature at steam generator outlet θmcv50% = Middle wall temperature of main control valve casing BHEL Hardwar 5.1 θms steam = Main steam temperature at generator outlet θs = Temperature of saturated steam (depending on main steam pressure) and θms>f(θmcv50%) θms Fig. Turbines with Automatic Turbine Runup System (ATRS) should under go optimizing.

2-0170-01/2 Fig.1 θms = Main steam temperature ahead of the turbine θs = Temperature of saturated steam (depending on main steam pressure) and θms>f(θHT50%) θms = θHT 50% = 5.4 Main steam ahead of turbine temperature Middle wall temperature of HPcasing or simulated middle phase shaft temperature .Maximum main steam saturation temperature ahead of the turbine  θs>f(θmcv50%) θs = Fig.3 Maximum main steam saturation temperature ahead of the turbines θmcv 50% = Middle wall temperature of main control valve Starting Cretaria When the main control valves are opened the main steam and reheat steam temperatures should fulfill the following criteria:  Minimum main steam temperature θms>θs Fig.

6(a) & (b) 9MS = Main steam temperature ahead of the turbine 9HT 50% = Middle wall temperature of the HP-turbine casing or simulated midwall temperature of HP shaft 5.2-0170-01/3 . 5 9Roh = Steam temperature in the hot reheat line 9IT 50% = Simulated midwall temperature of the IP-shaft Speeding up criteria Before the turbine is brought to rated speed the main steam temperature 9MS ahead of the turbine should fulfill the following criteria: 9MS < f ( 9HT 50% ) Fig. Minimum reheat temperature 9Reh > f (9IT 50%) Fig.

2-0170-01/4 . 7 Steam temperature in the hot reheat line Simulated midwall temperature of the IP-turbine shaft 5. ahead of the turbine should fulfill the following criteria 9Reh > f (9IT 50%) 9Reh 9IT 50% = = Fig.Loading criteria Before the turbine is loaded the reheat temperature.

the thermal stress in the turbine components must be figured out by comparing. When the starting and load limit device is in approx 4 0% open position.Rated speed operation  Hydraulic governor - Warm-up operation - Running up the turbine generator unit - Rated speed Operation overspeed trip test  Starting and load limit device 2 - setting operating configuration of main trip valve Opening the stop valves - Warm up operation Electrical speed control  Control range in % rated speed  Setpoint control - The turbine generator Unit is accelerated and maintained at constant warmup speed accelerate unit to rated speed maintain unit at rated speed The turbine generator unit is accelerated and maintained at constant warm-up speed by manual actuation of the starting and load limit device When the reference speed setter is in the 0% position. See Hydraulic speed governor 0-107% (limitation by hydraulic speed governor) The actual setpoint follows the target setpoint along preset gradients. 8O% rated speed so. 8O to 100% rated speed is controlled by the hydraulic speed governor. The main trip valves are brought into operating position when the starting and load limit device is in the 0% position.2-0180-00/1 . the test valves of the stop valves must be in the operating position for the opening procedure. run -up of the turbine generator unit from approx. stress evaluator (TSE) Predeterminaned characteristic to confirm to the margin generated by the TSE Application of the TSE signal The TSE signal must always be present if the TSE is not faulted. the stop valves should be open.1-011 Target setpoint /actual setpoint BHEL Hardwar 5. When the signal from TSE is not present. Oparation with TSE faulted The actual setpoint no longer follows the target setpoint if the TSE is defaulted the actual and target setpoint must be matched up before the TSE signal can be switched off.1 Steam Turbine Warming up and Starting the Turbine Operation Controller Operating modes of the control systems and of the starting and load limit device  Electrical speed Control . The actual temperature and their differences with the curves for permissible temperature margins as given in Technical Data 5. The preset gradient is reduced according to a Limitation of setpoint by turbine. Maintain unit at rated speed Acceleration to 107% of rated speed by the governor. the hydraulic governor takes over speed control at approx. During overspeed trip test .the electrical speed controller must be disengaged and switched off.Warmup operation .Running up the turbine I generator unit . speed is increased to trip speed using acceleration lever on casing of hydraulic governor.

1-011.Operating elements and monitoring instruments . excessive control valve opening can be prevented by using the starting and load limit device to limit valve travel. During operation with the hydraulic speed governor. Effective controller = controller with lowest setpoint setting at any time (also applies to other devices influencing the control characteristic) Limits setpoint by hydraulic minimum Limits setpoint by hydraulic minimum value selection See arrangement of control desk as described in in controller manual See next page . Limit setpoint by hydraulic minimum valve selection.2-0180 The actual setpoint immediately follows the target setpoint (no influence from turbine stress evaluator). see arrangement of control desk as described in controller manual. by comparing the actual temperatures and their differences with the curves for permissible temperature margins as given in Technical Data 5.Minimum Value selection  Electrohydraulic controller <100% value selection starting and IQad limit device Operation .2-0180-00/2 Effecive controller = controller with the lowest setpoint setting at any time (also applies to other devices influencing the opening characteristic) Limit setpoint by hydraulic minimum value selection.Operating logic sequences for changing operating mode 5. Pay attention to notes on operation of release pushbuttons! See Appendix (for changing the operating mode during no-load operation see Power Operation. the thermal stresses in the turbine components must be figured out on the basis of the TSE display or. if the TSE is faulted.Minimum value selection -  Hydraulic speed governor (speed setting device approx. Controller 5.Target setpoint factual setpoint  Limitation by higher-level or alternative controllers or other device .80%) Starting and load limit device Operation .Operating elements and monitoring instruments - Operating logic sequences for changing the operating mode 3 Hydraulic Speed Governor  Setpoint control . Limitation by higher-level or alternative controllers or other devices .

+ + + + + + + Turbine generator unit speed Stop valve position Control Valve position Main trip valves Starting and load limit device Reference speed setter Electrical speed reference = Turning gear speed = 0% = 0% = depressurized = 40% open = 0% = 0% (1) + + Electrical speed reference Electrical speed reference raise = 100% (2) + + Plunger coil Plunger coil deenergize deenergized (3) + + + Starting and load limit device Starting and load limit device Main trip valves lower =0% in operating configuration (4) + + + + Starting and load limit device Starting and load limit device Stop valve position Warm-up criteria for main steam lines raise >40% = 100% fulfilled (A) + + + Main Steam lines Criteria for admission of steam into turbine Steam generation warm-Up fulfilled adequate (5) + + + Starting and load limit device Control valves open Turbine generator unit speed raise = warm-up speed (6) + Using Starting and load limit device maintain constant speed (B) + + + Turbine Run-up criteria Steam generator output Warm-up fulfilled adequate (7) + + + + Starting and load limit device Control Valve Turbine generator unit speed Turbine generator unit speed raise open > warm-up speed = 75% rated speed (8) + + Starting and load limit device Starting and load limit device raise = 100% open (9) + + Reference speed setter Turbine generator unit speed raise = rated speed Operating logic sequence 1: Starting up the turbine generator unit with the starting and load limit device and the hydraulic speed governor A see Warming up the Main Steam Line B see Warming up Starting up the Turbine 5.2-0180-00/3 .

80% rated speed) . 80% rated speed) + Turbine generator unit speed + + + + Electrical speed reference plunger coil Reference speed setter Starting and load limit device > Turning gear speed and 75% rated speed = 100% deenergized = 0% effective (1) + + Plunger coil Plunger coil energize energized (2) + + Electrical speed reference Turbine generator unit speed lower = electrical speed reference (3) + + Starting and load limit device Starting and load limit device raise 56 to 100 % (4) + + Reference speed setter Reference speed setter raise = 100% Operating logic sequence 3 : 5.2-0180-00/4 Transition from operating with starting and load limit device to operation with electrical speed controller (Speed approx .+ Turbine generator unit speed + + Electrical speed reference Reference speed setter > turning gear speed and < 75% rated speed = turbine generator unit speed = 100% + Starting and load limit device = 56 to 100% (1) + + Starting and load limit device Starting and load limit device lower effective (2) + + Electrical speed reference Electrical reference raise = 100% (3) + + Plunger coil Plunger coil deenergized deenergize (4) + Using starting and load limit device maintain constant speed (5) + + Reference speed setter Reference speed setter lower = 0% Operating logic sequence 2: Transition from operating with electrical speed controller to operating with starting and load limit device (Speed approx.

turbine generator. During power operation. Regular checking of protection equipment. to meet the grid power requirement. monitoring is essential for the economic operation of the correct them. The turbine runs the risk of reductions in availability and reliability. long-term monitoring of operating variables and operational maintenance are very important for early detection and elimination of system faults. generator load may then be raised or The operating staff must detect all lowered according to the commands from operating conditions that is a danger to tile the monitoring/controlling equipment. turbine generator and must immediately in particular the load margins from the turbine stress evaluator (TSE) / turbine stress controller (TSC).Steam Turbine Operation Power operation begins Load Operation Introduction by synchronizing of the generator.2-0200-00 . Neglecting this principle BHEL Hardwar 5.

2-0210-00/1 .(01) + Steam Turbine Synchronization and Loading Operation Startup Diagram GENERATR READY TO BE CHECK SYNCHRONIZED (02) + SPEED OF TURBINE/GENERATOR 3000 RPM + DRAIN OF SEAL STEAM HEADER NORMAL + H2-SUPPL Y SYSTEM NO ALARM + SEAL-OIL PLANT NO ALARM + PRIMARY WATER SYSTEM NO ALARM + LIQUID IN GENERATOR NO ALARM + STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA FULFILLED + EXCITATION BREAKER SWITCH ON + EXCIT ATION BREAKER SWITCHED ON OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL) (02/S)* + EXCITATION BREAKER SWITCHED ON (03) + GENERATOR VOLTAGE SET HIGHER + GENERATOR VOLTAGE HIGHER OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL) (03/S)* + AUTOMATIC SYNCHRONIZER ON (04) + GENERATOR VOLTAGE CONTROL CLOSED + GENERATOR VOLTAGE CONTROL SWITCHED ON OR WITH (AUTOMATIC SYNCHRONIZER) (04/S)* + GENERATOR VOLTAGE CONTROL SWITCHED ON (05) SYNCHRONOSCOPE SWITCHED ON + OR WITH (AUTOMATIC SYNCHRONIZER) + SYNCHRONOSCOPE BHEL Hardwar SWITCHED ON 5.

(07) + GENERATOR VOATAGE BY MEANS OF REFERENCE VALUE OF VOLTAGE CONTROL ADJUSTED + GENERATOR/LINE-VOLTAGE OR WITH (AUTOMATIC SYNCHRONIZER) MET (07/5)* + GENERATOR/LINE-VOLTAGE MET (08) + GENERATOR FREQUENCY BY MEANS OF REFERENCE VALUE OF SPEED CONTROL + GENERATOR/LINE-FREQUENCY ADJUSTED MET OR WITH (AUTOMATIC SYNCHRONIZER) (08/5)* + GENERATOR / LINE-FREQUENCY GENERATOR FREQUENCY MUST BE ADJUSTED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE NEEDLE OF THE SYNCHRONOSCOPE TURNS SLOWLY IN THE DIRECTION GENERATOR FREQUENCY HIGHER THAN LINE FREQUENCY = FAST SYNCHRONIZING. (09) + SYNCHRONIZING DEVICE + GENERATOR BREAKER IF THE BREAKER WILL BE SWITCHED ON MANUALLY ADJUSTED PHASE ANGLE TO NEEDLE OF SYNCHRONOSCOPE MUST METT THE ZERO-ANGLE MARK ON THE SCALE WHEN SWITCHING IN BREAKER. FAST SYNCHRONIZING ENSURES THAT THE GENERATOR Will BE LOADED IMMEDIATELY AFTER SYNCHRONIZING THUS PREVENTING REVERSE POWER RELAY TO BE ACTUATED. MET START SWITCHED ON OR WITH (AUTOMATIC SYNCHRONIZER) (09/5)* + GENERATOR BREAKER (10) + SPEED REFERENCE VALUE + GENERATOR LOAD 5.2-0210-00/2 SWITCHED ON SET HIGHER > 10% MYA01DU001 .

IF REDUCTION OF THE TSE ALLOWANCE OCCUR. 5. THE LOAD GRADIENT WILL BE REDUCED.(11) + STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE + STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE SET HIGHER MAX47BYO01 100% MAX47BYO01 100% MAX47BYO01 OR WITH FGA (TURSINE CONTROL) (11/S)* + STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE + TURBINE STRESS EVALUATOR (TSE) CHECK + TURBINE STRESS EVALUATOR (TSE) AT A PRESENT MINIMUM LOAD THE TSE CHANGES OVER FROM TEMPERATURE-TO LOAD SCALE CHANGED OVER + GENERATOR LOAD LOAD CONTROLLER THE LOAD CONTROL WILL BE SWITCHED ON AT A PRESET MINIMUM LOAD. (12) (13) > 10% SWITCHED ON + LOAD REFERENCE VALUE SET HIGHER MYA01 DUO01 + LOAD REFERENCE VALUE TARGET LOAD MYA01 DUO01 + (13/S)* + WAIT LIMITED LOAD REFERENCE VALUE THE LIMITED LOAD REFERENCE VALUE FOLLOWS THE TARGET LOAD REFERENCE VALUE WITH THE ADJUSTED LOAD GRADIENT. THE TSE INFLUENCE WILL BE EFFECTIVE VIA THE REFERENCE LIMITER.TEMPERATURES AT THE MEASURING POINTS WHICH REPRESENT THE ADDITIONAL THERMAL STRESSES OF CASING AND ROTOR MUST BE EVALUATED. HIGHER MYA01DUO01 IF THE TSE IS FAULTED THE DIFFERENTIAL.2-0430 IF TSE-ALLOWANCE IS REDUCED. REFER TO 5.2-0210-00/3 .

2-0210-00/4 CLOSED MAL 15AAO01 AND MAL 16AAO01 > 50 CEL CLOSED MAL 22AA011 >320 CEL CLOSED MAL65AA011 LBC10AAO01 OPEN CLOSED MAL26AA011 AND MAL27 AA 11 > 50 CEL CLOSED MAL31AA011 AND MAL32AA011 > 50 CEL CHECK IN OPERATION > 0% LBO50AAO01 AND LBS41AAO01 AND LBS42AAO01 AND LBS31AAO01 AND LBS21AAO01 CLOSE MAL47AA011 AND MAL51AA011 AND MAL54AA015 AND MAL55AA011 .HP-CASING TOP + DRAIN AHEAD OF SWING-CHECK CRH CRITERIUM: NON RET.(14) + DRAIN DOWNSTREAM RCV CLOSE OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL (DRAINS) POSITION OF DRAINS CHECK + DRAIN DOWNSTREAM OF HP-CONTR. VLV CRITERIUM: VALVE CASING TEMPERATURE MINUS SATURATION TEMPERATURE OF STEAM + DRAIN OUTER CASING CRETERIUM: TEMP.CHECK VLV COLD REH. + DRAIN UPSTREAM RCV CRITERIUM: VALVE CASING TEMPERATURE MINUS SATURATION TEMPERATURE OF STEAM + DRAIN DOWNSTREAM RCV CRITERIUM: VALVE CASING TEMPERATURE MINUS SATURATION TEMPERATURE OF STEAM (15) + + + HEATER OPERATION HEATERS EXTRACTION VALVE (16) + DRAINS OF EXTRACTIONS 5.

+ DRAINS OF EXTRACTIONS CLOSED MAL47AAO11 AND MAL51AAO11 AND MAL54AAO15 AND MAL 55AAO11 IF THE EXTRACTION STEAM FLOW WILL BE REDUCED. CAUSING THE EXTRACTION VALVE TO CLOSE THE RESPECTIVE DRAIN MUST BE OPEN. (17) + BOILER/TURBINE LOAD RELATION 1 + BYPASS CONTROL VALVE CHECK + BYPASS CONTROL VALVE CLOSED MAN11AAOO2 AND MAN12AAOO2 + BYPASS STOP VALVE CLOSED MAN11AAOO1 AND MAN12AAOO1 5.2-0210-00/5 .

2-0220-00/1 .Constant pressure operation (with or without frequency influence) Power Operation Controllers Setting and maintenance of constant synchronization speed. Power operation up to Pmax or until control.{steam generator control system takes over control when max. Maintenance of constant load up to Pmax by positioning control valves. Maintenance of constant speed at residual load (auxiliary power requirement). turbine generator assists in grid frequency stabilization when frequency changes. Interception of turbine generator before it reaches trip speed. 2x unit auxiliary power requirement before changeover to load control.Variable pressure operation without frequency influence -  After synchronization of generator (normal operating mode) After synchronization of generator (operating mode if load controller defective) Load shedding (disconnection of generator from power grid) Variable pressure operation with frequency influence as given by the proportional setting of the frequency control unit and the thermal storage capacity of the steam generator by controlled throttling of the control valves Initial pressure control by the electrical load controller (alternative to limit initial pressure control) . Limit initial pressure control by the electrical load controller (alternative to initial pressure control) . Turbine generator assists in grid frequency stabilization when frequency changes.Constant pressure operation without frequency influence . control valve lift reached).During synchronization of generator -   After synchronization of generator Load shedding (disconnection of generator from power grid) Electrical load control of turbine generator . Maintenance of constant speed at residual load (auxiliary power requirement). Maintenance of constant pressure in steam generator as given by proportional settings characteristics of” pressure reference value. Setting and maintenance of constant synchronization speed. Maintenance of constant load.Constant pressure operation with frequency influence as given by the proportional setting of the frequency control and by the thermal storage capacity of the steam generator .Operation of load controller with or without frequency influence for stabilization Maintenance of constant pressure in steam generator of steam generator operation as given by proportional setting characteristic of in the event to pressure drops pressure reference value incorporating response reference value. Maintenance of constant load. valves full open. Back up by overspeed anticipatory relay. Power operation up to Pmax or until control valves full open. BHEL Hardwar 5. Interception of turbine generator before it reaches trip speed. As above.During synchronization of generator -  Hydraulic control (operation if electrical control system defective) . Run-up to approx.Steam Turbine Operation 1 Control System Operating Modes  Electrical speed control .

by comparing the actual temperatures and their differences with the curves for permissible temperature margins as give in Technical Data 5. limits reference value by means of hydraulic minimum value selection. The present gradient Is reduced in accordance with a predetermined characteristic to conform to the load margin generated by the TSE. Note instructions on use of release pushbuttons I See appendix After changeover to load control the speed reference value is to be set such that speed will revert to approx.6% above rated speed in the event of load shedding. 0. The thermal stresses In the turbine components must be assessed by comparison of the actual temperatures and their differences with the curves for permissible temperature margins given in TechnicaI Date 5.1-011. (also applicable to other equipment that affects the controller output signal. The TSE signal must always be present unless the TSE is faulted.Speed (as % 9f rated speed)    Valve lift load at design pressure.Control and monitoring devices - Control logic for changing operating mode  Instructions for control and operational monitoring .2 Electrical Speed Control  Control range . Reference limiter . The actual reference value no longer tracks the target reference value if the TSE is faulted.speed reference value after changeover to load control 3 Hydraulic Governor Control range . if the TSE is faulted.load at design pressure  Reference limiter . .2-0220-00/2  controllers or other equipment 80-107% 100% 100% Actual reference value tracks target reference value directly (no TSE component). During operation with the hydraulic governor in control.  Limitation by priority or alternative 5.Speed .1-011. .Target reference value/actual reference value . limits reference value by means of hydraulic minimum value selection.Limitation of reference limiter by TSE (turbine stress evaluator) component - Application of TSE signal - Operation with TSE faulted limitation by priority or alternative controllers or other equipment .Valve travel at rated speed .Minimum value selection - Hydraulic governor < 100% - Starting and load limit device < 100% Operation .Target reference value/actual reference value 0-170% (limited by hydraulic governor) 100% 100% The actual reference value tracks the target reference along a preset gradient. the thermal stresses in the turbine components must be assessed by referring to the TSE display or. Control valve lift overshot can be prevented by means of starting and load limit device See desk allocation diagram in controller manual. Actual and target reference value must be matched up before the TSE signal can be switched off. Controller in effect = controller with lowest setpoint.

Limits reference value by means of hydraulic minimum value selection.Control and monitoring devices . the turbine generator assists in grid frequency stabilization as governed by the droop of the controller. Controller in effect = controller with lowest reference value. (also applicable to other equipment that affects the controller output signal). See appendix As dictated by setting of speed reference value before load shedding with allowance for droop.  - 4 Starting and load limit device Load Control by the Electrical Controller Control range .Valve travel 100% . The influence of the frequency component on the load reference value tending to raise power can be eliminated by switching in starting and load limit device   - Limitation of reference limiter by TSE - Application of TSE signal - Operation with TSE faulted Limitation by priority or alternative controllers or other equipment .Load at design pressure 100%  Reference limiter . the actual speed must revert to rated speed. During operation with the hydraulic governor in control. The actual reference value no longer tracks the target reference value if the TSE if faulted. The present gradient is reduced in accordance with a predetermined characteristic to conform to the load margin generated by the TSE. Active in the event of unit malfunctions. Limits reference value by means of hydraulic minimum value selection. (also applicable to other equipment that affects the controller output signal).Actual speed after load shedding Controller in effect == controller with lowest reference value.Target reference value/actual See desk allocation diagram in controller manual.- Minimum value selection - Electrohydraulic controller < 100% - Starting and load limit device < 100% Operation . The TSE signal must always be present unless the TSE is faulted. Limit reference values by means of electric minimum selection. The thermal stresses in the turbine components must than be assessed by comparison of the actual temperatures and their differences with the curves for permissible temperature margins given in Technical Data 5. Actual and target reference value must be matched before the TSE signal can be switched off. 5.Minimum value selection Absolute limit load reference value The actual reference value tracks the target reference value reference value along a preset gradient. After shedding.Control logic for changing operating mode  Instructions for control and operational monitoring .2-0220-00/3 .1-011.

Changeover from speed to load and from load to speed control .Control and monitoring devices - Control logics for changing operating mode  Instructions for control and operational monitoring ..2-0220-00/4 Limits reference value by means of hydraulic minimum value selection See above See desk allocation diagram in controller manual. Note instructions on use of release pushbuttons See appendix Valve lift reference value must be matched up prior To changeover. Changeover back to load control is effected if the actual load rises above the lower limit within approx. .Switching off load controller in the event of load shedding - Cut in of initial pressure controller 5. Changeover from load to speed control is effected When the load falls below a preset value. The pressure control deviation must be 0 before the initial pressure can cut in. 2s. - Hydraulic speed governor < 100% - Starting and load limit device < 100% Operation .

2-0220-00/5 . after exercising overspeed trips. speed = % position for rated speed = 100% (1) + + Plunger coil Plunger coil Switch on on (2) + + Electrical speed reference value Electrical speed reference value lower < speed setter reference value (3) + + + Speed changer Speed changer Required speed raise = 100% higher or lower (4) + Electrical speed reference raise or lower Contrl logics 2: Changeover from hydraulic speed control in idling mode e. 5.g. for exercising overspeed trips.APPENDIX + + + + + + + + Turbine generator speed Turbine generator load Plunger coil Electrical speed controller Electrical load controller Electrical speed reference value Speed changer Starting and load limit device = rated speed = Zero MW on in operation not in operation = rated speed = 100% = 100% (1) + + Speed changer Speed changer reference value lower < electrical speed reference value (2) + + + Electrical speed reference value Electrical speed reference value Valve position controller reference value raise = max. + + + + + + + + Turbine generator speed Turbine generator load Plunger Coil Electrical speed controller Electrical load controller Electrical speed reference value Speed Changer Starting and load limit device =rated speed = Zero MW off not in operation not in operation = max. speed > 100% (3) + + + Plunger coil Plunger coil Required speed switch off off reference value higher or lower (4) + Speed changer raise or lower Control logics 1: Changeover from electrical to hydraulic speed control in idling mode.g. e.

speed > 100% (3) + + + Plunger coil Plunger coil Load switch off off reference value higher or lower (4) + + Speed changer Hydraulic frequency control raise or lower not required (5) + + Starting and load limit device Starting and load limit device lower in effect (6) + + + Speed changer Speed changer Load raise = 1 00% higher or lower (7) + Starting and load limit device raise or lower Control logic 3: Changeover from electrical to hydraulic speed control during speed controlled Power operation (procedure (5) onwards: Switching off hydraulic frequency influence) 5.+ + + + + + + + Turbine generator load Individual valve controller Plunger coil Electrical speed controller Electrical load controller Electrical speed reference value Speed Changer Starting and load limit device >0MW in operation on in operation in operation = rated speed + load component = 100% = 100% (1) + + Speed changer Speed changer reference valve lower < electrical speed reference value (2) + + + Electrical speed reference value Electrical speed reference value Valve position controller reference value raise = max.2-0220-00/6 .

+ + + + + + + Turbine generator load Plunger coil Electrical speed controller Electrical load controller Electrical speed reference value Speed changer Starting and load limit device > OMW off not in operation not in operation = max.2-0220-00/7 . speed = 100% = in effect (1) + + Speed changer Speed changer lower in effect (2) + + Starting and load limit device starting and load limit device raise = 100% (3) + + Plunger coil Plunger coil switch on on (4) + Electrical speed reference value < speed changer reference value (5) + + + Speed changer raise Speed changer Load = 100% reference value higher or lower (6) + Electrical speed reference value raise or lower Control logics 4: Changeover from hydraulic to electrical speed control in power operation (up to procedure (2): switching on hydraulic frequency component) 5.

load (5) + + + Plunger coil Plunger coil Turbine generator load switch off off reference value higher or lower (6) + + Speed changer Hydraulic frequency control raise or lower off (7) + + Starting and load limit device Starting and load device lower in effect (8) + + + Speed changer Speed changer Turbine generator load raise = 100% reference value higher or lower (9) + Starting and load limit device raise or lower Control logics 5: Changeover from electrical load control to hydraulic speed control procedure (5) + (6) switch off hydraulic frequency influence 5.005 x rated speed = 100% = 100% (1) + + + Electrical initial pressure controller Initial pressure controller Limit initial pressure controller switch off off on (2) + + Initial pressure component Initial pressure component switch off off (3) + + Speed changer Speed changer reference valve lower < electrical load reference value (4) + + + Electrical speed and load reference values Electrical speed reference value Electrical load reference value raise = max.+ + + + + + + + + Turbine generator load Plunger coil Electrical speed controller Pressure component Pressure controller Electrical load reference value Electrical speed reference value Speed changer Starting and load limit device > a MW on in operation on in operation = actual # pressure component = approx 1. speed = max.2-0220-00/8 .

load = max. speed = 100% in effect (1) + + Speed changer Speed changer lower in effect (2) + + Starting and load limit device Starting and load limit device raise = 100% (3) + + Plunger coil Plunger coil switch on on (4) + + Electrical load controller Electrical load controller on switch on (5) + + Electrical reference value Electrical reference value lower = approx.2-0220-00/9 . 1.+ + + + + + + Turbine generator load Plunger coil A Electrical load controller Electrical load reference value Electrical speed reference value Speed Changer Starting and load limit device > 0 MW off not in operation = max.005 x rated speed (6) + + Electrical load reference value Electrical load reference value lower < speed setter reference value (7) + + + Speed changer Speed changer Load raise = 100% higher or lower (8) + + + + Electrical load reference value Load Initial pressure controller Limit initial pressure raise or lower actual load higher or lower reference value on required (9) + Initial pressure component switch on (10) + + + Initial pressure controller control deviation Initial pressure controller control deviation balance (11) + + + Initial pressure controller Initial pressure controller on Load switch on (12) + Steam generator output reference value raise or lower balanced higher or lower Control logics 6: Changeover from hydraulic to electrical load control in power operation Procedure (1) + (2) Switch off hydraulic frequency cornball Procedure (9) + (10) Switching on pressure condoner 5.

the control valves of the turbine generator unit are closed. blade windage result in transition from power transfer from the blades to power transfer to the blades. General actions to prevent unallowable heatup of the steam turbine due to windage Limitation of the period of ‘motoring’ operation Blade windage can occur in expansion sections of a steam turbine if volumetric flow drops to zero. During steam turbine operation. and extends towards the first stages as flow decreases. which in turn result in an increase in the temperature of both the steam and the turbine components. and the turbine starts to operates at zero load. turbine trip must be initiated. to allow the generator to be isolated from the public power system through activation of the long-time reverse power protection. The degree of windage-induced heatup Which occurs as a result of low volumetric flow through an expansion section of the steam turbine depends on the windage power. This operating mode can result in blade windage in individual stages of multi-stage turbines. the generator must be isolated from the public power system after no more than four seconds through activation of the short-time reverse power protection.  5. The higher the steam density and the turbine speed to the third power.  Turbine trip after limit values have been reached Blade windage causes temperature increases at certain exhaust-steam or casing -temperature measuring points. Activation of long-time reverse power protection during a (schedule) turbine generator shut-down.  Steam density. steam pressure and turbine generator speed. and therefore the heatup. the steam pressures in expansion sections undergoing windage can be used to determine the degree of heatup due to windage. Turbine casings can undergo deformation due to the effects of high temperatures. if. these temperatures are reached. either manually from the control room. Blade windage starts in the final blade stages of an expansion section. BHEL Hardwar Actions to Prevent Unallowable Heat up Through Blade Wind age Procedural Instruction Owing to the proportional relationship between steam density and steam pressure. which creates a deceleration effect. . As the volumetric flow decreases.Steam Turbine Operation Introduction During startup and shut-downs. which can be initiated during any operating mode of the turbine generator unit. the operating mode and limiters and protective devices must be used to keep heatup due to blade windage within the prescribed Imits. The maximum time delay for activation of the long-time reverse power protection specified in the Technical Data must not be exceeded.2-0230-00/1 . Unallowably high temperatures can occur as a result of blade windage. there can be iong period during which Steam turbines are operated at very low volumetic flows. the greater will be windage power. The limit values of the temperature at which turbine trip is to be initiated are specified in the Technical Data. The lower the volumetric flow through a blade stage.Activation of short-time reverse power protection following turbine trips After turbine trip. The mechanical energy transmitted by the turbine shaft is converted to thermal energy. in one blade stage. or automatically by tripping of a protective device. Thermodynamic and operating factors affecting blade windage The following factors can lead to blade windage:  Volumetric flow Blade windage can occur as a result of insufficient volumetric flow through a multistage expansion section of the steam turbine. The longtime reverse power protection must be functionally tested in conjunction with leak testing of the control valves each time the turbine generator unit is shut down. The direction of the energy conversion cycle at the affected blade stages is reversed. resulting in the turbine being driven by the generator which acts as a motor driven by the public power system. steam flow through the stage is not directed and the steam has to be accelerated up to the average speed of the rotating blades. under particularly unfavorable conditions. leading to loosening of the blade assembly of drum stages through plastic deformation. in order to prevent motoring of the generator at high speed beyond this time period owing to the interruption in volumetric flow and high steam pressure in one expansion section. the lower the turbine efficiency will be in the case of very low volumetric flows.

the maximum reheat steam pressure PRS MAN specified in Data Sheet [1] must not be exceeded. Actions to be taken in the event of fault-induced closure of the main steam stop and/or control valves One particular fault which can arise occur during power operation when the volumetric flow through the HP turbine approaches zero as a result of faultinduced closure of the main steam stop and/or control valves. In the event of such a fault. the drains sub loop control must be switched immediately the MANUAL mode and the drain valves must be opened using a remote manual command. the volumetric flow through the HP turbine during no-load or low-load operation is optimized so that unallowable heatup due to windage can only occur under the most unfavorable conditions e. at the turbine outer casing and upstream of the non return valve(s) downstream of the HP turbine.time reverse power protection during shut-down of the turbine generator unit  At overspeed during overspeed trip testing Actions to be taken to prevent unallowable heatup of the HP turbine due to windage  Optimization of the volumetric flow through the HP turbine by staggered operation of the main steam and reheat control valves. the plant operator can arrange with the turbine supplier for an HP turbine a dump valve to be beck fitted (e.2-0230-00/2     The limit conditions for reheat steam pressure can be established on the basis of setpoint values for the main steam and IP/LP bypass controllers.Blade windage in the HP expansion section of a steam turbine with reheat At low volumetric flows.  Optimization of the volumetric flow through the HP turbine by means of trimming device During turbine operation at low volumetric flow. 5. Actions to be taken in the event of backflow of steam through the check valve(s) downstream of the HP turbine. Non-leak tightness or faulted ‘operation’of1he check valve(s) occurs if the steam pressure down steam of the HP turbine cannot be reduced to less than the reheat steam pressure down steam of the check valve (s) must be subjected to regular checks for freedom of movement and leak tigtness. The occurrence of this type of fault is indicated by a load surge. the trimming device adjusts the staggered operating sequence of the main steam and reheat control valves on the basis of HP turbine exhaust steam temperature. to reduce the time required for pressure reduction).g. If necessary. which can be installed as an additional limiter. since this may coincide with a high reheat steam pressure. 5%) or the opening signal of the HP turbine dump valve. If the turbine generator unit at a volumetric flow approaching zero e.  By Specifying a staggered control valve operating sequence in which the main steam control valve open before the reheat control valves. The risk of unallowable heatup due to windage .g. blade windage can occur towards the exhaust end of the HP expansion section if the steam pressure in or downstream other HP turbine section is high. thus ensuring that the largest possible volume of steam flows through the HP turbine. Blade windage can occur during the following modes of operation:  No-load or low-load operation during startup of the tubine generator unit. opening of the HP bypass station and an increase in the HP exhaust steam temperature. Back fitting an HP turbine dump valve If under unfavorable conditions the cross sections of the drains compared to the volume of the space constituted by the HP turbine and the HP exhaust steam lines up to the non return valve (s) is not a large enough to ensure sufficiently fast drainage. Blade windage can occure as a result of nonleak tightness or faulted operation of the check valve (s) down stream of the HP turbine if pressure in the reheated is high. during turbine generator shutdown prior to activation of the long-time reverse power protection or during operation at overspeed for overspeed trip testing. meaning that turbine generator speed temporarily exceeds rated speed. further operation of the turbine generator unit is not allowed. and must be stopped through remote manual initiation of a turbine trip. the HP turbine must be drained by opening the valves in the drain lines located downstream of the HP control valves.g. but the turbine generator unit continues to operate because the reheat control valves are still open. in order to . Draining the HP turbine by opening the drain valves in the case of low volumetric flow combined with high reheat steam pressure.is particuarly high following load rejection. These drain valves are actuated on the basis of a load signal (p<approx. if the pressure downstream of the HP section is too high.  No-load or a auxiliary-power operation following load rejection.  Proper observance of limit conditions for reheat steam pressure The steam pressure ration PMS / PRS as a function of power ratio must not drop below that specified in Data Sheet.  Motoring operation prior to activation of the long.

if the main steam stop valves are closed. either automatically or manually. reclosure of the turbine drains must not result in an increase in HP turbine steam pressure while there is still positive steam pressure in the reheater.prevent adverse effects in terms of blade windage.2-0230-00/3 . The check valve (s) should leave the fully opened position.  Cooling by means of condensate injection. Interruption of the control medium supply result in a closure command being issued. After the alarm “LP casing temperature high” has been initiated the spray valve of the LP condensate injection system must be opened. driving the turbine.  Functional testing of trimming device for main steam and rehat control valves after inspections and overhauls on the basis of the C&I functional diagrams. This reverse power operation causes the reverse power protection to be activated. volumetric flow across the balding. The limit value of maximum allowable exhaust steam temperature specified In the Technical Data must not be exceeded. Testing of a activation of long time reverse power protection in conjunction with leak testing of turbine control valves during each shut down of the turbine generator unit.    Blade windage in LP turbine In case of the LP turbine. After the alarm “HP exhaust temperature high” has been issued the following actions must be implemented immediately to prevent unallowable heatup due to windage: - - - establish a steam pressure ratio P MJP AS which lies above the characteristic curve specified in Data Sheet (1) reduce steam pressure in the HP turbine by lowering the constant-pressure setpoint for the IP/ LP bypass control system reduce the main steam temperature if the generator is connected to the public power system. Actions to be taken to prevent unallowable heatup of LP turbine due to windage The following actions can be implemented to prevent the unallowable heatup due to windage:  Increase the turbine load. Settings and Tests Settings of the staggered operating sequences for main steam & reheat steam control valves in accordance with the relevant setting diagram. including excessively low.  Actions to the taken in the event of a high steam temperature downstream of the HP turbine If blade windage occurs in the HP turbine. On-line testing for freedom of movement of check valve (s) downstream of HP turbine at six-weekly intervals during turbine – generator unit operation. The turbine controller is used to reduce the steam turbine load so far that the turbine control valve close and the generator then acts as motor. 5. blade windage (which can result in unallowable heatup of the blading and the casing) is likewise caused by excessively low volumetric flow across the blading.  The control valve opening signals and lifts are recorded as a function of a common opening signal and the staggered operating sequence is checked on the basis of the curve generated.  Actions In the case of annunciation “IP exhaust steam temperature high” is issued.  Settings of the settings for the staggered operation of main steam & reheat steam control valves following inspections and overhauls. which isolates the generator from the public power system after a certain time delay has elapsed. The leak tightness of the check valve (s) downstream of the HP turbine must be checked each time the turbine generator unit is shut down. increase the turbine load Blade windage in IP turbines  Causes In the case of IP turbines. the load must be increased. The check valve (s) must close during shut down and. or if the limit value for the temperature downstream of the IP turbine specified for prolonged operation (see Technical Data Sheet) is exceeded. blade windage (which can result in unallowable heatup of the blading) has a number of causes. Leak testing of the check valve (s) downstream of the HP turbine during each shut down of the turbine generator unit. in order to prevent unallowable heatup due to windage. there will be an increase in steam temperature at1he measuring point down steam of the HP turbine.

