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STEAM TURBINE
0PERATION & MAINTENANCE
INSTRUCTIONS

NO.STENO.STE-TFTF-266-MS

KHAPERKHEDA, 1X500 MW

1x500

i c <BD]BE ]b
x{, cu
BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED
RANIPUR, HARIDWAR 249403 (INDIA)

Steam Turbine
General

Preface

This manual contains information on the


operation and maintenance of steam turbine.
The information has been prepared with the
assumption that the O&M personnel have
basic knowledge of power plant engineering
and operation.

turbine. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited


can not be responsible for any malfunction
occurring as a result of operation beyond
rated limits and such operation, if
undertaken by utilities, must be at their own
risk.

It is an essential prerequisite for satisfactory


operation and maintenance of the steam
turbine that the operating and maintenance
personnel are fully familiar with the design of
the steam turbine plant and receive thorough
training in operating and maintaining the
unit.

The part numbers of components, indicated


in the Description section of the manual
should not be used for ordering spare parts.
Please refer the chapter on Ordering of
spares for that purpose.

Extensive operation beyond rated design


values will eventually result in increased
maintenance expenses or a corresponding
reduction in the useful life of the steam

Effort has been made to include adequate


information in this manual. For any further
information or clarification please contact:
Field Engineering Services, Steam Turbine
Engineering, BHEL, Haridwar 249403,
Uttarakhand, India.

KHAPERKHEDA, 1X500MW: Document No. STE-TF-266-MS


KJ
Prepared
by

Issued by

BHEL Haridwar

SM

VS
Checked
by

STE (FES), BHEL, Haridwar

SRP

PCK
Approved
by

Issue
Date

19.08.09

5.0-0001-66

Steam Turbine
Description

Subject

Contents

Document No

GENERAL

Preface
Contents
DESCRIPTION

5.0-0001-66/1
5.0-0002-66/3

Brief Description
Sectional arrangement
General description
Fixed points
Technical Data

5.1-0001-04/1
5.1-0002-04/2
5.1-0003-02/2

Construction, speed &


Steam pressure
Steam and casing
temperatures
Bearing metal temperatures,
vibration, weights

5.1-0100-66/3

Oil supply, oil pumps


Control fluid system and
control fluid pumps
Limit curves: HP stop &
control valve casing
Limit curves: HP casing
Limit curves: HP shaft
Limit curves: IP shaft
Steam purity values
Oil specification standard
Fire resistant fluid (FRF) for
turbine control system
HP Turbine
Valve arrangement
Casing
Blading
Shaft seals and balance
piston
Front bearing pedestal
Rear bearing pedestal
Combined journal and thrust
bearing
Journal bearing, HP front
Casing supports and guides
IP Turbine

5.1-0103-66/2
5.1-0104-66/4

Casing
Blading
Shaft seals
Rear bearing pedestal

5.1-0310-01/3
5.1-0320-02/1
5.1-0330-01/2
5.1-0340-02/1

BHEL Haridwar

Document No

Journal bearing IP rear


Casing supports and guides
LP Turbine
Casing
Atmospheric relief
diaphragm
Blading, drum stages
Blading, LP stages
Shaft seals
Rear bearing pedestal
Journal bearing
Turning Gear

5.1-0345-01/2
5.1-0350-01/2

Hydraulic turning gear


Manual turning gear
Hydraulic lifting device
Control System

5.1-0510-01/1
5.1-0520-01/1
5.1-0530-66/2

General description
Start-up procedure
Speed control
Electrical speed measuring
Protective devices
Over speed trip test
Testing of stop valves
LP bypass System (General)
Extraction check valve
Swing check valve (CRH)
Testing of check valves in
cold reheat line
Automatic turbine tester
general
Automatic turbine tester
for protective devices
Automatic turbine tester
stop and control valves
HP actuator
Electro hydraulic seal steam
pressure control
Governing scheme
Control system diagram
legend
Lubrication chart
Control System Parts

5.1-0600-01/2
5.1-0610-01/2
5.1-0620-01/2
5.1-0621-02/1
5.1-0630-01/2
5.1-0631-01/1
5.1-0632-02/1
5.1-0640-01/1
5.1-0650-01/1
5.1-0651-01/1
5.1-0652-02/1

Subject

5.1-0101-66/2
5.1-0102-66/1

5.1-0110-01/1
5.1-0111-01/2
5.1-0112-01/2
5.1-0113-01/1
5.1-0120-01/1
5.1-0130-04/2
5.1-0140-04/2

5.1-0205-00/1
5.1-0210-01/3
5.1-0220-02/1
5.1-0230-01/2

5.1-0240-01/2
5.1-0250-02/2
5.1-0260-01/2

5.1-0270-01/2
5.1-0280-01/2

5.1-0410-00/4
5.1-0420-00/1
5.1-0430-01/1
5.1-0440-01/2
5.1-0450-01/1
5.1-0460-02/1
5.1-0470-00/2

5.1-0660-00/1
5.1-0661-00/7
5.1-0662-01/4
5.1-0665-00/1
5.1-0670-01/4
5.1-0680-01/1
5.1-0681-01/5
5.1-0690-01/3

Hydraulic speed governor with 5.1-0710-00/2


starting and load limiting device

5.0-0002-66/1

Subject

Document No

Adjusting gear
Electro hydraulic converter
for turbine control system
Hydraulic amplifier for
turbine control system
Electrical speed pick-up
Pressure converter
Steam valves and
accessories
Combined main stop and
control valve
Servomotor for main &
reheat stop valves
Hydraulic servomotor for
main & reheat control valves
Test valve for emergency
stop valve
Combined reheat stop &
control valves
Hangers for reheat stop &
control valves
Steam strainer
Changeover valve for
bleeder check valve
Auxiliary valve of extraction
check valve
Rotary vane actuator for
reheat swing check valve
Pilot valve for rotary vane
actuator of swing check valve
Auxiliary pilot valve for
rotary vane actuator of
reheat swing check valve
Gland steam control valve
Leakage steam control valve
Protective Devices
Main trip valve
Emergency trip valve for
manual trip out
Solenoid valve for remote
trip out
Over speed trip
Over speed trip releasing
device
Over speed trip test device
Low vacuum trip
Condenser safety device

5.1-0720-00/1
5.1-0730-02/3

5.1-0740-02/3

5.0-0002-66/2

5.1-0760-01/1
5.1-0761-00/1

5.1-0810-01/2
5.1-0811-00/1
5.1-0812-00/2
5.1-0813-00/1
5.1-0814-00/2

5.1-0815-01/1
5.1-0816-00/1
5.1-0840-00/1

5.1-0841-00/2

5.1-0853-01/1

5.1-0854-00/1
5.1-0855-00/1

5.1-0860-02/1
5.1-0870-02/1

5.1-0910-00/2
5.1-0911-00/1

5.1-0912-00/1
5.1-0920-00/1
5.1-0921-00/2
5.1-0922-00/2
5.1-0935-00/1
5.1-0940-00/1

Subject

Document No

Solenoid valve for temperature controlled interlock


Vacuum breaker
Changeover valve for
testing device
Oil Supply
Oil supply system
Oil vapor extraction system
Oil discharge & vent system
Oil purification system
Main oil tank
Main oil pump with hydraulic
speed transmitter
Auxiliary oil pump
DC emergency oil pump
Jacking oil pump
Oil throttle
Oil throttle
Three way control valve for
Lubricating oil temp. control
Control Fluid Supply
HP control fluid pump with
LP extraction
Plate-type filter
Duplex filter for pilot control
of control valves
Regenerating plant
Other Systems
Drain system (MAL)
System diagram index
Component diagram index
Shaft seal system
Operation
Introduction
Specification of steam, oil &
control fluid
Testing of turbine
Components - General
Turbine systems testing
testing intervals
Controllers
Automatic turbine tester
Automatic turbine tester
Protective devices
Safety devices
Valves
Monitoring devices
Operating parameters

5.1-0950-00/1
5.1-0960-02/2
5.1-0980-00/1

5.1-1000-66/4
5.1-1001-66/2
5.1-1002-66/2
5.1-1003-66/1
5.1-1010-01/2
5.1-1020-01/2
5.1-1030-01/1
5.1-1040-01/1
5.1-1050-00/2
5.1-1080-00/1
5.1-1081-00/1
5.1-1090-01/1

5.1-1110-00/1
5.1-1120-00/1
5.1-1130-00/3
5.1-1140-00/3
5.1-1210-66/2
5.1-1220-66/3
5.1-1230-66/11
5.1-1240-66/5
5.2-0001-01/1
5.2-0002-00/1
5.2-0020-00/1

5.2-0021-01/1
5.2-0022-01/1
5.2-0023-01/1
5.2-0024-01/1
5.2-0025-01/1
5.2-0026-01/1
5.2-0027-01/1
5.2-0028-01/1