 Testing of activation of short time reverse power protection during each shut down of the turbine generator unit.2-0230-00/4 Isolation of the generator from the public power system after 4 seconds must be monitored and recorded. .  5. Testing and maintenance of protective device in the event that a fault has resulted in a stricter changeover in the protection circuit (annunciation: “protective device faulted”).

BHEL Hardwar We recommend accelerated cooling to reduce cool down time when shutting down the turbine-generator unit for preventive maintenance or repairs.Steam Turbine Startup and Shutdown Diagrams Operation Introduction The turbine-generator should be shutdown according to operating instruction shown in the shutdown diagrams. instruction for accelerated cooling [2] must be followed. the turbine generator unit may be rapidly unloaded and/or be shutdown by operating the trip push-button or trip valve from any operating condition. It is a good idea to have a list ready of those jobs that can be done during short shutdowns. 5.2-0300-00 . If an emergency occurs. So care must be taken to ensure all components are protected against corrosion as described in the specific instructions. Short shutdowns should be used to perform minor maintenance unless large-scale preventive maintenance programs or repairs are to be performed. particular attention is drawn to this test in this context. During long periods of shutdown the turbine and other components may be exposed to corrosive attacks. If work has to be performed immediately after shutdown of the turbine on hot parts or if the turning gear is to be shutdown. all tests [1] for this must be performed. This test may be performed when the turbine is at operating temperature. During shutdown. In particular test the overspeed protection by overspeeding after the recommended interval has elapsed. Operational readiness should be maintained during maintenance and testing programs and/or should be established after their completion to enable speedy restart of the turbine-generator unit.

TO 5. TO 5.2-0310-01 .2-0320 OBSERVE REF.2-0320 START REF.2-0320 (10) + OIL SYSTEM WITH FGA (OIL SUPPLY) SHUT -DOWN REF.3. TO 5.2-0320 OR WITH FGA (TURBINE-CONTROL) *+ (06) + START OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMP (07) + TURNING GEAR OPERATION + SHAFT LIFT OIL SUPPLY SYSTEM IN OPERATION + TURNING GEAR OIL SYSTEM IN OPERATION OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL (08) *+ SHAFT LIFT OIL PUMP ON *+ TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE + STEAM -GENERATOR NOT IN SERVICE + BYPASS -OPERATION COMPLETED + CONDENSING PLANT SHUT DOWN + VACUUM PUMPS + SEAL -STEAM SUPPLY SHUT -DOWN + CONDENSATE PUMPS OFF + CIRCULATION WATER SUPPLY OPEN REF. TO 5. CONSOLE + SHAFT + OIL SYSTEM BHEL Hardwar STANDSTILL NOT IN SERVICE 5. TO 5. TO 5.Steam Turbine Operation (01) + Unloading and Shut-Down of Turbine/Generator Shut-Down Diagram (General) TURBINE/GENERATOR UNLOAD REF.2-0320 (03) + GENERATOR BREAKER TO BE OPENED OBSERVE REF.2-0320 TURBINE TRIP INITIATED REF. TO 5.2-0320 REVERSE POWER PROTECTION INITIATED (04) + TEST PROGRAM (SHUTDOWN) (05) + TURBINE TRIP START CARRY OUT REF. TO 5. TO 5.2-0320 OR + FGA (TURBINE -CONTROL STANDSTILL) (02) + START OF BYPASS OPERATION OBSERVE REF. TO 5.0060 INITIATE REF.2-0330 OFF NOT IN SERVICE OBSERVE (09) + CONTROL FLUID PUMPS SHUT -DOWN REF.2-0340 OR MANUAL OPERATION AT OPER. TO 5.

REQUIREMENT OF LOAD DESPATCHER . THE LOAD GRADIENT WILL BE REDUCED IF REDUCTION OF TSC ALLOWANCE OCCUR..(01) (02) Operation Turbine/Generator Shut-Down Diagram OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS LOAD CONTROLLER LOAD GRADIENT ADJUSTMENT ACCORDING TO .2-0430 IF TSC ALLOWANCE IS REDUCED + SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS + SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS + SUBLOOP CONTROL OF JACKING OIL PUMPS + SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE + SUBLOOP CONTROL DRAINS THE SUBLOOP CONTROLS MUST ALWAYS BE SWITCHED ON DURING OPERATION + TURBINE/GENERATOR LOAD IT IS ASSUMED THAT THE TURBINE/GENERATOR WILL BE UNLOADED FROM ANY LOAD TO 0 LOAD WITHOUT DELAY + + (02/S) * + (04) * Unloading and Shut-Down of + + + + (03) Steam Turbine + *+ + + LOAD REFERENCE VALUE LOAD TARGET VALUE OR WITH FGA (TURBINE -CONTROL) FGA (TURBINE -CONTROL STANDSTILL) LOAD TARGET VALUE LIMITED LOAD REFERENCE VALUE THE LIMITED LOAD REFERENCE VALUE FOLLOWS THE TARGET LOAD REFERENCE VALUE WITH THE ADJUSTED LOAD GRADIENT.THERMAL INFLUENCE ON TURBINE + BYPASS CONTROL + FIXED PRESSURE SET POINT BYPASS CONTROL ADJUSTMENT IN AGREEMENT WITH PRESSURE REQUIREMENTS . *+ TURBINE/GENERATOR LOAD: STEAM GENERATOR LOAD START OF BYPASS OPERATION BYPASS VALVES OPEN IF LOAD OF STEAM GENERATOR IS GREATER THAN TURBINE/GENERATOR LOAD BYPASS STOP VALVES *+ BYPASS CONTROL VALVES BHEL Hardwar CHECK ON ADJUSTED ON .2-0320-02/1 . REFER 5.KG/CM2 NOT FAULTED NOT FAULTED ON NOT FAULTED ON ON ON ON ON > 0 MW LOWER 0 MW START 0 MW WAIT LOWER <1 OBSERVE OPEN OPEN MAN41 AAO01 AND MAN51 AAO01 MAN42 AAOO2 AND MAN 52 AAOO2 5. THE TSC INFLUENCE WILL BE EFFECTIVE VIA THE REFERENCE LIMITER.REHEAT PRESSURE DURING START-UP AND SHUTDOWN + ELECTRO HYDRAULIC TURBINE CONTROL + BYPASS CONTROL + TSC -INFLUENCE + TURBINE STRESS CONTROLLER (TSC) IF THE TSC IS FAULTED THE DIFFERENTIAL TEMPERATURES AT THE MEASURING POINTS WHICH REPRESENT THE ADDITIONAL THERMAL STRESSES OF CASING AND ROTOR MUST BE EVALUATED.STEAM GENERATOR CONTROL ..

2-0410 (07) + TEST PROGRAM (SHUT DOWN I TESTING INTERVALS FGA PROGRAM (08) + (08/S) *+ + *+ *+ TURBINE TRIP OR WITH FGA TURBINE TRIP BEGIN OF COASTING DOWN TIME TRIP FLUID PRESSURE MAIN STEAM STOP VALVES *+ REHEAT STOP VALVES CLOSED *+ MAIN STEAM CONTROL V ALVES CLOSED *+ REHEAT CONTROL VALVES CLOSED *+ *+ SWING CHECK VALVE COLD REHEAT CLOSED EXTRACTION NON RETURN VALVES CLOSED CODE NO.2-0320-02/2 CARRY OUT OBSERVE INTERRUPT REF.3-0060 REF. OF REVERSE POWER PROTECTION OFF ON LOWER < RATED SPEED CLOSED MAA 10 AAO02 AND MAA20 AAO02 CLOSED MAB 10 AAOO2 AND MAB20 AAO02 INITIATED OPEN REF. POWER SUPPLY IS SECURED OPERATION OF SWITCH GEARS MUST AGREE WITH AUXILIARY POWER SUPPLY FACILITIES TURBINE LOAD CONTROLLER TURBINE SPEED CONTROLLER AFTER A FIX SET MINIMUM LOAD IS REACHED THE TURBINE CONTROLLER CHANGES OVER FROM LOAD TO SPEED CONTROL LOWER LOWER (06) + (06/S) *+ + *+ SPEED REFERENCE VALUE OR WITH FGA (TURBINE -CONTROL) SPEED REFERENCE VALUE SPEED REFERENCE VALUE MAIN STEAM CONTROL VALVES *+ REHEAT CONTROL VALVES *+ *+ REVERSE POWER PROTECTION GENERATOR CIRCUIT BREAKER MEASURES TO BE TAKEN ON FAILURE. TO 5. SPEED OF TURBINE/GENERATOR < 3000 RPM *+ *+ (09) + + (09/s) + STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE OR WITH FGA (TURBINE -CONTROL) STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE 5. OF EXTRACTION NON RETURN VALVES REFER TO SINGLE LINE DIAGRAMS VACUUM BREAKER OPEN VACUUM BREAKER BRINGS VACUUM DOWN TO O.2-0020 INITIATE INITIATED NOTE 0 KG/CM2 CLOSED MAX51 CPO 13 MAA10 AAO01 AND MAA20 AAO01 MAB10 AAOO1 AND MAB20 AAO01 MAA 10 AAO02 AND MAA20 AAO02 MAB 1 0 AAO02 AND MAB20 AAO02 LBC10 AAO01 MAG10 AAO01 LOWER 0% MAX47BYO01 MAX47BYO01 0% MAX47BYO01 . TO 5.(05) + *+ + *+ *+ WAIT LIMITED LOAD REFERENCE VALUE AUXILIARY POWER SUPPLY SECURED CRITERION: AFTER THE GENERATOR CIRCUIT BREAKER IS OPEN THE UNIT AUX.2KG/CM2 ABS VACUUM BREAKER CLOSED AT VACUUM > 0. TO 5.2 KG/CM2 ABS IN CASE OF DANGER TO THE TURBINE/GENERATOR THE VACUUM CAN BE REDUCED SO THAT COAST P AMB DOWN TIME WILL BE REDUCED ACCORDINGLY.

5 KG/CM2 MAV21 CPO01 NOT ON ON MAV22 APO01 MAV23 APO01 < 1.2-0320-02/3 .2 KG/CM2 ABS CLOSED LOWER 0% SWITCH CONTROL OFF OPEN OPEN MAL11 AA011 AND MAL12 AAO 11 MAL 11 AA011 AND MAL12 AA011 OBSERVE MAV22 APO01 OBSERVE < 4.(10) + + DE-EXCITATION BREAKER DE-EXCIT A TION BREAKER (11) + + + VACUUM BREAKER VACUUM VACUUM BREAKER (12) + + SPEED REFERENCE VALUE SPEED REFERENCE VALUE (13) + + WARM-UP CONTROL (SEAL STEAM) WARM-UP CONTROL (SEAL STEAM) (14) + DRAIN UPSTREAM OF MAIN STEAM CONTROL VALVES OR WITH FGA DRAIN UPSTREAM OF MAIN STEAM CONTROL VALVES + (15) + + START OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMP OR START OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMP OIL PRESSURE AUX.2 KG/CM2 NOT ON ON CLOSE CLOSED MA V42 CPO 14 MAV22 APO01 AND MAV23 APO01 MAV24 APO01 MAV41 AAO01 MAV41 AAO01 < 510 RPM SWITCH ON MAV31 AP001 JACKING OIL PUMP ON MAV31 AP001 OR BY SURLOOP CONTROL JACKING OIL PUMP JACKING OIL PUMP ON MAV31 AP001 JACKING OIL PRESSURE IN HEADER > 100 KG/CM2 OR JACKING OIL PRESSURE IN HEADER < 100 KG/CM2 STAND BY JACKING OIL PUMP BY SUBLOOP CONTROL ON OR STAND BY JACKING OIL PUMP BY SUBLOOP CONTROL ON ON FAILURE OF AC POWER END OF COASTING DOWN TIME NOTE THE MEASUREMENT OF COASTING DOWN TIME WILL GIVE VALUABLE INFORMATION ABOUT INTERNAL CONDITIONS OF THE TURBINE. OIL PUMP BY SUBLOOP CONTROL OR LUBE OIL PRESSURE AND AUXILIARY OIL PUMP *+ + + EMERGENCY OIL PUMP BY SUBLOOP CONTROL OIL TEMPERATURE CONTROL VALVE OIL TEMPERATURE CONTROL VALVE + + SPEED OF TURBINE/GENERATOR JACKING OIL PUMP + *+ + + + + + *+ + (16) + *+ *+ + OPEN OPEN CHECK > 0. OIL PUMP BY SUBLOOP CONTROL OR OIL PRESSURE AND AUXILIARY OIL PUMP AUX.8 KG/CM2 ON MAV24 APO01 MAV21 CPO01 MAV22 APO01 < 4. ESPECIALLY WHEN SHUTDOWN OCCURS DUE TO DANGER MAV35 CP012 MAV35 CP012 MAV33 AP001 5.

2-0320-02/4 < 210 RPM OPEN OPEN MAV51 AAOO1 MAV51 AAOO1 OPEN MAV51 AAO01 OPEN OPEN MAL22 AA011 < 300 °C <2% OPEN MAL65 AA011 OPEN CLOSED OPEN < 120 °C MAL81 AA011 NOT FAULTED OPEN CHECK CHECK CHECK NOT IN SERVICE COMPLETED CLOSED CLOSED NOT IN SERVICE REF. CRITERION: EXTRACTION CHECK VALVES DRAIN SEAL STEAM HEADER CRITERION: TEMPERATURE IN SEAL STEAM HEADER OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL SUBLOOP CONTROL OF DRAINS DRAIN VALVES BY SUBLOOP CONTROL CRJTERION : REFER TO MANUAL OPERATION MODE OF OPERATION STEAM GENERATOR AND MODE OF OPERATION BYPASS CONTROLS AND MODE OF OPERATION CONDENSING PLANT STEAM GENERATOR BYPASS OPERATION CRITERION: BYPASS STOP VALVES BYPASS CONTROL VALVES THE BYPASS OPERATION IS COMPLETED IF THE REHEATER OF THE STEAM GENERATOR IS DEPRESSURIZED.2-0330 MAW11 AAO01 MAW80 ANOO1 AND MA W80 ANOO2 . TO 5. THE FIXED PRESSURE SET POINT HAS TO BE LOWERED. THE REHEATER WILL BE DEPRESSURIZED BY LEADING THE STEAM INTO THE CONDENSER OR BY OPENING THE EXTERNAL REHEATER DRAIN VALVES.2-0330 OFF OFF ON OR OFF P AMB OFF CLOSED OFF REF.(17) + + + *+ (18) + + + + + + *+ (19) + + + + + + + SPEED OF TURBINE/GENERATOR TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE OR BY SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE DRAIN VALVES DRAIN HP OUTER CASING CRITERION: TEMPERATURE HP OUTER CASING MIDDLE TOP OR TURBINE LOAD DRAIN AHEAD OF CRH SWING CHECK VALVE CRITERION: CRH NRV CLOSED DRAIN UPSTREAM OF EXTRACTION VALVES DESIGNATION OF DRAIN VALVES ACCORDING TO SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM. THE BYPASS VALVE WILL BE USED TO LEAD THE STEAM TO THE CONDENSER. SEAL STEAM PRESSURE SEAL STEAM CONTROLLER SEAL STEAM SUPPLY VALVE FAN OF SEAL STEAM CONDENSER 5. TO 5. CONDENSING PLANT VACUUM PUMPS CONDENSATE PUMP NOTE IF THE CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM WILL BE SHUT DOWN WITHOUT SHUTTING DOWN THE CONDENSATE PUMP THE BYPASS SPRAY WATER VALVES WILL OPEN.

(20) + + + TEST PROGRAM (STANDSTILL) CONTROL FLUID SUPPLIED DEVICES CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM MANUAL OPERATION OR WITH FGA (CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM) FGA (CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM STANDSTILD OPERATION OF PUSH BUTTONS REFER TO THE MANUAL FOR FGA. MAX16 AP001 OR MAX16 AP002 MAX 16 AP001 AND MAX 16 AP002 SWITCH OFF OFF MAX91 APOO1 MAX 91 APOO1 OFF MAX91 APOO1 MAX11 CTO01 5. NORMAL NEUTRALIZATION NO.CONTROL FLUID PUMP SUBLOOP CONTROL HP -CONTROL FLUID PUMP HP -CONTROL FLUID PUMP SWITCH OFF OFF OFF *+ *+ OR WITH FGA (CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM) SUBLOOP CONTROL HP -CONTROL FLUID PUMP HP -CONTROL FLUID PUMP OFF OFF + (21) (21/S) (21/S) NEUTRALIZATION NO. COMPLETED NOT IN SERVICE SHUTDOWN + + + SUBLOOP CONTROL HP .2-0320-02/5 . DOES NOT TEND TO INCREASE CF -RECONDITIONING PUMP CF -RECONDITIONING PUMP OR WITH FGA (CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM) START (22) + + (22/S) *+ CF -RECONDITIONING PUMP (23) + + TEMPERATURE IN CONTROL FLUID TANK < 50 °C SUBLOOP CONTROL OF CONTROL FLUID HEATER SWITCH OFF FLUID HEATER SWITCH OFF SUBLOOP CONTROL OF CONTROL FLUID HEA TEA ONLY IF THE CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM MUST NOT BE OPERATED FOR AN EXTENDED PERIOD ~ OF TIME AND/OR THERE IS SUFFICIENT TIME TO C HEAT-UP THE CONTROL FLUID IN THE TANK PRIOR TO RESTART.

(2) + CHECK NOT IN SERVICE COMPLETED CLOSED OPEN + + CRITERIA FOR BEGIN OF SHUT DOWN IF THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA ARE FILLED THE SYSTEM Will BE SHUT DOWN FROM OPERATION AIR SUCTION VALVE OF VACUUM PUMPS SERVICE VACUUM PUMP VACUUM BREAKER SEAL STEAM CONTROL AND SEAL STEAM SUPPLY VALVE SEAL STEAM EXHAUST FAN + + + + CONDENSATE SYSTEM CIRCULATING WATER OF CONDENSER VACUUM BREAKER WARM-UP CONTROL (SEAL STEAM) + + CONSENSING PLANT MANUAL OPERATION OR WITH FGA (CONDENSING PLANT) FGA (CONDENSING PLANT STANDSTILL) FOR OPERATION OF PUSH BUTTONS REFER TO MANUAL FOR THE FGA (4) + + AIR SUCTION VALVE VACUUM PUMP AIR SUCTION VALVE VACUUM PUMP (5) + + VACUUM PUMPS VACUUM PUMPS THE VACUUM PUMPS DO NOT BELONG TO THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY OF THE TURBINE/GENERATOR OPERATION OF VACUUM PUMPS AND VALVES ACCORDING TO SPECIAL INSTRUCTION.Steam Turbine Condensing Plant Operation Shutdown Diagram (1) CRITERIA FOR SHUT DOWN + STEAM GENERATOR + BY PASS OPERATION + HP BYPASS VALVES + EXTERNAL DRAINS OF STEAM LINES BEFORE THE CONDENSING PLANT Will BE SHUT DOWN ALL.2-0330-01/1 . SUBGROUPS (SEAL STEAM SUPPLY STANDSTILL) OPEN OPEN MAG10 AAO01 MAG10 AAO01 (06/S) *+ VACUUM BREAKER OPEN MAG10 AAO01 + + + + (3) BHEL Hardwar CHECK OPEN ON CLOSED ON OPEN ON MAW11 AAO01 MAW80 ANO01 ORMAW80 AN02 IN OPERATION AVALABLE OPEN ON SHUT DOWN START CLOSE CLOSED 5. SWITCH OFF OFF (6) + + VACUUM BREAKER VACUUM BREAKER OR WITH FGA. ADMISSION STEAM SYSTEM HAVE TO BE DEPRESSURIZED.

8KG/CM2 SWITCH OFF CLOSE OFF MAW11AAO01 CLOSED MAW11 AAO01 OFF CLOSED MAW11 AAO01 MAW80 ANO01 ORMAW80 AN02 MAW80 ANO01 AND MAW80 ANOO2 OFF AND MAW80 ANO01 MAW80 ANOO2 CLOSE CLOSED MAG10 AAOO1 MAG10 AAO01 CLOSED MAG10 AAO01 SWITCH OFF OFF OFF . THE CIRCULATING WATER’SYSTEM CAN£E SHUT DOWN AFTER STEP (12) IS CARRIED OUT. SUBGROUP (SEAL STEAM SUPPLY STANDSTILL) SEAL STEAM CONTROL AND SEAL STEAM SUPPLY VALVE (08) + SEAL STEAM EXHAUST FAN SWITCH OFF + SEAL STEAM EXHAUST FAN OFF (08/S) *+ OR WITH FGA. SUBGROUP (SEAL STEAM SUPPLY STANDSTILL) SEAL STEAM EXHAUST FAN (9) + + CONDENSATE SYSTEM CONDENSTATE SYSTEM THE CONDENSATE SYSTEM DOES NOT BELONG TO THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY (TURBINEGENERATOR). SHUT DOWN NOT IN SERVICE (10) + + CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM DOES NOT BELONG TO THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY (TURBINE GENERATOR). THE CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM SHOULD STAY IN OPERATION DURING SHORT DOWNS TO AVOID CORROSION OF THE CONDENSER TUBES. SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR -CONDENSATE PUMPS -CONDENSER LEVEL CONTROL -MINIMUM FLOW CONTROL -HEATERS MUST AGREE WITH TURBINE OPERATION AND HAVE TO BE FOLLOWED.+ + (07/S) *+ (07/S) *+ VACUUM SEAL STEAM CONTROL AND SEAL STEAM SUPPLY VALVE SEAL STEAM CONTROL AND SEAL STEAM SUPPLY VALVE OR WITH FGA. SHUT DOWN NOT IN SERVICE (11) + + (11/S) *+ VACUUM BREAKER VACUUM BREAKER OR WITH FGA (SEAL STEAM SUPPLY STANDSTILL) VACUUM BREAKER (12) + + (12/S) +* + + + WARM-UP CONTROL (SEAL STEAM) WARM-UP CONTROL (SEAL STEAM) OR WITH FGA (SEAL STEAM) WARM-UP CONTROL (SEAL STEAM) 5. THE CONDENSATE SYSTEM CAN ALSO BE SHUT DOWN AFTER STEP (12) IS CARRIED OUT.2-0330-01/2 > 0.

SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR AND SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS AND SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS AND AVXILIARY OIL PUMP CHECK + + + + + + + + (04) Oil System + + + (03) Steam Turbine + + + + (04/S) *+ (05) + + WAITING TIME FOR COOLING DOWN (K4) SUBLOOP CONTROL OF JACKING OIL PUMPS AND JACKING OIL PUMP FGA (OIL SUPPLY STANDSTILL) FOR OPERATION OF PUSH BUTTONS REFER TO MANUAL FOR FGA. IF THE TURBINE IS TO BE STARTED IN SHORT TIME. CHECK < 100 °C + CRITERIA FOR BEGIN OF SHUT DOWN IF THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA ARE FULFILLED THE SYSTEM WILL BE SHUT DOWN FROM TURNING GEAR OPERATION.g. SHAFTS AND CASING MUST COQL DOWN TO 100 °C TO PREVENT SHAFT DISTORTION DURING STANDSTILL PERIOD FOLLOWING TURNING GEAR OPERATION.2-0340-01/1 .(01) (02) Operation Shutdown Diagram CRITERIA FOR STANDSTILL CASING TEMPERATURE BEFORE THE TURBINE GEAR IS STOPPED. EXCEPT IN CASES WHERE EXTENDED TURNING GEAR OPERATION IS REQUIRED e. SHAFT BHEL Hardwar STAND STILL 5. OR TURNING GEAR MANUALLY OPERATED SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR AND TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR AND TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE OR WITH FGA (OIL SUPPLY) SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR MAA50 CT053A AND MAA50 CT054A ON ON ON ON MAV22 APOOl OR MAV23 APOOl EXPIRED ON ON MAV31 APOOl OR MAV32 APO01 SHUTDOWN SWITCH OFF CLOSE OFF MAV51 AAO01 CLOSED MAV51 AAOO1 OFF MAV51AA012 WAIT THE WAITING TIME IS EXPIRED WHEN THE SHAFT COMES TO A COMPLETE STOP. THE TURNING GEAR MUST BE STOPPED IF ABOVE TEMPERATURES ARE REACHED.

2-0340-01/2 SWITCH OFF SWITCH OFF MAV31 APOOl OR MAV32 APO01 OFF OFF MAV31 APO01 AND MAV32 APO01 OFF OFF MAV31 APO01 AND MAV32 APO01 . (08) + + + + (08/S) *+ *+ SUBLOOP CONTROL OF JACKING OIL PUMP AND JACKING OIL PUMP SUBLOOP CONTROL OF JACKING OIL PUMP AND JACKING OIL PUMP OR WITH FGA (OIL SUPPLY) SUBLOOP CONTROL OF JACKING OIL PUMP AND JACKING OIL PUMP 5. PUMP AND EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS OR WITH FGA (OIL SUPPLY) SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS AND SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS AND AUXILIARY OIL PUMP + (06/S) SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS AND SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS AND AUXILIARY OIL PUMP + SWITCH OFF SWITCH OFF SWITCH OFF MAV22 APO01 OR MAV23 APOOl OFF OFF OFF MAV22 APO01 AND MAV23 APO01 OFF MAV24 APO01 OFF OFF OFF MAV22 APOOl AND MAV23 APO01 OFF MAV24 APO01 WAIT WAIT FOR SHUTDOWN OF JACKING OIL PUMP UNTIL THE RELATIVE EXPANSIONS ARE REDUCED AND NO FURTHER MAJOR AXIAL SHIFTING OF THE JOURNALS IN THE BEARINGS IS EXPECTED.06) + + + + + + *+ *+ AND EMERCJENCY OIL PUMP *+ *+ (07) SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS AND SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS AND AUXILIARY OIL.

 Observe the TSE/TSC lower margin. Cooling down of the turbine during operation Arrangement of the air Inlet sockets The cooling down of the turbine is to be started during load operation as follows:  HP turbine: Between main steam stop valves and control valves. The fast cooling down of turbine has to be limited to those cases where this measure is unavoidable with respect to the availability of the turbine. Procedure  Open air inlet sockets  Set test valve of all stop valves in the position stop valve closed.  Operate vacuum pumps  Observe TSE/TSC lower margin and stop vacuum pumps if limit values are exceeded.  Slowly reduce admission temperatures to values. load. The HP exhaust temperature may not be reduced to the saturation point corresponding to the HP exhaust pressure. which can be maintained steady by boiler control.  Reduce unit power output to the boiler minimum  IP turbine: At the admission pipes between control valves and IP turbine. Fast cooling down is necessary especially if activities are to be executed at turbine parts. Fast Cooling Down of the Turbine Fast cooling down during stand still During stand still air will be sucked through the turbine by the vacuum pumps resulting in fast cooling of casing and rotor.Steam Turbine Operation Introduction If service activities or repairs have to be carried out very soon or immediately after shut down of the turbine.2-0350-01 . Shutdown the turbine in accordance with the respective instructions after cooling down during bypass operation has been completed. NOTE: Do not reduce load and temperature at the same time because of the danger to exceed the permissible relative expansion and the lower margin of the TSE/TSC Load or temperature reduction have to be stopped or the rate of ‘change to be reduced depending upon the limiting values of relative expansion and the lower margins of the TSE/TSC. which are exposed to high operational temperatures. BHEL Hardwar 5. it is advisable to reduce the cooling down time.  During normal operation the air inlet sockets are closed by blank flanges.  Operate the turbine with reduced load and steam temperatures until the lower margin of TSE/TSC do not change significantly any more.

water-which is responsible for a high proportion of all corrosion -is found in all turbines which have cooled down and been idle for some time.1 shows the effect of relative humidity on rusting loss (VA) for a sample of carbon steel. During long idle periods when the turbine has cooled to the ambient temperatures. However. For large turbines. It is also advisable to drain the condensate from the condenser. The rusting loss increase sharply when the relative humidity is high therefore. Fig. water or damp air are liable to corrosion attack. the relative humidity of the enclosed air should be maintain below 50% as far as possible. The turbine components can be heated by means of a hot air blower to a temperature above that of the outside air.Steam Turbine Maintenance Introduction If a turbine stands idle for a long period it is liable to corrosion attack which if not prevented by appropriate means. FIg. a method of prevention is recommended employing an Air dryer to exchange the high relative humidity air in the turbine for dry air.  erosion of material reducing sections and producing notch effects which weaken the components. if a turbine is installed in or near a chemical plant it would be possible for such gases and vapours to increase the amount of corrosion. On the other hand. BHEL Hardwar 5. it is essential for no steam at all to enter the turbine while it is idle. Any auxiliary steam lines which will remain under steam pressure during a complete unit shut-down must be isolated in a manner which ensures that no steam can enter the turbine. therefore. will cause deterioration of the components.  The high relative humidity air inside the turbine can be exchanged for dry air.  Leaks at valve and fittings. The water originates from:  Residual water in inadequately drained spaces  steam leaking into the turbine and condensing The turbine itself and its connecting pipe work must be well drained through out the idle period.  fouling of the systems which spreads the corrosion to other areas.  Heavier wear of corrosion-damaged surfaces. to inhabit corrosion attack in an idle turbine.2-0360-00/1 . Preventing Corrosion in Idle Turbines the condensation produced when the temperature within the turbine falls below point ( this is the principal source of the water). The Effect of Corrosion  Seizure of sliding components due to increased volume of the products of corrosion. There are basically two possible methods of preventing corrosion attack caused by condensation from the air inside the turbine:  corrosion prevention is to be achieved. all components which come into contact with steam vapour. 1 Enect of Relative Humidity on Hustling Loss Vr  Preventing Corrosion During Idle Periods If complete effectiveness of the following method of Factors Contributing to Corrosion Chamically corrosive gases and vapours are seldom encountered in normal power stations in sufficiently high concentrations to cause damage.