Subject

Start-up
Starting the turbine
Startup & shutdown
diagrams, symbols
Startup diagram
General
Preparation for startup
Operating position of
manually operated valves
Oil System & Turning Gear
Control fluid system
start-up diagram
Condensing Plant
Bypass System
Warm-up & startup of turbine
Temperature criteria
Controllers
On-load Running
Load operation, Introduction
Synchronization and loading
Power operation, controllers
Actions to prevent
unallowable heat-up
through blade wind age
Shut-down
Introduction
Shutdown diagram
General
Turbine-generator
Condensing plant
Oil system
Fast cooling down of turbine
Preventing corrosion in
idle turbine
Fault Tracing
Introduction
Serious faults
Vibration
Bearing temperature
Casing temperatures
Turbine stress controller:
measures to avoid
impermissible operation
Stop & control valves
Protective devices
Automatic turbine tester

Document No

5.2-0110-01/1
5.2-0111-00/1

5.2-0112-00/2
5.2-0113-00/1
5.2-0120-00/1
5.2-0130-02/5
5.2-0135-02/4

5.2-0140-02/4
5.2-0150-00/3
5.2-0160-02/6
5.2-0170-01/4
5.2-0180-00/4

5.2-0200-00/1
5.2-0210-00/5
5.2-0220-00/9
5.2-0230-00/4

5.2-0300-00/1

5.2-0310-01/1
5.2-0320-02/5
5.2-0330-01/2
5.2-0340-01/2
5.2-0350-01/1
5.2-0360-00/2

5.2-0400-00/1
5.2-0410-00/8
5.2-0420-00/5
5.2-0421-01/1
5.2-0423-02/2
5.2-0430-01/5

Subject

Document No

Oil system
Control fluid system
Gland steam system
Bypass System
MAINTENANCE
Introduction
Inspection schedule
Maintenance schedule
Turbine
Oil system, seal steam
system, drains
FRF system
Testing during start-up
Testing during power
operation
Acquisition & archiving of
operating data
Remedial actions for offnormal operating conditions
Measurement of internal
efficiency
Testing during shut down
Testing during standstill
Testing of safety valves
Testing of signaling devices
Testing of TSC
Steam washing of turbine
Turbine Oil care
Grease and Oil lubrication
Care of control fluid
Determination of FRF purity
Vibration dampers
Instructions for overhaul
Turbine restart after boiler
repairs
Turbine restart after major
inspections or repairs
Environmental protection
Fluorelastomer products
safety notice
Safe disposal of turbine oil
Ordering of spares

5.2-0460-00/6
5.2-0470-00/3
5.2-0480-01/1
5.2-0490-00/3
5.3-0001-01/1
5.3-0010-04/3
5.3-0021-02/1
5.3-0022-01/3
5.3-0023-01/2
5.3-0030-02/7
5.3-0035-02/5
5.3-0037-03/3
5.3-0040-01/6
5.3-0050-02/3
5.3-0060-01/5
5.3-0061-02/6
5.3-0062-01/1
5.3-0063-00/2
5.3-0064-01/4
5.3-0070-02/3
5.3-0080-03/11
5.3-0081-00/1
5.3-0082-02/9
5.3-0083-01/2
5.3-0100-00/2
5.3-0200-05/8
5.3-0210-00/1
5.3-0220-00/3
5.3-0250-00/1
5.3-0251-00/1
5.3-0252-00/1
5.3-0300-00/1

5.2-0440-01/2
5.2-0450-01/7
5.2-0455-00/9

5.0-0002-66/3

Steam Turbine
Description

BHEL Haridwar

Cross Sectional Arrangement

5.1-0001-04

Steam turbine
Description

General Description

Construction, Steam Flow

LP Turbine

The turbine is a tandem compound machine with


separate HP,IP and LP sections. The HP section
being a single-flow cylinder and the IP and LP
sections double-flow cylinders. The turbine
rotors and the generator rotor are connected by
rigid couplings.
The HP turbine is throttle controlled. The initial
steam is admitted ahead of the blading via two
main stop and control valve combinations. A
swing check valve is installed in the line leading
from HP turbine exhaust to the Reheater to
prevent hot steam from the reheater flowing
back into the HP turbine.
The steam coming from the Reheater is passed
to the IP turbine via two reheat stop and control
valve combinations. Cross around pipes connect
the IP and LP cylinders. Connections are
provided at several points of the turbine for
feedwater extraction purpose.

The casing of the double-flow LP cylinder is of


three-shell design. The shells are horizontally
split and are of rigid welded construction. The
innermost shell, which carries the first rows of
stationary blades, is supported so as to allow
thermal expansion within the intermediate shell.
The intermediate shell rests at four points on
longitudinal girders, independent of the outer
shell. Guide blade carriers, carrying the last
stationary blade rows are also attached to the
intermediate shell.

HP Turbine, Barrel Type Casing


The outer casing of the HP turbine is of the
barrel type and has neither an axial nor a radial
flange. his prevents mass concentration which
would have caused high thermal stresses. The
almost perfect asymmetric design of the casing
permits moderate and nearly uniform wall
thickness at all sections. The inner casing is
axially split and supported so as to be free to
move in response to thermal expansion. As only
slight pressure differences are effective, the
horizontal flange and joint bolts of the inner
casing can be kept small. The barrel type casing
permits flexibility of operation in the form of short
start-up times and a high rate of change of load
even at high initial steam conditions.

IP Turbine
The IP turbine section is of double flow
construction with horizontally split casings.
Allowance is made for thermal movement of the
inner casing within the outer casing. The inner
casing carries the stationary blading. The
reheated steam enters the inner casing from top
and bottom. The provision of an inner casing
confines high steam inlet conditions to the
admission section of this casing, while the joint
flange of the outer casing is subjected only to
the lower pressure and temperature effective at
the exhaust from the inner casing.

BHEL Haridwar

Blading
The entire turbine is provided with reaction
blading. The stationary and moving blades of the
HP and IP sections and the front rows of the LP
turbine are designed with integrally milled
inverted T -roots and shrouds. The last stages of
the LP turbine are fitted with twisted drop -forged
moving blades with fir-tree roots engaging in
grooves in the shaft with last stage stationary
blades made from sheet steel.

Bearings
The HP rotor is supported on two bearings, a
journal bearing at its front end, and a combined
journal and thrust bearing immediately next to
the coupling to the IP rotor. The IP and LP rotors
have a journal bearing each at rear end. The
combined
journal
and
thrust
bearing
incorporates a journal bearing and a thrust
bearing which takes up residual thrust from both
directions. The bearing metal temperatures are
measured by thermocouples directly under the
babbit lining. The temperature of the thrust
bearing is measured in two opposite thrust pads.
The bearing pedestals are anchored to the
foundation by means of anchor bolts and are
fixed in position.
The HP and IP turbines rest with their lateral
support horns on the bearing pedestals at the
turbine centerline level. The HP and IP casings
are connected with the bearing pedestals by
casing guides, which
establish the centerline alignment of the turbine
casing.
The axial position of the HP and IP casings is
fixed at the support brackets on HP-IP bearing
pedestal.

5.1-0002-04/1

The fixed point for the LP casing is at the front


point of support on the longitudinal girder.
Thermal expansion of the casings originates
from the fixed points.
Shaft Seal and Blade Tip Sealing
All shaft seals, which seal the steam in the
casings against atmosphere, are axial-flow
type. They consist of a large number of thin seal
strips which, in the HP and IP turbines are
caulked alternately into grooves in the shafts
and the surrounding seal rings. In the LP
turbine, the seal strips are caulked only into the
seal rings. Seal strips of similar design are also
used to seal the radial blade tip clearances.

Valves
The HP turbine is fitted with two main stop and
control valves. One main stop valve and one
control valve with stems arranged at right angles
to each other are combined in a common body.
The main stop valves are spring-action singleseat valves; the control valves, also of singleseat design, have diffusers to reduce pressure
losses.
These valve combinations are located at both
sides of the turbine with their stems horizontal.
The HP valves are connected to the turbine by
easily separable collar couplings, which contain
self-sealing U-rings as sealing elements.
The IP turbine has two reheat stop and control
valves. The reheat stop valves are spring-action
single-seat valves. The control valves, also
spring-loaded, have diffusers. The control valves
operate in parallel and are fully open in the
upper load range. In the lower load range, they
control the steam flow to the IP turbine and
ensure stable operation even when the turbinegenerator unit is supplying only the station load.
The reheat stop and control valves are
supported free to move in response to thermal
expansion on the foundation cover plate below
the operating floor and in front of the turbinegenerator unit. All valves are actuated by
individual hydraulic servomotors.

Turbine Control System


The turbine has an electrohydraulic control
system. An electric system measures speed and
output and controls them by operating the
control
valves
hydraulically
via
an
electrohydraulic converter. The electrohydraulic
controller ensures controlled acceleration of the
turbine-generator up to rated speed and limits
speed overshoot in the event of sudden load
rejection.
The
linear
power
frequency
droopcharacteristic can be adjusted in fine steps
even
when the turbine is running.

Turbine Monitoring System


In addition to measuring and display instruments
for pressure, temperatures, valve lifts and
speed, the monitoring system also includes
instruments for measuring and indicating the
following parameters:
Rotor expansion measured at the rearbearing pedestal of the LP turbine
Axial shift measured at the HP-IP pedestal
Bearing pedestal vibration, measured at all
turbine bearings
Shaft vibration measured at all turbine
bearings

Oil Supply System


A common oil supply system lubricates and
cools the bearings . The main oil pump is driven
by the turbine shaft and draws oil from the main
oil tank. Auxiliary oil pumps maintain the oil
supply on start-up and shutdown, during turning
gear operation and when the main oil pump is
faulted. DC Emergency oil pump supplies oil to
the bearings during AC power failures.
A Jacking oil pump forces high-pressure oil
under the shaft journals to prevent boundary
lubrication during turning gear operation. The
Jacking oil pump also supplies the high pressure
oil to the Hydraulic Turning gear motor. The
lubricating and cooling oil is passed through oil
coolers before entering the bearings.
The control fluid pumps situated on a control
fluid tank supply the hydraulic turbine and
bypass control system and the protective
devices and valve actuators with HP and LP
control fluid.

5.1-0002-04/2

Steam Turbine
Description
Design of the supports for the turbine has to
allow for the expansion of the turbine during
thermal cycling. Constrained thermal expansion
would cause overstressing of the components.
The method of attachment of the turbine
components is also critical to the magnitude of
the differential expansion between the rotor and
turbine casings which is given careful attention
in the determination of internal clearances.

The following components form the fixed


points for the turbine:
The HP, IP and LP turbine bearing pedestals
The horn supports of the HP and
IP
turbine at
HP- IP Pedestal
At turbine end of longitudinal girder of the
LP Turbine
The thrust bearing in the HP turbine rear
bearing pedestal
Casing Expansion
The bearing pedestals are anchored to the
foundation by means of anchor bolts and are
fixed in position. The HP and IP turbines rest
with their lateral support horns on the bearing
pedestals at the turbine centerline level. The HP
and IP casings are connected with the bearing
pedestals by casing guides which establish the
centerline alignment of the turbine casings. The
axial position of HP and IP casings is fixed at the
HP-IP pedestal. Thermal expansion of the
casings originates from the fixed points. The LP
Turbine outer casing is held in place axially, at
turbine end of longitudinal girder by means of
fitted keys. Free lateral expansion is allowed.

BHEL, HARIDWAR

Fixed Points
Centering of LP outer casing is provided by
guides which run in recesses in the foundation
cross beam. Axial movement of the casings is
unrestrained.
Hence, when there is a temperature rise, the
outer casings of the HP turbine expand from
their fixed points towards Front pedestal. Casing
of IP Turbine expand from its fixed point towards
the generator.
LP Casing expands from its fixed point at front
end, towards the generator.

Rotor Expansion
The thrust bearing is housed in the rear bearing
pedestal of the HP turbine. The HP turbine rotor
expands from the thrust bearing
towards the front bearing pedestal of the HP
turbine and the IP turbine rotor from the thrust
bearing towards the generator.
The LP turbine rotor is displaced towards the
generator by the expansion of the shaft
assembly, originating from the thrust bearing.
Differential Expansion
Differential expansion between the rotors and
casings results from the difference between the
expansion of rotor and casing originating from
the HP-IP pedestal. The largest differential
expansions of the HP and IP turbines thus occur
at the ends farthest from the thrust bearing.
Differential expansion between the rotor and
casing of the LP turbine results from the
difference between the expansion of the shaft
assembly, originating from the thrust bearing
and the casing expansion, which originates from
the fixed points on the LP turbine longitudinal
beams.

5.1-0003-02/1

5.1-0003-02/2

Steam Turbine
Description

Technical Data
Construction, Speed
& Steam Pressure

Load
Rated Load

500 MW

Maximum Load under valve wide open (VWO) condition

524.2 MW

Construction
Three cylinder reheat condensing turbine
Single flow HP Turbine with 17 reaction stages

Type : H30-100-2

Double flow IP Turbine with 12 reaction stages per flow

Type : M30-63

Double flow LP Turbine with 6 reaction stages per flow

Type : N30-2x10-2

2 Main Stop and Control valves (HP casing mounted)

Type : EV 320-1

2 Reheat Stop and Control Valves (Floating)

Type : IV 560

1 Swing Check Valve in cold reheat line

DN-800
Make : BHEL, Trichy

2 Bypass Stop and Control Valves with actuators & HPSU

M/s Bomafa

(High Pressure EJA based)


Extraction Swing Check Valves
Extraction 1

: No valve

Extraction 2

: 1 Swing Check Valve with actuator and


1 Swing Check Valve without actuator

DN 800
Make : BHEL, Trichy

Extraction 3

: 1 Swing Check Valve with actuator and


1 Swing Check Valve without actuator

DN 500
Make : BHEL, Trichy

Extraction 4.1 : 2 Swing Check Valves with actuator

DN 500
Make : BHEL, Trichy

Extraction 4.2 : 2 Swing Check Valves with actuator

DN 500
Make : BHEL, Trichy

Extraction 5

: 1 Swing Check Valve with actuator and 1 Swing


Check Valve without actuator

DN 400
Make : BHEL, Trichy

Extraction 6

: No valve

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0100-66/1

Speed
Rated speed

50.0 c/s

Speed limitation in load and station operation


Max. Speed, no time limitation

51.5 c/s

Min. Speed, no time limitation

47.5 c/s

Permissible for maximum 2 hours during the life of LP blading


Speed below
Speed above

47.5 c/s
51.5 to 60 c/s

Speed exclusion range at operation without load *

7 to 47.5 c/s

Standard over speed trip setting

Max. 55.5 c/s

* This speed range should be passed through in one smooth operation to avoid endangering the
blades due to resonance

Steam Pressures
Rated
Initial Steam

Long time operation

Short time operation

Unit

166.7

175.0

200.0

bar

Before 1 HP drum stage

154.4

169.8

169.8

bar

HP cylinder exhaust

44.03

50.64

52.84

IP cylinder stop valve inlet

39.63

45.97

47.55

Extraction 6

44.03

50.64

52.84

bar

Extraction 5

16.84

19.87

19.87

bar

Extraction 4

6.94

8.33

8.33

bar

Extraction 3

2.744

3.35

3.35

bar

Extraction 2

1.469

1.81

1.81

bar

Extraction 1

0.342

0.42

0.42

bar

LP cylinder exhaust

0.1013

0.3

0.3

bar

st

bar
bar

These values correspond to 500 MW load with 3 % make-up and 0.1013 bar condenser back
pressure with all heaters in service and rated steam conditions.
The safety valves must be set so that short time values are not exceeded.
Long time operation: Upper limit value, permissible without time limit.
Short time operation: Permissible momentary value. The aggregate duration of such swings
must not exceed 12 hours in any one year
All pressures are absolute pressures

5.1-0100-66/2

Low vacuum trip, standard setting


Hydraulic low vacuum trip

0.3 bar

Electrical low vacuum trip

0.3 bar

Hydraulic low vacuum trip bypass operation

0.6 bar

Seal steam supply system


Pressure in seal steam header (above atmospheric)

35 mbar

Axial shift
Alarm

0.5 mm

Trip

1.0 mm

Direction of rotation
Anti clock wise when viewed from Front Pedestal towards the Generator

5.1-0100-66/3

Steam Turbine
Description

Technical Data
Steam & Casing Temperatures

Steam Temperatures
Rated value,
Annual
average

Long-term
value, subject to
annual average

400 hrs.
per year

80 hrs. per year


Max. 15 min in
individual case

Unit

Main steam at HP
stop valve inlet

537.0

545.3

551.0

565.0

HRH steam at IP
Stop valve inlet

565.0

573.3

579.0

593.0

Steam Temperatures
Rated value

Long term
operation

80 hrs. per year,


Max. 15 min. in
individual case

In special
cases at no
load

HP turbine exhaust

336.1

338.1

428.1

500.0

Extraction 6

336.1

338.1

428.1

500.0

Extraction 5

444.8

449.8

484.8

Extraction 4

309.4

319.4

359.4

Extraction 3

208.2

221.2

268.2

Extraction 2

147.3

167.3

212.3

Extraction 1

72.0

92.2

142.0

LP turbine exhaust

46.4

70.0

70.0

Unit

Long-term operation : upper limit value permissible without time limit.