The filter of the Air dryer must be clean from time to time depending on the dust content in the air supply. The air dryer does not belong to the scope of supply must be operated continuously while the turbine is idle. 5. Preservation of the Oil System The turbine oil contains corrosion inhibitors therefore it is unnecessary to adopt any special measures to preserve oil carrying components except to operate one of the auxiliary oil pumps for an hour at intervals of two to three weeks.Filtered air from the atmosphere is drawn into the Air dryer by a fan and moisture is removed from it In a rotating drying wheel before it is delivered to the turbine. Two air dryers are needed. Main steam control valves have to be opened and blocked in this position. The dying wheel which has absorbed the moisture is dried by a reverse flow of hot air in the regenerating sector which is separate from absorption sector. There will an obvious drop in the relative humidity only a few hours after switching on the Air dryer. It is inadvisable to operate the air dryer without the filter because of the danger of blockage in the fine tubular ducts of the absorption wheel. The wet air escapes at the drains behind HP Turbine at flanges between IP valves and IP casing and the lowest point of the condensers. It Operation of the air -dryer must be executed in accordance with the instructions of the dryermanufacturer. . Figure 3 shows the interconnection between airdryers and turbine. The dryer’s relatively low power consumption does not involve any great cost.2-0360-00/2 of BHEL.

Steam Turbine Operation The scope and content of the trouble shooting instructions are limited to criteria or measures that can be performed by the control panel operator or the turbine operator without specialized help and avert events detrimental to the operation and availability of the turbine generator unit.2-0400-00 . The operating staff must be trained to take proper action should such fault occur. the remedial measures are indicated against the faults that could have severe consequences.2-0410 : Serious Faults BHEL Haridwar 5. Also refer to the following sections: [1] 5. Fault Tracing Introduction In the instruction Serious Faults [1].

Normal procedure Reduce steam generator to minimum output immediately.1-0101 must not be exceeded.  Prolonged operation at rated speed with or without residual load.  Excess steam from steam generator is dumped to the condenser through the bypass valves. The turbine is in danger not only when the specified limits of a process parameter are reached but also when the process parameter deviates markedly or rapidly from the normal values otherwise observed. Manual intervention is not possible as automatic shut down is too fast. Set reference speed setter to rated speed. Refer 5. See also Turbine Trip. which must also be taken into consideration.2-0410-00/1 . Cause Remedy Breaker opens as a result of an internal or external fault. Fault  Other symptoms Many of the criteria refer not only extreme conditions requiring immediate action but also to the trends of the process transients. Synchronize generator if permitted by results of fault tracing.Steam Turbine Operation Serious Faults Fault Tracing Introduction Many operating faults require the monitoring staff to take immediate appropriate action if serious reductions in the availability. General rule: determine cause of shut-down. 5.2-0450. may continue Limits specified in 5. operating reliability and service life of the turbine are to be averted. Load rejection  Turbine generator remains in operation after short time rise in speed. BHEL Haridwar Beaker opens as a result of an internal or external fault. Operation indefinitely. Load rejection with turbine trip  Turbine speed reaches trip speed of overspeed trip. Control valves and extraction valves closed by the turbine governor to stop the steam flow through the turbine. The following criteria and instruction must be included in the intensive schooling and training program for the monitoring staff. Reduce main steam temperature or load turbine if HP turbine exhaust steam temperature approaches to limits. if this is not done automatically by the unit control.

Speed drops. Remote trip by protective devices in steam supply system. Refer to fault tracing instructions and eliminate fault. Excess steam from steam generator is dumped to the condenser through the bypass valves General rule: determine cause of trip. Turbine-generator unit in imminent danger − Open vacuum beaker − Stop air extraction − Allow air to condenser plant. Refer to relevant fault tracing instructions and eliminate fault. e. See also 5.g. turbine or generator. load and speed prior to load rejection.   Reduce condenser vacuum to shorten coast down. see also 5. turning gear operation commences. Inspect thrust bearing and. and attend Turbine trip  Stop and control valves and extraction valves close. Shaft displacement in thrust bearing due to damage to bearing. Reduce steam generator to minimum output immediately if this is not done automatically by the unit control. 5. See load rejection with turbine trip. Condenser vacuum reduced due to fault in condenser plant. Control malfunction Check control malfunction. Turbine trip by protective devices Generator disconnected from system by reverse power protection relay. .2-0421.2-0410-00/2 Overspeed after load rejection. Auxiliary oil pump cuts in due to loss of pressure as speed drops.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Adverse condition during load rejection Investigate conditions. Refer to relevant fault tracing instructions and eliminate fault. if necessary. repair.2-0450.

See 5. check output display.2-0420 Reduce condenser vacuum to shorten coast down. Fault in reverse protection relay power If reverse power protection relay is not actuated by all or some of the above mentioned measures. Observe closing of stop valves. 5. reduce condenser vacuum: − Open vacuum breaker − Stop air extraction from condenser plant − Allow air to condenser plant enter Open turbine drains Open drains between stop and control valves Shut down steam generator. check steam pressure in turbine. Reverse power protection relay fails to open generator breaker  Turbine control valves closed by control as load removed Check position of control and extraction valves (Desired position: 0%). Attention: do not open generator breaker manually (danger of impermissible overspeed). Trip turbine. reduce steam pressure in steam supply lines.2-0410-00/3 . In this case.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Suspected that steam is still entering the turbine. disconnect the generator from the supply system by opening the breaker. it is very probable that there is a fault in the reverse power protection relay. The following parameters exceed the permissible limits even though remedial measures have been taken as prescribed in the relevant fault tracing instructions  Vibration high Use load limiting device to reduce load on turbine generator unit from any operating mode to no-load and/or shut-down unit by actuating main trip valve.

2-0423  Bearing temperatures high See 5. 5. Temperatures and duration of exposure to excessive temperature limited is specified in 5.g. eliminate fault if necessary.  Bypass stream temperature high during bypass operation Condenser vacuum low. . Reduce main temperature or turbine load.  Measure internal efficiency.  Steam pressure upstream of blading and/or extraction steam pressure high. Ventilation blading. Check condensate pumps. steam increase If these measure do not reduce the temperature. Bypass steam flow rate too high. Pressures and duration of exposure to excessive pressure limited as specified in 5.1-0100.1-0100. large drop in inlet stream temperature  Condensate level condenser very high metal in The following parameters exceed the permissible limits  Inlet steam pressure high.2-0410-00/4 heating through Start injection into LP turbine or increase load.2-0421  Temperature differences between parallel steam supply lines high Note: The decision whether the load limiting device should be used to further reduce load before the main trip valve is actuated will depend both on the seriousness of the danger and on the amount by which the limits are exceeded. Fault in steam generator Change steam generator operation. HP exhaust temperature high during no-load or low load operation. Steam generator output too high Reduce steam generator output or increase turbine load  Inlet steam temperatures high. blade choking.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy  Casing differential temperatures high See 5. Injection water pressure too low. initiate turbine trip.  LP turbine exhaust temperature high during no load or low load operation. pressures and duration of exposure to excessive pressures limited as specified in 5. Reduce steam generator output. Load too high Reduce turbine load Irregularities in the turbine e. Measure stage pressures and compare with normal values under identical operating conditions.1-0100.  Rapid.

oil Danger of bearing whipping. Observe limits for temperature difference between parallel steam supply lines. Fire or fire hazard during operation Set off fire alarm. If necessary. if impermissibly high. Control valve or stop valve fails to open again after testing with automatic turbine tester  All measures as prescribed in 5. inspect bearings. jacking At the same time:  Escape of control fluid Leakage in piping or other turbine components Press fire pushbutton 1 protection or Switch off sub-loop control for the control fluid pumps immediately and shut-down (operating) pump (result: turbine generator unit trips). The turbine plant may be operated with defective valve for max. Jacking oil pumps in operation Check bearing metal temperatures. Check bearings.1 week. 5. Shaft assembly runs down without lubricating oil  Fault in auxiliary and emergency oil pumps. the output must be reduced so that the limits as prescribed in 5. Check bearing metal temperatures. if necessary.  Fault in pump(s).2-0455 fail.1-0100 are not exceeded.2-0410-00/5 .Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Fault in valve or turbine tester. initiate fire fighting measures.  Escape of oil from the lubricating oil system Leakage in piping or other turbine components Press fire protection pushbutton 2 (pressing fire protection pushbutton 2 automatically initiate fire protection 1 measures). result: turbine generator unit trips. Drain steam line upstream and downstream of defective valve thoroughly. Follow fire protection rules.

Keep jacking oil pump in operation if no leakage from the jacking oil system. Close turning gear oil valve. Turn shaft through 180 degree at intervals of approx. Eliminate leak and perform hydrostatic pressure test.2-0410-00/6 . Switch off sub loop control for jacking oil pumps. Check to ensure that subloop control cuts-in emergency oil pump as oil pressure drops. If necessary. Acknowledge initiation of fire protection measures. Commence operation.  Shaft comes to a standstill when fire protection measures are initiated − Open vacuum breaker − Stop air extraction from condenser plant − Allow air to condenser plant enter Shut down DC lubricating oil pump. 5. 10 minutes. Depressurize control fluid system (measures as above). Restart lubricating and control fluid system. Switch off subloop control for auxiliary oil pump. turning gear Replace insulating materials soaked with escaped fluid. shut down auxiliary oil pump(s). Start up jacking oil pumps. Reduce condenser vacuum to shorten coast down.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy or Shut down turbine generator unit. Start up turbine generator unit.2-0460. For treatment of turbine after complete standstill shaft see 5.

Fault  Other symptoms Cause Fire or fire hazard during turning gear operation Remedy Set off fire alarm. Isolate and eliminate leak. Shut down auxiliary oil pumps. If necessary.  Escape of oil from the jacking oil system Leakage in piping or other turbine components Shut down jacking oil pump (risk of bearing damage is minor if turning gear stays in operation). 5. Check to ensure that. Start up jacking oil pump. For further measures see: Fire or fire hazard during operation. fire  Escape of control fluid Leakage in piping or other turbine components Measures as for fire or fire hazard during operation. sub-loop control cuts in the lubricating oil pumps as oil pressure drops.  Oil system Alarm: oil level low The system must be checked immediately for leakage if this alarm is generated. Switch off sub-loop control for auxiliary oil pumps.2-0410-00/7 . Close turning gear oil valve. Follow fire protection rules. Lubricating or control fluid loss annunciated by level monitoring circuit  Separate control fluid system Alarm: fluid level low or very low (2-out-of-3) The system must be checked immediately for leakage if this alarm is generated in rapid succession. A leak must be assumed and appropriate fire protection measures taken.  Escape of oil from the lubricating oil system Leakage in piping or other turbine components Jacking oil pump stays in operation. initiate fighting measures. Note: The trip system is inoperative during turning gear operation.  Oil system Turbine trip due to oil level very low (2-out-of-3) Fire protection measures initiated automatically.

2-0410-00/8 . check bearings and alignment. if possible. Observe response on bearing and shaft vibrations. If there is a rupture hazard (pre-rupture leak). Earthquake Unload and shut down turbine generator unit rapidly. If necessary.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Escape of steam Leakage in piping or other turbine components Isolate steam leakage area immediately and depressurize system concerned. Check valve supports. 5. shut down turbine generator unit immediately. Carefully consider risk of erosion at sealing surfaces and decide on time of shut down. Check pipe hangers and tank supports.

Casing top-bottom differential temperatures. by Check whether increased vibration is maintained after load is reduce and when coasting down. If excessive vibration occurs. Casing wall temperature. Bearing metal temperatures Bearing damage  Unstable running due to self excited vibration Reduce turbine load immediately until vibration decreases. listen for noises during this period. excessive vibration can occur and because the various kinds of vibrations are intermingled. Fault  Other symptoms So.g. because of rapid temperature changes. Vibration frequency less than rotational frequency. e.2-0420-00/1 . causes and remedial actions pertaining to some typical type of vibration. manufacturer to determine its cause and effective measures to be taken to combat it.Steam Turbine Operation Vibration Fault Tracing Despite all design. it is necessary to carryout extensive tests together with the The following data refers to the characteristics. Many possible causes Carryout the following tests to find out the causes: Rapid or instantaneous increase in vibration over the permissible limits or the range of the measuring system (alarm or instrument display)  Loud noises and/or the following operating parameters exceed their limits: Low-frequency vibration. broken blades or metal to metal rubbing Caution: stop turbine immediately even when accuracy of reading is doubtful. load turbine slowly to stability limit. Vibration increases above normal value for specific power outputs and operating conditions  Vibration values less than permissible limits BHEL Haridwar 5. examine vibration. it is difficult to give a complete list of possible causes and proper corrective action to be taken. Clearance eliminated casing distortion. Cause Remedy Suspected damage. the reasons for it are difficult to isolate. manufacturing and erection measures to prevent it. Irregular point trace from recording Instrument. Clearances eliminated casing distortion. in this instruction. by Measure the time taken to coast down.

including when passing through critical speed ranges.Correct any discrepancies found during the checks Permanent shaft distortion due to metal to metal rubbing 5.Fit of centering spigot and recess.Horizontal v . if possible. Measure vibration.Alignment Initial corrective action: . Examine magnitude direction of vibrations. Initial corrective action: Dynamic re-balancing of rotor. if runout is less.2-0420-00/2 Measure redial runout of shaft. Increased vibration over entire load range under steady-state operation. . redial runout of coupling faces . Vibration increased above previous values.Vertical a .Firm and proper coupling bolts fit of . Measure vibration at bearings in three plans: all h . foundation Measure the vibration in relation to all principle operating parameters and their variations.Axial Measure shaft vibration in two directions at right angles. Increased vibration at rated speed  the Changes in shaft balance due to: system Rotor condition induced by eccentric coupling. and Check the coupling for: .Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Determine main frequency of vibration. Measure the phase relation ship of the bearings and shaft vibration.Dynamically re-balance the rotors (except if coupling bolts are not tight and alignment unsatisfactory) .

Wait until vibration improves when steady state conditions are reached. loading and unloading. vary only one operating parameter at a time.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Final corrective action: Stress relieving. if runout is more. Remove restriction to expansion by improving sliding of bearing housings and casing guides. Modifications or repair on the blades during on overhaul Dynamic balancing of rotor.   Temporary increase in vibration during non steady state operating conditions (startup. Temporary distortion of shaft resulting from metal to metal rubbing at the seal rings caused by misalignment due to temperature changes. thermal stabilisation and balancing at manufacture’s works. if the blade damage is suspected elsewhere the appropriate turbine casing must be opened. If blades in the final LP stages are damaged. If possible. Reduce speed. Blade damage Inspect blading.) Constant relationship between vibration and specific changes in operating parameters. 5. a temporary corrective measure is to shorten the blade in the 180° opposite position to damaged blade or to attach a balancing weight in the plane of damage to compensate for the missing piece (consult manufacturer). Alignment changes due to restricted expansion at turbine casing and bearing housings. main steam temperature changes etc.2-0420-00/3 . Temporary shaft distortion due to temporary non-uniform temperature distribution during temperature changes. load and/or rate of change of temperature. Reduce speed. Many possible causes Determine relationships by measuring magnitude and direction of vibration under varied operating conditions. load and/or rate of change of temperature.

Check the following operating parameters and conditions: . Distortion remaining from an interruption of turning gear operation before start-up.  Increased vibration during turbine acceleration.  Increased vibration during warm-up. Vibration is normal at rated speed.Reactive load .Bearing metal temperatures . Reduce turbine speed to less than 400 rpm.Steam temperatures .  Increased vibration during turbine acceleration. No improvement in vibration at rated speed.Thrust bearing position . Change the warm-up speed within permissible ranges.Casing expansion . and eliminate shaft distortion before increasing speed.Oil temperatures .Seating and freedom of expansion of casing palms .2-0420-00/4 . 5.Steam pressure .Active load .Freedom of movement for bearing housings .Shaft eccentricity Check turbine casing bearing housing for: .Valve lift .Freedom washers of and spacing .Speed . each variation there must be a delay for steady state conditions. while Pass through critical speed ranges rapidly.Casing temperatures .Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy After. Warm-up speed near a critical. Increased vibration passing critical speeds.Freedom of movement for piping Note: Changes in vibration characteristics due to changes in temperature usually occur slowly and at a constant rate.

Expansion .Control valve lift . Vibration frequency less than rotational frequency. Bearing clearance excessive Change oil temperature Changes properties viscosity.Shaft displacement . Bearing loading too low. ring balancing Sudden sharp increase in vibration with accentuated low-frequency components. identify the operating parameters affecting vibration: Increased vibration in LP turbine and generator area. Adjust seal pressure.Load .  Irregular point trace from recording instrument .Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy  Balancing pressure of generator axial seal ring not correctly set. Many possible causes After finding out the stability limits. Increase bearing loading by changing the alignment.Oil temperature .Bearing metal temperatures  Vibration is related to load and valve lift. in damping due changes in 5.2-0420-00/5 .  Vibration related to lubricating oil temperature changes.

in case oil temperature reaches the maximum permissible limit in the event of cooling water supply failure. Establish normal temperature. Check throttle valve setting. oil temperature Shut-down turbine generator unit. similar temperature rise not observed before under comparable conditions Bearing Temperature Fault Tracing Cause Remedy If a fault in the temperature measuring equipment can be ruled out. Switch off controller.  Rapid rise of bearing metal temperatures  Dirt in oil Check bearings for sign of wear.2-0421-01 .  Oil cooler chocked Change over to stand by oil cooler Misalignment Check alignment 5.Steam Turbine Operation Fault  Other symptoms Bearing Temperatures High  Rapid rise of one or more bearing metal temperatures to the preset alarm level.  Excessive thrust thrust bearings) Fault in oil control system (in Analyse cause of excessive thrust. Inadequate oil supply Check bearing. oil  Fault in oil controller Establish manually  Fault in cooling water supply Check water flow through cooler.  Check oil pressure upstream of damaged bearing.  Cooling temperature high  Slow rise of one or more bearing metal temperatures BHEL Haridwar water Startup stand-by cooler. the bearing is damaged Shut down turbine immediately to prevent consequential damage. Check filters for chocking. temperature Check oil temperature downstream of cooler. analyse cause of bearing damage and take corrective action.  Tilting of bearing Check bearing assembly. take oil samples.

causing uneven steam flow through turbine Close drain valves further or completely.  After load reductions.2-0423-02/1 . ∆θ + / - As above As above  After load reductions. open any close drain valves. test functioning and leaktightness of extraction valves. Casing temperatures affected by leaks in sealing elements inside the turbine Check condition and measure clearances at sealing elements during overhaul and refit or replace leaky elements as necessary. ∆θ + / - Uneven heat dissipation due to not enough steam flow through casing If possible.  During start-up. during low power operation.  During power ∆θ + / - operation. BHEL Haridwar 5. ∆θ + Drain valves still open too wide. notify manufacturer and ask to calculate if turbine can be operated at higher temperature differentials for the time being  During start-up. ∆θ + Steam backflow or entry of water into turbine through extraction lines Open drain valves in extraction lines. ∆θ - Casing or steam lines not properly drained Check position of drain valves. increase steam flow through turbine to obtain uniform warm-up. Take measures at the feed water heaters to prevent back flow.Steam Turbine Operation Fault  Other symptoms Casing Temperatures Fault Tracing Cause Remedy Annunciation: Casing temperature differentials top/bottom high + (positive) = higher temperature in top half casing (negative) = lower temperature in top half casing  During start-up.

record coast down time. wait until the steam admitted begins to reduce temperature differentials before running up to rated speed.2-0423-02/2 . Warning: Do not rotate the shaft system forcibly.  During standstill or power operation Uneven heat dissipation due to imperfect lagging Repair lagging Casing temperature differentials excessive  In any operating mode (additional turbine protection not operative) Coast down turbine immediately by tripping. Wait until temperature differential has fallen to permissible level.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy  During standstill or turning gear operation. 5. set turning device in operation. observe coast down. ∆θ + Uneven cooling due to air currents within the foundation or inside the turbine Start turbine very carefully.  Turbine generator comes to standstill after coast down ( in turning gear operation) Carefully try to turn shaft system using manual shaft turning device.

if not. too rapid warm-up reduces the margin. stop valves open. BHEL Haridwar Steam already entering the turbine. causing reduction of the margin.Steam Turbine Operation Fault  Other symptoms Turbine Stress Controller Measures to Avoid Impermissible Operation Cause Remedy Admission into main steam line and main steam stop and control valves too high. retard temperature increase up-stream of turbine by throttling the warm-up valves (drains) between stop and control valves. or Continue to close warm-up valve(s) until a sufficient margin has developed.e.  by TSC Limitation admission monitoring channel by TSC detector in control valve during warmup of the main steam line and the main steam valves immediately after opening of the stop valves.2-0430-01/1 . If margin is negative. this should be done in order to avoid prolonging warm-up. close-warm up valves. Both the admission channel and the turbine channel must be observed and step must be taken to avoid reduction of margin. repeatedly open and close the main steam stop valves. i. Stop valves opened at too high a pressure. Open warm-up valves (drains) between stop and control valves more slowly. Check whether warm-up valves (drains) between stop and control valves are closed. 5.  Limitation by TSC turbine monitoring channel during warm-up of the main steam line. or Hold warm-up valve position until a sufficient margin has developed. wait for sufficient margin before re-opening warm-up valves. General rule: If main stem temperature can be reduced when margins narrow. Upper margin of turbine stress controller restricted during non-steady-state operation (Upper margin becoming O)  Limitation by TSC admission monitoring channel by TSC detector in stop valve and/or TSC detector in control valve during warm-up of the main steam line and the stop and control valves.

Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Reduce main steam temperature. if possible.2-0430-01/2 Automatic and/or measures as above. The influence of the TSC on the set-point controller reduces the speed gradient or.. caused the speed gradient to tend towards 0. Operation of the turbine generator unit at constant speed within the critical speed range is inadmissible. The control valves must therefore be closed and the turbine generator must be warmed up at a speed below the lower boundary of the critical speed range specified in the Technical Data 5. at a certain margin. A certain TSC margin (determined empirically) must be available before the turbine generator until is run up to rated speed. Increase in steam flow during acceleration of turbine diminishes margin. Reduce supply steam flow by closing the control valves by means of the speed set point controller or the starting and load limit device.  Limitation by TSC turbine monitoring channel during warm-up in wait step below critical speed range. Turbine is being warmed up too quickly. 5. Turbine run-up causes an increase in the supply steam temperature so that the margin is reduced.  Limitation by TSC turbine monitoring channel during turbine run-up to rated speed. manual . The turbine generator unit is automatically run down to the set warm up speed by means of the gradient monitor as soon as a certain permanently set minimum speed gradient is not attained.1-011. until an appropriate TSC margin is available.

turbine during Steam flow too high in relation to turbine temperature conditions. If the supply steam temperature cannot be reduced.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy The TSC display and the recorder make it possible to recognize which turbine section has the smallest margin. The influence of the TSC on the setpoint controller reduces the speed gradient and/or the turbine load is reduced and the generator is possibly disconnected from the grid by the reverse power protection relay. temperature of IP turbine low. reheat temperature high. It is therefore possible to widen the margin reducing the temperature of the supply steam to that specific section within the limits permitted by the steam generator. further run-up will have to be delayed until the trailing turbine has warmed up sufficiently.  Margin for IP turbine reduced. Warm up operation does not warm up the IP turbine sufficiently to prevent reduction of the margin. manual Proper adjustment of the reheat temperature within the limits permitted by the steam generator is recommended. wait for IP turbine to warm up sufficiently at rated speed before synchronizing the generator.2-0430-01/3 . since further margin reductions are to be expected when the unit goes on load if the IP turbine has not been warmed up sufficiently. Limitation by TSC monitoring channel power operation. 5. Automatic and/or measures as above. If the turbine generator unit can be run up to rated speed.

Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Lower margin of turbine stress controller restricted during non-steady-state operation (Lower margin becoming 0)  Limitation by TSC admission monitoring channel during warm-up of the main steam line and the main steam stop and control valves. Do not open main steam stop valves until temperature has been adjusted accordingly.2-0430-01/4 . 5. Immediately adjust turbine output to changed steam generator conditions by means of load setpoint limiter so as to significantly reduce the steam flow. Rapid. the turbine must be tripped. raise steam temperature before warming and/or starting up the turbine.  Limitation by TSC admission and turbine monitoring channels during disturbances in steam generator operation. if the additional influence due to throttling prevails and/or if there is no end to the steam generator malfunction in sight. Load change leads to a reduction of throttle temperature down stream of main steam control valves. or TSC margin becomes negative. Main steam temperature too low in relation to main steam line and valve temperature. Main steam temperature too low in relation to turbine temperature Check steam conditions upstream of the turbine.  Limitation by TSC turbine monitoring channel during warm-up and/or start-up of the turbine. No particular measures required in the event of isolated load rejections. pronounced temperature reduction due to fault in steam generator. Normal occurrence as a consequence of the reduction in throttle temperature.  Limitation by TSC after load rejection with or without residual load.  Limitation by TSC turbine monitoring channel during unloading of the turbine. Note: Turbine shut-down by trip actuation is permitted from any load condition. Reduce load gradient and/or hold load constant until nonsteady-state condition has passed. will reduce turbine life only if repeated frequently.

5. the TSC influence on the turbine controller is immediately cutout.2-0430-01/5 .1-011. Continue monitoring of the turbine generator unit for thermal stress by comparing recorded temperatures with the permissible temperatures curves shown in Technical Data 5. Locate and eliminate fault in turbine stress evaluator as described in the TSC manual.. stress Cut out TSC influence.Fault  Other symptoms Fault in controller  Alarm turbine Cause Remedy Electrical fault in turbine stress controller. In the event of a fault in the turbine stress controller during speed and load operation.

 Stop valve system is made ready for operation by driving the starting and load limit device towards 0% Pressure above piston has not built up sufficiently when test valve is changed over Wait until starting and load limit device is in 0% position and pressure above piston of stop valve has built up. Start-up pressure < valve opening Test valve closed Verify opening of stop valves locally. Drains downstream of stop valve open Pressure difference preventing main valve from opening Close drain downstream of stop valve.  Pressure above piston drops immediately when pressure builds up below piston (steam pressure present) Internal pilot valve jammed inside the main valve Overhaul stop valve and free internal pilot valve. Defect in feedback system of actuator Check feedback system for blockages. BHEL Haridwar 5. Gear of test valves not in operating position Bring gear of test valves into operating position. Cut off valve in secondary line closed Open cut off secondary line. Control valve fails to open  Secondary present oil pressure Control valve opens closes erratically  Slight changes secondary pressure valve in and in Control valve fails to respond to control signals  Starting and device not position load limit in 100% Starting and load limit device limiting hydraulic governor Bring starting and load limit device into 100% position.  Reference speed setter not in 100% position during operation with electrohydraulic turbine controller Reference speed setter limiting hydraulic governor Bring reference speed setter into 100% position. Open test valve.  Stop valve closes when internal pilot valve has reached the end of its travel.2-0440-01/1 .Steam Turbine Operation Fault  Other symptoms Stop and Control Valves Fault Tracing Cause Remedy Stop valve fails to open  Stop valve system ready for operation.

Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Many causes possible Check hydraulic governor. Change in relationship between secondary pressure and control valves  Steady-state operation Record control characteristics:  Travel of start-up and load limit device  Travel of converter  Secondary pressure  Secondary pressure  Travel of control valve auxiliary and have control setting corrected by manufacturer Change in mutual relationship of control valve travels  Steady-state operation Many causes possible As above  Restriction in movement of valve stem Less clearance between valve cone & bush Maintain required clearance between valve cone & bush by machining ID of bush Excessive tightening of glands of the valve 5.2-0440-01/2 Slightly reduce the tightening of the glands of the valves . converter and actuators.

If only one main trip valve has operated. Find out cause of turbine trip from recorder plots or annunciation. when the generator breaker is opened.. The cause of trip must be identified and must be rectified before the unit is started up again. Check annunciation to find out if both main trip valves operated.  Overspeed trips operated BHEL Haridwar The overspeed trips operate when the preset speed limit is reached. lamps) and repair any mechanical fault affecting the defective valve. Automatic turbine trip  Main trip valves operated The main trip valves operate whenever trip is started.2-0450-01/1 . If trip started due to faults outside the turbine. If trip started due to protection criteria within turbine. Check if trip was caused by these: 5. i. check whether turbine trip operation was called for in accordance with the protection concept. test signaling circuit (limit switches.e. Operation of the overspeed trip is normally prevented by the turbine governor if load rejection occurs. check for damage or irregularities that would prevent further operation of the unit.Steam Turbine Operation Fault  Other symptoms Protective Devices Fault Tracing Cause Remedy Turbine trip  Manual trip-out Main trip valve actuated locally or from control room Check condition that was the reason for tripping turbine locally or from the control desk and find out if turbine generator unit can be restarted.  Automatic trip-out Protective device operated. Many causes possible. wiring.

5.2-0450-01/2 Exercise reheat control valves. Find out oil pressures when trips operate and compare with pressures previously set. . Check free movement hydraulic control elements: − Control valves − Converter of Remove blockage or other malfunctions. Check electrical controller.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Overspeed trips operate too early. Failure of reheat control valves. Check for leaks in turbine control valves: Note operation of reverse power protection if turbine control valves are closed during synchronized generator operation. Check position of extraction check valves. Check if spring fatigued. check measuring circuit. If actuation of load rejection relay is not annunciated. Leak in turbine control valves. Load rejection relay failed to respond turbine Check solenoid valves. Adjust overspeed trips. Turbine control malfunction. Perform oil pressure test on overspeed trips. Extraction check valves fail to close or leaking. test coils of solenoid valves for operation. If secondary pressure do not collapse. Actuate contactor and note effect on secondary pressure of solenoid valves opening. Perform overspeed test with turbine is at operating temperature.

Check flow of circulating water through condenser. Examine cracks. circulating water Fault in gland seal steam supply Check position valves. If fault in controller or if control valves malfunction. Air entry into condenser Test for leaks. Fault in vacuum pumps Check operation of vacuum pump. lack of oil).2-0450-01/3 . in Rapid temperature drops after load rejection are probably due to extraction check valves leaking.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Check temperature extraction lines. Fault in supply Check circulating water pumps. rupture disks for 5.  Electrical low vacuum trip responded Loss of condenser vacuum Identify the cause condenser vacuum loss.  Thrust bearing responded trip Excessive bearing play in thrust Check bearing temperature. metal Check thrust bearing. damage. Locate and repair leaks. of of control Check controller. Find out cause of high thrust bearing wear (axial thrust. switch of controller and maintain gland seal steam pressure manually or by local operation of valves. Shutdown vacuum pumps and measure pressure rise.

 Trip solenoids repair fault Do not operate turbine generator unit if trip solenoids are not functioning perfectly. If the defective overspeed trip still does not operate satisfactorily. operation of turbine generator unit must not been continued. repair fault .2-0450-01/4 or Locate and immediately.  Both overspeed trips fail to operate during over speed testing Overspeed fouled trip jammed Attention : Normal trip speed must not be exceeded by more than 2% Repeat testing by test oil pressure several times until turbine trip starts at normal test oil pressure values.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy  Hydraulic low vacuum trip responded Loss of condenser vacuum As stated earlier  Turbine trip started via electrical signal from additional turbine protection system because casing temperature differential (s) high. Trip devices jammed. identify causes as described in instruction 5.  Turbine trip started via electrical signal because temperature of exhaust steam from HP turbine high.2-0423.  steam Faults in protective devices  Main trip valves fail to operate Locate and immediately. Temperature differentials high Check recording instruments. Fault in solenoids Locate and repair fault.2-0410 Jammed Turbine generator unit must not be operated if main trip valves are not functioning perfectly. Cooling steam flow too low Check valve setting Pressure of exhaust steam from HP turbine too high Reduce pressure by suitable measures Main steam temperature in HP turbine too high Reduce main temperature Turbine trip started via electrical signal from the fire protection system Trip by fire protection system See 5. Incorrect speed reading 5.

Over speed trip fails to operate when tested by test oil pressure Cause of maloperation may be too high a test oil pressure Adjust test oil pressure. Movement of overspeed trip mechanism impaired Increase speed with generator unsynchronized and perform test.   Movement of over speed trip mechanism impaired Repeat testing by test oil pressure several times until turbine trip operates at the test oil pressure values previously measured. (Compare frequency of excited generator system frequency by means of synchronizing device). Correct speed Adjust speed indicator. operation of the turbine generator device must not be continued until fault has been corrected.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Check speed indicator (compare frequency of excited generator with system frequency by means of synchronizing device). Over speed trip operates at too high a test oil pressure when tested by test oil pressure Turbine generator unit speed too low when generator not synchronized Check speed indicator. Leak in test-oil line inside the bearing pedestal Check test oil line at next opportunity. Staggering of overspeed trip settings If testing by test oil pressure reveals that the two overspeed trips respond at slightly staggered settings.2-0450-01/5 . no further action is necessary. Overspeed trip operates at too low a test oil pressure Turbine generator unit speed too high when generator not synchronized Check speed indicator (for too high a trip speed) 5. If the defective over speed trip still does not operate satisfactorily. Adjust speed indicator.   One over speed trip fails to operate during over speed testing Jammed or fouled Perform testing by test oil pressure.

second trip responds normally.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Drift of trip speed (e. Drift in setting Correct setting Diaphragm damaged Check diaphragm and replace.g. Until this can be done. Movement of one overspeed mechanism impaired Test intact overspeed trip daily by test oil pressure until fault can be corrected at next opportunity. Speed – dependent release for operation faulted by jamming of piston See above for consequences.  Hydraulic low vacuum trip operates too early at too high a condenser vacuum. Therefore correct malfunction as quickly as possible or adjust trip setting. test intact low vacuum trip at frequent intervals.  One overspeed trip fails to operate when tested by test oil pressure. Turbine generator unit my continue to be in operation but may be liable to premature tripping.2-0450-01/6 Danger of outage of turbine generator unit due to premature trip. . Adjust overspeed trip setting if necessary. Overhaul piston for speed dependent release for operation. spring fatigue) Test overspeed trip by actual overspeeding at the next opportunity. See above for interim measures pending correction of fault.  Thrust bearing trip fails to operate during testing using the automatic turbine tester Malfunction of test device Check test device and control medium pressure  Hydraulic low vacuum trip operates too late (at too low a condenser vacuum) Malfunction due to jamming or drift in setting There is a danger of the condenser and last-stage blades in the LP turbine being damaged. 5. Test oil pressure maximum.

one or more fire control protective devices do not operate automatically.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Protection systems operating largely with electrical signal formation fail to operate or operate at too high or too low limit levels. 5. Fault in signal transmitter Check signal transmitter In the fire protection system test. or Device malfunction path and Correct fault or inform and instruct shift personnel that fire protective device must be manually operated if a fire occurs.2-0450-01/7 . or Fault in signal path Check signal path or Fault in protective devices Check protective devices Fault in signal path Check signal devices.