These values correspond to 500 MW Load with 3% makeup and 0.1027 bar back pressure
with all heaters in service and rated steam conditions.
Only valid for the no load period with high reheat pressure after trip-out from full load
operation. For individual case approx. 15 minutes.
The turbine is immediately re-loaded or the boiler immediately reduced to minimum load if no
load operation is maintained.
Casing Metal Temperatures
Wall Temperatures

Alarm at

Machine must be shut down at

Unit

HP turbine casing exhaust

485

500

Outer casing of LP cylinder

90

110

Spray water to LP turbine must be switched on at 90 C

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0101-68/1

Casing Metal Temperature Differences


Temperature Difference

Alarm at

Machine must be tripped at

Unit

Between upper & lower casing


halves of HP turbine, middle

90

100

Between upper & lower casing


halves of IP turbine, front & rear

30

45

* For IP turbine during cooling down, casing top bottom temperature difference can exceed
these limits. However, during restart once steam is admitted to the turbine the temperature
difference will come down.
Permissible differential temperature between parallel steam supply lines
No time limitation

17

Short time period (15 min)

28

In the hottest line the limitations indicated for main and reheat steam temperature must not be exceeded

Feedwater Heater out of service


Operation with feedwater heaters out of service

Main steam flow, Kg/s


(indicative)

Load,
MW

369

500

Extraction A6, A5 (Both strings out)


Output Limit during Testing with Automatic Turbine Tester
Testing of main steam stop and control valves

< 300

MW

Testing of HRH steam stop and control valves

300

MW

Motoring
Motoring is the condition in which the turbine is driven by the generator at rated speed with the
stop and control valves closed. In this operating mode, certain turbine components are heated up
by windage power of the blading.
To prevent heat-up beyond permissible temperatures, motoring must not be allowed to continue
for longer than one minute. If the condenser low vacuum limit of 0.3 bar is exceeded, motoring
must not be allowed to continue for more than 4 seconds.

5.1-0101-68/2

Steam Turbine
Description

Technical Data
Bearing Metal Temperatures
Vibration, Weights

Bearing babbit metal temperatures


Alarm at

Machine must be shut down at

Operation temperature below 75 C

90 C

130 C

Operation temperature 75 to 85 C

100 C

130 C

Operation temperature 85 to 90 C

110 C

130 C

Operation temperature above 90 C

115 C

130 C

Vibration
Absolute bearing housing vibration

Absolute shaft vibration


50 m above normal level

Standard alarm setting


Maximum alarm setting

84 m

200 m

Limit value for tripping

106 m

320 m

The normal level is the reproducible vibrational behaviour typical for the machine &
dependent on the operating conditions.

Vibration readings indicated in control room are peak to peak. The above values are also
given in peak to peak.

Weights
HP turbine, completely assembled

95 T

IP turbine, top half outer casing

26 T

IP turbine, top half inner casing, complete with blading

16 T

LP turbine, top half outer casing complete

43 T

LP turbine, top half inner outer casing, complete with blading, guide blade carriers &
diffusers

37 T

HP turbine rotor, complete with blading

16 T

IP turbine rotor, complete with blading

23 T

LP turbine rotor, complete with blading

100 T

Main stop and control valve, complete with servo motors, without bend & pipe section

22 T

Reheat stop and control valve, complete with servo motors, without bend & pipe
section

32 T

All weights have been calculated with safety allowances. Slings chosen must provide sufficient
security.

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0102-66

Steam Turbine
Description

Technical Data
Oil Supply, Oil Pumps

OIL supply
3

Main oil tank, rated capacity

25/40

First oil filling (estimated)

53

Flushing oil quantity (estimated)

32

Oil cooler for operation, number

No.

Oil cooler for reserve, number

No.

Min.
Normal
Max.

38
45
47

Oil temperature at cooler outlet, unit in operation

Oil temperature at cooler outlet, unit shut down

Max.

75

Temperature rise of oil in bearings

Normal
Max.

20
25

Estimated oil requirement for Bearing 1

0.8

dm /s

Estimated oil requirement for Bearing 2

15.4

dm /s

Estimated oil requirement for Bearing 3

4.55

dm /s

Estimated oil requirement for Bearing 4

9.29

dm /s

Estimated oil requirement for Generator front bearing

7.92

dm /s

Estimated oil requirement for Generator rear bearing

7.92

dm /s

Estimated oil requirement for Exciter bearing

0.70

dm /s

Estimated oil requirement for Hydraulic Barring at 4.5 5.0 bar

57.4

dm /s

Duplex oil filter- full flow, Type: 2.68.2, size 355/750, Nb 150
Make: MS HYDAC FILTER TECHNIK GMBH.

No.

Filtration particle size of duplex filter element

37

Filtration particle size of main oil tank filter element

250

Safety valve in jacking oil system, setting

200

bar

Pressure limiting valve in jacking oil system, setting

178

bar

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0103-66/1

Duplex oil filter for jacking oil, Type: DFDK 330 D40 W/HC/-V-So212
Make: K&H Eppensteiner, Germany

No

Filtration particle size of jacking oil filter

37

Jacking oil pump, cut-in and cut-out speeds





Jacking oil pump must be in operation at turbine speeds below approx. 510 rpm to avoid
damage to bearings.
Jacking oil pump should be cut-out at speeds above approx. 540 rpm.

Oil pumps
Main oil
pump

Auxiliary oil
pump

DC emergency
oil pump

Jacking oil pump

Quantity

AC: 1

Make

BHEL

KBL

M&P

Tushaco

Type

350m3/hr

KPDS/125/26L

4/5 SR 12KL
Model 70

T 38/46

Rated Capacity 87.48

100

30

1.85

dm /s

Discharge
pressure

8.4

6.3

2.3

178

bar
gauge

Speed

3000

2970

1500

2900

rpm

Drive

Turbine

AC motor

DC motor

5.1-0103-66/2

DC: 1

AC motor

DC motor

Steam Turbine
Description

Technical Data
Control Fluid System &
Control Fluid Pumps

CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM


A Fire Resistant Fluid (FRF) is used for the control system
3

Control fluid tank, rated capacity

10/16

First fill quantity (estimated)

15

Flushing fluid quantity (estimated)

12

Control fluid cooler for operation

No.

Control fluid cooler for reserve

No.

Control fluid regeneration system


Gear pump

Make: Tushaco

Fluid flow

0.25

dm /s

Gauge pressure

bar

speed

1405

rpm

Motor power

0.55

KW

Control fluid purification system

Make: Rotring, Type: PR 100.1

1 No. Drying filter


2 Nos. Fuellers earth filter
1 No. Fine filter

BHEL, HARIDWAR

5.1-0104-66-1

Control Fluid Pumps


Control fluid pumps

Manufacturer

KSB, Type: WKVM80/1+3

Speed

2982

Drive

A.C. motor, Manufacturer Siemens AG Type: ILG4313-2AB94-Z

Enclosure

IP 55

Voltage

415

Frequency

50

Hz

Motor rating (at 50C)

121

KW

Motor rating (at 40C)

132

KW

Rated current

224

Starting current

1614

Control fluid pumps operating characteristics

Nos.

rpm

Fluid flow
3
(dm /s)

Discharge
Pressure (bar)

Low pressure leakage fluid

7.60

11.5

High pressure leakage fluid

6.16

38.5

Operating point I (normal operation)

Operating point II (during start & opening of stop valve servomotors)


Low pressure leakage fluid & low pressure control fluid

20.60

10.8

High pressure leakage fluid

6.16

37.8

Low pressure leakage fluid

7.60

10.0

High pressure leakage fluid & high pressure control fluid

16.16

31.0

Operating point III (during opening of CV servomotors)

All pressures are gauge pressures.

5.1-0104-66-2

Steam Turbine
Operation

Technical Data
Limit Curves

Permissible temperature difference in the wall of HP stop and control valve


casing during Sliding Pressure Operation Mode
140
= f(m )

120
Heating up

100
F
80
N

60

40
OPERATION MODE
F=Fast
N=Normal
S=Slow

[K]

20
0
-20
-40

Cooling down

-60
-80
100

200

300

400

500

600
m [C]

BHEL Haridwar

(i - m) on the wall temperature sensor

temperature of inner layer

temperature of middle layer

5.1-0110-01

Steam Turbine
Operation

Technical Data
Limit Curves

Permissible temperature difference in the wall of HP casing during


Sliding Pressure Operation Mode

140
= f(m)

120
Heating up

100
80

60
N
40
OPERATION MODE
F=Fast
N=Normal
S=Slow

[K]

20

0
-20
-40
Cooling down

-60
-80
100

300

400

(i - m) on the wall temperature sensor

temperature of inner layer

m =

BHEL Haridwar

200

500

600

m [C]

temperature of middle layer

5.1-0111-01/1

Permissible temperature difference in the wall of the HP casing during


Constant Pressure Operation Mode

140
= f(m )

120
100

Heating up

80

60

40

OPERATION MODE
F=Fast
N=Normal
S=Slow

20
[K]

0
-20
-40
Cooling down

-60
-80
0

100

200

300

400

500
m [C]

5.1-0111-01/2

(i - m) on the wall temperature sensor

temperature of inner layer

temperature of middle layer

600

Steam Turbine
Operation

Technical Data
Limit Curves

Permissible temperature difference in the HP turbine shaft during


Sliding Pressure Operation Mode
200
180

160

f (m)

Heating up

140
120

100

[K]

80

60

40

OPERATION MODE
F = Fast
N = Normal
S = Slow

20
0
-20
-40

Cooling down

-60
-80
0

200

100

300

400

500

600

m [C]

220
200
180
160

[K]

140
120
100
80
60
0

o
m
ax

BHEL Haridwar

=
=
=
=

20

40

60

80

100

120

ax [ C]

(o - m) on the wall temperature sensor


outer layer temperature of the shaft
temperature of middle layer in the shaft (calculated)
temperature of axis in the shaft (calculated)