Locate fault and check if safety or functioning of the turbine generator unit is impaired (e. if the device being tested fails during testing).g. the missing starting conditions must be simulated. reset program (RP) – and program step where fault occurs.Steam Turbine Operation Fault  Other symptoms Fault after selecting starting program  Group alarms turbine panel. Correct fault as stated in the description section of the turbine manual and the Automatic Turbine Tester (ATT) manual. repeat the test to get further information on the nature of the fault. Continue to faulted test normal. Note: During turbine shutdown. the starting conditions for various programs will not be fulfilled if testing is to be performed while the turbine is shut down. and and individual on automatic tester control Record and decode group and individual alarms. Automatic Turbine Tester Fault Tracing Cause Remedy Electrical or mechanical faults. Find out and record program status preliminary test (PT). BHEL Haridwar 5. If reset program (RP) runs without fault (program status after (RP) = status as before starting ATT).2-0455-00/1 . Check starting conditions from the functional diagrams and compare with actual operating conditions of turbine and restart test program. perform nonprograms as Program cannot be started  Alarm: condition No starting Operating condition of the turbine generator unit does not correspond to the interlock release criteria for the Automatic Turbine Tester. test program (TP).

repeat individual test to obtain further information about cause of fault or to stop jamming of protective and test devices. Open faulty stop valve using test valve. locally also. on the basis of the program status and the positions of the valves and test devices. If possible. return protective and test devices to normal operating position mechanically. Reset program automatically. If reset program runs without fault. if necessary. Observe program. since the turbine generator unit will be shut down by the protective devices even during testing if Reset program automatically.2-0455-00/2 Normal occurrence. Fail signal during Protective Devices Test Program  Alarm: Fail signal and possibly also Time overrun started Check running of program in the control room and. if necessary. started Check running of program in the control room and. Fail signal during valve test program  Alarm Fail signal and possibly also Time overrun Electrical or mechanical fault in a protective device. position transmitter etc. valve or monitoring element (pressure switch. Restore to normal operating condition if possible. running started of reset . locally on the basis of the program status and the positions of the protective and test devices.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Electrical or mechanical fault in a protective or test device or monitoring element. Open downstream valve by remote control. Turbine trip due to operating criteria while test program is running  Alarm Fail signal and annunciation from general alarm system 5. Main stop valve fails to open Close all downstream valves by remote control (also drain valves).) Reset program automatically.

2-0455-00/3 . − Open stop valve using test valve. Locate and remove fault in Automatic Turbine Tester if trip was caused by wrong test procedures.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy the criteria for turbine trip are fulfilled. Running of valve test program interrupted. Call in maintenance personnel for the electronic equipment of the Automatic Turbine Tester to repair faults as described in the ATT manual. Running of protective devices test program interrupted. Redundant design of the power supply ensures best security against outage of the turbine generator unit. Protection of the turbine is ensured for the duration of this fault by the protective equipment operative during testing. − Open control valve and downstream valves. program stopped in faulted program step  Several annunciation show fault in electronic circuitry of Automatic Turbine Tester Fault in electronic circuitry of Automatic Turbine Tester Fault in power supply to Automatic Turbine Tester for protective devices  Several annunciation show fault in power supply Fault in power supply Return valves tested to normal operating position. 5. if necessary. program stopped in faulted program step  Several annunciation show fault in electronic circuitry of Automatic Turbine Tester Fault in electronic circuitry of Automatic Turbine Tester. Check criteria that caused trip to make trip conforms to protection concept. Test circuit remains in force. − Check control valve and other downstream valves. and close valves by remote control.

oil pressure too low for latch-in) that must be corrected. because miniature circuit breaker tripped. position transmitters. actuate test equipment or valves locally to restore normal operating condition. Fault during reset program after testing of protective devices  Program stopped. the test will be Check valves of pressure switches (desired status: open).Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Circuit breaker of test motor. correct setting if necessary. − Main trip valve or trip device not in operating position. worn latching edges. If normal operating position cannot be restored. Identify and remove cause of fault in power supply as described in the Automatic Turbine Tester manual. − Test signal transmitter for overspeed trip not in operating position.g. e. Actuate contactor for approximately 10s to return main trip valve or trip device to normal operating position. Check circuitry of position transmitter. If a circuit breaker has tripped. This type of fault is present if devices are in operating position but no checkback signal is generated. Move test signal transmitter for overspeed trip into normal operating position by hand.2-0455-00/4 False electrical signals due to faults in monitoring elements (pressure switches. Incorrect operation of protective device during testing  Trip solenoid valves for protecting the turbine testing are not actuated. Fault in electrical operation or mechanical fault in solenoid valves. Check position of test or protective devices locally and return to operating position by hand. changeover valve in test position Position of protective and test devices incorrect due to electrical or mechanical faults. if necessary. there is a mechanical or hydraulic fault (e. jamming of solenoid valves. etc. Testing of protective devices is not permissible if this fault occurs. solenoid valve. .). or other electrical equipment tripped. 5.g. Check monitoring equipment and signal paths.

− Fault in equipment monitoring of valve Check valves of pressure switches (desired status: open). Check signal checkback signal.  Failure of solenoids remote trip Fault in electrical operation or mechanical fault in solenoid valves. Check power supply.2-0455-00/5 .Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Incorrect operation monitoring equipment of prevented by the electronic circuitry. - Fault in equipment monitoring Check freedom of movement of valve. − Fault in solenoid valves Check operation. Incorrect operation monitoring equipment The turbine must be shut down unless the fault can be cleared during operation (e. Check power supply. path of Check functioning of faulted pressure switch. for Check operation.g. Check valves of pressure switches (desired status: open). Check freedom movement. The protection of the turbine generator unit is not fully guaranteed. - Fault in operation - Fault in solenoid valves of Check signal path formation of trip signal. Check solenoid. Vent pressure switch. Replace pressure switch. − Operating fault Check trip signal. path of Check functioning of faulted pressure switch. Vent pressure switch. by switching on the power supply). If necessary replace pressure switch. 5. Check signal checkback signal.

 Overspeed trips operate at normal test oil pressure. Fault in monitoring equipment be shooting protective corrected Check valves of pressure switches (desired status: open). Main trip valves fails to operate Fault may immediately. take action described in 5. Functioning of overspeed trip impaired Danger of premature turbine trip. but after test signal transmitter has reached its limit position. the test operates signal during Fault in power supply If the test signal transmitter does not operate.  Overspeed trips fail to operate (running time exceeded) Actuation fault in test device or incorrect operation of overspeed trip. Main trip valve jammed Turbine generator unit must not remain in operation. Correct setting of limit switch. If this does not clear fault. no interruption). 5. Limit switch of test signal transmitter incorrectly set. set overspeed trips during overspeed tests. See instruction: Protective Devices. Actuation fault in test signal transmitter Check if transmitter test.2-0455-00/6 . check power supply and motor. Take action if incorrect operation of the overspeed trips occur. Determine test oil pressures where trips respond.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy  Fault in protective device See trouble instructions for devices.  Overspeed trips operate at too low a test oil pressure (annunciation only.2-0450. reset if necessary. Check actuation.  Overspeed trips operate at too high a test oil pressure Mechanical blockage overspeed trips of Repeat last several times.2-0450 e. Check position transmitter. Troubleshooting: 5.g.

see instruction 5. Check functioning of pressure switches. Air inlet duct obstructed Clear air probe. Primary circuit piston not in normal operating position Repair low vacuum trip device.2-0455-00/7 . circuitry or setting of pressure switches for monitoring response. Locate fault and repair. fault or 5. Incorrect operation vacuum trip device For consequences and steps to be taken. Repair mechanical correct setting. Repair mechanical correct setting. trip Repair trip mechanism.    Check auxiliary pressure. Low vacuum trip fails to operate Fault in solenoid test Check operation. Check condenser vacuum where trip device operates.  Overspeed trips operate at test oil pressures previously observed Fault in functioning.  Low vacuum trip operates too early (at too high a vacuum) annunciation only.2-0450. Check circuitry and setting. of low inlet duct using Check condenser vacuum where trip device operates. Latch-in pressure too low Latch-in edges or mechanism worn out. Correct setting if necessary. Low vacuum trip operates too late (at too low a vacuum) operation of Incorrect operation of solenoid valve Check solenoid. Check setting. start-up Trip mechanism of overspeed trips fails to latch-in.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Check overspeed trip setting by precise oil pressure testing or actual overspeed test. no interruption Incorrect operation vacuum trip device of low fault or Availability of turbine generator unit may be reduced due to premature tripping.

Check functioning and setting of limit switches. - Checkback Control valve closed missing Check functioning of limit switch.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Incorrect operation valves during testing  Remedy of Control valve not closed Stop valve fails to close - Fault in valve test positioner or its actuation Check power supply and motor of valve test positioner. Check actuation circuitry. position transmitters etc. Repair fault in signal path. Check power supply and solenoid as soon as downstream valves are closed.  Stop valve slowly closed too Incorrect mechanical operation of stop valve Repeat test. 5. Locate fault in operation. Check freedom of movement of valve. signal path and setting of limit switch.) Check monitoring equipment. Measure time taken for valve to close. - Fault in actuation of stop valve Check operation solenoid. Correct setting of limit switch Replace limit switch.  Stop valve fails to open Fault in operation of solenoid Check valves. Malfunction of monitoring equipment (pressure switches. of trip Test solenoid.2-0455-00/8 . Repair valve if no other cause. Check functioning and setting of pressure switches. operation solenoid Open stop valve with test valve.

Locate fault and repair.Fault  Other symptoms  Stop valve opens abruptly Cause Remedy Jamming of valve positioner Locate fault immediately and repair valve.2-0455-00/9 . Identify why control valve was open (step sequence. 5. step criteria). Control valve or other valve downstream of stop valve open Close valve downstream of stop valve.

Entry of steam vapour into oil system Remove water from oil system by separation or draining. Oil level in oil tank low  During rated operation speed Normal oil loss (oil level drops slowly) Top up with oil of the same make and type. Water content high Remove water Improper sealants Check sealants used. remove water. If a large leak occurs. Oil properties inadequate  Air release property > limit value according to Specification Oil mixed with antifoam additive. do not use any sealant containing silicon. unload turbine generator immediately and/or initiate fire protection measures. Plug leaky tubes.2-0460-00/1 . Introduce waiting period between closure of turning gear oil valve and run-up of the turbine.   Foaming on oil surface of oil tank Water content too much Consult oil supplier Foaming during startup due to simultaneous release of air trapped in the oil and air entrained in the system as a result of temperature increase in the oil tank. in Locate cause of excessive leak-off steam from shaft seals and repair. BHEL Haridwar 5. Check oil level and correct by topping up or draining.Steam Turbine Operation Fault  Other symptoms Oil System Fault Tracing Cause Remedy Oil contamination Examine oil samples. High oil loss Examine system for leaks. Check vapour pressure bearing pedestals. remove impurities through centrifuge. Examine oil coolers for punctured tubes.

Turning gear oil valve still open 5. Examine residues in strainer. start auxiliary oil pump manually from control desk. If subloop control fails. Attention: 2-out-of-3 fire protection ineffective during turning gear operation.  During rated speed turning gear operation or Oil builds up in return compartment due to choked strainer.2-0460-00/2 Close turning gear oil valve from control desk or locally by hand. . Check for leakage through valve downstream of auxiliary oil pump. On topping up make allowance for oil level recorded during turning gear operation. Overhaul check valve. Shut down turbine generator and ensure freedom of check valve movement by alternating auxiliary oil pumps. operation of Start up and shut down auxiliary oil pumps with defective valve once more. Check pressure downstream of auxiliary oil pumps and pumps for reverse rotation. Open oil tank cover Check strainer and if heavily choked. Observes start up of auxiliary oil pump. Oil pressure low   In pressure oil system during shut-down of turbine generator unit Normal procedure In pressure oil system immediately after rated speed has been reached Main oil pump is not taking over oil delivery. change strainer and clean.Fault  Other symptoms  During turning operation Cause gear Remedy Measures as for oil level changes during rated speed operation. See incorrect main oil pump.

Oil level in tank low See faults: Oil level low Air content of oil too high See faults: inadequate Main oil pump faulty Check main oil pump.  In lubricating oil system on filter changeover Filter not filled and vented before changeover Check bearing temperatures. Open if closed or throttled. Oil temperature high  During rated speed operation after startup No flow of cooling water through oil cooler in service (malfunction can also occur on oil cooler changeovers) Check positions of cooling water isolating valves for oil cooler in service. Clean filter inserts. In lubricating oil system With heavy pressure loss observe whether turbine trip is initiated.Fault  Other symptoms   In pressure oil during rated operation system speed Cause Remedy Oil level too low Check oil level in oil tank. 5.  Differential pressure across filter high Main oil pump does not take over oil supply on startup Filter choked Changeover filter properly.  In lubricating oil system on oil cooler changeover Standby oil cooler not filled and vented before changeover after Measures as for pressure loss on filter changeover.2-0460-00/3 . Oil properties Turbine sped may be temporarily raised to force main oil pump to take over. metal Check bearings temperature increase. Main oil pump faulty Check main oil pump. oil supplier and turbine manufacturer). Examine as for oil pressure drops in pressure oil system. Top up if necessary. Warning: Danger of bearing damage is considerably greater than with improper filter changeover. Air content of oil too high Examine air release capability (ARC) (joint investigation by operator.

Check oil temperature. Let turbine cool down. Rubbing of rotor due to damage of bearing or shaft journal in bearing not jacked. controller not Turning gear oil valve open. Warning: Do not rotate the shaft system forcibly. Differential temperature on one casing > limit temperature. Oil temperature low  During shut-down turbine generator unit  During rated speed operation after startup Turning gear does startup automatically  of Oil temperature control valve not closed. Close oil temperature control valve manually. Changeover oil cooler. Radial clearance bridged by casing or rotor distortion. Jacking oil pump on. Warning: Do not rotate the shaft system forcibly. or 5. Note: Follow instructions changeover Clean choked oil cooler. Check using manual turning gear. inlet Oil cooler choked on cooling water side. Turbine generator unit shut down due to high bearing metal temperature. if too high (> 45 ºC). Look for cause of cooling water temperature increase and correct.  Turning gear oil valve open.2-0460-00/4 Check bearing and replace. whether shaft turns easily. Correct pressure if necessary. Jacking oil pump on Compare actual jacking oil pressures with set pressures.Fault  Other symptoms  During startup and power operation Cause Remedy Oil temperature not yet set Set selector valve. Close oil temperature control valve. . reduce. Oil cooler not vented on oil side or cooling water side. Jacking oil pump must be operating. Oil temperature faulty. Cooling water temperature too high. Check vents.

arrangement MOP earthing Poor insulation at generator rear pedestal Improve insulation. Turning gear oil valve does not close  During startup (acceleration to warm-up or rated speed)  After initiation of protection system  When shutting turning gear fire down  Drive  Control or  AC-power supply Turning gear interlocked. Turning gear oil valve does not open   On start up Turning gear oil valve faulty or  Drive  Control On shut down turbine generator Main oil failure  pump of bearing Test oil pressure built up during normal operation and turning gear operation Oil vapour coming bearing pedestal  the Open turning gear oil valve manually in place. Note: Record release and cancel if turbine is to be restarted. from 5. Acknowledge measures.Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Turning gear oil valve faulty Close turning gear oil valve manually. fire-protection Allow turbine generator unit to cool down further or make interlock ineffective. Replace damaged components. Rotor earthing not healthy Attend rotor arrangement. Vapour fan faulty Start standby vapour fan.2-0460-00/5 . Vapour suction Flap valve at the bearing pedestal closed Readjust the flap valve. Wire cloth in the oil stripper is choked Clean or replace the wire cloth. Vapour fan running Failure due to electro-erosion. oil valve Closure of turning gear oil valve interlocked via casing temperature.

5. pressurizer valve.Fault  Other symptoms Seal steam glands   leaking Seal steam normal Cause Remedy Seal steam exhauster fan not operating Startup one seal steam exhauster fan. and correct. Check position of valves upstream of exhauster fan and correct (valves of standby exhauster fan must be closed). Filter choked (annunciation) Clean / replace filter and change oil of the actuator as specified. no fault in valve or controller functions steam to Seal steam pressure low  Both control valve operating in a sequence faulted Mechanical fault in steam control valve  seal Valve fails to follow control signals reset Electrical fault  Valves Many causes possible Determine problem on the basis of valve and description. Pressurizer valve faulty or set too low Check pressure.2-0460-00/6 . Seal steam pressure set point too high Lower set point Mechanical or electrical fault Open bypass valve and maintain constant pressure manually. from pressure Seal steam pressure high. Mechanical or electrical fault in seal steam exhauster fan Discharge seal atmosphere.  Control system Many causes possible Determine problem on the basis of instrumentation and control manual and correct.

Change over to standby pump or observe start up of standby pump. Rise in neutralization number (Observed on the basis of constant values measured continuously under the same conditions). (take sample from surface). Control fluid pressure low BHEL Haridwar 5. determine cause of water entry. Pump faulty Check control fluid pumps. Normal fluid loss not replaced Top up with control fluid of same make.  High water content  Air release diminished Water entering via cooler Change over to other control fluid cooler. take sample of topping-up fluid  Level sinking rapidly (2 out of 3 level very low monitor responds) Excessive loss Caution: Stop turbine generator immediately. property Level in control fluid tank low  Slowly sinking level in fluid tank. Take measures as for rise in neutralization number. Examine control fluid for water content. or Check its operational status. Change over to other control fluid cooler. even if replacement not yet scheduled. Clean fine mesh filter. Fuller’s earth filter exhausted Replace Fuller’s earth filter.Steam Turbine Operation Control Fluid System Fault Tracing Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Control fluid inadequate Impure control fluid Examine control fluid samples.  properties Start up bypass regeneration unit immediately.2-0470-00/1 . Stop control fluid pumps and initiate fire protection measures.

if control valve is open. switch off temperature regulator and close control valve. Operation of the turbine generator may be continued provided that the escape of fluid is continuously monitored.2-0470-00/2 Diaphragm damaged: Repair leak Difficulties in regulating during operation using hydraulic governor in the event of both media escaping.   Leakage of oil or control fluid and oil at the hydraulic governor Leakage of oil at the trip mechanisms of the over speed governor or the shaft position monitor. clean filter element or insert new filter element. Switch on heater when control valve is closed. Control high fluid temperature Inadequate cooling Check temperature controller. .Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy Control fluid differential pressure across interchangeable filter high Filter chocked Change over to other filter. check cooling water temperature. Control low fluid temperature Excessive cooling of system piping or fault in closed-loop control Check temperature controller. control fluid or both. Leakage of control fluid at the hydraulic governor Operation of the turbine generator may be continued provided that the escape of fluid is continuously monitored. check cooling water adequately vented. Heater switched on (fault in open loop control) Switch off heater Control fluid heater overheated Switch off control fluid heater Temperature at protective tube high heater Leak in hydraulic devices   Control fluid/ oil leakage monitor responds Check carefully which medium is escaping: oil. 5. change over to other control fluid cooler.

If both oils are leaking. danger of turbine trip. danger of control fluid mixing with oil. Diaphragm damaged on the control fluid side.2-0470-00/3 .Fault  Other symptoms Cause Remedy  Leakage of oil or oil and control fluid at the trip mechanisms of the over speed governor or the shaft position monitor. Danger of water mixing with control fluid Repair leak 5. Repair leak  Alarm : Control fluid/water leakage monitor responds  Leakage of control fluid at hydraulic pressure alarm  Leakage of water at hydraulic pressure alarm Operation of turbine generator may be continued.

reset valve. Valve faulty or set too low Check pressure.  Control system Many causes possible Determine cause on the basis of instrumentation and control manual and correct. BHEL Haridwar 5. from Seal steam pressure normal steam Check position of valves upstream of exhauster fan and correct (valves of standby exhauster fan must be closed).2-0480-01 . no fault in valve or controller functions Mechanical or electrical fault in seal steam exhauster fan Discharge seal atmosphere.  Seal steam pressure high. Mechanical or electrical fault Open bypass valve and maintain constant pressure manually. Seal steam pressure low  Both control valves operating in sequence are faulty Mechanical fault in seal steam control valve  Valve fails to follow control signals Electrical fault  Valves Many causes possible Determine problem on the basis of valve description and correct.Steam Turbine Operation Fault  Other symptoms Seal steam glands  escaping Gland Steam System Fault Tracing Cause Remedy Seal steam exhauster fan not operating Start one seal exhauster fan. steam to Seal steam pressure set point too high Lower set point. Filter chocked (annunciation) Clean / replace filter and change oil of the actuator as specified.

and control the reheat pressure manually. steam temperature  Reheat pressure < constant pressure setpoint but > variable pressure setpoint. Reheat pressure > constant or variable pressure setpoint. Bypass stop and control valves close during bypass operation  Reheat pressure > constant pressure setpoint BHEL Hardwar Injection effective. Attend fault as described in bypass control manual. Condenser vacuum low. Check actuators of injection water control valves. pressure Check fault annunciation in control cabinet. Bypass high.2-0490-00/1 . Interlocks ineffective Fault in control Lower constant setpoint. See fault tracing instructions for condenser plant. Constant pressure setpoint too high.Steam Turbine Operation  Fault Other symptoms Bypass stop and valves fail to open  Bypass System Fault Tracing Cause Remedy control Check condensate pressure. slide valves for valve operation. pump(s) Check operating conditions of condensate pump or condensate system. Establish normal conditions. See fault tracing instructions for condenser plant.  Reheat pressure > constant or variable pressure setpoint.  Pressure downstream of Condensate pump(s) too low. Injection water pressure downstream of injection water control valves < interlock pressure  Condensate failed.  Fault in injection water control valves or their actuators. water interlock 5. e. condenser vacuum and bypass steam temperature.g. Shut down control until fault is attended.

 Fault Other symptoms Cause  Remedy Injection water pressure < interlock pressure. check 2 injection if bypass steam flow rate is high.  Signal pressure present. See fault tracing instructions for condenser plant. Condensate pressure upstream and downstream of injection water control valve > interlock pressure. Attend fault in changeover valve for injection water control valves. Signal pressure present. Bypass control valves close  Reheat pressure > constant pressure setpoint Bypass stop and valves fail to open  rate limitation generator control Reheat pressure > constant pressure set point Fault in injection water control valves or their actuators. Fault in interlock elements Check limit pressure control gear. Condensate pressure downstream of injection water control valves < interlock pressure. operating Condenser vacuum interlock effective. Pressure beneath pistons of injection water pilot valve present: Injection water control Valve jammed. Remove blockage in injection water control valve Condensate pressure upstream of injection water control valves normal.  Reheat pressure > constant pressure setpoint. 5. Locate fault in regulator or hydraulic control gear and attend. Injection water flow rate too nd stage water low. Check operating conditions of condensate pumps or condensate system. Establish normal conditions. Check signal pressure and pressure beneath pistons of injection water control valves. Bypass system temperature interlock effective. .2-0490-00/2 steam Open bypass valve until fault is removed.  Signal pressure not present: Fault in regulator or hydraulic control gear. Reduce output. Pressure beneath pistons of one or more injection water control valves not present: Changeover valve defective. Limit pressure control gear fails to open: Fault in limit pressure control.  Locate and attend fault in limit pressure control gear. Steam flow effective.

Bypass steam temperature normal. Fault Other symptoms Cause  Remedy Limit pressure control gear opens: fault in pressure switch. Replace diaphragm. Check temperature measuring instrument circuit. Locate and attend fault in pressure switch. Replace diaphragm. e. to asses injection water flow rate.  Reheat pressure > constant pressure setpoint. as soon as Fault in interlock elements for loss of condenser vacuum. Insert lever and lock. In this case bypass operation may be continued for the duration of the repair. Attention: No redundant pressure monitoring effective: use other criteria.g. the faulty channel may be blocked and bypass operation continued. Fault in interlock elements for high bypass steam temperature.2-0490-00/3 .  Diaphragm of pressure control damaged.  Diaphragm of bypass condenser safety device damaged. If only one of the hydraulic condensate pressure monitoring channels is faulty. bypass steam temperature. 5.  Reheat pressure > constant pressure setpoint. Attend fault possible. limit gear Replace diaphragm. actuators of solenoid valves and attend fault. Close cutoff valve upstream of measuring element. Condensate pressure normal.

3-0010 : Inspection Schedule [2] 5. reliability and economy of a turbine generator depend on the proper condition of all components. overhauls. Also refer to the following sections: [1] 5.g.3-0200 : Instructions for Overhaul BHEL Haridwar 5. This goal can only be achieved through a comprehensive maintenance program. The inspection schedule is supplemented by tables specifying the testing intervals. This maintenance program specifies activities to be performed with the unit in service to establish the actual condition at regular intervals (inspection = tests and recording of operating data) and to maintain the desired condition (maintenance).Steam Turbine Maintenance The availability. Maintenance Schedule The maintenance schedule [2] contains all maintenance activities to be performed during turbine operation or outages at specified intervals.3-0001-01 ..3-002. e. have been elaborated separately [3]. : Maintenance Schedule [3] 5. The maintenance work to be performed during prolonged outages. instructions and test records for comparison of the desired and actual conditions. Inspection Schedule The inspection schedule [1] includes all essential testing and operating data In-Service Maintenance Introduction recording activities as well as procedures to identify the condition of components.

5.5 3.2-0027 Ref.4 2.2 Automatic Turbine Tester 1.3 Protective devices 1.1 3.2-0024 Ref.4 Inspection of LP turbine free standing blades Visual inspection Blade profile and root crack examination Cleanliness of blade root and groove Blade natural frequency test BHEL Haridwar Inspection Schedule Parameter measured or tested Functioning & setting Functioning Functioning & setting Functioning & setting Functioning free movement leak tightness Functioning setting and accuracy Comparison of specified and actual data Purity Internal condition of turbine Erosion.4 Safety devices 1.3-0010-04/1 . 5.3 3. Work to be performed 1.5 Valves 1.0 1.2 2. power operation. every 50. 5. of operation Ref Tech.3-0060 5.000 hrs.2-0023 Ref.1 2.3-0061 during start up.Steam Turbine Maintenance Activity No. 5. X-68 Natural freq.2-0028 for long term monitoring Also ref.0 3. 5.2-0021 Ref. shut down & stand still Ref. 5.3-0037 h every start-up every occurrence Ref.3-0035 5.3-0050 d 3m During intermediate and major inspections.2-0026 Ref.3-0030 5. 5.2 3.2-0025 Remarks Tests according to: 5. looseness Crack Cleanliness h d w m y Frequency = hourly = daily = weekly = monthly = yearly Ref. 5.3 2.6 Monitoring devices 2.0 Recording and documentation of operational parameters and conditions Steady state operation Non-steady state operation Faults Analysis of steam Measurement of internal efficiency 2. Circular No.1 Testing of Controllers 1.2-0022 & 5. 5. 5.

0 7.3 6. intermediate and major inspections during shut down w w During intermediate and major inspections Damage Clearances Leakage noise d 6.4 9.1 8.0 9.3-0010-04/2 Remarks During shut down .2 8.Activity No.1 9.3 5.0 Inspection of accessible expansion joints in cross around and extraction lines Visual inspection Surface crack examination 4.0 8.3 8.0 5.2 5.1 5.5 Visual inspection for steam-tightness Casing joints Flanges Shaft seals Valve stems Instrument connections 7.2 5.2 6. motors and other drives in continuous operation Vibration behaviour Head Bearing temperatures Thrust Leak-tightness d d d d d 9.4 8.4 6.5 Inspection of pumps. Work to be performed 4.2 Inspection of drains Internal leak-tightness External leak-tightness w w 8.1 4.5 Visual inspection of piping Leak-tightness Vibration Hangers Expansion Vibration dampers d d w w 3m 5.0 Inspection of casing guides and supports Seating of casing on support elements Cleanliness Integrity of keys & packers Thermal clearances as per drawing Parameter measured or tested Damages Crack Frequency h = hourly d = daily w = weekly m = monthly y = yearly During minor.1 6.2 9.4 6.1 7.3 9.

0 11.3-0082 d d Ref. Work to be performed 10. X-85 of operation 5. 5.1 13. 5.2 11.1 11.3-0010-04/3 .Activity No.0 Inspection of hydraulic accumulator Check charge pressure 10. Technical After first year circular No.3 12.0 14.3-0080 d w w Ref.1-0130 d d Ref. 5.1 12.2 14.1 11.4 11.6 11.3 11.0 13.1-0140 Ref.1 14.7 12.3 Inspection of Main oil tank Level check Foaming characteristics Water collection on bottom of oil tank Level check in bucket filter to assess filter chocking Water content of oil Solid particle content of oil Analysis of properties Inspection of FRF tank Level check Level check in bucket filter to access filter chocking Foaming characteristics of FRF Analysis of fluid properties Oil / FRF filter Check differential pressure reading Check venting Inspection of TG-deck springs Reference spring heights Alignment check Catenary check Parameter measured or tested Frequency h = hourly d = daily w = weekly m = monthly y = yearly Remarks 2w d w 2w w Ref. 5.0 12.4 13.5 11.2 14.2 12.

3-0021-02 . Preservation of turbine using air drying equipment as prescribed in 5. Tightening of turbine control valve packings 1m 6. Tightening of valve stem seals 3m or in the event of leakages 7.3-0070 measurement of ηi as indicated by criteria The criteria indicating stage pressure when saturated steam flushing is necessary are the internal efficiency ηi and the stage pressures 3.1-0690 BHEL Haridwar Visual inspection h d w m y 1m 5.Steam Turbine Maintenance Activity No. Cleaning of sliding surfaces  casing supports  spacer bolts and discs for bearing pedestals and turbine casings 2. Lubrication of components of the turbine control and turbine protection systems as prescribed in 5. Lubrication of valve stems as prescribed 5. Work to be performed Maintenance Schedule Turbine Parameter measured or tested Frequency = hourly = daily = weekly = monthly = yearly Remarks 1.2-0360 relative humidity in turbine < 50% continuous During shutdowns lasting longer than 1 week 4.1-0690 5. Cleaning of turbine blading by flushing through with saturated steam as prescribed in 5.

1-1 120  Clean plate-type filters  Replace filter papers in fine mesh filter  Change oil tank strainers. Seal Steam system. 6m . 1-1 010  Clean wire mesh of oil stripper 2. Maintain oil tank level at service level. Draining of water from the oil tank water collecting on oil tank bottom as indicated by criteria BHEL Haridwar oil Parameter measured or tested h d w m y as during overhauls establish cause of water accumulation 5. Cleaning of centrifuge 3. 1. max 6m d 6m -1y ∆ p across filter oil level in bucket strainers as indicated by criteria. Drains Oil System Activity No. max 6 m as indicated by criteria.Steam Turbine Maintenance Maintenance Schedule Oil system. using ∆ p across filter Frequency = hourly = daily = weekly = monthly = yearly Remarks as indicated by criteria.1y during appropriate shut-downs and overhauls during appropriate shut-downs and overhauls 6m solid or liquid foreign matter in oil continuous.1-1130  Turn plate-type filters through two three revolutions as prescribed in 5. top up with oil of same make and properties level in oil tank 1 d (check). as indicated by criteria Cleaning of centrifuge as specified by the manufacturer deposits in centrifuge 1m indicated by criteria 4. Cleaning of oil tank after draining oil deposits in oil tank 3 -4 y 5. Work to be performed Cleaning of filters and strainers  Switch over duplex filters and clean fouled filter cartridges as prescribed in 5.3-0022-01/1 . topping up as indicated by criteria 6. max. clean chocked strainers as prescribed in 5.

Elimination of oil leakages by tightening of flanges and bolted joints 13. steam seals 3m or in the event of leakages 12. Lubrication of pump and fan motors  Auxiliary oil pumps  Emergency oil pump  Jacking oil pumps  Oil vapour exhauster fans as specified by motor manufacturer 9. Charging of accumulators 5. Check vibration dampers as prescribed in 5.3-0100 14. Tightening of valve.3-0022-01/2 hydraulic oil leakages continuous 1y charge pressure 1m Remarks . Work to be performed Parameter measured or tested Frequency h = hourly d = daily w = weekly m = monthly y = yearly 7.3-0081 11. Lubrication of oil vapour exhauster fan bearings as prescribed by fan manufacturer 10. Oil or grease change in valve actuators  Motive oil valve  Oil temperature control valve as specified by actuator manufacturer 8. lubrication of valve stem at the lubrication points provided as prescribed in 5.Activity No.

3-0022-01/3 .3-0081 3m 6. Tightening of drain valve stem seals 3m or in the event of leakages 4. Lubrication of vapour exhaust fan bearings as prescribed by fan manufacturer 5.1-0690 1y 2. Work to be performed Parameter measured or tested Frequency h = hourly d = daily w = weekly m = monthly y = yearly 1. Work to be performed Parameter measured or tested Frequency h = hourly d = daily w = weekly m = monthly y = yearly 1. Filter change for seat steam control valve actuators as prescribed in its manual 1y 3. Lubrication of vapour exhaust fan motors as specified by motor manufacturer 4. Tightening of valve stem seals 3m or in the event of leakages Remarks Drains Activity No.Seal steam system Activity No. Oil or grease change in drain valve actuators as specified by actuator manufacturer 2. Change of control fluid for seal steam control valve actuators as prescribed in 5. Lubrication of valve stems at the lubrication points as prescribed in 5. Check on drain line sludge traps 1 -2y Remarks 5. Lubrication of drain valve stems at the lubrication points provided as prescribed in 5.3-0081 3m 3.

4.1-1130  Turn plate-type filters through two three revolutions  Clean plate-type filters ∆ p across filter  Replace filter papers in fine mesh filter as prescribed in 5. max 6 m Neutralization number 6m or as indicated by criterion FRF level in strainers as indicated by criteria Discoloration of filter filling 3m.3-0082  Change FRF tank strainers. Lubrication of motors of pumps and fans  FRF pumps  FRF circulating pump  FRF vapour extraction fan BHEL Haridwar Remarks d 6m -1y during appropriate shut-downs and overhauls during appropriate shut-downs and overhauls during overhauls as specified by the motor manufacturer 5. or as indicated by criterion 2.3-0023-01/1 . Keeping the FRF in FRF tank at operating level. Top up as indicated by criterion 1. Cleaning of FRF tank after draining FRF deposits in FRF tank 3-4y 3. clean chocked strainers  Regenerate air filters or exchange filter filling ∆ p across filter as indicated by criteria.Steam Turbine Maintenance Activity No. Work to be performed Maintenance Schedule FRF system Parameter measured or tested h d w m y Frequency = hourly = daily = weekly = monthly = yearly Cleaning of filters and strainers  Switch over duplex filters.  Top up using FRF of the same brand and with the same properties Level in FRF tank 1 d check. and clean fouled filter cartridges as prescribed in 5.1-1140  Replace fuller’s earth filling in regenerating filter as prescribed in 5.

as indicated by criterion 1 -2 Y Filling pressure 1m Remarks .3-0023-01/2 hydraulic leakage regularly. Work to be performed Parameter measured or tested Frequency h = hourly d = daily w = weekly m = monthly y = yearly 5.3-0100 10. Elimination of leaks by retightening flanges and unions 9. Checking of damping fluid in vibration dampers as prescribed in 5. Charging of accumulators 5. Lubrication of the bearings of the FRF vapour extraction fan as specified by fan manufacturer 6.Activity No. Lubrication of the valve stems at the lubricating points provided 3m 7. Retightening of the valve stem packing 3m of if leakage detected 8.

The tables are also suited to use as checklists. reduced testing to ensure the readiness of the auxiliary. Any simulated conditions necessary for the tests must be cancelled after completion of tests. Test procedures Tests. main trip valves in operating position. irrespective of the time of the preceding shutdown. 2] have completed.3-0061: Testing During Standstill [2] 5. Steam inlet valve may only be operated for test purposes if the piping systems upstream of the valves are not under pressure and the systems concerned have been expressly cleared for testing.2-002. The scope of the test program for start-up of the turbine is to make sure that all tests required to be performed before start-up after a shutdown period of approx. Pay attention to fault tracing instructions. prerequisites.g. The symbols at the head of the columns in the tables are an aid to understanding the concise test instructions. take action establishing full operational reliability of the turbine generator unit immediately.3-0030-02/1 . the sequences shown in the table must be followed.Steam Turbine Maintenance Testing during Start-up Introduction Tests demonstrate the readiness for operation and the proper functioning of important components. They must be performed before and during start-up of the turbine generator unit. Whenever no specific test instructions are prescribed for any test.) If all prerequisites for performance of the complete test program are not fulfilled. test activities and criteria in table form is intended to simplify testing. BHEL Haridwar The operation sequence establishing certain operating conditions is given in the form of general instructions to avoid constant repetition in the table of test sequences. A number of tests require that certain components be in a definite position (e. 4 weeks [1.: Testing of turbine Component 5. Also refer to the following sections: [1] 5. emergency and jacking oil pumps for operation must be performed. stop valve closed etc. Test Performance Take care to avoid any risks to people or machines while performing tests. Test performance must be recorded.. If incorrect operation of the equipment being tested occurs.

o Equipment tested Type of test • Preconditions Test Step Result o Starting and load limit device not in 0% position o Test valves of stop valves in left-hand end position (=stop valves open) o () Main trip valves in operating Position o Stop valves closed (1) Move test valve pilot into right-hand end position using handwheel (= stop valves closed) (2) Bring starting and load limit device into 0% position • (3) Main trip valves in operating Position o Stop valves open Bring starting and load limit device into 40% position • Main trip valve in operating position and ready to trip • Stop valves closed o Starting and load limit devices not in 0% position o Test valve of stop valve in left-hand end position (1) Bring starting and load limit device into 0% position • (2) Auxiliary oil pumps o Pressure-dependent on command from subloop control before starting turning gear operation Main trip valve in operation position Bring starting and load limit device into 40% position • Main trip valve in operating position and ready to trip • Stop valves open o Shaft at standstill o Oil system depressurised o Auxiliaries and emergency oil pumps off o Subloop controls on Manual (1) (2) 5.3-0030-02/2 Main trip valve in operating position Switch auxiliary oil pump 1 subloop control to Auto • Auxiliary oil pump 1 on • System oil pressure present Switch auxiliary oil pump 2 subloop control to Auto Date Result Tested by .

C.o Equipment tested Type of test o () • Preconditions Test Step Result Date Result Tested by (3) Switch auxiliary oil pump 1 subloop 1control to Manual (4) Switch auxiliary oil pump 1 off • Auxiliary oil pump 2 on • System oil pressure present D. Emergency oil pump o Pressure-dependent on command from subloop control before starting turning gear operation (1) Switch D.C.3-0030-02/3 . emergency oil pump subloop control on (2) Switch auxiliary oil pump 2 subloop control to Manual (3) Switch auxiliary oil pump 2 off • DC emergency oil pump on • Lubricating oil pressure present (4) Switch DC emergency oil pump subloop control to Manual (5) Switch DC emergency oil pump off • Oil system depressurised • Auxiliary and emergency oil pumps off o Shaft at stand still o Oil system depressurised o Auxiliary and emergency oil pumps off o Subloop controls on Manual Auxiliary and Emergency oil pumps o Operational readiness before starting turning gear operation (testing not required if sobloop controls have already been successfully tested) (1) Auxiliary and Emergency oil pumps o Operational readiness after starting turning gear operational Switch auxiliary and emergency oil pumps in turn to Manual on • System oil pressure present o Turning gear in operation o One auxiliary oil pump operating (1) Switch stand-by auxiliary oil pump to Manual on • Pressure buildup in system (2) Switch stand-by auxiliary oil pump to Manual off (3) Switch emergency oil pump to Manual on • (4) Pressure buildup in system Switch emergency oil pump to Manual off 5.

o Equipment tested Type of test • Preconditions Test Step Result o Turbine generator unit speed = rated speed o () Auxiliary Oil pumps o Speed-dependent cutout when rated speed is reached (1) Verify cut out of auxiliary oil pump Jacking oil pumps o Speed-dependent on command of AC jacking oil pump from subloop control before starting turning gear operation o Shaft at standstill o Jacking oil pumps off o Subloop controls on Manual (1) Switch AC jacking oil pump subloop control to Auto • AC jacking oil pump on • Jacking oil pressure present (2) Switch AC jacking oil pump subloop control to Manual (3) Switch AC jacking oil pump off • AC jacking oil pump off • Jacking oil system depressurised o Shaft at stand still Jacking oil pumps o Manual on of AC jacking oil pump before starting turning gear operation (1) Switch AC jacking oil pump to Manual on • AC jacking oil pump on • System oil pressure present (2) Switch AC jacking oil pump to Manual off • AC jacking oil pump off • System depressurised o Shaft at stand still o Jacking oil pumps off o Subloop control on Manual Jacking oil pumps o Speed-dependent on command of DC Jacking oil pump from subloop control before turning gear operation 5.3-0030-02/4 (1) Switch DC jacking oil pump subloop control to Auto • DC jacking oil pump on • Jacking oil pressure present Date Result Tested by .

pump 1) (2) Switch subloop control to Auto • Control fluid pump 1 on • Control fluid system pressure present (3) Select control fluid pump 2 (4) Switch control fluid pump 1 off • Control fluid pump 2 on • Control fluid system pressure present (5) Switch subloop control to Manual (6) Switch control fluid pump 2 off • Control fluid system depressurised • Control fluid pumps off o Control fluid system depressurised o Control fluid pumps off o Subloop control on Manual Control fluid pumps o Operational readiness (Testing not required if subloop controls have already been successfully tested) (1) Switch control fluid pumps in turn to Manual on • Control fluid system pressure present 5.3-0030-02/5 .g.o Equipment tested Type of test o () • Preconditions Test Step Result Date Result Tested by (2) Switch DC jacking oil pump subloop control to Manual (3) Switch DC jacking oil pump off • DC jacking oil pump off • Jacking oil system depressurised o Shaft at stand still o Jacking oil pumps off o Subloop controls on Manual Jacking oil pumps o Operational readiness of Jacking oil pumps (1) Switch jacking oil pumps in turn to Manual on • Jacking oil pressure present o Control fluid system depressurised o Control fluid pumps off o Subloop control on Manual Control fluid pumps o Pressure-dependent on command from subloop control (1) Select one control fluid pump (e.

3-0030-02/6 Date Result Tested by .o Equipment tested Type of test • Preconditions Test Step Result o Main trip valve in operating position o Stop valves closed o () Remote trip initiation o Push button operation (1) Press trip push button • Trip annunciated o Main steam pressure present upstream of stop valves o Stop valves closed using test valves Stop valves o Leak test (1) Open control valves • (2) No speed increase Bring back test valves to operating position Control valves o Leak test o Control valves closed using motorised actuator o Main steam pressure present upstream of turbine (1) Open stop valves • (2) No abnormal speed increase Bring back motorised actuator to open position Overspeed trip o Oil injection test o Turbine speed < 2970rpm or o Unit in low-load operation (1) Release testing device for operation (2) Press and hold down test valve for inhibiting trip (left-hand valve) (3) Turn handwheel of hydraulic test signal transmitter to right until test oil circuit is pressurised (4) Observe oil pressures where overspeed trip device operates • Auxiliary trip circuit depressurised 5.

3-0030-02/7 .o Equipment tested Type of test o () • Date Result Tested by Preconditions Test Step Result (5) Turn handwheel of hydraulic test signal transmitter to left until test oil circuit is depressurised (6) Bring trip device of overspeed trip into operating position using right-hand valve • (7) Auxiliary trip pressure built up Repeat test until overspeed trip operates at the same test oil pressure in successive tests 5.

Steam Turbine Maintenance Testing during Power Operation Test that demonstrate the readiness for operation and the proper functioning of important components. must be performed during power operation of the turbine generator unit. The tables can be used as checklists.2-0400 : Fault tracing • Preconditions Test Step Result o Control valve opening < 100% o () Date Result Tested by Turbine controllers o Functional test (1) Change setpoint of effective controller • Change in control valve-opening corresponding to setpoint change o Load approx.2-002.3-0035-02/1 . test activities and criteria is intended to simplify testing. o Equipment tested Type of test Test performance Test performance must be recorded. When no specific instructions are prescribed for any test. Pay attention to fault tracing instructions. The time intervals between tests are given in a separate instruction [1]. 50% Bypass control o Functional test (1) Open HP bypass station slowly by operating pushbutton on control panel • Reheat pressure increases • Injection water pressure present • Bypass stop valves open • Bypass control valves begin to open (2) BHEL Haridwar Close HP bypass station • Reheat pressure drops • Bypass control valves close • Bypass stop valves close • Injection water pressure reduced 5. : Testing of turbine components [2] 5. Test Procedures The table containing tests. If incorrect operation of the equipment tested occurs.. [2] Also refer to the following sections: [1] 5. take action establishing full operational reliability of the turbine generator unit immediately. prerequisites. the test sequences shown in the table must be followed.

3-0035-02/2 Service control fluid pump on Pressure buildup downstream of tested pump One control fluid Manual off Date Result Tested by .o Equipment tested Type of test • Preconditions Test Step Result o Seal steam controller on o () Seal steam controller o Functional test (1) Seal steam controller off (2) Induce control deviation by operating control valves (Pushbutton on control panel) (3) Seal steam controller on (4) Verify correction of seal steam pressure Oil temperature controller o Functional test o Oil temperature controller on (1) Oil temperature controller off (2) Induce control deviation by operating temperature control valve (Pushbutton on control panel) (3) Oil temperature controller on (4) Verify correction of oil temperature Auxiliary and emergency oil pumps o Operational readiness test o Auxiliary and emergency oil pumps off (1) Auxiliary pumps subloop control off (2) Auxiliary oil pump 1 Manual on • Pressure buildup downstream of pump (3) Auxiliary oil pump 1 Manual off (4) Auxiliary oil pump 2 Manual on • Pressure buildup downstream of pump (5) Auxiliary oil pumps 2 Manual off (6) Auxiliary oil pumps subloop control on (7) Emergency oil pump Manual on • (8) Pressure buildup downstream of pump Emergency oil pump Manual off Control fluid pumps o Operational readiness test o (1) Stand-by control fluid pump Manual on • (2) 5.

3-0035-02/3 .o Equipment tested Type of test • Preconditions Test Step Result o Automatic turbine tester available o () Date Result Tested by Main trip valves o Ease test of movement (1) Select and start test program for one protective device • Main trip valves respond • No fault annunciations on automatic turbine tester o Automatic turbine tester available Remote trip solenoids o Functional test (1) Select and start Remote trip solenoids test program • Main trip solenoid respond • No fault annunciations on automatic turbine tester o Automatic turbine tester available Overspeed trips o Functional test testing of setting and (1) Select and start Remote trip test program • Overspeed trips o Manual functional test and testing of setting Overspeed trips respond (2) If ATT annunciates fault repeat overspeed trip test (1) Release hydraulic test signal transmitter (2) Depress left-hand piston of hydraulic test signal transmitter to limit and hold down (3) Increase test pressure using handwheel of hydraulic test signal transmitter o Overspeed trip(s) respond(s) (4) Ascertain pressure at which trip(s) and record (5) Reduce test pressure using hydraulic test signal transmitter (6) Depress right-hand piston of hydraulic test signal transmitter to limit • respond(s) handwheel of Auxiliary trip pressure builds up (7) Release right-hand piston of hydraulic test signal transmitter (8) Release left-hand piston of hydraulic test signal transmitter 5.

3-0035-02/4 Date Result Tested by .o Equipment tested Type of test o () • (9) Preconditions Test Step Result Repeat test as often necessary until trip operates at the same test pressure as set during commissioning Hydraulic low-vacuum trip o Functional test testing of setting and o (1) Automatic turbine tester available Select and start Low-vacuum trip test program • low vacuum trip operates • No fault annunciations on automatic turbine tester o Extraction system in operation o Extraction swing check valve open o Hydraulic release present Differential pressure switch in extraction lines o Functional test (1) Reduce differential pressure across differential pressure switch • Extraction swing check valve closes slightly o Automatic turbine tester available Stop and control valves o Exercising (1) Apply test load (2) Select and start test program for stop and control valve unit to be tested • Control valve closes • Stop valve closes • Stop valve opens • Control valve opens • No fault annunciation on automatic turbine tester Extraction swing check valves o Exercising o Extraction system in operation (1) Change load or extraction flow • Extraction swing check units perform movements 5.

3-0037 (1) Test temperature condition of drain values Important operating values o Recording Drains o Leak test 5.o Equipment tested Type of test o () • Preconditions Test Step Result Date Result Tested by Alarms o Functional test Speed indicator o Alarms generated (1) Record alarms generated (1) Compare with grid frequency (1) Record important operating values in accordance with 5.3-0036 & 5.3-0035-02/5 .

Scope of operating documentation Operating documentation comprises the following documents:  Printouts from continuous-line printer  Operating data logs or curves based on the data archived in the electronic data acquisition system  Alarm and switching logs . binary signals resulting from annunciations and switching operations are continuously printed out with high time resolution by the electronic data acquisition system. Documents for long-term monitoring of the turbine-generator unit Certain operating data should be recorded at long intervals in order to document the long-term behaviour of the turbine generator unit. For troubleshooting purposes. during and after the fault should be retained and archived. it is essential that information be available. Scope of measurement and instrumentation The scope of measurements and also. severe damage and unfavourable inspection findings be determined. when compared to the last recorded value. It should be possible to retrieve data in the form of logs or time curves at any time over the course of the intended archiving period. The scope of data recommended in Table-1 should therefore be available to permit post-event analysis. the alarm and switching logs printed immediately before. alarm and switching logs are thus generated which form an important source of information for operations management. after the scanning interval has elapsed. Long-term data archiving is to be done on magnetic tape / disc. This instruction contains recommendations on the acquisition and archiving of operating data.3-0037-03/1 . The data are of importance for operations management. the instrumentation of the turbine generator unit are dictated by the agreements between plant operators and suppliers. The associated logs may be of use in analysing faults or damages if the cause can be traced back to or is indicative of a gradually developing adverse change. Only those values for an operating parameter should be electronically archived which.  Processing of binary signals Normally. such logs document the histories of faults or damage and should be archived  Logs with handwritten entries are required in cases where certain data are not recorded or archived  Logs used to document the long-term behavior of the turbine generator unit BHEL Haridwar Acquisition and Archiving of operating data Procedural Instruction  Documents statistics showing the availability Documents from the electronic data acquisition system  Processing of analog measured values All the data specified in Table-1 should be archived in MAXSTORIAN of electronic data acquisition system. in the form of operating documentation. and actions taken to prevent a recurrence of such incidents. as well as any data relevant in terms of life expectancy considerations. therefore. In order to determine the cause of such faults. 5. lie outside the scatter band given in Table-1.Steam Turbine Maintenance Introduction It is in the interest of both the plant operator and the supplier that the causes of faults. on the operating history of the turbine generator unit both in the past and immediately before and during the fault or damage.

it is not possible in this procedural instruction to present a reliable and complete picture of all the correlations involved.  Evaluation of the fault report and the operating documentation Faults and damage usually occur when several adverse influences are present simultaneously. countermeasures to be Retention period for documentation The documents described above must be archived in a magnetic tape for consultation for a long time after the operating data have been logged in order. as well as the countermeasures implemented. the supplier of the turbine generator unit is not always able to check the legal validity of guarantee claims in the event of damage or a complaint regarding component defects and may therefore reserve the right to reject any claims for which the requisite documents are not available. It is the duty of the operator’s or supplier’s own experts to define the correlation between the event and the adverse influencing factors and to evaluate them and decide on implemented. Because of the multiplicity of conceivable faults and their possible influencing factors. the causes and duration of periods of non-availability.  Documents containing operating data which are relevant in terms of life expectancy considerations must be archived until the turbine generator unit is taken out of service. Also refer to the following: [1] BHEL-EDN document on MAX control system 5. among other things. The requirements will have to be adapted on the basis of the actual measuring point list.3-0037-03/2 . operating data tables and curves generated by the electronic data acquisition system. among other things. showing all relevant data on the evolution of the event leading to the fault or damage. Copies of the printouts from the continuous-line recorder or dotted-line recorder. Processing of operating documents  Fault report The control room personnel should prepare reports on fault or damage. to analyse any correlations between component status and operating conditions.Documents on availability statistics For the purpose of providing information on the operating behaviour and the status of the plant. Table-1 lists the required operating data for acquisition and archiving in accordance with the operating instruction. Importance of documents for settling guarantee claims Without the data contained in the documents described above. it is recommended that availability statistics is compiled which show. in-depth investigations should be performed. and the fault and damage logs should be appended to the fault or damage reports. If the statistics show a frequent recurrence of an event which leads to plant nonavailability.  It is recommended that all other documents be archived until the next inspection and overhaul has been completed. in order to permit evaluation of turbine performance.

3-0037-03/3 . or relative MKD CY Generator / exciter shaft absolute or relative 5s 1 µm inspection cycle 5s 5s 5 µm inspection cycle inspection cycle 5 µm 5.002 Pnom 0.02 Pnom 0.002 Pnom 0.05 to 0.01 Pnom 0.005 to 0.Table – 1 Data acquisition recommended for post event analysis ID Code Measuring point Measuring Scatter band cycle Retention Period Power/Speed MKA CE Active Power MKA CE Reactive Power MYA FS Turbine generator speed Steam pressure 30 s 30 s 5s 0.1 s-1 service life service life inspection cycle LBA CP Upstream MS stop valves MAA CP Upstream HP blading LBC/MAA CP Downstream HP blading LBB CP Upstream reheat stop valves MAB CP Upstream IP blading LBQ CP HP extractions LBS CP LP extractions MAG CP Condenser Steam temperatures 30 s 30 s 30 s 30 s 30 s 30 s 30 s 30 s 0.01 Pnom 0.01 bar service life service life inspection cycle service life service life inspection cycle inspection cycle inspection cycle LBA CT Upstream MS-stop valves LBC/MAA CT Downstream HP turbine LBB CT Upstream reheat stop valves MAB CT Downstream IP turbine LBO CT HP extractions LBS CT LP extractions MAW CT Seal steam header Casing temperatures 30 s 30 s 30 s 30 s 30 s 30 s 30 s 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 1K 1K service life inspection cycle service life inspection cycle inspection cycle inspection cycle inspection cycle MAA CT MS-SV/CV 100/50% MAA/MAB CT Turbine casing 100/90/50% MAA/MAB CT Turbine casing top/bottom MAC CT Turbine casing front/rear Bearing temperatures 30 s 30 s 30 s 30 s 2K 2K 2K 1K service life service life inspection cycle inspection cycle MAD CT MKD CT Vibrations Turbine radial/axial bearings Generator/exciter bearings 5s 5s 1K 1K inspection cycle inspection cycle MAD/MKD CY Turbine / generator bearing casing MAD CY Turbine shaft abs.01 Pnom 0.01 Pnom 0.01 Pnom 1 bar 0.

check and repair TSC or temperature sensors In-service repair Discrepancies at TSC .2-0423 Actions during service or overhaul depending on findings Check TSC and/or temperature sensors.High wall temperature differentials during steadystate operation BHEL Haridwar check and 5.3-0040-01/1 .Steam Turbine Maintenance Remedial Actions for off-normal operating conditions Turbine Off-Normal Condition Action Classification of action Main steam pressure > Pmax (Long-term) Increase turbine load or reduce steam generator output In-service correction Main/reheat steam temperature > θmax (longterm) Reduce main / reheat temperature steam In-service correction Main / reheat temperature < θdesign Raise main temperature steam In-service correction Steam pressure ahead of turbine blading > Pmax (longterm) Reduce turbine load until pressure ahead of turbine blading < Pmax In-service correction HP turbine exhaust steam temperature or extraction temperatures > normal under otherwise comparable operating conditions Take ηi measurements In-service check If internal efficiency ηi degraded flush through with saturated steam Maintenance (saturated steam washing) during short shut-down steam / reheat (long-term) Clean blading Maintenance (cleaning) during overhaul Seal steam pressure deviates from setpoint or fluctuates Seal steam pressure > pnormal Seal steam leak-off valve 100% Temperature differential . top and bottom casing > normal Check control system.TSC test correct function not . valves etc. In-service check Check functioning of Gland Steam condenser In-service check Check shaft if necessary Inspection and during overhaul seal and repair repair Check temperature sensors In-service check Establish cause of temperature differential as per 5. if necessary correct setpoint adjuster In-service correction check and If necessary repair control valves Repair during service or overhaul Replace filters control valves Maintenance during short shut-down at seal steam Measure temperature in leak-off steam lines of casings.

3-0040-01/2 and if repair . check adjustment of piping hangers In-service correction down Perform checks as prescribed in 5. inspect and repair at earliest opportunity Inspection and during overhaul Drain valves leaking Open drain.2-0421 In-service check If temperature changes wide with rapid rates of change. shut down turbine and inspect bearing Immediate inspection and repair during forced shutdown If temperature changes small and slow.2-0420 provided vibrations < trip limits In-service check Actions as finding e. blow through and close again In-service correction Loss of integrity of stem packing of drain valves Tighten stem seals In-service maintenance LP turbine outlet temperature > normal under otherwise comparable operating conditions (especially condenser vacuum) Leak in internal expansion joint suspected if high temperature localised In-service check Perform inspection necessary repair Visual inspection and repairs during overhaul or after shut-down Bearing metal temperatures > normal under otherwise comparable operating conditions 5. inspection and maintenance (cleaning) or repair during overhaul Check forces exerted by piping. appropriate during check.Off-Normal Condition Spacer plates at casing supports not free to move Bearing or shaft vibration > normal under otherwise comparable operating conditions Action Classification of action Check for casing lift In-service check Clean spacer plates and other fixture elements.g. shaft seals In service correction Check during overhaul or after turbine shut-down bearings. Perform examinations and checks as prescribed in 5. shut- to - Rebalance rotor system In-service check - Check alignment. establish freedom of movement In-service check and maintenance (cleaning) only if casing does not lift when fixture elements are removed.

air separation capability and antifoaming.2-0460 and take appropriate action Check and remedial actions may in many cases be performed during operation.Slow change .3-0040-01/3 . changed Perform additional oil examinations. or clean filter by rotating filter plates In-service maintenance Oil temperature downstream of oil cooler > θnormal Perform examinations and checks as prescribed in 5. where necessary change over and clean Oil level in oil tank < normal . check that no water is being admitted to standby oil cooler.g. e.Rapid change Oil escaping at oil guard rings of bearing pedestals check and Adjust throttle valves on bearing pedestals Check leak-tightness of oil tank covers and if necessary reseal Oil properties. check oil cooler for chocking. initiate fire protection measures In-service check remedial action and Oil level in tank strainer high Change and clean strainer Maintenance during service or shut-down Water collecting on oil tank bottom Drain off water. separate water from oil In-service maintenance Establish causes and eliminate Check and repair during overhaul Check if oil vapour exhauster fan is in operation In-service correction fluid Check oil cooler vents. if necessary correct setpoint or repair In-service checks maintenance and Top up with oil of same make and type In-service check maintenance and Locate leak and take appropriate actions. e. consult on appropriate actions with oil supplier and turbine manufacturer In-service maintenance 5. otherwise shut down plant and perform repairs Lubricating oil pressure downstream of filter < Pnormal Change over filter and clean In-service maintenance Control < Pnormal pressure Change over filter and clean or replace.2-0460 check control system.g.Oil system Off-Normal Condition Action Classification of action Oil system pressures < pnormal Perform examinations and checks as prescribed in 5.

air separation capability or neutralisation value. where necessary adjust setpoint or repair In-service checks maintenance and Check control fluid vents Check that no water is being admitted to the standby cooler.g. shorten sampling intervals. initiate fire protection measures In-service check remedial actions and Control fluid level in tank strainer high Change and clean strainer Maintenance during service or shut-down Control fluid properties. check control fluid coolers for chocking.Control Fluid System Off-Normal Condition Action Classification of action Control fluid level in control fluid tank < normal . if necessary change over and clean Charge pressures accumulators < Pnormal 5.3-0040-01/4 of Recharge accumulators In-service maintenance . e. e. changed Operate regeneration plant continuously.g. replace Fuller’s earth in filter In-service maintenance Control fluid temperature downstream of control fluid cooler > normal Check control system.Rapid change Locate leak and take appropriate actions.Slow change Top up with control fluid of same make and type In-service check maintenance and .

if necessary reset or correct.Control valve opening < 100% Replace steam packing rings Control valve leaking (internal steam leak) Replace valve stem. rework seat Repair during overhaul Load shedding defective Repair load shedding relay In-service repair .3-0040-01/5 .Control System.Running time exceeded during testing of stop and control valves Adjust limit switch In-service repair Extraction swing check valve position indicators defective Repair position indicators In-service repair relay Faults in valves detected by automatic turbine tester 5.Control 100% valve opening . establish cause of discrepancy and eliminate Correction during short shut-downs or overhauls Examine antifoaming performance of turbine oil In-service check Check oil supply to hydraulic speed transducer Check during short shutdowns or overhauls Open main oil pump and check hydraulic speed transducer Check and repair during overhauls Replace back seat Repair during overhaul or short shut-downs secondary Primary oil pressure fluctuates or < Pnormal Control valve streams not leak-tight . Protective Devices Off-Normal Condition Action Change in control system setting - Control valve lift sequence - Control synchronisation valve - Control changed travel as function pressures valve of Classification of action Check control system.

repair during stoppages and overhauls .Pumps and Piping Off-Normal Condition Action Classification of action Pump and motor bearing temperatures > normal Inspect bearing. eliminate leak Repair during stoppage .Small-scale escape flammable media of Establish eliminate Repair during stoppages or overhauls Valve stem seals not leaktight 5.Large-scale escape flammable media of Immediately shut down turbine (initiate fire protection measures).3-0040-01/6 cause of leak Tighten or replace stem seals and In-service maintenance. renew replenish grease or oil charge Pump shaft seals not leaktight Tighten and if repack shaft seals Performance degraded Switch in standby unit In-service correction If necessary perform overhaul Repair during overhaul Discharge head < normal under otherwise comparable operating conditions Switch in standby unit In-service correction Perform system check. if necessary correct system operation In-service correction Pipes vibrating Inspect dampers In-service maintenance Check and repair piping hangers and supports In-service repair Piping and/or connections leaky or In-service maintenance necessary In-service maintenance piping .

The internal efficiency of turbines whose expansion line lies totally or partially within the wet steam region cannot be measured. which also includes the trend of any changes in efficiency. Changes in the internal condition of a turbine (e.  Measuring the steam conditions at the turbine inlet and exhaust The steam pressures and temperatures in the reference plane at the inlet and exhaust of a turbine as indicated in Figure-1 are measured. This means that the method described here cannot be used for measuring the internal efficiency of LP turbines.3-0050-02/1 . are recommended. among other factors. Measurement of the internal efficiency of each turbine at regular intervals and comparison with values recorded previously or when the unit was new. restoring original gaps and clearances. or mechanical damage) cause a marked deterioration in internal efficiency. recorded and calculated during normal steady-state operation under comparable rated design conditions.  6-months  before and after inspections and overhauls  before and after wet steam washing BHEL Haridwar 5.g. must lie within the superheated steam region. whose internal efficiency is to be measured. blade repairs etc. operating under wet steam condition. increased seal clearances. on the overall efficiency of the steam turbine and thus. The intervals between measurements should be either in accordance with the Table-1: Test intervals Type of test Boundary conditions Test interval Measuring the internal efficiency Steady state operation under rated design conditions comparable with those of previous measurements.). Recommendation for measurement The economic performance of any power plant unit depends. Introduction This test instruction describes the procedure used for measuring the internal efficiency of turbines whose expansion line lies within the superheated steam region. This will provide useful additional information for planning the type. due to buildup of deposits on blades. Carrying out test at identical load and steam parameters makes the comparison / trend more realistic. the internal efficiency of a turbine cylinder is an important parameter with which the effect of the changes in internal condition on its performance can be assessed. on the internal efficiency of each cylinder. scope and timing of maintenance work (e. since there is no simple way of measuring the actual steam content of a flow of wet steam with sufficient accuracy.Steam Turbine Maintenance Measurement of internal Efficiency Test Instructions recommendations given in Table-1 or as specified by the operator on the basis of practical experience with the particular plant.g. Consequently. Principle of measurement  Prerequisites and limitations The steam conditions in the reference plane at the inlet and exhaust of the turbine.

3-0050-02/2 . h2 and hs are to be worked out from steam table. S1.h2 Internal Efficiency in % = -------.P1 h1 ∆hs ∆h T1 S1 h2 P2 T2 hs Figure-1 : Steam conditions and enthalpies for calculating the internal efficiency of a turbine cylinder Notations: ∆h h1 . P1 : Pressure of inlet steam before group stage section T1 : Temperature of inlet steam before group stage section P 2 : Pressure of exit steam after group stage section T2 : Temperature of exit steam after group stage section h1 : Enthalpy of inlet steam corresponding to P1 & T1 S1 : Entropy of inlet steam corresponding to P1 & T 1 h2 : Enthalpy of exit steam corresponding to P2 & T2 hs : Adiabatic steam Enthalpy corresponding to P2 & S1 Note: Values of h1.x 100 = ----------.hs Where. 5.x 100 ∆hs h1 .

and evaluate Duration of testing For reliable measurement.3-0050-02/3 . corrosion.  Trend of change in internal efficiency Trend of changes in internal efficiency can be seen when the measurements are plotted versus time in a graph. If the measurements are to be taken by means of operational instrumentation installed in the reference planes.  Calculating the internal efficiency The internal efficiency of a turbine cylinder is calculated with the ratio of the actual decrease in enthalpy to the isentropic decrease in enthalpy. Measuring procedure The procedure for measuring the steam pressures and temperatures and calculating the internal efficiency of a turbine is as follows:  Install precision pressure gauges or recalibrate the operational instrument  Install precision thermocouples or use the operational instruments for temperature measurement  Adjust the inlet steam conditions and the control valve lift to the same values used for previous measurements  Wait until turbine temperatures have stabilized under steady-state operating conditions  Measure and record the steam pressures and temperatures  Use steam tables to determine the enthalpies of the steam condition at the turbine inlet and outlet  Calculate the efficiency  Compare the measured internal efficiencies with the values recorded previously or when the unit was new. arithmetic averages of pressure & temperature measurements should be taken for at least half an hour duration at stable load condition and rated steam parameters. The turbine is also provided with test measuring points for installing precision instruments to measure pressures and temperatures. the instruments must be tested and calibrated regularly in order to eliminate any inaccuracies due to problems such as drift. the measuring points should be in the same reference plane at the turbine inlet and outlet as for the acceptance tests. Reasons for actual conditions deviating from reference condition Changes in internal efficiency can be due to one or more of the following reasons:  Increased roughness of the blade surfaces due to a build-up of deposits. or solid particle erosion  Increase in clearances in the blading flow path  Increased tip clearance losses due to seal strip wear  Bypass flow due to internal leaks  Increase of losses in valve seats  Deposits on heat transfer surfaces  Vent the pressure-sensing lines 5. Measuring points and instruments When taking measurements for calculating the internal efficiency of a turbine. Appropriate instruments can be installed in addition to the operational instrumentation and used for taking necessary measurements. Determining the enthalpy The enthalpies for the steam conditions measured in the reference plane at the turbine inlet and outlet are taken from steam table.