5.1-0112-01/1

Permissible temperature difference in the HP turbine shaft during


Constant Pressure Operation Mode
180
160

140

f (m)

Heating up

120
100

80

[K]

60

40

20

OPERATION MODE
F = Fast
N = Normal
S = Slow

0
-20
-40
-60

Cooling down

-80
-100
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

m [C]

200
180
160
140

[K]

120
100
80
60
40
0

o
m
ax

5.1-0112-01/2

=
=
=
=

20

40

60

80

100

120

ax [ C]

(o - m) on the wall temperature sensor


outer layer temperature of the shaft
temperature of middle layer in the shaft (calculated)
temperature of axis in the shaft (calculated)

Steam Turbine
Operation

Technical Data
Limit Curves

Permissible temperature difference in the IP turbine shaft during


Sliding Pressure Operation Mode
200
180

160

f (m )

Heating up

140
120

100
N

80

[K]

60

40

OPERATION MODE
F = Fast
N = Normal
S = Slow

20
0
-20
-40

Cooling down

-60
-80
0

100

200

300

400

500

m [C]

600

220
200
180
160
140

[K]

120
100
80
60
0

o
m
ax

BHEL Haridwar

=
=
=
=

20

40

60

80

100

120

ax [C]

(o - m) on the wall temperature sensor


outer layer temperature of the shaft
temperature of middle layer in the shaft (calculated)
temperature of axis in the shaft (calculated)

5.1-0113-01

Steam Turbine
Description
The deposits which occur in turbines due to
impurities in the steam can lead to
thermodynamic and mechanical inefficiencies
and, with the presence of salts, especially
chlorides, and sodium hydroxide also cause
damage to turbine parts. The corrosion
stressing caused by active deposits, for
example, has an adverse effect on the fatigue
strength of the blade material when the steam
is in the transition zone between the
superheated and the saturated state.
Compliance with the target values is
mandatory in continuous operation, with the
values in the normal operation column
preferable. With the commissioning of a new
plant and starting-up operation, however,
these values cannot be attained with an
economical outlay. The values listed in the
column starting-up operation are then valid.
It should be pointed out that adherence to the
target values does not rule out deposition in
the turbine with absolute certainty. Wherever
possible every effort should be made to

Steam Purity values


for main steam condensate
achieve the values in the normal operation
column.
A recording instrument may be used to
continuously
monitor
the
electrical
conductivity of the main steam and turbine
condensate following a strongly acid cation
exchange unit. In order to determine slight
impurities, the sodium concentration should
be measured in addition to this. Should
saline contamination occur, the turbine is to
be immediately washed with saturated
steam to remove salt deposits.
Whether an alkaline, neutral or combined
method is used for conditioning, the water
steam circulation is for the customer to
decide. If an alkaline method is used, the
oxygen content in the main steam
condensate can be max. 0.02 mg/kg and the
pH value in the turbine condensate max.9.3
with brass condenser piping. When the
condenser piping is of copper-nickel alloys,
the pH value must not exceed 9.5. There is
no limitation for the pH value with noncorroding steel or titanium.

Recommended values for main steam condensate


Quantity

Target Value
*

Normal
Operation

Start Up
**

Conductivity at 25C, down stream of highly


acidic
sampling
cation
exchanger,
continuous measurement at sampling point

S/cm

< 0.2

0.1

< 0.50

Silica

(SiO2)

mg/kg

< 0.020

0.005

< 0.050

Total iron

(Fe)

mg/kg

< 0.020

0.005

< 0.050

Total copper

(Cu)

mg/kg

< 0.003

0.001

< 0.010

Sodium

(Na)

mg/kg

< 0.010

0.002

< 0.020

* To avoid any drop in efficiency, it is recommended that values be kept below the target values
and into the range of the values for normal operation.
** The target values must show a noticeable downward trend. On initial start-up of new plants the
values given for normal operation must be achieved within 2 to 3 days and within 2 to 3 hours
for other start-ups.

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0120-01

Steam Turbine
Description

Oil Specification
Standard

Introduction
This standard specifies the turbine oil
recommended for use in governing and
lubrication systems of BHEL make steam
turboset.
Description
Oil of viscosity class ISO VG 46 shall be
used. The oil shall be a petroleum product
with or without additives to meet the
requirement of this standard. The finished oil
shall be clear and free from water,
suspended matter, dust, sediment and other
impurities.
The turbine oil shall not contain additives
having any negative effect on the materials
of the oil system. The turbine oil must be
capable of withstanding bearing temperature
of max. 130C and oil tank temperature of
max. 80C without physical and chemical
degradation.
The properties of the oil shall not be affected
by centrifuging, water washing or filtering.

Compatibility
For topping up of the oil system, it is
preferable if the oil used is of the same
brand and quality as that already in the
system. However, if the same brand of oil is
not available and where it is intended to mix
in different products that individually conform
to this standard, a compatibility test should
be conducted before actually mixing the oils.
Samples of both the oils in equal volume
should be mixed and centrifuged for about
40 hrs. and then mixture must comply fully
with the requirements of this standard.
Properties
The oil should comply with the
requirements given in table below when
tested according to the test methods given
in the respective standards mentioned
against each property. For obvious
reasons, we do not give any special
recommendation to a particular brand of oil
to be used in the oil system of our turbo
sets. Any brand of the oil complying with
the above standards may be used.

Properties of turbine oil ISO VG 46 shall be as follows:


Sl. No.

Properties

Value

Unit

1.

Kinematic Viscosity at 40C


Kinematic Viscosity at 50C

41.4 50.6

cst

28

cst

2.

Viscosity Index

98

3.

Neutralization No.
acidity)

4.

Colour

5.

Test Method
IS: 1448, P-25

ASTM D445

Min.

IS: 1448, P-56

-----

mg
KOH/g

IS: 1448, P-1

ASTM D974

Max.

IS: 1448, P-12

ASTM D1500

Specific gravity at 50 C
Specific gravity at 15 C

0.85

---

IS: 1448, P-32

ASTM D1298

0.90

---

6.

Flash point (Cleveland


open cup)

> 200

IS: 1448, P-69

ASTM D92

7.

Copper strip corrosion test at Not worse


than No.1
100 C for 3 hrs.

---

IS: 1448, P-15

-----

8.

Pour point

-6

IS: 1448, P-10

ASTM D97

9.

Rust preventing
characteristics

0-B

---

DIN: 51585

ASTM D665

BHEL Haridwar

(Total

0.20

5.1-0130-04/1

Properties contd.
Sl. No.

Properties

Value

Unit

Test Method

10.

Emulsion characteristics

20

minute

DIN: 51599

ASTM D1401

11.

Total acidity after 2500


hrs oxidation

0.2

mg
KOH/g

DIN: 51587

ASTM D943

12.

Foaming characteristics at
25C
- Foaming tendency

-----

ASTM: D892

- Foaming stability

400

cm

450 s

s
minutes

DIN: 51381

ASTM: D3427

13.

Deaeration capacity at 50C

14.

Ash (by weight)

0.01

IS:1448, P-4

-----

15.

Water content by weight

0.01

DIN: 51777-1

ASTM: D1744

16.

Solid particles by weight

0.05

DIN: 51592

-----

17.

Particle distribution

-/17/14

Minimum

ISO: 4406

(Class-8)

18.

Water release

(NAS: 1638)

300

DIN: 51589-1

Following brands of oil are acceptable


Supplier

Brand

Supplier

Brand

lOC

Servo Prime 46

Castrol lndia Ltd.

Castrol Perfecto T-46-Superclean

Gulf Oil India Ltd

Gulf Crest 46

Bharat Petroleum

Turbol 46

Apar Ltd.

Power Turbo-46

Indo Mobil Ltd.

Mobil DTE Medium / DTE798

Caltex

Regal R&O 46

Savita Chemicals

Daphne Super Turbine oil 46

HPCL

Turbinol 46

Bharat Shell Ltd.

Shell Turbo oil T46

TOTALFINAELF

Total Preslia 46

Also refer to the following sections:


[1] 5.3-0080: Turbine oil Care

5.1-0130-04/2

Steam Turbine
Description
This specification is valid for Fire Resistant
Fluids (FRF) recommended for BHEL
make steam turbine control system.
According to ISO 6743/4, FRF is a fluid
based on triarylphosphate ester marked
ISO-L-HFDR.
General Requirements

Fire Resistant Fluid (FRF)


for Turbine Control System
should be no deterioration of the FRF in
presence of such trace quantities.
The air release of the FRF should not
deteriorate in presence of fluoroelastomer
seals and packing used in the FRF system.
The FRF must be free of ortho-cresol
compounds.

The FRF shall not cause corrosion to Steel,


Copper and its alloys, Zinc, Tin or
Aluminum.

The FRF must not pose a safety or health


hazard to the persons working with it,
provided that the requisite hygiene
regulations are observed.

The FRF must provide sufficient corrosion


protection to the materials used in the FRF
system.