). must be performed during shut down of the turbine generator unit. the test sequences shown in the table must be followed. The operating sequence establishing certain operating conditions is given in the form of general instructions to avoid constant repetition in the tables of test sequences. Pay attention to fault tracing instructions. If incorrect operation of the equipment being tested occurs. Equipment tested o Type of test o () • Also refer to the following sections: [1] 5. Any simulated condition necessary for the tests must be cancelled after completion of tests. A number of tests require certain components be in a definite position (e. test activities and criteria in tabular form are intended to simplify testing. : Testing of turbine components [2] 5.2-002. When no specific instructions are given for any test. Test performance Take care to avoid any risks to people or machines while performing tests. Test performance must be recorded. The tables can also be used as checklists. Steam inlet valves may only be opened for test purposes if the piping system upstream of those valves is not under pressure and the system concerned have been cleared for testing.g. Test Procedures Test prerequisites.Steam Turbine Maintenance Testing during Shut-down Introduction Tests that demonstrate the proper functioning of important components.. The scope of the tests performed is listed in the Test interval instruction [1].3-0060-01/1 .3-0061 : Testing during standstill Preconditions Test Step Result Date Result Tested by Main trip valves in operating position  Stop valves closed o Starting and load limit device not in 0% position o Test valves of stop valves in left-hand end position ( = stop valves open) (1) Move test valve pilot into right-hand end position ( = stop valves closed) using hand wheel (2) Bring starting and load limit device into 0 % position • (3) BHEL Haridwar Main trip valves in operating position Bring starting and load limit device into 40 % position 5. main trip valves in operating position. etc. stop valves closed. take action establishing full operational reliability of the turbine generator unit immediately.

Equipment tested o Type of test () o Preconditions Test Step • Result • Main trip valves in operating position and ready to trip • Stop valves closed o Stop valves open o Starting and load limit device not in 0% position o Test valves of stop valves in left-hand end position (1) Bring starting and load limit device into 0 % position • Main trip valves in operating position (2) Bring starting and load limit device into 40 % position • Main trip valves in operating position and ready to trip • Stop valves open Overspeed trip o o Generator not synchronised Overspeed test after test interval or after inspections and repairs (See also instruction 5.3-0030) o Turbine generator unit at rated speed o Turbine at operating temperature (1) Raise speed reference to maximum • Speed approx.3-0060-01/2 (1) Lower speed set point Date Result Tested by . 107% (2) Switch off Electro-hydraulic controller (3) Run up to trip speed by pressing mechanical push button on hydraulic speed governor (4) Verify operation of overspeed trip • Trip speed • Stop and control valves closed Control valves and reverse power protection relay o o Leak test valves o Generator synchronised and o Load > 0 % Functional test (reverse power relay) o Speed governor effective 5.

2-0410) Auxiliary oil pump o o Stop and control valves closed Pressure dependent on command o Turbine speed dropping (1) Verify startup of auxiliary oil pump on pressure-dependent command • Auxiliary oil pump on Jacking oil pump o Speed dependent on command o Stop and control valves closed o Turbine speed dropping (1) Verify startup of jacking oil pump on speed-dependent command • Jacking oil pump on Turning gear oil valve o o Stop and control valves closed Speed-dependent open command o Turbine speed dropping (1) Verify opening of turning gear oil valve on speed-dependent command • Turning gear oil valve open Condenser Safety devices o Response of electrical condenser safety device o Turbine generator unit not operating o Condenser plant operating 5.3-0060-01/3 .Equipment tested o Type of test o () • Preconditions Test Step Result Date Result Tested by • Secondary pressures < pressure for control valves opening • Control valves 0% (2) Verify operation of reverse power protection relay • Reverse operated power protection relay • Generator breaker tripped or • Reverse power protection relay not operating (see serious faults 5.

Equipment tested o Type of test o () • Preconditions Test Step Result Date Result Tested by o Criteria for shut down of condenser plant fulfilled o Main trip valves in operating position o Stop valves closed (1) Reduce condenser vacuum (2) Verify operation of electrical condenser safety device • Trip initiated (3) o Response of hydraulic low vacuum trip Restore main trip valves to normal operating position o Condenser safety (electrical) performed device test o Condenser vacuum > trip vacuum (hydraulic) o Main trip valves in operating position o Stop valves closed (1) Simulated turbine speed by screwing in locking bolt on low-vacuum trip (2) Reduce condenser vacuum (3) Verify operation of electrical condenser safety device • Trip initiated (4) Restore main trip valves to normal Operating position (5) Cancel hydraulic speed simulation (Unscrew locking bolt on low-vacuum trip) (6) Move test valve into operating position Condenser Safety devices for bypass operation o Response of hydraulic low vacuum trip o Condensate operating extraction pumps o Condenser pressure Pabs < 0.3-0060-01/4 .5 bar o Criteria for shut down of condenser plant fulfilled 5.

Equipment tested
o Type of test

o
()

Preconditions
Test Step
Result

Date
Result
Tested by

o Bypass operation ended
(1)

Press push-button
governor

of

LP

bypass

• Signal pressure for bypass control
valves > 1.7 bar < 2.06 bar
• Bypass stop valves
(2)

Operate push-button of LP Bypass limit
controller to inhibit response due to
reduction of condenser vacuum

(3)

Reduce condenser vacuum

(4)

Verify operation of low vacuum trip
• Signal pressure upstream of
control valves reduced

bypass

5.3-0060-01/5

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Testing during Standstill

Introduction
Tests that demonstrate the proper
functioning of important components, must
be performed during stand still of the turbine
generator unit.

Test performance
Take care to avoid any risks to people or
machines while performing tests.

The time intervals between tests are given in
a separate instruction [1].

Any simulated conditions necessary for the
tests must be cancelled after completion of
tests.

Test Procedures
Test prerequisites, test activities and criteria
in tabular form are intended to simplify
testing.

Steam inlet valves may only be opened for
test purposes if the piping systems upstream
of those valves are not under pressure and
the system concerned have been cleared for
testing.

The tables are also suited to use as
checklists. Wherever no specific instructions
are prescribed for a test, the test sequences
shown in the table are to be followed.
A number of tests require certain
components be in a definite position (e.g.
main trip valves in operating position, stop
valves closed, etc.)
The operating sequence establishing certain
operating conditions is given in the form of
general instructions to avoid constant
repetition in the tables of test sequences.

Equipment tested
o Type of test

()

Test performance must be recorded.
If incorrect operation of the equipment being
tested occurs, take action establishing full
operational reliability of the turbine generator
unit immediately. Pay attention to fault
tracing instructions.

Also refer to the following sections:
[1] 3-001x : Testing of turbine components

o Preconditions
Test Step
• Result

Date
Result
Tested by

Main trip valves in operating
position
o Stop valves closed

o Starting and load limit device not in 0%
position
o Test valves of stop valves in left-hand end
position ( = stop valves open)
(1)

Move test valve pilot into right-hand end
position ( = stop valves closed) using hand
wheel

(2)

Bring starting and load limit device into 0%
position
• Main trip valves in operating position

(3)

BHEL Haridwar

Bring starting and load limit device into 40%
position

5.3-0061-02/1

Equipment tested
o Type of test

()

o Preconditions
Test Step
• Result
• Main trip valves in operating position and
ready to trip
• Stop valves closed
o Starting and load limit device not in 0%
position

o Stop valves open

o Test valves of stop valves in left-hand
end position
(1)

Bring starting and load limit device into 0%
position
• Main trip valves in operating position

(2)

Bring starting and load limit device into 40%
position
• Main trip valves in operating position and
ready to trip
• Stop valves open

Turbine control
o Testing of setting
Hydraulic amplifier

o Main trip valves in operating position
o Control medium temperature approx. 50 ºC
(1)

5.3-0061-02/2

Read and record setting data of control
system as a function of travel of starting
and load limit device (use starting and load
limit device to change auxiliary secondary
oil pressure by 0.1 – 0.2 bar per reading).

Travel of starting and load limit device

Travel of governor bellows

Auxiliary secondary pressure

Travel of converter (mm or %)

Secondary pressures

Travel of control valves

(2)

Prepare curves from readings and compare
with curves of last adjustment by
manufacturer

(3)

If comparison reveals major changes, have
them
inspected
and
corrected
by
manufacturer

Date
Result
Tested by

Equipment tested
o Type of test

()

o Testing of setting
Electro hydraulic converter

o Preconditions
Test Step
• Result

Date
Result
Tested by

o Main trip valves in operating position
o Control medium temperature approx. 50 ºC
(1)

Read and record setting data of control
system as a function of input voltage of
turbine valve controller

Input voltage of turbine valve controller

Travel of converter

Secondary pressures

Travel of control valves

(2)

Prepare curves from readings and compare
with curves of last adjustment by
manufacturer

(3)

If comparison reveals major changes, have
them
inspected
and
corrected
by
manufacturer

Load rejection relay
o Main trip valves in operating position

o Functional test

o Control valves open
(1)

Use contactor to energize solenoid valves
operated by load rejection relay

Control valves close for as long as solenoid
valve is energized

Bypass control
o As per vendor’s recommendation

o Testing of setting
Main trip valves

o Main trip valves in operating position

o Ease of movement and trip
pressure

o Stop valves closed
(1)

Reduce control medium pressure
governor linkage by closing cutoff valve

(2)

of

Main trip valves close
Measure pressure where main trip valves
close

5.3-0061-02/3

Equipment tested
o Type of test

()

o Preconditions
Test Step
• Result

Date
Result
Tested by

Remote trip solenoids
o Functional test

o Main trip valves in operating position
o Test valves of stop valves in closed
position
(1)

Press pushbutton to start remote turbine
trip

Trip initiated

Low vacuum trip
o Functional test and testing of
setting

o Condenser vacuum > response level
or
o Test pump operating and simulated
condenser vacuum > response level
(1)

Reduce condenser vacuum or increase
pump pressure
• Low vacuum trip responds

(2)

Determine vacuum where trip started

Fire protection system
o Shaft at standstill

o Functional test

o Normal operating conditions of oil system
established (exception : jacking oil pump
subloop control off)
o Main trip valves in operating position
(1)

(2)

5.3-0061-02/4

Operate fire protection switches 1 and 2 in
succession in the control room and at the
local control stations in the power plant

Start of fire protection measures
accordance with functional diagram

No annunciation “Fire protection measures
not performed”

in

Acknowledge fire protection measures and
re-establish normal operating conditions for
further testing

Equipment tested
o Type of test

()

o Preconditions
Test Step
• Result

Date
Result
Tested by

Low lub oil pressure trip
o Oil system operating

o Functional test

o Main trip valves in operating position
o Stop valves closed
(1)

Simulate pressure Transmitters (2 out of 3)
for lubricating oil trip

Trip started

Stop valve
o Exercising

o Oil system operating
o Main trip valves in operating position
o Stop valves open
(1)

Actuate main trip valves (manual trip-out
from control system rack or remote trip
• Stop valves closed

o Cut-off pressure

o Oil system operating
o Main trip valves in operating position
o Stop valves to be tested open
(1)

Reduce trip oil pressure by means of cut-off
valve upstream of control system cabinet
• Stop valve closes

(2)

Turbine control valves
o Exercising

Measure and record trip oil pressure where
valve starts to close

o Main trip valves in operating position
o Stop valves closed
o No limitation by parallel acting controllers
(1)

Bypass Stop & Control valves
o Exercising

Open and close control valves by starting
and load limit device

o Bypass interlock criteria not present
or
o Release criteria simulated
(1)

Open and close bypass stop and control
valves

5.3-0061-02/5

Equipment tested
o Type of test

Vacuum breakers
o Functional test

o Preconditions
()
Test Step
• Result

(1)

Operate vacuum breakers

Alarms
o Functional test 4-1190
Binary signal transmitters
o Functional testing of
pressure switches
General measuring
instrumentation
o Functional and annunciation
test

5.3-0061-02/6

o Remove pressure switches
(1)

Test pressure switches with test pump

(1)

Test and calibrate in accordance with
manufacturer’s instructions

Date
Result
Tested by

Steam Turbine
Maintenance
Introduction
The set pressure of the safety valves of
turbine integral system (e.g. oil or other
control media) are checked during
commissioning.
The scope of instruction in the turbine
manual is, apart from certain exceptions,
strictly limited to the scope of supply of the
turbine factory. Safety valves of the steam
and water systems are not normally a part of
the turbine factory’s scope of supply. Thus
the following instructions may only be
regarded as recommendations.
If the pressure in a system increases
impermissibly from the operating pressure, it
is the function of the safety valve to reduce
this pressure to the normal value thus
protecting the system concerned from
damage.
Therefore,
the
turbine
manufacturer must approve the valve
settings to be used [1].

Setting of the Safety Valves
The set values recommended by the turbine
manufacturer are contained in the Technical
Data [1] of the turbine manual and must be
observed.
Setting and testing must be carried out in
accordance with the technical requirements
and the instructions of the valve
manufacturer.
When the initial setting is performed during
commissioning of the turbine generator unit,
a representative of the turbine manufacturer
is to witness the test or be informed of the
set values.

Testing of Safety Valves

The set values must be entered in the
commissioning protocol.
Bypass valves, which open in the event of
excessive pressure upstream of turbine
components may form part of the over
pressure steam removal system and must
be likewise set and tested.

Testing of Safety Valves
Regular testing of the safety valves is the
responsibility of the turbine generator unit
operator. The testing intervals must comply
with the technical requirements and the
recommendations of the valve and turbine
generator unit manufacturer [2] and must be
observed.

Performance of Testing
Shut-down can be avoided if the testing is
carried out during operation of the turbine.
From the point of view of the turbine
manufacturer, however, they can only be
performed if the turbine generator unit is not
endangered.
Operation of the turbine with elevated
reheater pressure may lead to impermissible
temperatures or the control and thrust
characteristics of the turbine being
disturbed.
Furthermore, faults in the safety valves may
cause impermissible load changes or
instability of the steam generator. In this
case, it is best to carry out testing when the
turbine is not operating.

Also refer to the following sections:
[1] 5.1-0100 : Technical data
[2] 5.2-002... : Testing of turbine
components

BHEL Haridwar

5.3-0062-01

Test procedures There are various ways to functioning of signaling devices. then this is also signaled. (With this method it is possible for mistakes to be made when returning the settings to their original values.g. Types of signaling devices Alarm signaling devices give a visual and audible indication of operating values reaching predetermined limits. These instructions deal with the fundamentals of testing and maintenance of signaling devices. the  The response limit value is adjusted so that signaling response occurs. testing of the signaling devices should be carried out under a close approximation to operating conditions. for some reason. a partial test of the signaling device must be performed by means of an electrical pulse. they are of value only if they are completely reliable in operation. Basis of signaling device testing Whenever possible. the signaling devices must be tested at regular intervals. Care must be exercised with this method to ensure that the maximum point reached is not sufficient to cause an unintentional shutdown. Example: A water level can be raised to its signaling limit by closing the appropriate drain valve. When testing the overspeed trips. Finally. all alarms and condition signals must be carefully observed and a record made of their response. It is also important to check that the signaling actually reflects the operating condition accurately. whether a stop valve is open or closed.  Testing during operation by varying the operating condition. BHEL Haridwar test 5. Therefore. This type of testing is most appropriate when operating values can be varied by intervention in the plant process. In this method the sensor is operated without there being any change in operating value or condition. The pressure switch for the “condenser vacuum low” alarm is isolated and then vented to atmosphere. In addition to functional testing.3-0063-00/1 .)  Testing during operation by varying the operating values. none of the previous methods can be used. e. Therefore the method should only be used in exceptional cases. especially after inspections. If. and when testing control and protection equipment.g. When shutting down and starting up the turbine and its auxiliaries. e. the device settings should also be checked at longer intervals. signaling can provide a reminder that certain action needs to be taken. Condition signaling indicates the state of control devices.Steam Turbine Maintenance Testing of Signaling Devices Introduction Signaling devices in their various forms are important aids to operational supervision.  Signaling response is produced by an electrical pulse. Examples: When shutting down the turbine the “low oil pressure” alarm must come before the auxiliary oil pump starts automatically.  Triggering of the sensor. However. The test should also enclose all components of the device. If this results in automatic intervention in the plant process. triggering of the turbine trip. the “Overspeed trip operated” alarm must come. Examples: The travel-controlled limit switch which signals response of the thrust bearing trip is operated by hand.

Examples: If the level in the oil tank does not normally fall to its minimum value during operation. When replacing coloured lamps in operating If necessary. condition displays. This method of testing presupposes that the level sensor itself is not suffering any malfunction. ensure that the correct colour lamp is used. 5. they must be tested regularly by means of the lamp test facility to ensure that they are operative and be replaced if they are blown. Therefore. Other tests The lamps of visual signaling devices have only a limited life.3-0063-00/2 Malfunctions Any malfunctioning of signaling devices must be rectified Immediately upon discovery. This is particularly true when there is a continuous alarm although there is no dangerous operating condition in the plant. the monitored operating values or sensor settings must be subjected to critical examination. the level monitor is disconnected and the alarm initiated by the application of an electrical pulse. .

Evaluation of measured temperatures recording and action of the calculated margins on the setpoint control for the turbine controller allow an optimum operating mode as regards both degree of component fatigue and economical operation.Steam Turbine Maintenance Testing of Turbine Stress Controller (TSC) Introduction This test instruction describes the plausibility checks to be carried out on the measured values acquired by the temperature sensors for turbine stress monitoring. which will have an adverse effect in terms of economical operation. all measured and calculated TS values should be registered during steady-state operation under the same boundary conditions. the nonsteady-state thermal stresses to which the steam turbine is exposed during startup and shut-down and as a result of changes in heat input to components during power operation are acquired and compared with the permitted limits. as well as the recording of measured and calculated values for long-term evaluation of temperature acquisition and of calculation circuitry. which will have an adverse effect in terms of the degree of component fatigue. As part of the long-term monitoring of operating parameters. Using the stress monitoring function of the turbine stress controller (TSC).3-0064-01/1 . Measurement should be performed at the intervals specified in Table-1. The margins obtained from this comparison define the stress and set the limits for permitted temperature load. plausibility checks should be carried out on the measured values at the intervals specified in Table-1. It is however possible that. All steam and component temperatures as well as the calculated margins are either recorded on dotted-line printers or stored by the computer. The plausibility of the measured data can be checked at a later date using the printed or stored measured and calculated values. in order to detect and correct any functional defects or faulty circuits within the temperature acquisition equipment. faulty turbine stress monitoring will result in selection of either too fast an operating mode. These values should then be recorded and archived to allow comparison at a later date. or of too slow an operating mode. by that time. Test recommendations A pre-requisite for the proper functioning of turbine stress monitoring as described in the introduction is fault-free operation of the measured value acquisition and evaluation functions. For this reason. Table-1 : Test Intervals Type of check or measurement Boundary conditions Test interval Plausibility checks measured values Non-steady-state and steady-state operation After inspections and overhauls or after work on the TS sensor Steady-state operation 3 months or after work on the TS sensor or TS monitoring equipment on Recording of measured and calculated values for long-term monitoring purposes BHEL Haridwar 5.

the stronger will be the Influence of turbine output on the differences between main steam temperatures and the temperatures at the heated surfaces of the turbine casing and the shaft. the HP turbine warms up rapidly.3-0064-01/2 . even while still operating below rated speed.  The steam temperatures upstream of the turbine must be higher than the component temperatures.g. a distinction must be made between plausibility checks performed during nonsteady-state and steady-state steam turbine operation.  The differences that exist between the main steam temperature and the temperature at the heated surface in the main steam valve bodies or the steam admission area are only very slight (< 5 K). As regards the criteria to be considered.  During steady-state operation. Criteria for plausibility checks during steady-state operation  The same absolute temperatures and temperature margins must exist for the same steady-state operating conditions.  The temperature at the heated surface of a component is higher during warmup and lower during cooling-down. the surface temperature of the IP turbine shaft is not measured directly but only at the heated surface of the inner casing. at the transducers. differences of upto approximately 10 K between temperatures at the heated surfaces and those at the mid-wall are normal during steady state operation. In the case of the IP turbine however.  During linear changes. differences of 10 to 40 K between the reheat steam temperature and the surface temperatures of the shaft can occur during steady-state operation. e. Criteria for plausibility checks during non-steady-state operation The temperature at the heated surface of a component must respond faster than that at the mid-wall of the component. and then to a greater extent during subsequent loading. 5. During non-steady-state operation. this may be due to incorrect assignment of measuring points or to a polarity fault.Plausibility checks on measured values When performing plausibility checks on the measured TS values. the differences between the temperatures at the heated surfaces and the mean integral shaft temperatures are always approximately 0. If the actual values do not conform to expected values.  The closer the turbine operating mode comes to the conditions for purely constant-pressure operation. Depending on the design-related location of the measuring point.  The temperatures at the heated surfaces of the casing and the shaft cannot be higher than those at the heated surface of the valve body or the steam admission area. warmup of the shaft takes place to a certain extent as a sudden step change and occurs only just before rated speed is reached.  For the barrel-type casing of the HP turbine. For the shafts. the temperature difference ∆θ (in K) arising in the component is directly proportional to the rate of change dθ/dt (in K/min)   During a cold start or startup after an extended shut-down. as compared to the temperature at the mid-wall of the component. the steam and component temperatures must be compared with each other.  For the IP turbine. temperature differences of approximately 15 K maximum develop between the measuring points on the heated surfaces and at the mid-wall of valve bodies or the steam admission area. taking certain criteria into consideration. it is also important to evaluate the trend of the measured values over time.

by checking the specified limit curves in accordance with the procedure described in the manual for the TS monitoring equipment. If the deviations in measured and calculated values are particularly large. e. Table-2 contains all measured and calculated values which may be required for the turbine stress monitoring equipment. it must be assumed that the behavior of the turbine plant will be adversely affected. These must be adapted to plant-specific requirements. the thermal behavior of the turbine and the function of the turbine stress monitoring equipment can be monitored on a long-term basis.Long-term monitoring through recording of all measured and calculated values By registering and recording all measured and calculated values at the intervals specified in Table-1 during steady-state turbine operation. Actions to be taken when actual conditions deviate from reference conditions If actual conditions deviate from reference conditions. If the check on the measured values reveals that the margins have changed due to the measured absolute temperatures and the differences arising between them. this can probably be traced to a fault in the calculation circuitry. In this case. action of the TS monitoring equipment on the setpoint control for the turbine controller must be temporarily deactivated.g. the TS limit curves must be used for evaluation of the thermal stresses imposed on the turbine components. The cause of the fault must be determined.3-0064-01/3 . the measured value acquisition function must be carefully checked and any faults corrected. 5. As long as action of the TS monitoring equipment on the set point control for the turbine controller is deactivated. Long-term monitoring can be used to detect and rectify any gradually developing changes.

MS admission area  surface  mid metal Wall temperatures. shaft center Upper TS margins  steam admission area  HP casing  HP shaft  IP shaft Lower TS margins  Steam admission area  HP casing  HP shaft  IP shaft 5. shaft center Temperatures. HP casing  surface  mid metal Temperatures. IP shaft  surface  simulated.θexh Reheat steam upstream of IP turbine  pressure  temperature Exhaust steam downstream of IP turbine  pressure  temperature Wall temperatures. HP shaft  surface  simulated.Table-2 : Measured and calculated values for long-term monitoring Measured and calculated values Effective power and reactive power  effective power  reactive power Main steam upstream of HP turbine  mass flow  pressure  temperature Exhaust steam downstream of HP turbine  pressure  temperature HP expansion section  differential temperature θms .3-0064-01/4 Terms Unit peff preact MW MVA mms pms θms kg/s bar ºC pHPexh θHPexh bar ºC ∆θ K pRS θRS bar °C pIPexh bar θIPexh °C θi-adm θm-adm °C °C θi-HPC θm-HPC °C °C θi-HPS θm-HPS °C °C θi-IPS θm-IPS °C °C ∆ ∆ θ adm-u K K K K ∆ ∆ θHPC-u ∆ ∆ θHPS-u ∆ ∆ θIPS-u ∆ ∆ θadm-l ∆ ∆ θHPC-l ∆ ∆ θHPS-l ∆ ∆ θIPS-l K K K K .

Steam Washing with a constant steam condition is not very effective. The steam entering the condenser must be condensed during the entire process i. Steam washing with saturated steam will only have the desired success if the steam has adequate moisture content upstream of the blading.Steam Turbine Maintenance Introduction During operation. These deposits cause a reduction of the turbine generator unit’s efficiency due to:  Changes in the flow profiles  Thicker boundary layers in the steam flow as a result of rough surfaces. Salt deposits occur at temperatures ranging from 480°C to the blading stages where condensation begins. the initial saturated steam temperatures must be as low as possible. silicate deposits are either water-soluble (e. As the temperature is raised the turbine speed will generally increase (take care to avoid critical speed ranges). The saturated steam is introduced into the HP turbine via the connection flanges provided between the stop and control valves. Depending on their composition. Increased speed will also promote cleaning.3-0070-02/1 . saturated steam washing should be performed first. the turbine generator unit should be started up and loaded after steam washing. Any dissolved salt residue remaining on the blading will be blown out due to the high velocity of the steam under load conditions. The steam is introduced into the IP turbine between the control valves and the turbine. Appropriate blind flanges are provided. deposits occur on the turbine blading to a greater or lesser degree depending on the steam purity [1] and the pressures and temperatures of the operating steam. i. alkali silicates) or occur as a hard Water-insoluble coating. the major part of the turbine generator unit downtime is accounted for by the cooling BHEL Haridwar Steam Washing of Turbine own time of the turbine. After a certain time the turbine blading reaches the temperature of the washing steam and the condensation that brings about the effect is lost. If necessary. In extreme cases the flow area of turbine may get reduced with consequent reduction in the maximum possible steam flow through the turbine. If possible. If deposit leads to an increase in stage pressures. Choking of blade flow path can be detected on the basis of internal efficiency (ηi) measurements [2]. It may be ensured that no external condensate can enter the condenser during steam washing. To get maximum success in the shortest possible time. 5. Complex. the maximum stage pressures shown in the Technical Data should not be exceeded. steam washing should not be started until the casing temperatures have dropped to < 100°C. the output must be reduced. When Steam Washing the turbine stages. one circulating water pump must be in operation.g. For maximum success. Alkali silicates and silicic acid are deposited between 350°C and 60°C.e. In latter case the deposits can only be removed mechanically during overhauls. In that case. and corresponding output. Special measures should be taken to accelerate cooling [3]. If efficiency reduction occurs. Salt deposits are water-soluble and can be removed by steam washing with saturated steam. The steam line must be blown-out before saturated steam washing commences. silicate deposits occur in a temperature range between 500°C and 350°C.e. it is necessary to increase the steam temperature in stages by increasing the pressure. water-insoluble. General Instructions The effort required for saturated steam washing is considerably lesser than that required for opening the turbine.

3-0070-02/2 After the saturated steam line (Fig. item 2) has been joined up at the connection points (3). All other drains from the turbine generator must be full open. the extraction valves or the swing check valves in the extraction lines must be vented during steam washing only to the extent required to allow the condensate arising to drain off whilst preventing excessive loss of steam. from there via the crossaround lines to the IP turbine and then to the condenser. With this method of steam washing samples for finding out the saIt content may also be taken at this point. the washing steam can be routed into the IP turbine. The drains from the IP turbine between the reheat control valves and the IP outlet. 1 : Flow diagram for saturated steam washing Steam Washing of IP Turbine All stop and control valves and all valves in the extraction lines remain closed during steam washing of the IP turbine. There are two possible ways of discharging the condensate condensing in the condenser to the atmosphere. These are:  By opening the blind flanges (4) on the condenser. 5. Any isolating valves present upstream of the feedwater heaters must also be closed.Fig. The condenser must be under atmospheric pressure. .1.

water samples should be taken every half an hour for deposit analysis. Restoring the Turbine to Operating Condition On completion of steam washing. via the condensate discharge line of an operation condensate pump. or the steam inserts of the drain valves may be removed. Any drain lines cut off must be rewelded. 8) from the HP turbine situated between the main stop valves and the HP outlet may be vented during steam washing only to the extent required to allow the condensate arising to drain off while preventing excessive loss of steam. with the condenser at sub atmospheric pressure. Steam Washing of HP Turbine The main control valves must be open during steam washing of the HP turbine. all temporary fittings must be dismantled and the flanges closed off. Local drainage may also be provided so that no steam can enter the Reheater of the Boiler. i. if at all possible. The condensate is discharged and samples are taken to determine the salt content as described in steam washing of IP turbine.3-0050 : Measurement of internal efficiency [3] 5. the completion criteria remaining same. For this purpose.3-0070-02/3 .e. must be fully open. the appropriate drains may be cut off at the sludge traps. make sure that the condensate is discharged to the atmosphere downstream of the pump. All other drains particularly those in the cold reheat line. Samples for finding out the salt content are also taken at this point. The steam leaving the HP turbine is exhausted to the condenser via the drains (9). the stream can be routed into the HP turbine. The temporary lines are to be preserved for future use. Steam washing may be stopped when the purity of steam entering the turbine (as determined by sampling) is approximately the same as that of the condensate or steam extracted at the discharge sampling point. The steam washing may be stopped when the salt content in condensate remains constant at a very low level.1-0120 : Steam purity [2] 5. The first method of steam washing with the condenser under atmospheric pressure guarantees a slight overpressure at the drains so that it is possible to perform additional sampling at these points. After the steam line (6) has been joined up at the connection points (3). Controllers and control valves must be returned to normal position. Also. All drains (7. With the vacuum pump \ ejector switched on and the blind flange (4) closed. It is suggested to record the salt content at the sampling point continuously throughout the washing Process. In this case.2-0350 : Fast cooling down of the turbine 5. Also refer to the following sections: [1] 5.

This general maintenance instruction discusses the necessity for. contaminants which ingress into the oil system from outside can promote the oxidation process. The oil ages. including those issued by turbine oil manufacturers. Total-acid number of the turbine oil The total-acid number is an easily determined reference value for turbine oil aging. Under certain circumstances. turbine oils are paraffin-based mineral oils which contain additives to improve their resistance to corrosion and their oxidation stability. and the procedures involved in turbine oil care. In addition. The oleic acids attack oil system component materials and corrosion products are formed which can. The filters and strainers in the operating oil systems retain solid contaminants which can cause damage and/or impair functioning if they ingress into turbine oil consumers. in turn. purity  Air release properties  Foaming characteristics Turbine oil properties and the values which can change those properties are discussed briefly below. BHEL Haridwar Turbine Oil Care Maintenance Instructions The Turbine Oil Specification [1] contains standards and selection criteria for turbine oil as well as the requirements in terms of physical and chemical properties. Catalysts and thermal loading of the turbine oil can trigger an oxidation process in which oleic acids are formed. The program for the care of turbine oil includes regular inspection and analysis of turbine oil samples. give sufficient protection against agin 5. Turbine oil is subjected to high physical loads. Further information can be found in the standards cited in the Turbine Oil Specification [1] as well as technical literature. In this way changes in turbine oil properties can be determined and the necessary actions can be taken to remedy the situation.3-0080-03/1 . The following oil properties are particularly important for turbine oil care:  Total-acid number  Water contents and water separability efficiency  Solid contaminant quantities. the ingress of contaminants into the oil system must be prevented.e. catalytically accelerate the oxidation process. Turbine oil properties As a rule. New turbine oil contains additives which. oil conditioning station) which is independent of the oil operating systems. should have a long service life and must not have any adverse effect on the proper functioning of the bearings and other turbine oil consumers The physical and chemical properties of new turbine oil must comply with the requirements of the Turbine Oil Specification [1]. provided that oil is properly cared for. Thorough cleaning of the oil system during initial startup and after inspections and overhauls is one of the prerequisites for successful turbine oil care.Steam Turbine Maintenance Introduction Function of the turbine oil is to lubricate and cool the bearings of the turbine generator and to actuate governing system components. Actions to be taken to rectify typical changes in turbine oil properties are listed in Table-1. By centrifuge (i. contaminants and aging and corrosion products which are not soluble in oil are removed from the turbine oil. The aim of turbine oil care is to maintain the properties and the useful service life of the turbine oil for as long as possible. raising the total-acid number of the turbine oil.

They contribute. it is particularly important that the ingress of water in to the oil system be prevented. the reason is to be investigated. along with other factors. With moisture content value more then 1000 ppm machine should be tripped and source of water entry is to be eliminated. or as a result of the aging process or corrosion.. The filters and strainers of the operating oil systems are used to retain contaminants with a particle size larger than the filter mesh size. in the form of shaft seal steam or leakage water. Their load capacity can be reduced due to scoring caused by solid-contaminants in the turbine oil.g. Under unfavorable conditions. High water contents of the turbine oil can also be the result of low water separability of the turbine oil. i. Water content and water separability of the turbine oil With healthy gland sealing & oil vapor extraction system during normal operation the moisture content in turbine oil is not expected to be more then 100 ppm as in the turbine oil specification (1). oleic acids. It is recommended that the turbine oil be either filtered or treated in a separator during drainage an refilling. the change in the total-acid number. Water which ingresses into the oil system from an oil cooler. the oil coolers and the bearing pedestals must be thoroughly cleaned.e. 5. The dwell time of the oil in the filters and strainers will depend on the purity of the turbine oil. In this case. where there is improper or negligent oil care.3-0080-03/2 Solid-contaminants can ingress into the turbine oil from outside. changes of state and impaired functioning in control and protection equipment can be expected. In addition. e. Among the principal areas which can be affected are turbine and generator bearings. The corrosion products behave in the same as solid contaminants. the turbine manufacturer and the turbine oil supplier should be consulted in order that measures for restoring the turbine oil can be implemented. The turbine oil cannot be used if the function of sensitive turbine generator components is impaired through corrosion and/or aging products and if the aging process. before the turbine oil reaches the oil consumers. From this highly simplified description of the turbine oil aging process. to the turbine-oil aging process and impair the condition and function of the turbine components. thereby slowing down the aging process. and lead to impaired component functioning.. In this case. Turbine oil purity is the more reliable criterion. cannot be reversed by treating the turbine oil. During inspections and overhauls the turbine must be drained and the main oil tank. Flushing of the entire system is included in the cleaning process. The ingress of solid contaminants into the turbine oil must be prevented.g. In case the moisture content found more then 300 ppm during sample testing. e. Solid-contaminant quantities and purity of turbine oil Whereas the material property value for solid-contaminant quantity defines the overall content by weight of solidcontaminant quantities in a turbine oil sample. The oil system is thoroughly cleaned during initial startup of the turbine generator set. The cause of any increase in turbine-oil water contents must be determined and remedied. it can be seen that aging is affected not only by physical loading of the turbine oil but also by catalysts and aging products. Purity in accordance with the Turbine Oil Specification [1] is achieved through continuous filtration or separation of turbine oil in the oil centrifuge. . Corrosion causes changes in the surfaces and shape of the sensitive turbine generator components. this depletion process can result in premature aging of the turbine oil. results in the corrosion in ferrous materials and can adversely affect the aging process and foaming characteristics of the turbine oil. when defining turbine oil purity only the proportion of solid-contaminants of a specified size is determined.The additives become depleted over time. Treatment of the turbine oil in the oil conditioning station removes products of aging and corrosion which are not soluble in oil.