Limit values

The FRF shall be continuously regenerated


with Fullers earth or an equivalent
regeneration agent.
Note: Before using regeneration agents
other than Fullers earth (e.g. ion
exchangers) BHEL and FRF manufacturer
or supplier shall be contacted.
The FRF must not cause any erosion or
corrosion on the edges of the control
elements.
The FRF must be shear-stable. It should not
contain any viscosity index improver.

The following limit values are not to be


exceeded during the life time :
Kinematic viscosity - maximum variation
5% with reference to delivery condition.
Neutralisation number - maximum increase
0.20 mg KOH/g with reference to delivery
condition.
Air release -maximum 12 minutes.
Foaming at 25 C -Tendency maximum 200
ml, Stability maximum 450 sec.

Disposal

FRF leaking from the system, if any, must


not ignite or burn in contact with hot
surfaces (up to 550 C).

Supplier to be contacted for Buy Back of


used fire resistant fluid.

The FRF must be capable of withstanding


continuous operating temperatures of 75 C
without physical or chemical degradation.

In consultation with supplier, liquid material


should be incinerated and material absorbed
on sand should be disposed off as
hazardous solid waste.

The FRF must be miscible with traces (max.


3 % by vol.) of TXP of another brand. There

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0140-04/1

Recommended Properties of new batches of FRF


Property

Numerical
Value

Unit
2

Test method
DIN / ISO

ASTM

Kinematic Viscosity at 40 C
(ISO VG 46)

41.4 - 50.6

mm /s

DIN 51 562-1

D 445

Air release at 50 C

minutes

DIN 51 381

D 3427

Neutralisation number

0.1

mg KOH/g

DIN 51 558-1

D 974

Water content

1000

mg/kg

DIN 51 777-3

Tendency

100

ml

Stability

450

sec

Water separability

300

sec

Demulsification

20

minutes

Foaming at 25 C

D 892
(Seq. 1)
DIN 51 589-1

DIN 51 599

D 1401

DIN 51 757

D 1298
D 92

Density at 15 C

1250

kg/m

Flash point (Cleveland open cup)

> 235

DIN/ISO 2592

Ignition temperature

> 550

DIN 51 794

Wick flame persistance time

sec

DIN/ISO 14935

Pour point

18

DIN/ISO 3016

Particle distribution *

15/12

Code

ISO 4406

Chlorine content

50

mg/kg

DIN 51 577-3

Oxidation stability

2.0

mg KOH/g

DIN 51 373

Hydrolytic stability
Change of neutralisation number

2.0

mg KOH/g

DIN 51 348

Electrical resistivity

> 50

Mm

IEC 247

D 97

* The required system cleanliness is dependent upon the system design. Suitable measures (e.g.
filtration, separation) have to be taken to achieve this cleanliness level.

Following fire Resistant Fluids are approved:


Brand
Supplier
1. Reolube Turbofluid 46XC
M/s. Chemtura, UK
2. Fyrquel EHC-N
M/s. Supresta, USA

Also refer to the following sections:


[1] 5.3-0082 : Care of control fluid

5.1-0140-04/2

Steam Turbine
Description

HP Turbine
Valve Arrangement

General Arrangement
The HP turbine has 2 main stop valves and 2
control valves located symmetrically to the right
and left of the casing. The valves are arranged
in pairs with one main stop valve and one
control valve in a common body.

The short length of the admission section


between the control valves and the casing
results in a very low steam volume in this
section, which has a beneficial effect on the
shutdown characteristics of the turbinegenerator unit.

Valve Actuation
Steam flow
The main steam is admitted
steam inlet passing first the
and then the control valves.
valves the steam passes
casing(1).

BHEL Haridwar

through the main


main stop valves
From the control
to the turbine

Each main stop valve and control valve has a


dedicated hydraulic servomotor(3;5). The
servomotors are mounted above floor level so
that they are accessible and can be easily
maintained.

5.1-0205-00

Steam Turbine
Description

Barrel type Casing


The HP outer casing is designed as a barreltype casing without axial joint. An axially split
inner casing (4) is arranged in the barrel-type
casing(3)
Because of its symmetrical construction, the
barrel - type casing retains its cylindrical shape
and remains leakproof during quick changes in
temperature (e.g. on start-up and shut down, on
load changes and under high pressures). The
inner casing too is almost cylindrical in shape as
the joint flanges

HP Turbine
Casing

are relieved by the high pressure acting from the


outside and can thus be kept small. For this
reason, turbines with barrel type casing are
especially suitable for quick start-up and loading.

Seals
The pretensioned U-shaped seal ring(12),
that is forced against the axial sealing surfaces
by the steam pressure and the I shaped seal
ring (16), that allows axial displacement of the
inner casing (4), seal the space between the
inner casing (4) and the barrel type outer casing
(3) from the adjacent spaces.

Fig. 1 HP Turbine
BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0210-01/1

Fig.2 Inlet Connection


3
4
6
7
8
9

Outer casing
Inner casing
U seal ring
Cylindrical pin
Breech nut
Inlet pipe from main stop and control valve

Connection to Main Stop and Control Valves


The steam lines from the main stop and control

3 Outer casing
4 Inner casing
11 Fitted Key

Fig. 3 Centering and support of


Inner casing (Admission side)
5.1-0210-01/2

valves are connected to the inlet connections


of the outer casing by Breech Nuts(8) (Fig.2)
through buttress threading. Sealing is achieved
by U-seal rings(6) which is forced against the
outer sealing surface by inlet steam pressure.
The annular space around the sealing ring is
connected to the condenser through a steam
leak-off line. Cylindrical pins(7) located at the
joint flange prevent rotation of the inlet pipe with
respect to the outer casing.

3 Outer casing
4 Inner casing
10 Fitted Key
Fig.
4 Centering
and support
of
Fig.
4 Centering
and support
inner casing (Exhaust side)

Inner casing (Exhaust side)

of

Attachment of Inner Casing


The inner casing (4) is attached in the
horizontal and vertical planes in the barrel-type
casing(3) so that it can freely expand radially in
all directions and axially from a fixed point when
heating up while maintaining concentricity
relative to the turbine rotor.
On the admission side, four projections of the
inner casing (4) and on the exhaust side three
projections fit into corresponding grooves in the
barrel-type casing (3). In the horizontal plane
these projections rest on fitted keys (10) and in
the vertical plane they are guided by the fitted
keys (11) (Fig.3&4). Radial expansion is
therefore not restricted by this suspension.
As shown in fig.6 the axial fixed point of the
inner casing is provided by a shoulder in the
barrel-type casing (3) against which a collar of
the inner casing(4) rests. The axial thrust to
which the inner casing is subjected is
transmitted to and absorbed by the thrust ring
(14) via thrust pads(13). The thrust ring is held
in position by support ring (15).

Outlet Connections
The exhaust end of HPT has single outlet
connection from bottom. At the flange
connection a U-seal ring (19) is provided to
prevent any leakage (Fig.1)

3 Outer casing
4 Inner casing
12 U- seal ring

3
4
16
17
18

Outer casing
Inner casing
I-seal ring
Holding ring
Hexagon head screw

Fig. 5 I-Ring seal (Detail A from Fig. 1)

13 Thrust pads
14 Thrust pads
15 Support ring

Fig. 6 Axial Retention ofInner casing and Centering in vertical plane (Detail E from Fig.1)

5.1-0210-01/3

HP Turbine
Blading

Steam Turbine
Description
Moving and Stationary Blades
The HP turbine with advance blading consists of
17drum stages. All stages are reaction stages
with 50% reaction. The stationary and moving
blades of all stages (Fig.1) are provided with
inverted T-roots which

2
3
.

B
4

The moving and stationary blades are


inserted into corresponding grooves in the
shaft( 4) and inner casing (1) and are caulked
at bottom with caulking
piece (5) .The
insertion slot in the shaft is closed by a
locking blade which is fixed by taper pins or
grub screws. End blades are used at the joint
plane in L/H & U/H of inner casing along with
predetermined interference.

Gap sealing
Fig. 1 Drum Stages

1 Inner casing
2 Guide blade
3 Moving blade

4 Turbine shaft
5 Caulking piece

also determine the distance between the


blades. The shrouds are machined integral with
the blades and forms a continuous shrouding
after insertion.
st
th
From 1 . to 8 . stages are provided with 3DS
th
th
blades, 9 . to 13 . stages with TX blades and
th
14 . to 17 th. stages with F blades.

BHEL Haridwar

Sealing strips(6) are caulked into the inner


casing(1) and the shaft (4) to reduce leakage
losses at the blade tips. Cylindrically
machined surface on the blade shrouds are
opposite the sealing strips. The surfaces have
stepped diameters in order to increase the
turbulence of the steam and thus the sealing
effect. Should an operational disturbance
cause the sealing strips to come into contact
with opposite surfaces, they are rubbed away
without any considerable amount of heat
being generated. They can easily be renewed
at a later date to provide the specified
clearance.

5.1-0220-02

Steam turbine
Description

Function

HP Turbine
Shaft seals and Balance Piston

diameter is suited to the requirements for


balancing the axial thrust.

The function of shaft seals is to seal the interior


of the casing from the atmosphere at the ends of
the shaft on the admission and exhaust
sides.The HP Turbine has shaft seals in front
and rear. The front shaft seal is of labyrinth type,
while the rear shaft seal is of see through type.
The difference in pressure before and after the
raised part of the shaft seal on the admission
side serves to counteract the axial thrust caused
by steam forces.The raised part is called
Balance piston. The effective seal

Sealing between the rotating and stationary


parts of the turbine is achieved by means of seal
strip(6) caulked into seal rings (2,7,9) and into
the rotor (3) (details D and E). The pressure
gradient across the seal is reduced by
conversion of pressure energy into velocity
energy which is then dissipated as turbulence as
the steam passes through the numerous
compartments according to the labyrinth
principles.

Fig. 1 Shaft Seal Admission side

Seal Rings

1
3
4
5
6

Inner casing 2 Seal ring


Turbine rotor
Shaft seal cover
Caulking wire
Seal strip

Gap Seals

The seal rings (2), the number of which


depends on the pressure gradient to be sealed
are divided into several segments as shown in
Section A-A,
B-B and C-C and mounted in
T -shaped annular grooves in the inner casing
(1 ) and shaft seal cover (4) such that they are
free to move radially. Each segment is held in
position against a shoulder by helical springs
(11). This provides the proper clearance for the
seal gaps. Should rubbing occur, the segment
concerned can retreat. The heat developed by
light rubbing of the thin seal strip (6)

Fig. 2 Shaft seal Exhaust side


BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0230-01/1

is so slight that it cannot cause deformation of


the rotor (3). When the turbine is started from
the cold or warm state, the seal rings naturally
heat up faster than the casing. However, they
can expand freely In the radial direction against
the centering force of the helical spring (11).
The shaft seals are axial-steam flow noncontacting seals.
In the region subjected to the low relative
expansion in the vicinity of the combined
journal and thrust bearing, the seal strips are
caulked alternately into the shaft and into
spring-supported segmented sealrings in the
casing, forming a labyrinth to impede the
outflow of steam (Detail D).
In the region subject to greater relative

5.1-0230-01/2

expansion at the exhaust end, see through


seals are used in which the seal strips are
located opposite each other, caulked into the
shaft and into seal rings centered in the outer
casing (Detail E).
The outer seal rings can be removed for
inspection and if necessary, seal strips can be
replaced during short turbine shut down.

Steam Spaces
Steam spaces are provided within the shaft
seals. From spaces Q and R leakage is drawn
off to another part of the turbine for further use.
The steam seal header is connected to space
S. The slight amount of leakage steam which
are still able to pass the seal ring are conducted
from the space T into the seal steam
condenser.

Steam Turbine
Description
Arrangement
The front bearing pedestal is located at the
turbineside end of the turbine generator unit. Its
function is to support the turbine casing and
bear the turbine rotor. It houses the following
components and instruments.

HP Turbine
Front Bearing Pedestal
Connection
Foundation

of

Bearing

Pedestal

and

Journal bearing [1]


Hydraulic turning gear [2]
Main oil pump with hydraulic speed
transducer [3]
 Electric speed transducer [4]
 Overspeed trip [5]
 Shaft vibration pick-up
 Bearing pedestal vibration pick-up
Details of casing supports and casing guides are
given in description 5.1-0280.

The bearing pedestal (1) is aligned to the


foundation
by means of hexagon head screws that are
screwed into it at several points. On completion
of alignment, the space beneath the bearing
pedestal is filled with special non-shrinking
grout. The bearing pedestal is anchored to the
foundation by means of anchor bolts (13). The
anchor bolt holes are filled with gravel, which
gives a considerable vibration damping effect.
The defined position of the bearing pedestal on
the foundation is established by a projection in
the middle of the bearing pedestal base
engaging in a recess in the Foundation. On
completion of alignment, the remaining space
in this recess is likewise filled with grout .

1 Bearing pedestal
2 Main oil pump
3 Hydraulic speed transducer
4 Electric speed transducer
5 Gear coupling
6 Over speed trip

7 Hydraulic
turning
gear
7 Hydraulic
turning
gear
8 Bearing
8 Bearing
pedestal
pedestal
vibration
vibration
pick-up
pick-up
9 Shaft
vibration
pick-up
9 Shaft
vibration
pick-up
10 10
Journal
bearing
Journal
bearing
11 11
HPHP
turbine
rotor
turbine
rotor
12 12
Foundation
Foundation





Fig.1 Axial Section through HP Turbine Front


Bearing Pedestal

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0240-01/1

Fig. 2 Cross section of main oil pump

Fig. 3 Cross Section of Journal Bearing

10 Journal bearing
Also refer to the following information
12 Foundation
13 Anchor bolts
14 Hex head screw

5.1-0240-01/2

[4] 5.1-0760 Electric Speed Transducer


Also refer to the following information
[1] 5.1-0270 Journal Bearing
[2] 5.1-0510 Hydraulic Turning Gear
[3] 5.1-1020 Main Oil Pump with Hydraulic
Speed
Transducer
[1] 5.1-0270
Journal Bearing
[4]
Speed
Transducer
[2]5.1-0760
5.1-0510Electric
Hydraulic
Turning
Gear
[5]
trip with Hydraulic Speed Transducer
[3]5.1-0920
5.1-1020Overspeed
MainOilPump
[5] 5.1-0920 Overspeed trip

Staem Turbine
Description

HP Turbine
Rear bearing Pedestal

Arrangement
The bearing pedestal is located between the
HP and IP turbines. Its function is to support the
turbine casing and bear the HP and IP turbine
rotors.
The bearing pedestal houses the following
turbine
components:
Combined journal and thrust bearing
Shaft vibration pick-up
Bearing pedestal vibration pick-up
Thrust bearing trip (electrical)
Details of casing supports and casing guides
are given in descriptions 5.1-0280 and 5.1-0350.





Connection
Foundation

of

Bearing

Pedestal

and

The bearing pedestal is aligned on the


foundation by means of hexagon head screws
that are screwed into it. On completion of
alignment, the space beneath the bearing
pedestal is filled-in with special non-shrinking
grout. The bearing pedestal is anchored to the
foundation by means of anchor bolts. The
anchor bolt holes are filled with gravel, which
gives a considerable vibration damping effect.
The defined position of the bearing pedestal on
the foundation is established by a projection in
the middle of the bearing pedestal base
engaging a recess in the foundation. On
completion of alignment, the remaining space in
the recess is likewise filled with grout.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

HP turbine rotor
Combined journal and thrust bearing
Bearing pedestal vibration pick-up
Shaft vibration pick-up
Thrust bearing trip (electrical)
Coupling bolts
IP turbine rotor
Foundation

Fig. 1 Axial Section through the HP Turbine


Rear Bearing pedestal

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0250-02/1

2 Combined journal and thrust bearing


8 Foundation
9 Hex head screw
Fig. 2 Cross Section through Combined
Journal and Thrust Bearing

10
11
12
13
14
15

Straight pin
Anchor bolt
Plate
Round nut
Hex nut
Guard cap

Fig. 3 Connection between Bearing Pedestal


and foundation

5.1-0250-02/2

Steam turbine
Description

Combined
Bearing

Function
The function of the combined journal and
thrust bearing is to support the turbine rotor and
to take the residual axial thrust. The magnitude
and direction of axial thrust to be carried by the
bearing depends on the load conditions of the
turbine. This bearing is located in the bearing
pedestal between HPT & IPT. The thrust bearing
maintains desired axial clearances for the
combined turbine generator shaft system.

Construction and Mode of Operation


The combined journal and thrust bearing
consists of the upper and lower bearing shells
(4, 12), thrust pads (6), cap (2), spherical blocks
(14, 16) and keys (10, 17). The upper and lower
halves (4, 12) of the bearing shell are bolted and
doweled at the horizontal joint by means of 4
taper pins and 4 stocket-head screws.
Section A-A

1 Bearing pedestal, upper 7 Bearing liner


2 Cap
3 Key
4 Bearing shell upper
5 Cowling with all baffle
6 Thrust pad

BHEL Haridwar

8 Turbine shaft
9 Brg. pedestal
lower
10 Key
11 Oil line

Journal

and

Thrust

The journal bearing is constructed as


elliptical sleeve bearing. The bearing liners are
provided with a machined babbit face; additional
scraping is neither necessary nor allowable.
In order to prevent the bearing from exerting
a bending moment on the shaft, it is pivotmounted on spherical support (16). The
spherical block (14) with shims (13,15), is bolted
to the lower bearing shell (12). A transverse
projection in the upper part of the cap (2) and
the fitted key (3) prevent the bearing shells from
rising.
The bearing shells are located laterally by
keys (10). The bearing is supported axillay
against the bearing pedestal (1,9) by means of
keys (17, 18) (Section H-H). This fixing is of
great importance for axial clearance in the whole
turbine.
Located at each end of the bearing shell,
babbitted thrust pads (6) form two annular
surfaces on which the integralily machined shaft
collars run.
Section B-B

12 Bearing shell,lower
13 Shim
14 Spherical block
15 Shim
16 Spherical support
25 Key
a Shaft jacking oil

5.1-0260-01/1

These collars and thrust pads permit equal


loading of the thrust bearing in either direction.
As shown in section N-N, the thrust pads are of
the tilting type, secured in place by pins (23) and
flexible mounted on split spring element (21).
Temperature Measurement
Metal temperature of the journal bearing and
thrust pads is monitored by the thermocouples
(19,20) (Section E-E and G-G).