For this reason. fluctuations in oil pressure and impaired functioning of any control and protection equipment which is supplied with turbine oil. This can lead to faults in the operating oil pumps. any factors which might lead to deterioration of the air release properties of the turbine oil. an oil-and-air mixture will develop. Only in rare cases it is possible to improve the Air release properties of turbine oil with economically viable treatment methods. e. n corresponds to the number of passes per hour made by the turbine oil. which will not have as favourable a density and compressibility as non aerated turbine oil. If the time required for air release by the turbine oil is longer than the dwell time in the main oil tank. Foaming characteristics of the turbine oil The material property values for foaming tendency and foam stability of turbine oil should comply with Turbine Oil Specification [1]. If the turbine oil shows an increased foaming tendency and high foam stability. A certain amount of foaming on the surface of the oil in the main oil tank can be expected as a result of air release. There is no generally binding evidence regarding any further correlation between foaming tendency and air release properties. result in foam being released from the oil system. although such a correlation may exist in individual cases and should be investigated. The scope and the intervals for turbine oil inspections are listed in the turbine oil maintenance instruction. 5. Turbine oil care program Owing to correlation between the turbine oil properties and the factors influencing turbine oil during operation. under certain circumstances. Turbine oil is entrained with the foam. the following care program for turbine oil must be implemented during and after initial startup of the turbine generator set:  Regular inspection of turbine oil samples  Continuous treatment of the turbine oil  Protection of the turbine oil system from the effects of contaminants  Drainage of the turbine oil and cleaning of the oil system and the turbine oil during inspections and overhauls.. Increased turbine oil foaming tendency occasionally occurs due to high water content or increased dust contamination of the turbine oil. The turbine oil circulates inside the oil system and becomes aerated. resulting in a drop in the oil level in the main oil tank. the space above the oil level in the main oil tank becomes partially or completely filled with foam which can.Air release properties of the turbine oil The air release property represents the time taken for a specific volume of air to be released from the turbine oil sample under the boundary conditions stipulated in the testing standard of the Turbine Oil Specification [1]. seal materials or foam inhibiting additives. This change in the level can cause activation of the level monitoring equipment for the main oil tank. Inspection of turbine oil samples By regularly sampling and inspecting turbine oil and by evaluating the results. must be avoided. It has been proven that the air release properties of turbine oil are adversely affected by materials containing silicone. Silicone-based foam inhibiting additives have an adverse effect on air release properties. This air is -1 released during the dwell time tv = 60n (in min) of the turbine oil in the main oil tank. Turbine oil samples are taken simultaneously upstream and downstream of the oil centrifuge and the inspection results thus permit an evaluation of the efficiency of the relevant oil care measures. it is possible to adapt oil care measures optimally to the particular properties of the turbine oil being used.g.3-0080-03/3 .

The function of the most commonly used oil purification equipment is described below:  If the differential pressure across an oil filter increases.3-0080-03/4 Fine-mesh filter The turbine oil can be conditioned in an oil filter with filter elements made of finepored cloth or filter paper. dynamic or static separators. . Treatment of the turbine oil in the oil filters or strainers of the operating oil systems  Switchable oil filters The switchable oil filters of the operating oil systems are used to protect downstream consumers. Treatment of the turbine oil in the oil centrifuge The oil centrifuge can be continuously operated independent of the operating oil systems. If the strainer mesh becomes clogged during the course of operation. either permanently installed or mobile. as well as products of system-internal aging and corrosion mechanisms are almost completely removed from turbine oil. care must be taken to ensure that sampling bottles are clean. Contaminants which. Oil Strainers of the main oil tank The oil strainers of the main oil tank have a relatively large mesh size and are used to retain contaminants in the returning turbine oil and to protect the oil pumps from contaminant damage. a high degree of turbine oil purity can be achieved. In case of deviation in properties. the operating oil filters are not suitable for complete removal of contaminants from the turbine oil. Metal particles in the oil strainers can be an indication of bearing damage 5. this can lead to a drop in the level in the suction space of the main oil tank as a result of an increase in the level in the riser space. Contaminants insoluble in oil which ingress into the oil system from outside. this filter should be isolated from the system and cleaned. many power plants have centralised oil purification equipment. actions to be taken as per table 1. oil filter. For this reason. it is advisable to request inspection and evaluation of the turbine oil by the turbine oil supplier. Because of their relatively large mesh size. or wear to parts such as oil pump seal ring. All data relevant to turbine oil inspection should be sent in together with the turbine oil sample When taking turbine oil samples. In addition. the oil strainers of the main oil tank must be regularly cleaned.  Fine-mesh filters with cloth or paper elements can also retain small amounts of water. This achieves a high degree of purity for the treated turbine oil. Since the finemesh filter has a high separation efficiency. if possible while the oil pumps are shut down.  Dynamic separator The dynamic separator uses centrifugal force to remove either solid or liquid contaminants as required from the turbine oil. and multipurpose oil purification units can be used either independently or in combination.If the turbine oil inspections reveal that alarm levels for certain properties have been reached or exceeded. As regards the treatment of turbine oil in the centrifuge. because of their size or consistency. a dynamic or static separator must be used to reduce the water content in the turbine oil to the value stipulated in the Turbine Oil Specification [1]. If the turbine oil has a high water content. The dynamic separator must be set to operate in either solid contaminant or water separation mode in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. can cause damage and/or impair functioning are retained in the oil filters. etc. The differential pressure across the oil filters is monitored. A small volume of turbine oil is fed through oil centrifuge with a high separation efficiency.

and in view of the expense of filter elements.  Hydraulic oil Hydraulic oil or control fluid containing phosphoric esters. different additive packages. Small amounts of turbine oil which accumulate in the dirty-fluid tank are to be disposed properly. the leak tightness of the operating oil cooler must be checked. the main oil tank. e. Operation and maintenance instructions of the oil purification unit manufacturer must be complied with.  Dirty fluid Fluid from the dirty-fluid tank must not be refilled into the main oil tank without thorough inspection and treatment. Multipurpose oil purification unit The multipurpose oil purification unit is used to remove solid and liquid contaminants from the turbine oil. should be used. when topping up. The maintenance interval for oil filters depends on the differential pressure across the oil filters. Measures to protect the oil system from contaminant ingress Just as important as turbine oil care are measures designed to protect the oil system from contaminant ingress:  Turbine oil Problems can arise as a result of the incompatibility of turbine oils from different manufacturers and containing 5. it is recommended that the static separator be used in conjunction with an upstream fine mesh filter.  Oil coolers If the water content of the turbine oil increases. For this reason. Since the efficiency of the filter elements deteriorates due to deposits of solid contaminants. and the main oil tank. the differential pressure instrumentation must be regularly checked and corresponding annunciations noted. The cover plates of the main oil tank must be tightly bolted. the turbine oil must be drained via filters during inspections and overhauls. This ensures that no leakage steam. There must be no bolts missing from the plates.  Static separator A static separator is used to remove water from the turbine oil. For this reason. The drained turbine oil must either be refilled into the main oil tank via fine-mesh filters or treated in a centralised oil purification unit before refilling.  Main oil tank Openings in the main oil tank must always be closed and sealed in such a way that there can be no ingress of contaminants into the main oil tank. Cleaning of the oil system during inspections and overhauls Over the course of time. turbine oil which has the same product designation and which is supplied by the same manufacturer as was originally filled. For this reason. or airborne water and/or dust is drawn into the oil system in the event of turbine oil or oil vapor being released to the atmosphere. if in use.  Oil return lines Inspection holes in oil return lines must be sealed to prevent the ingress of contaminants into the oil system.  Oil vapor extraction system The throttle check valves in the oil vapor extraction system must be set so that the pressure in the bearing pedestals and the main oil tank is slightly sub atmospheric. must not be allowed to ingress into the oil system. the oil coolers and the bearing pedestals must be thoroughly cleaned.3-0080-03/5 . solid contaminants settle in areas of the oil system not subjected to high flow velocities.g.

3-0080-03/6 . Also refer to the following sections: [1] 2-0400 : Oil Specification 5. This applies particularly to gaskets and silicone-based seal materials. During inspections and overhauls. care must be taken to ensure that no incompatible materials are used.  Disposal of Turbine Oil For disposal Turbine oil may be send back to oil company (OEM) for its recycle.  Leakage steam system The butterfly valves of the leakage steam system must be set to prevent leakage steam from escaping via the turbine shaft seals since this could result in water ingress into the oil system. Material The compatibility of materials with the turbine oil has been taken into account by the turbine manufacturer during materials selection.

in order to determine the effect of the change in totalacid number.Table1 : Actions to be taken when actual conditions deviate from reference conditions Fault  Cause Actions Boundary conditions The Turbine oil properties do not comply with the Turbine Oil Specification  Total-acid number > mg KOH/g Turbine oil aging Inspect turbine oil samples for: - Solid contaminant content - Purity - Water content - Air release properties - Foaming - Other physical and chemical properties Send further oil samples to turbine oil supplier for inspection and evaluation. Check oil purification system and intensify turbine oil maintenance in accordance with the recommendations of the turbine oil supplier and the turbine manufacturer: - Keep oil centrifuge continuous operation - Adjust operation of oil centrifuge to contaminant content of turbine oil (solid contaminants or water) - If necessary install additional oil purification equipment Take turbine oil samples upstream and downstream of oil centrifuge and check separation efficiency (solid contaminants and/or water) - 5.3-0080-03/7 in . Check operating performance and condition of components supplied with turbine oil.

correct using the check valves in the oil vapor extraction lines.3-0080-03/8 Reduce airborne dust content in area around turbine generator set . The contaminant separation efficiency of the oil centrifuge does not comply with the requirements Take turbine oil samples upstream and downstream of the oil centrifuge and determine the separation efficiency. Check oil filter cartridges or elements. High air borne dust content in area around turbine generator set 5.  The solid contaminant content or the purity of the turbine oil does not comply with the Specification The oil centrifuge is not in operation Put oil centrifuge into operation. If necessary. the bearing pedestals and the oil return lines and. close or reseal the maintenance covers of the main oil tank.Fault  Cause Actions Boundary conditions - Reduce intervals for turbine oil inspections and monitor evaluation of total-acid number Investigate the origin of contaminants and prevent contaminant ingress into oil system. replace damaged oil filter cartridges or elements. in order to improve contaminant separation efficiency. Check atmospheric pressure in the main oil tank. Solid contaminants into the oil system ingress Check whether and at what point it is possible for air borne contaminants to ingress into the oil system. If necessary. vent the oil filters. if necessary. Implement measures in accordance with the operating unit manufacturer.

implement measures in accordance with the operating instructions of the separator manufacturer. prevent the escape of leakage steam from the steam seals by the correcting the seal steam pressure or by adjusting the butterfly valves in the seal steam lines. If necessary. Check the leak tightness of the operating oil cooler. If necessary. 5.Fault  Boundary conditions  The water content of the turbine oil does not comply with the specification Cause Actions There is no permanently installed dynamic or static separator for removing water from the turbine oil Install a dynamic or static separator for removing water form the turbine oil. The permanently installed dynamic separator of the oil conditioning system is not in operation Put dynamic separator of the centrifuge into the operation. If necessary. implement measures in accordance with the operating instructions of the separator manufacturer. in order to improve water separation efficiency. Water is ingressing into the oil system Check whether leakage steam is ingressing into the oil system. and that the separator must be protected from the effects of solid contaminants. Note that the required separation temperature must be complied with in accordance with the operating instructions of the separator manufacturer.3-0080-03/9 . Take turbine oil samples upstream and downstream of the separator and check water separation efficiency. in order to improve water separation efficiency. Take turbine oil samples upstream and downstream of the separator and check water separation efficiency.

3-0080-03/10 Consult oil supplier and top up turbine oil with foam inhibiting additives. Determine the water content of the turbine oil and. take appropriate measures to reduce this.Fault  Boundary conditions  The air release properties of the oil do not comply with the Specification Cause Actions In many cases. foam inhibiting additives have an adverse effect on the air release properties and for this reason. siliconebased materials)  Turbine oil foaming characteristics do not comply with the Specification The foam inhibiting additives in the turbine oil have been depleted over time As a rule. The turbine oil contains materials which adversely affect the foaming characteristics 5. . care should always be taken to prevent the ingress into the turbine oil of materials which could adversely affect the air release properties (e. If effects are particularly unfavorable. if necessary. the air release properties must be closely monitored when topping up with such additives. Involve oil supplier and turbine manufacturer in inspection program. consider replacing the turbine oil.g. In certain circumstances it may be advisable to skim off the foam from the surface of the turbine oil. there is no specific cause for a deterioration in air release properties Check whether the deterioration in air release properties has an adverse affect on the operating performance of the systems of components supplied with turbine oil. As a precautionary measure.

Fault  Cause Actions The differential pressure across one oil filter is high Isolate duplex oil filter and clean filter cartridge Boundary conditions The oil centrifuge is defective or the operating conditions for the oil do not comply with the requirements  Oil filters Take oil centrifuge filters out of operation and replace filter elements One oil filter is not sufficiently vented Open valve in oil filter venting line and adjust  Unit-specific or additional dynamic separator The mode of operation of the dynamic separator does not correspond to the content of solid or liquid contaminants in the turbine oil Adapt the mode of operation of the separator (solid-contaminant separation or water separation) according to the content of solid contaminants or water in the turbine oil  Unit-specific or additional static separator The efficiency of the static separator is reduced due to clogged filter elements Replace filter elements. put oil circulating pump into operation  Oil circulating pump (if installed) Implement measures to prevent filter element clogging. install an upstream fine-mesh filter. 5. put heating system of oil centrifuge into operation The oil circulating pump of the oil centrifuge is not in operation If necessary.g.3-0080-03/11 . Turbine oil temperature upstream of static separator too low If necessary. e.

Before re-lubricating components which are exposed to the collection of dirt {e. it must be clarified beforehand whether this will be universally suitable. This will ensure that lubrication is carried out at the regular. especially in the case of motors. from the manufacturer’s specification in the maintenance instructions. Also refer to the following sections: [1] 5. it is desired to use only one particular type of lubricant deviating The lubrication intervals are stated by the manufacturers in the maintenance instructions. which cause no damage to greasing nipples. Application of Lubricants The following are the individual components. If for reasons of stocking or for simplifying regular maintenance. control and similar devices Grease guns. pumps and similar equipment. shut-off valve stems) they must first be carefully cleaned.  Control device in accordance with the lubrication Chart [1] Over-greasing avoided.g. prescribed intervals.  Actuators for remote-controlled governing. It is essential for them to be maintained. which require regular lubrication. etc. It is advisable to prepare lists of items requiring lubrication. a small number of components on the turbine must be lubricated at regular intervals.1.Steam Turbine Maintenance Grease and Oil Lubrication Introduction To ensure satisfactory functioning and to limit wear.3-0081-00 . should only be used. noting when the various items are to be re-lubricated.  Spindles devices Lubrication Intervals Scope of hand-operated or overfilling must be shut-off  Pumps and similar machines  Drive motors Lubricants Only the lubricants stated by the respective manufacturers in the maintenance instructions may be used.0690 : Lubrication Chart BHEL Haridwar 5.

If unavoidable. when the control fluid has been regenerated by the manufacturer. the tank must be filled through the Fuller’s earth and fine-mesh filter equipment. If this shows an increase in the neutralisation number. The control fluid tank must be thoroughly cleaned before it is filled with BHEL Haridwar The system must be refilled from leadsealed barrels. Check for dust and dirt by first wiping with white filter paper. Although the control fluid manufacturer must ensure that there are no solid or liquid impurities in the control fluid supplied for the initial filling. The system must be refilled and samples taken for comparison with the initial filling.  Guidelines for handling control fluid and for treatment of control fluid systems. by drying and/or evacuation) otherwise the control fluid forms acid components when in contact with water. old control fluid residue (up to 3%) may be tolerated. This instruction contains the following: Guidelines for Handling Control fluid and for the Treatment of Control Fluid System Initial filling of system The control fluid system must be cleaned after assembly. the property characteristics of the control fluid must comply with the requirements of the specification [1]. it must be reduced by passing the control fluid through the bypass regenerating system. Baseline reference samples for later comparison must be taken before filling with control fluid for flushing the system and after regeneration of the fluid used for flushing.  Data on sampling points in the cycle.  Maintenance procedures to be followed if the property characteristics of the fluid reach the permissible limits.g. Phosphoric esters with a low water and chlorine content (HS-D series) are used and must be carefully maintained to preserve their properties. Care of Control Fluid control fluid for flushing or service. control fluid is heavier than water and affects it adversely and therefore must 5.Steam Turbine Maintenance Introduction The use of fire resistant control fluid for turbine control and protection systems reduces the risk of fire. Treatment of waste control fluid Biological decomposition of control fluid is difficult. New filter elements must be installed or those present thoroughly cleaned. Refilling with Control Fluid  Procedures to preserve the control fluid properties. All traces of detergent must be removed.  Data on the compatibility of the control fluid with other materials. precautions must be taken to prevent filling with a control fluid that is not identical to the one specified for use or with mineral oil from similar casks.3-0082-02/1 .  Sampling and analysis programs. All moisture must be carefully eliminated from the system (e. especially after filtering through 5 µm fine mesh filters. However. Changing Control Fluid The entire system must be drained when changing the fluid. The same control fluid may be used as service filling as well as for flushing the system. The amount of residue of control fluid within the system and the neutralisation number must be checked by analysing and comparing the samples taken before filling and after the system has been put into operation. This is due to the higher ignition temperature (compared to mineral oil) in case of leaks.

All containers for storing new or used control fluid must be clearly and permanently marked. Caution: Observe all safety regulations when using cleaning agents to clean the tank’s interior. The competent Regional Water Authority is responsible for determining the maximum concentration limit in ppm for sewage water. Caution: Not all components that are compatible with control fluid are also compatible with oil. When control fluid is burned. . This will make sure compatibility with control fluid by prescribing specifications to be used by subcontractors and by using suitable materials. all spare parts and materials used in the control fluid system must be stored separate from other materials and clearly marked. If parts must be obtained from other sources.3-0082-02/2 benzene. carbon dioxide (CO2) and phosphorus pentaoxide (P4O10) are produced. Preservative Agents in Control Fluid System Spare parts are maintained in serviceable condition by using anti-corrosion agents and/or suitable packing (enclosing in plastic foil and use of desiccants). 5. Then apply an intermediate protective coating immediately to protect the freshly cleaned surface against corrosive attacks by the control fluid used. or cleaning spare parts. Where possible. A record of the quantity of used control fluid and of fluid lost due to maintenance. Floors or foundations made of asphalt are not compatible with control fluid. storage in dry area is recommended. take care to ensure the parts are dry and. that all traces of solvents containing chlorine have been removed.not be passed into the sewage system. Here are some recommendations:  All containers for control fluid must be kept tightly sealed and permanently marked with the Health Hazard danger sign. For disposal. Precautions to Ensure Compatibility of the Control Fluid with other Materials All components of the control fluid system are selected by the turbine manufacturer in regards to their material to ensure they are compatible with control fluid and that no interactions are to be anticipated between the control fluid and materials used. leakage and damage must be kept. Control fluid leaks must be absorbed by using sawdust or oil binding granules and removed immediately. Control fluid has the same effect on concrete as mineral oil. Note: Chlorine presence in the control fluid causes erosion-corrosion at the control edges of the control components. the latter in such small quantities. making it harmless. When removing anti-corrosion agents. white spirit and hydrochloric acid based cleaning agents approved for general use. Only the following may be used for cleaning: Nonfelting textile and paper clothes. control fluid may be send back to oil company (OEM) for its recycle. components and materials for use in the control fluid system should be obtained from the turbine manufacturer. Follow manufacturers instructions and/or other legal provisions. it must be expressly stated that these will be used for the control fluid system. the chapter referring to the compatibility of the control fluid must be observed. Whenever an order is placed with theturbine manufacturer or with third parties for parts or materials. Disposal must be done by companies authorized and licensed by legislation for the collection. Health care measures No special safeguards are required to protect against toxic properties of the control fluid. above all. To avoid confusion. storage and disposal of waste materials.

If skin contact occurs. Only glass or Plexidur T may be used for sight glasses. Also materials.  Avoid inhaling spray clouds (aerosols) or decomposition products (e. The solid outer oxide layer of aluminum alloys must not be destroyed due to friction.  If control fluid gets into eyes.  Keep control fluid away from foodstuffs. Plastics Plastic materials are susceptible to swelling. Sealing material made of Sealing material.  After handing control fluid. Metallic materials Phosphoric esters have a negligible effect on steel. cable insulation and accumulator bladders Following sealing materials are compatible with phosphoric esters:  For o-rings. butyl rubber and composite material such as cottonviton. brass is unsuitable. give large amounts of warm salty water to cause vomiting. teflon-white asbestos. Remember this when ordering new tools. Only austenitic steel may be used for filter meshes.  Wear protective clothes. air release capability and its resistance to aging are impaired by contact with materials incompatible with control fluid. copper alloys. eyes and clothes.g. shrinking and surface deterioration. plungers and valves must be of metal or plastic material compatible with control fluid. hose. 5.  If control fluid is swallowed.  Change any article of clothing that comes into contact with control fluid. normal plexiglass. Since aerosols of the fluid may reach the motors windings through the motor ventilation system. sponge carefully and rinse with water. copper does not apply since the surface area exposed to control fluid is small. viton asbestos. tin and aluminum alloys provided the neutralisation number is within the admissible limits. Materials for pumps and electric motors Bearing and shaft seals and the nonmetallic parts of couplings on pumps and their drive motors most be compatible with control fluid. packing rings.  Keep control fluid away from skin. Plastic incompatible with control fluid may impair the control fluid properties. Obtain medical attention if stomach discomfort persists. Pure copper cannot be used due to its catalytic effect on the decomposition of the phosphoric ester. which are incompatible with control fluid. flush areas with water. Obtain medical attention if irritation persists.3-0082-02/3 . wash hands immediately. can be attacked.  Wear gas mask if thick clouds of control fluid are present. collars and diaphragms: viton. Protective caps on switches. Do not eat. smoke or drink when working with control fluid or parts in contact with control fluid. Obtain medical attention if irritation persists. PolycarbonateMakrolon. teflon. if unsuccessful tickle inside the patients throat with a finger. Following plastics are compatible with control fluid: Fluorcarbon elastomers Butyl rubber Polytetrafluorethylene Polyethylene Polyamide FKM IIR PTFE PE PA Viton Butyl IIR-40 Teflon Hostalene Nylon Following Plastics are incompatible with control fluid: PVC plastic. use clothes to protect respiratory tract). Materials for tools Nonmetallic parts of tools (handles) must be made of material compatible with control fluid or covered with suitable surface protection (See plastics). zinc. the windings must be designed to be compatible with control fluid. Compatibility with other materials Control fluid’s foaming. gloves and goggles.

+ Removal of acids and aging products Caution: Butyl rubber IIR is not compatible with oil.Stability Acid and aging products may cause a loss of stability. teflon and nylon coatings. We recommended drying the Fuller’s earth before filling. Keeping a daily service log is recommended. butyl rubber and compressed asbestos. drastically reducing the service life of the control fluid (resulting from chemical reactions of the control fluid with water. Regeneration through a Fuller’s earth filter is based on an ion exchange reaction. unless this interval does not have to be reduced for other reasons. . refilling) must be entered. Loctite 270. all values from analysis and details of important events (filter changes and exchange of filter mass. ram down and/or shake the earth into the filter elements to prevent formation of gaps or channels that would reduce the efficiency of the Fuller’s earth. the speed of aging increase in the manner of a chain reaction. If the paint flakes off. ciba-geigy CY246. Since the control edges of electrohydraulic servo valves are subjected to erosioncorrosion if the control fluid is not suitably treated. Acid and aging product must be eliminated from the control fluid by continuous bypass filtration through a Fuller’s earth filter. For flat gaskets: viton. even if there is no increase in neutralisation number. All changes and their cause should be readily detectable on the basis of these records.month periods. The flow diagram of the regenerating plant is also given in the relevant chapter. Paints Only two-component. regular regeneration of the Fuller’s earth is always necessary. Special care must be taken during commissioning and operation to preserve control fluid properties. during welding or grinding). Repair procedures must specify the presence of such paints. When painting the inner surface of containers.3-0082-02/4 The presence of acids and aging products raises the neutralisation number. The grain size of the fuller’s earth should be US screen number 16/30 to 30/60 mesh. Silicon rubber must not be used since it severely impairs the properties of the control fluid (reduces its air release capability). Caution: Paints compatible with control fluid (epoxy resin and desmodur /desmophene base) give off toxic vapour when exposed to heat. viton  Liquid sealing materials: Hylomar SQ32L. The design of the Fuller’s earth and filter regenerating equipment conforms to the control fluid manufacturer’s requirements. Control Fluid properties Requirements Requirements for control fluid are listed in the specifications for control fluid (1). The dust portion must not be used. make sure the coating is applied properly.  For accumulator bladders: butyl IIR-40 (up to 80 ºC). containers with these paints must not be removed. it may cause considerable damage. The Fuller’s earth used must be dry (1 % by weight expellable water at 105 ºC). teflon. .5 mg KOH/g. desmodur / desmophene (DD) base and epoxy resin base lacquers may be used. Design and functioning of the filters are explained in the Description Section. air and other impurities). Preservation of Properties 5. When filling the filter. Unnoticed exhaustion of the Fuller’s earth is prevented by changing the earth filling at six. Signs on parts.  For hoses and cable insulation: viton.g. (e. the permissible limit is 0.

Regeneration should be started about 48 hours before commissioning of the servo valves. Refill Silica gel if a permanent change in colour is noticed. The system is vented and deaerated via a defined opening to stop degeneration of the control fluid due to moisture and contamination. Condensate occurring in small amounts evaporates at service temperature. Evaporating moisture is necessary in the absorbers during deaeration. When changing the filter elements. The opening is sealed by absorbers or filters to prevent the entry of moisture and contamination when venting and to ensure adequate deaeration. This applied both for initial and refills. Temperatures above 75°C are admissible for a short period only during flushing procedures. Confirm absence of oil and dust by using filter paper test.3-0082-02/5 . at heating element / protective pipes with heat conducting oil fillings. The fine-mesh filter has the added function of establishing the required purity of the control fluid in the overall system. Note: If the temperature rises from 60°C to 70°C. make sure that dirt does not get onto the clean side. Water accumulating on the surface of the control fluid tank due to its low density. Immerse filters in the cleansing fluid only up to their upper edge. do not remove the protective covers from the new elements until just before they are installed. A maximum temperature of 90°C is admissible locally. A large absorber or filter is used when the system is vented or deaerated via exhaust fans to ensure that the control fluid is separated from the air downstream of the fan. The fine-mesh filter must be cleaned in the same way as other fitters in the system. + Prevention of thermal influences When deaerating using fans. If deaerating valves are used that open when a slight internal over pressure has built up. All possible measures must be taken to protect the system from rust. No adverse effects on the stability of the control fluid due to thermal influences are to be expected at this service temperature. The cause of water accumulation must be located immediately and corrected. Compliance with this limit temperature is monitored the heating Accumulated water is annunciated by using electrodes. Use a magnifying glass to check the completeness of the cleansing process. Silica gel absorbers are used to indicate the buildup of absorbed moisture by changing colour. make sure the moist air is unable to enter into the system. must be removed by siphoning or pumped off. + Prevention of influence due to foreign matter Measures must be taken to stop the entry of solid or liquid foreign matter or other impurities with a view to maintaining the stability of the system. element being cut out as soon as the limit is reached. Increase monitoring the neutralisation 5. Use only dry air for blowing-out (relative humidity 60% at 20 ºC). A fine-mesh mechanical filter (polishing filter) downstream of the Fuller’s earth filter traps Fuller’s earth particles and other foreign matter that would act as a catalyst in the control fluid. Filters must always be blown-out from the clean side towards the dirty side. Strainers must be cleaned using the cleaning agents recommended by the filter and control fluid manufacturer. the speed of oxidation doubles. The control element of control circuits actuated by servo valves must be filled with new control fluid through the regeneration equipment even when the fluid supplied by the manufacturer has the specified neutralisation number. The control system requires a service medium viscosity that complies with the specification at a control fluid service temperature of 55±5 ºC. for example. the system must not be under a substantial vacuum.

3-0082-02/6 Samples must be taken at sampling points from the flowing liquid into clean laboratory bottles. control fluid between room temperature and 50°C. sampler. sampling point.About 3-4 % mineral oil will dissolve in. The air release capability of the fluid depends on the presence of foreign matter.Air release capability Design measures have been taken to prevent oil and control fluid from intermixing. The sampling bottles must be permanently marked with these data: facility. . It is impossible to separate oil from the control fluid since the mixture is a genuine solution. fluid manufacturer and type. this can be prevented if filling guidelines are followed. It is possible to filter the samples at the site by using the field monitoring method so only the diaphragm filter has to be sent for analysis to a laboratory outside the power plant. 5.Fire resistance Following are the causes of impairing the fire resistance properties of the control fluid:  Mixing of mineral oil by mistake. The chapters on the subject of stability and prevention of the influences of foreign matter must be observed to ensure the air release capability complies with the requirements. number if and after the accumulation of the water is detected. Particles / 100 ml Magnitude 5 – 10 µm 10 – 25 µm 25 – 50 µm 50 – 100 µm > 100 µm 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 2700 670 93 16 1 4600 1340 210 28 3 9700 2680 380 56 5 24000 5360 780 110 11 32000 10700 2510 225 21 87000 21400 3130 430 41 128000 42000 6500 1000 92 Table-1: SAE permissible degrees of contamination for hydraulic systems SAE Class classification applicable for maintaining the service reliability for protection and control systems are as follows: Class-6: Protection and Control systems without servo valves Class-3: Protection and Control systems with servo valves Sampling and analysis Samples must be taken and examined to be able to ensure the control fluid meets the purity requirements. . If oil enters the control fluid circuit.Purity The bellows are arranged if one ruptures.  Penetration of mineral oil from the lubricating oil circuit. . Take care to avoid any secondary contamination. the second takes over its shielding function. date. the control fluid manufacturer must examine the effect this has on the fluid’s fire resistance properties. the tank has a device to annunciate the accumulation of control fluid due to leaks. They must then be sent to a laboratory (turbine manufacturer. Penetration of one media into the other is only possible if both dividing elements have leak. . Contact points between the lubrication oil control systems are separated by interface made of metal bellows between which there is a drain line to the leakage tanks. SAE guidelines (Table-1) govern the purity requirements for media used in hydraulic systems. Only when the oil content exceeds 3-4% does a two-phase liquid result. control fluid supplier or operator) for examination.

the samples must be taken from a collecting container where a certain amount of control fluid mixture from each individual container has been retained. If any deposits are found. Maintenance measures to be carried out to ensure Fluid property characteristics Table-3 contains maintenance measures to be taken if analysis values obtained for the samples approach the limits prescribed in the specification [1]. Samples from the sampling points (PNU. Then checks must be carried out to find out if rust or other forms of corrosion have developed within the system. Examination of system components During inspections and major overhauls. Sampling point .3-0082-02/7 . it allows assessing the flushing procedures and the condition. PNBF and PNMF are used to determine the efficiency of the regeneration and filtration processes. results of the analysis of the taken before commissioning. Besides. The PNR is provided in the return line. efficiency and regeneration of the filter equipment. they must be analysed in consultation with the control fluid manufacturer. When required. carefully examine the system components for formation of deposits or scale and for erosion-corrosion at the control edges of sensitivity control equipment. The first control fluid container opened is to be used as the collecting container to prevent contamination due to use of a vessel that was not a part of the control fluid consignment. which is applicable for this turbine.Fluid Tank (PNB) The PNB is provided at the tank.Supply (PNV) The PNV is provided within the supply unit. The precondition for application of the field monitoring method using diaphragm filters or of the relative measuring method is the availability of reliable sampling and analysis equipment at the plant site. Sampling points are marked as follows: Sampling point . Sampling points downstream of the circulation pump (PNU).Return (PNR) Sampling and analysis programme The sampling and analysis program according to Table-2 makes it possible to perform the essential assessment of the control fluid properties and purity at all stages of commissioning and during continuous service. Analysis of the samples from this point makes it possible to determine the degree of purity of the fluid in the overall system without the direct influence of the service filters. 5. Analysis of the samples from this point makes it possible to ensure the degree of purity of the fluid downstream of the fine Sampling point . Table-2 gives the sampling program for SAE purity grade class-6. and at the same time to check the function of the fine-mesh filters. before it enters control system sections susceptible to contamination. mesh filter. downstream of Fuller’s earth filter (PNFB) and downstream of the fine-mesh mechanical filter (PNMF) are provided. The sampling program applies both to the initial filling and to all fillings thereafter.Performing routine analysis of the same fluid filling involves relating the degree of colour change of the test filter (relative measuring method) to the quantitative degree of contamination as determined by counting the contamination particles. it is possible to compare the routine analysis with the baseline reference samples filling and completion of The samples taken before filling the control fluid system must be representative of each consignment delivered.

3-0082-02/8 PNU PNBF PNMF = downstream of recirculating pump = downstream of fuller’s earth filter = downstream of mechanical filter x . 2 Props. V mm /s (2) x x x x (3) PNB PNU PNBF PNMF Before commencing hot operation (Last sample taken more than 2 weeks earlier) One month after commencing hot (1) operation : monthly Before handing over with final log Density 3 g/cm PNR x x x x x x x x Table-2: Sampling program for SAE purity grade class 6 Entire program applies for refills also. if flushing not yet started x x x x x x x 24h after commencing hot operation x x x One month after commencing of operation: weekly x x x x x x x Before commencing flushing for record of as-delivered condition PNB Continuous sampling during flushing PNR Towards end of refilling via superfine filter Continuous monitoring during superfine filtering Kinem. Before filling FRF  Lab sample  Control sample x x x x Two weeks after filling FRF. Visco Anticorro. (1) (2) (3) Continuous monitoring programme after handing over Anti-corrosion properties to DIN 51585.Time of Sampling Degree of purity Discol oration test Particle count NZ KOH mg/g ASC min Water content % by vol. ASTM D 665-60 Test intervals according to filter capacity PNB = Tank PNV = supply line PNR = return line 5.

suction-extract.Parameter and dimensions Inspection method Water content % by vol.1-0140 Fire Resistant Fluid [21 5. Also refer to the following sections: [1] 5.1-1140 Regenerating Plant [6] 5. Table-3: Maintenance Measures Note : If examination of the points in the system where the oil and FRF loops are structurally separated reveal that oil has entered the FRF system as a result of structural failure. weekly if negative trend monthly Kinematic viscosity at 2 40°C (mm /s) Solid impurities DIN 51562-1 ASTM D445 26-50 Particle count and discolouration test SAE purity grade class 6 monthly Air separation capability (min.3-0083 Analysis of Fire Resistant Fluid 5. entrained oil) Check points in system where oil can enter FRF system.1-1130 Duplex Filter [5] 5. centrifuge using special device Check regeneration plant. replace filter elements. air or water Replace FRF filling Have anti-corrosion additive analysed by fluid manufacturer.5 weekly Evaporate.1-1120 Plate Type Filter [4] 5. Examine deposits on filter elements Check fluid for contamination (chemical and mechanical. density 3% max. If necessary. see note th th every 4 month Check filters for proper functioning. Perform fire resistance test. Check effects by frequent measurement of NZ Replace filling Neutralisation number NZ (mg KOH/g) DIN 51 558-1 ASTM D974 Monthly. the oil content in the FRF must be determined. Permissible limit Inspection interval Measures to be taken if limits exceeded No free water visible to naked eye 0. at 50°C) DIN 51381 Proper functioning of system must be assured every 4 month Density at 15°C 3 (g/cm ) DIN 51757 ASTM D1298 Fire resistance test DIN/ISO 14935 ≤ 5 sec Anti-corrosion properties DIN 51585 ASTM D665-60 no corrosion permissible after determining oil content th every 4 month Oil content % by vol.3-0082-02/9 . Replace fuller’s earth.1-1110 Control Fluid Pump [3] 5. Replace FRF filling if necessary. nuclear resonance test. Replace FRF filling. Examine fluid for entrained oil. ladle-off.

A comparison shows whether the fire-resistant fluid lies within the purity requirements established in the specification [1]. Sampling  Always perform sampling at the same location directly from the system. 5.a. Size and quantity of the separable foreign matter particles are then determined.a. Equipment and Chemicals Required  Membrane filters. purified by filtration  Filter the quantity of n-heptane p. p. p. Determination Procedure  Measure 20 ml (about 23 g) of fireresistant fluid into an Erlenmeyer flask previously cleaned with purified n-heptane.3-0083-01/1 .45 µm pore size  Filtering device and aspirator  n-heptane.Steam Turbine Maintenance Introduction A fire-resistant control fluid (FRF) is used in control and governing systems.a.1µm and 0.45 µm.  Connect up the water jet pump to the aspirator and filter the fire-resistant fluid / n-heptane mixture through the membrane filter.  Always identification-mark the specimens uniquely and durably.g.  Do not use aids such as syringes or beakers.a. the ground glass flasks and Erlenmeyer flasks must be flushed three times with extra-purified n-heptane.. water jet pump  Microscope slides  Adhesive tape Preparation of Sampling Vessels Note: Flasks cleaned by a normal cleaning procedure still contain far too many minute impurities which can give a false impression of purity. that is required for dissolving and washing of the fire-resistant-fluid specimen through a membrane filter of pore size 0. e. return this into the system after sampling. 50 mm dia.  100 ml ground glass flasks  100 ml Erlenmeyer flasks with ground glass stoppers  Vacuum pump. p. a defined quantity of the fire-resistant fluid is dissolved in n-heptane and filtered through a diaphragm of pore size 0. Fire Resistant Fluid Determination of Fluid Purity For this reason. and dissolve in 80 ml of purified n-heptane..  Complete the sampling records and send to the analysing laboratory together with the FRF sample.  Allow about 10 litres of fire-resistant fluid to pass through the sampling point before performing sampling by filling the fire-resistant fluid directly into the cleaned ground-glass flask. The purity of the fire-resistant fluid is of vital importance to the reliable operation of the plant and must be monitored continuously.  Always perform sampling while the FRF system is in operation. Brief Description of the Procedure To determine its purity. 0.1 µm four times to exclude even the most minute impurities..  Flush the sampling point prior to sampling by draining about 10 litres of fire-resistant fluid into a clean receptacle. BHEL Haridwar  Recirculate the fire-resistant fluid long enough prior to sampling to avoid settling and give a homogeneous sample.  Use a clean hair brush to remove any dust from the membrane filter and clamp the filter into the filtering device.

p.  Determine the sizes and quantities of the separable foreign matter particles. Also refer to the following sections: [1] 5.3-0083-01/2 .a. place it between two cleaned microscope slides and seal the edges with adhesive tape. Then flush the Erlenmeyer flask five times with about 50 ml each purified n-heptane.1-0140 : Fire Resistant Fluid [2] 5. and also pass the n-heptane used for flushing through the filter.3-0082 : Care of Control Fluid 5.  After drying the filter.

correct and firm seating . as these connections may work loose.elasticity * If found. This damper design is not subject to wear. Dampers are used to attenuate piping vibration. These consist essentially of a cylindrical casing enclosing a plunger embedded in a viscous bitumen mass that performs the actual damping function.tension of the clamps .cold condition: position of plunger as in support drawing Guard sleeve . Inspection Intervals. For these reasons. Scope of inspections and Criteria Inspection Intervals Scope of Inspection .surface appearance .Steam Turbine Maintenance Introduction If the piping of the lubricating and control fluid system is excited to vibration. by contamination Vibration Dampers with foreign matter. scope of Inspection Table-1 gives all important criteria to be reviewed during vibration damper inspections. oil or similar * 5y As for 1 y Condition of the damper medium . if applicable) Motion reserve . The intervals between inspections are given in “y” (years). if the guard sleeve is damaged. Another point to watch are the attachments of the dampers to the piping and to any thermal installation plates installed between them. but the damping medium properties may be impaired by temperature influences or. The inspections may also be performed during plant operation. the deflections involved could cause inadmissible stressing of the piping material. perform 5-year inspection immediately BHEL Haridwar 5.3-0100-00/1 .damage (cracking or perforations)* External influences .firm seating of damper components on pipe and support sides (and at thermal insulation plates.effects of water. The upper part of the damper is sealed by a fabric-base plastic guard sleeve.Criteria 1y Damper Attachment . regular inspections are necessary to ensure that the vibration dampers are in good condition and functioning properly. Table-1 : Inspection Intervals.

. or if the plunger has worked itself out of the medium. this indicates that ambient temperatures in excess of design have caused deterioration in the damper medium properties. etc. . Damper medium can be removed from the casings without leaving residue if heated to about 80°C. In that event. 5. oil. replace guard sleeves as soon as any damage is discovered.Points to Note If welding work is to be performed close to the piping dampers. crumbling or loss of elasticity is discovered on the surface of the damper medium.3-0100-00/2 If cracking. To preclude any deterioration due to ingress of foreign matter such as water. Consult the damper manufacturer if the damper medium is unserviceable and has to be replaced. take care to protect the dampers (and particularly the guard sleeves) from weld spatter and other potential damage. also check the condition of the damper medium immediately.

Detailed knowledge of importance for intermediate overhaul or major overhaul is gained during minor overhaul. All casings are opened. operating experience and manufacturer’s recommendations. Types of Overhaul The following criteria form the basis for deciding whether or not to open a casing: conclusions drawn from long-term observation. It permits detailed inspection and the determination of the condition of all components. Detailed knowledge of the next major overhaul can be gained from the medium overhaul.000 equivalent operating hours. repair) A “major overhaul” is a planned shutdown. servicing. if necessary. repair) A Medium Overhaul is a planned shutdown. if possible. 17. It covers all work which has a bearing on the availability of the turbinegenerator unit. Schedule inspection interval: after 50. warm and hot starts. servicing) A minor overhaul should be carried out as required simultaneously with shutdowns of other plant components or during standstill of the turbine-generator unit due to faults. by preventive maintenance. servicing. Scheduled interval: after about equivalent hours of operation. simultaneously with other plant components during which a casing may be opened.000  Medium Overhaul (Inspection. 5.3-0200-05/1 . BHEL Haridwar  Major Overhaul (inspection. The casings are not opened. The term equivalent operation hours is defined by the following equation: Te = To + ns x 25 Where.Steam Turbine Maintenance Instructions for Overhaul In this chapter scope and schedule of overhaul has been described.  Minor Overhaul (inspection. The purpose of the minor inspection is to avoid reduction in availability due to forced outages by inspection and servicing and. Te = equivalent operating hours To = actual operating hours ns = the number of starts. without differentiation between cold.

    *Mandatory for turbines with spring mounted TG deck . 5.TURBINE OVERHAUL 02 25800 LP turbine IP turbine HP turbine Turbine valves Turbine bearings Coupling check LP turbine IP turbine Coupling check Turbine valves Turbine bearings Coupling check *   *            05 06 60200 Medium Overhaul 03 04 43000 Major Overhaul HP turbine 01 Variant-2 Turbine valves Operating years 8600 Minor Overhaul Turbine bearings Equivalent Operating hours Variant-1           07 08 77400 09         10 94600 11 12 111800           13 14 129000 15         16 146200 17 18 -Mandatory.3-0200-05/2       -Optional.

check complete blade with specific attention to blade root for crack by MPI and carry out NFT.    Measure permanent elongation of bolts in high temperature zone and check them for embrittlement.     Disconnect couplings. replace worn parts on the hydraulic and steam sides. seal rings.    Check shaft for cracks. bypass valves. Pay particular attention to parts subject to wear or deposits. Check springs of spring-mounted ring segments. *    Disassemble bearings. check axial and radial alignment. Medium and Major Overhaul  Check guides of inner casing for freedom of movement and wear. check all bolts for cracks. if necessary.Mandatory. if necessary.000 equivalent hours of operation. impeller etc. Pay particular attention to blades and seal strips. replace these if necessary. shaft. Ensure design key clearances.    Check shaft seals and labyrinth glands for abrasion and scaling. emergency and jacking oil pumps.    After every 50. clearance check. Replace springs of high temperature zone. measure clearances.   Check earthling brush contact surface of shaft. measure elongation of coupling bolts. Perform run out check. electrical and/or hydraulic functional tests on monitoring instrumentation.     Perform mechanical.    Visually examine last stage blades of LP turbine (check for cracks if necessary). clean root & groove. check seating of bearing in bearing pedestal. if guides are jammed. Inspect coupling. if necessary.     Check casing guides for deposit.     . carryout alignment and catenary check and readjust spring units after first year of operation. clean and overhaul keys. Minor Overhaul List of’ Activities to be performed during Minor. remove.  .     Open main oil pump.If necessary. check babbitt surface. * for turbines with spring mounted TG deck 5.     Check control and protective devices. perform run out check. check reference readings of deck spring units. overhaul and re-calibrate. eliminate score-marks in shaft journals.     Check.     Open auxiliary.      Clean rotors and casings and examine for damage. overhaul and. Overhaul. replace seal rings of bearing pedestals.3-0200-05/3 . if applicable. control valves.     Check stop valves. check bearings.* * Major Overhaul Medium Overhaul  For units with spring mounted TG deck. remove LP free standing blades from fir-tree grooves.

Clean strainers. Retighten flange joints. deformation and ballooning. * for turbines with spring mounted TG deck .    Measure casing distortion. Change gaskets. Check casing horn drop and eliminate pipe pull by adjusting hangers & supports    Replace TSE/TSC thermocouples fitted in IP inner casing whenever IP turbine is overhauled.     Examine steam turbine integral piping for cracks. separate impurities.Minor Overhaul Medium Overhaul Major Overhaul     Check drains for foreign material. change oil / control fluid if necessary. Medium and Major Overhaul  Remove and check steam strainers for deposits and damage. Special attention is to be given to balance piston leak-off line of HPT. eliminate leaks. Inspect tank. check for cracks.     Examine oil / control fluid lines for damage. if applicable. if applicable. open and clean sludge traps. remove and clean the inserts.    Replace springs of sealing segments in high temperature zone    Drain main oil / control fluid tank.3-0200-05/4 = Mandatory. 5. pay attention to damage.  Check oil / control fluid filters for leaks.    = If necessary.    Check pipe supports and hangers and readjust if necessary.   List of’ Activities to be performed during Minor. check casing joints for erosion. clean/replace if necessary.

If deviations exceed the permissible tolerance. jacking-oil pump. For accurate runout measurement. dismantle and overhaul.  Bearings Dismantle bearings. Check and ensure thermal clearances as per design. Replace oil guard ring in case of excessive clearance. Check the alignment radially and axially. It is necessary to check the babbitt metal lining for damage and looseness by UT.  Control valves. rotor system temperature should be close to ambient. coupled run out checks are to be performed in the vicinity of the bearing as a minimum requirement.  Emergency stop valves Emergency stop valves should always be inspected completely (steam and oil side). safety and protective equipment on steam and oil sides. If disengagement of the couplings is not performed. Spindle seals consisting of packing material are to be replaced in all cases. Decisions on further activities and valves to be covered are to be taken according to the circumstances on the basis of performance in the preceding period of operation. This will also call for alignment. mandatory for spring mounted TG deck after first year of operation. attention is to be give to compliance with plays and travel reserves. catenary and roll check.  Oil guard rings of bearing pedestals Remove contaminants and abraded particles on the seal edges to prevent oil leakage. the deck springs are to be inspected and reference dimensions compared and adjusted after first year of operation. cone. If there are indications of jamming.  Couplings If couplings are to be opened. if necessary) − Oil / control fluid tanks − Oil / control fluid filters − Last stage of LP Turbine − Monitoring equipment Scope of activities  TG deck springs (where applicable) For units with spring mounted TG deck. Measure clearances of bearings. realignment is required. seat. bypass valves Activities should generally be concerned with checking of parts subject to wear.3-0200-05/5 . actuator. Check seating of bearing in bearing pedestal. 5. bypass valves − Emergency stop valves and extraction − non-return valves − Control and safety equipment − Piping supports and hangers − Steam strainers − Drains − Oil lines − Pumps (main oil pump. Components to be inspected st − TG deck springs (if applicable) after 1 year of operation. With mechanical drives (lever linkage) in particular. alignment & catenary − Casing roll check (if rotors realigned) − Bearings − Oil guard rings of bearing pedestals − Sliding pieces in casing guides and supports − Control valves. coupling check if necessary. bush. This includes spindle. checks of controls. Bearing check. measure the pretension of the coupling bolts while loosing and tightening.  Sliding pieces in casing guides and supports Inspect keys and sliding pieces for any abnormality. carry out swing check & coupled runout measurement before loosening the coupling bolts.MINOR OVERHAUL Casings are not opened. especially if the couplings need to be realigned. auxiliary oil pumps and emergency oil pumps. Clearances between moving and stationary parts should be checked and corrected. If couplings are disengaged it is advisable to perform a roll check. At the same time measure the axial displacement of the rotors relative to the casing.

 Glands and labyrinths Check for abrasion and scale (dependent on temperature). 5. The sludge traps should be opened in all cases. Perform run out check. examination where necessary. if necessary. Take advance action for procurement of the TSC thermocouples and associated fittings.000 hours of operation. Check for damage. After every 50.  Casing Measure for deformation.  TSC thermocouples Replace TSC thermocouples fitted in IP inner casing. impeller and coupling. Rework according to findings. Otherwise as for minor overhaul. take out the blades from groove.  Oil / Control fluid tanks Clean strainers  Oil / Control fluid filters Remove elements and clean.  Rotor Check for cracks in fillets. Components to be inspected As for minor overhaul but augmented by the following: − − − − − − − Inlet and outlet connections Casings Inner casing guides Blading Glands Rotors Fasteners Scope of activities  Inlet and outlet connections Inspect for scale and freedom of movement at I-and L-seal rings. MEDIUM OVERHAUL At least one casing is to be opened and the rotor lifted out. Replace gasket. crack examination. Check for blade looseness and lock blade lift. Piping supports and hangers Check and measure alignment dimensions in the cold conditions and adjust. Eliminate scoring on the journals.  Oil lines Remove leaked oil. Check condition of springs. shaft. whenever IP Turbine in opened for overhaul. carry out crack detection of the entire blade including root.  Pumps The main oil pump is to be opened in order to inspect bearings. Check shrouds for scale according to temperature. Check other pumps in redundancy configuration only as necessary. The fir-tree root free standing blades of LP rotor need special attention. Inspect casing joint plane for erosion  Inner casing guides Check for freedom of movement and wear.3-0200-05/7 . electrical and hydraulic monitoring equipment function properly and repair or recalibrate as necessary. Check coupling.  Last stages of LP turbine Visual inspection of condition.3-0200-05/6 5. check natural frequency in position with technological pieces. inspect pipes and mounting for fretting point and strengthen accordingly. Inspect U-seal rings and measure precompression. sealing rings. clean root and groove. Crack  Monitoring equipment Check that mechanical.  Blading Clean entire blading with casing open and inspect for damage and incipient cracks.  Steam strainers Dismantle and check for foreign bodies and damage. Verify adjustment by casing horn drop test.  Drains The scope of activities depends on performance during the preceding period of operation and susceptibility to malfunctions. Check pipes for visible changes.

spare parts. often requiring lengthy delivery periods. change if necessary.g.g. deformation and crack.3-0200-05/7 .000 equivalent hours of operation.g. Ensure design clearances SUGGESTED INSPECTION & TESTING PROCEDURES During inspection of steam turbine generator units. crack formation) has been found. Continued operation. When stipulating the scope of the inspection. fasteners)  Repaired by reworking at site or in the works of the supplier MAJOR OVERHAUL All casings are to be opened and the rotors lifted out. check calculations. the intervals between major overhauls necessitate the coverage of considerably more components by the inspection as has been customary hitherto. spindles. the experience gained from comparable units should be taken into account in the plans and/or the manufacturer is to state at which highly stressed points the various components are to be inspected. following examination / inspection / testing of steam turbine parts may be done. either in an unaltered or altered mode. Fasteners in high temperature zone Replace all fasteners of size upto M64 in high temperature zone after 100. Carry out destructive test on sample fastener of higher sizes to determine usability of the lot. and augmented by the following: − Oil / Control fluid tanks − Steam lines − Casing center guides Scope of Activities  Oil / Control fluid tanks Drain and clean tank. Purify oil / Control fluid. certain components are required to be inspected in-depth to achieve more accurate evaluation of their condition. Inspection planning must allow for the additional time and costs consumed by the inspections. The findings are to be documented (descriptions.  Casing centre guide Disassemble and overhaul. Apart from this. It is advisable to get the special checks and tests conducted by the specialists from turbine plant. 500 Watt photographic lamp. Otherwise as for medium overhaul.000 equivalent hours of operation. are to be ordered.  Replaced with spare parts (in general small parts subject to wear are normally kept in stock e. Visual Inspection − − − With the naked eye and good illumination e. because no faults have been found. Components to be inspected As for medium overhaul but instruction “if necessary” is inapplicable. Depending on the results of the inspection the examined components are to be:  Left in the as-inspected condition.  It is necessary to increase the scope of the inspection as soon as the units have clocked more than 100.  Left in the as-inspected conditions although damage (e. is to be justified. drawings and photographs). The propagation of the damage is to be kept under observation.  Steam lines Check steam lines exposed to main or reheat steam for expansion. Component integrity assessment and/or residual life assessment studies are to be initiated at this stage. but instruction if necessary is inapplicable. mirror Magnifying glass Borescope  Surface crack examination − Dye penetration test (DPT) − Magnetic particle inspection (cannot be used on austenitic materials) 5. INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT During integrity assessment.

warp − Wall thickness measurement − Expansion measurements (measurement of diameter.3-0200-05/8  Material testing − Tensile test to determine yield strength. angle of bend (in pipe elbows). Surface micro-structure examination − Microscopic examination at site 5. length.  − Eddy-current examination − Crack depth determination as far as possible with capacitance probe or ultrasound Ultrasonic examination −  Hardness test  Material verification test −  Manual spectroscope X-Ray examination   Contact print (Replica) procedure after etching material surface Detection of permanent deformations − Out-of-roundness (ovality). circumference). − Notched bar impact test − Chemical composition − Metallographic microstructure evaluation Testing of electrical insulation against shaft currents . tensile strength. elongation after fracture and necking down.

provision must be made for a lengthy period of bypass operation with the highest possible bypass steam mass flow rate at the time of unit restart.3-0210-00 .Steam Turbine Maintenance Introduction Following extensive boiler repairs. all solid particles remaining in the system are blown down into the condenser. For this reason. measures must be taken to protect the turbine against erosion by solid particles. where necessary. During this bypass BHEL Haridwar Turbine Restart After Boiler Repairs operation. Bypass Operation When extensive repairs have been carried out on the boiler. The bypass stop and control valves may suffer slight damage to their seats and discs as a result of steam dumping and must. it is not possible to prevent solid particles remaining in the system in spite of chemical cleaning. which prevents them from causing particle erosion on the turbine blades Particles blown down into the condenser must be removed from the hot well before commencement of process operation. be checked by sampling. 5. The bypass steam mass flow rate must comply with the limits (mass flow rate and duration of operation) defined in the specifications.

in the course of major inspections.g. such as controller circuit diagrams and descriptions. The test programs appear in maintenance instructions 5.3-0220-00/1 . new records must be prepared.  The scope of the inspection  Findings and checks made during the inspection  Repairs carried out on the basis of the findings  Retrofitting taken and upgrading measures  Checks planned for the restart period  Reports on turbine performance prior to inspection  Operating parameters and setting records for the unit when new or at the last restart  Reports on inspections. findings and repairs on retrofitting and The following are also required:  Diagrams showing current control system setting (in the case of special settings the most recent records are binding)  Documents from the turbine manual.3-0030 and 5.3-0060.  Controllers The performance of the controllers must be observed throughout the restart phase. The same rule also applies to restarts after large scale maintenance and repair work. which could not be carried out in the pre-service phase because the boundary conditions had not been fulfilled. In-Service Inspections The information required may be found in the following documents:  Documents modifications Alarm system and monitoring equipment must like wise be overhauled and tested. The functioning and the setting of all of the major equipment of the turbine must be checked. the care with which the unit was initially started up. and covers:  All closed-loop controls Information Required for Restart  All protective devices In restarting a turbine it is useful to possess the following data:  All sub loop controls and automatic changeover controls  The performance of the turbine unit and its components prior to inspection The characteristics of all electro-hydraulic controllers must be recorded.  Protective devices Service phase testing applies mainly to those devices which protect the turbine against over speed. The scope of inspection and testing of defined in instruction 5. e. The test programs of the automatic turbine tester may also be executed if required.Steam Turbine Maintenance Turbine Restart after Major Inspections or Repairs Introduction Pre-service Inspections The operational reliability and availability of a steam turbine unit are determined by.3-0061. among other factors. BHEL Haridwar If the result of operating parameters and setting checks reveal changes from earlier results. The essential step-by-step test schedules appear in maintenance instruction 5. The tests. 5. This applies both to mechanical / hydraulic components and to instrumentation and control devices.2-002x. must be performed during the service phase subsequent to the pre-service inspections.

especially where fault elimination is involved. during a cold start. e. Where necessary.g. and then compared either with the set point or with previous recorded values. The operating parameters of the turbine stress controller must be subjected to critical analysis. is largely determined by the limits set by the TSC. rebalancing and other similar actions. The following is one conceivable allocation of functions:  Pre-service inspection and in-service testing of the unit by one specialist engineer each for turbine and generator from the supplier company. because the start-up time.3-0220-00/2 It is therefore expedient to assign commissioning personnel to assist in restarting the turbine.  Operating parameters The values of all operating parameters must be recorded during steady-state operation when they have remained constant for an adequate length of time. - Control fluid pressures and temperatures - Circulating water temperatures + Condenser + Coolers - Condensate temperatures - Condenser leak tightness (leak test) During non-steady-state operation.The control range of the hydraulic controller must be checked and. Evaluation of Tests Parameter Records and Operating The test results and the operating parameter records provide vital information on the compliance of the turbine and its components with the performance specifications. corrected during no-load operation. They call for special knowledge which is too detailed to be described in full in the turbine manual. especially when they constitute a hazard to the operational reliability of the turbine unit. all operating parameters 5. These measures may include further measurement of off-normal conditions. and hence the cost-efficient operation of the turbine unit.  Automatic functional group controls The turbine systems and the turbine generator unit should be started up with the aid of the automatic functional group controls. spare parts must be ordered and/or measures to facilitate future elimination of the off-norn1al conditions detected must be defined. and checks carried out to establish whether all criteria for the execution of the step programs are fulfilled. . + Extraction steam + Exhaust steam Re-Commissioning of the set - Casing temperatures - Expansions - Vibrations - Oil pressure and temperatures - Bearing metal temperatures Most of the activities which have to be performed in the course of turbine restarts go beyond the scope of normal maintenance work. if necessary. - Output - Control system characteristics - Steam mass flow rates - Feed water / condensate mass flow rates - Steam pressure and temperatures + Main steam which are subjected to large-scale changes in this phase must be recorded. Malfunctions and other major discrepancies must be eliminated as far as possible.

among other elements. namely:  Report on the performance of the turbine unit prior to the major inspection The main section of the reports must cover:  The scope and nature of pre-service inspections  Findings from the pre-service inspections  The scope and nature of in-service testing  Evaluation of turbine performance  Findings from in-service testing  Matters remaining replacement parts. reporting on turbine restart following major inspections or repairs.  Pre-service inspection and testing of controls. brief details must be given on these subjects under the above headings. The report on restart should make reference to certain preceding reports. implementation  Report on the scope of the inspection 5.) open (actions. Summary of results inspections and repairs from  Report on repairs and other actions major Full documentation of the history of a turbine unit includes. interlocks and alarms by owner / operator’s personnel. deadline.3-0220-00/3 . Pre-service inspection and testing of major C&I hardware  Report on the findings and checks made - Controllers and protective devices - Turbine stress controller  Report on the replacement and spare parts used or required - Automatic testers - Automatic functional group controls If these special reports are not available. etc.

a proper system of disposal is to be evolved and compliance ensured. To promote environment friendly aesthetic appearance. Viton). Some material. One of the products of such decomposition is Hydrofluoric acid.3-0250-00 . as published from time to time. when exposed 0 to temperatures in the region of 400 C or higher due to fire or any other reason. it is of paramount importance to ensure safety of work force by adhering to the applicable safety codes. In the viscinity of high temperature equipment & pipes. are to be adhered. the external surface of all the equipment should be painted once in two years. through harmless in normal regime.3-0252 : Safe disposal of Turbine Oil BHEL Haridwar 5. During maintenance inspection and capital overhauls. even if it calls for unit shutdown. necessary precautions. Steam leakage from any source is associated with thermal & noise pollution of the environment.Steam Turbine Maintenance It is the social and moral obligation of all concerned to ensure adequate protection of the environment in every wake of operation. it can be injurious to the associated equipment and also to any individual coming in contact. In addition. To protect the natural environment and to control pollution from disposed hazardous or non-bio-degradable material. may become quite hazardous under different circumstances. get decomposed. any oil leakage has to be immediately attended. Oil leakage from any source is to be quickly attended. which is highly corrosive and any skin contact with it must be prevented. especially around the turbine floor to promote a pleasing look. Any such leakage is to be quickly attended. Depending on the source & parameters of the leakage steam. while handling and disposing hazardous materials. Gaskets made of Fluorelastomers (viz. General upkeep and cleanliness standard should be maintained all around. Also refer to the following sections: [1] 5. Proper upkeep & periodic lubrication of all rotating equipment as per the manufacturer’s instructions goes a long way in ensuring their smooth and noise-free operation.3-0251 : Fluorelastomer products safety notice [2] 5. Environmental protection Oil leakage does not only pollute the environment but is also a potential fire hazard.

the component will appear as a charred or black sticky mass. equipment which has been involved in a fire). If accidental exposure occurs. Decontamination procedures for decomposed Fluorelastomer products Decontamination of equipment exposed to decomposed Fluorelastomer products If decomposed fluorelastomer products are suspected. ‘Viton’ is used extensively in control fluid (FRF) system due to its compatibility with phosphate ester fluids. The residues should be disposed of with great care. The affected areas must be decontaminated before either inspection or maintenance is resumed. extreme care should be taken when dismantling equipment which may have been subject to fire damage. wash well with water and apply an H-F Antidote Gel as directed. A Calcium Gluconate injection is the normal treatment for Hydrofluoric Acid Burn. one of which is hydrofluoric acid.Steam Turbine Maintenance Precautions to be taken during handling of Viton synthetic rubber and other Fluorelastomer products after they have been exposed to very high temperatures Fluorelastomers are synthetic rubber like materials commonly used for making gaskets and seals of various kinds. Equipment which has been exposed to a very high temperature (e. Protective equipment and clothing must be used and worn. All containers or bags used to transport the residues must be clearly marked to ensure careful handling to the point of disposal. fluorelastomers do not burn but decompose into a number of materials. Do not touch anything in the vicinity of the decomposed material until it has been decontaminated. Meanwhile. such as very high temperature incineration. When exposed to temperatures in the region of 400 °C or higher. 5. and which may contain fluorelastomer components. H-F residues may be washed away using sufficient quantities of water to dilute them to harmless concentrations. great care must be taken when removing the residues from equipment. to prevent accidental skin contact with the Hydrofluoric acid (H-F). However. access to the BHEL Haridwar Fluorelastomer Products Safety Notice equipment should be denied to unauthorised or unprotected personnel and warning notices posted. should not. including heavy duty rubber gloves and full face protection. If decomposition has occurred. Decontamination of personnel exposed to decomposed Fluorelastomer products H-F residues should not be handled without adequate protection. Supervisory staff should be informed immediately and inquires made to confirm whether fluorelastomer components are involved. In normal use.g.3-0251-00 . Medical attention should be obtained immediately. Personnel who could come into contact with degraded ‘Viton’ (or any other fluorelastomer) should be made aware of its hazardous nature. under any circumstances. It is also compatible with mineral oil and can appear in ‘O’ ring form in the lubricating oil. be touched until it has been visually inspected for gaskets or seals which have suffered decomposition. This is corrosive and almost impossible to remove once it contaminates the skin. jacking oil and power oil systems. fluid temperature excursions beyond 100 °C are rare and therefore the use of ‘Viton’ seals does not constitute a hazard to safety.

3-0080 : Turbine Oil care BHEL Haridwar 5. The Safe disposal of Turbine Oil procedure for safe disposal of used turbine oil is as follows:  To send the discarded oil to registered refiners who have facilities to reclaim the oil by physico-chemical treatment for further use in non-critical applications.Steam Turbine Maintenance Oil of viscosity class ISO VG 46.1-0130 : Oil specification [2] 5. be periodically monitored to ascertain the quality and properties of turbine oil [2].  To burn-off the discarded oil in boiler furnace by mixing with fuel oil.  To send the used oil to the parties who are licensed to handle and dispose used lubricating oil. The oil should comply with the requirements given in Operation and Maintenance Manual [1]. Also refer to the following sections: [1] 5. commonly known as turbine oil. is used for lubrication of turbine bearings as well as for hydraulic turning gear. Turbine oil has to be changed if its properties have crossed discard limits.3-0252-00 . All major oil manufacturers have facility for complete checking of oil properties. It is recommended that the condition of oil in use.

Description as above Installed Quantity Required Quantity 1. 8. The details of components described in various chapters of this manual are given only to understand the functioning. Assembly Drawing No. 4. Supplier’s catalogue reference No. / Code No. : 6. 2. 5.No. For ordering spares. complete identification details of the required component should be furnished. : Previous enquiry / offer / order reference : A] BHEL Supplied Spares Sl. 9.No. Details of spares Sl. Application / location where installed : 10. Model : 3. Equipment Serial / Fabrication No. Item No. KKS Tag No. Qty.No. Application 1. 3. Other details noted from name plate : 7. No. Year of manufacturing / supply : 4. Supplier’s Sketch / Drg.3-0300-00 . Description Part Drg. only the project specific drawings supplied separately should be referred and following details may be furnished: Enquiry for Steam Turbine O&M Spares Name of the project : Capacity : Unit No.Steam Turbine Maintenance Ordering of Spares While ordering for spares. B] Purchase resold items 1. / KKS tag No. : 5. Name of the supplier : 2. BHEL Haridwar 5. 2. 3.