19 Thermocouple
20 Thermocouple
Oil Supply
Lubricating oil is admitted to the bearing
shells from one side via oil line (11) from where
it flows to the oil spaces milled into the upper
and lower bearing shells at the horizontal joint.

Oil leaving the journal bearing flows to the two


annular grooves adjacent to the bearing surface
and then to the thrust pads (6). Through the two
oil return cowlings (5), oil is discharged into the
drain area in the pedestal (9)
JackingOil
Passages are located at the lowest point in the
lower bearing shell through which high pressure
jacking oil is supplied under the journal at low
speed of the turbine rotor (on start up or
shutdown). Thus dry friction is prevented and
the breakaway torque on start-up with turning
gear is reduced.

4 Bearing shell upper


element
6 Thrust pad
12 Bearing shell, lower

5.1-0260-01/2

21 Spring
22 Key
23 Dowel pin

High pressure oil a flows under the journals


via
the oil line and via openings in the lower bearing
shell (12). O-ring (24) located between the
bearing liner (7) and the lower bearing shell (12)
prevents any oil from penetrating between the
two elements (Detail C).
Any leakage passing the seal will drain off to
the
bearing pedestal through a groove in the lower
bearing shell. This arrangement ensures that no
oil penetrates between the bearing liner and the
bearing shell.

Steam Turbine
Description
Construction
The function of the journal bearing is to
support the turbine rotor. Essentially the journal
bearing consists of the upper and lower shells
(3,6), bearing cap (1), spherical block (7),
spherical support (14) and the key (11) .The
bearing shells are provided with a babbit face.
The babbit surface of the bearing is precision
machined and additional scraping is neither
necessary nor permissible. Both bearing shells
are fixed by means of taper pins and bolted
together.
In order to prevent the bearing from exerting a
bending moment on the rotor (5), it is pivotmounted in the spherical support (14). For this
purpose the spherical block (7) with shims
(12,13) is bolted to the bearing shell (6) . A
projection in cap (1) with shims (9) fits into a

Journal Bearing
HP front
bearing shells. Keys (8) are fitted on both
sides of the projection.
The bearing shells are fixed laterally by key (11)
which are bolted to each other. Each key is held
in position in the bearing pedestal (10) by two
lateral collars. The temperature of the bearing
bodies is monitored by thermocouples (19) as
shown in section c-c.
Oil Supply
Lubricating oil is admitted to the bearing shells
from one side and flows to oil spaces that are
milled into the upper shell at the horizontal joint
and are open to the rotor. The rotor (5) picks up
oil from oil pocket machined into the babbitting
.The oil emerges from the bearing shell where it
is collected in the oil return cowling (4) and
drained into the bearing pedestal(10).

corresponding groove in the bearing shell (3)


and prevents vertical movement of the

1
2
3
4
5

Cap
6 Lower baering shell
Tab Washer
7 Spherical block
Upper bearing shell 8 Key
Oil return Cowling
9 Shim
Turbine Rotor
10 Bearing pedestal

BHEL Haridwar

11
12
13
14
15

Key
Shim
Shim
Spherical support
Shim

5.1-0270-01/1

Jacking oil
As shown in Detail B, a threaded nozzle( 17)
is arranged at the lowest point of the lower
bearing shell (6) through which high pressure lift
oil is supplied to the space below the journals
when the rotor is turning at low speed (on startup and shutdown).This high pressure oil floats
the shaft to prevent dry friction and overcome
breakway torque during start-up on the hydraulic
turning gear.
A seal (18) prevent high pressure oil from
penetrating the space between threaded nozzle
and ring (16) and thus from lifting the babbit.
Any leakage oil can drain through passages in
the bearing shell below the ring.

Removal of Bearing Shells


Not only the upper shell(3) but also the lower
bearing shell(6) can be removed without the
removal of rotor (5). To enable this to be done
the shaft is lifted slightly by means of jacking
device but within the clearance of the shaft
seals. The lower bearing shell can then be
turned upwards to the top position and removed.

5.1-0270-01/2

16 Ring
17 Threaded nozzle
18 Sealing ring
19 Thermocouple

Steam Turbine
Description
Supports
The turbine casing is supported on the support
horns such as to make allowance for the thermal
expansion. It is essential for the casing to retain
concentric alignment with the rotor, which is
supported independently.

1
2
3

HP Turbine
Casing Supports and Guides
The turbine casing (2) is supported with its two
front and two rear support horns on the horn
supports of the bearing pedestal (1,3) at the
turbine centerline level. This arrangement
determines the height of the casing and also
allows thermal expansion to take place in the
horizontal plane by the support horns

Front bearing pedestal


HP turbine
Rear bearing pedestal

Fig.1 Connection between Turbine Casing


and Bearing Pedestals

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0280-01/1

sliding on the sliding pieces (6) of the bearing


pedestals (1 ;3). To prevent lift-off of the turbine
casing (2), holders (4) hold down projections of
the support horns which engage in mating
recesses in the bearing pedestal.
When the turbine is being erected, a clearance
s is maintained between the thrust bar(5) and
the turbine casing support horn projection.
Guides

to the turbine centerline is provided by the


guides shown in section B-B and E-E. These
guides allow the turbine casing to expand freely.

Fixed Point
The fixed point for the turbine casing (2) is
located at the horn support on HP-IP pedestal at
the turbine centerline level and is formed by the
parrallel keys (16). Axial expansion of the
turbine casing (2) originates from this point.

The central location of the turbine casing at right


angle

1 Front bearing pedestal


2 HP turbine
4 Holder
5 thrust bar
6 sliding piece
7 Plate
8 parallel key
9 plate

10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Sliding piece
Plate
Parallel key
Scale indicating casing expansion
Sliding piece
Plate
Parallel key

Fig. 2 Details of Casing Supports and guides

5.1-0280-01/2

Steam Turbine
Description
Double Shell Construction
The casing of the IP turbine is split
horizontally and is of double shell construction.
A double-flow inner casing (3,4) is supported
in the outer casing (2,5) (Fig.1) Steam from
the HP turbine after reheating enters the inner
casing from top and bottom through two
admission branches which are integral with the
mid section of the outer casing. This
arrangement provides opposed double flow in
the two blade sections and compensates axial
thrust. The centre flow prevents the steam
inlet temperature from affecting the support
horns and bearing sections.

IP Turbine
Casing
The provision of an inner casing confines
the steam inlet conditions to the admission
section of this casing. While the joint flange
of the outer casing is subjected only to the
lower pressure and temprature effective at the
exhaust from the inner casing. This means
that the joint flange can be kept small and
material concentrations in the area of the
flange reduced to a minimum. In this way,
difficulties arising from deformation of a casing
with flange joint due to non uniform
temperature rise e.g. on start-up and shut
down, are avoided. The joint of the inner
casing is relieved by the pressure in the outer
casing so that this joint has to be sealed only
against the resulting differential pressure.

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0310-01/1

Steam Inlet and Extraction Connection


The angle ring (9) are provided at the connection
of admission and extraction branches with the inner
casing (3,4) (Detail D Fig. 2 & 3). One leg of the
angle ring (9) at such a connection bears against the
back of the collar of the threaded ring (7) in the outer
casing while the other fits into an annular groove in
the inner casing. The threaded ring (7) is fitted in
such a way that the short leg of the angle ring can
slide freely between the collar of the threaded ring
and the outer casing. The steam pressure prevailing
on the inside, forces the angle ring against the face
of the outer casing. .
The tolerances of the annular grooves in the inner
casing are dimensioned to allow the long legs of the
angle ring (9) to slide in the groove. The angle rings
are flexibly expanded by the pressure on the inside
and their outer areas forced against the annular
grooves to provide the desired sealing effect

5.1-0310-01/2

While providing a tight seal, this arrangement


permits the inner casing to move freely in all
directions.
Attachment of Inner Casing
Due to the different temperatures of the inner
casing relative to the outer casing, the inner casing is
attached to the outer casing in such a manner as to
be free to expand axially from a fixed point and
radially in all directions, while maintaining the
concentricity of the inner casing relative to the shaft.
The steam admission connections and the extraction
connections are designed to avoid any restrictions
due to thermal expansion. The inner casing is
attached to the outer casing in the horizontal and
vertical plane.

In the horizontal plane, as shown in details E and


F (Fig. 4 & 5) the four support horns of the top half
inner casing (3) rest on plates (13) which are
supported by the joint surface of the bottom half outer
casing (5). The shoulder screws (12) are provided
with sufficient clearance to permit the inner casing to
expand freely in all directions in the horizontal plane.
Thermal expansion in the vertical direction originates
from the point of support at the joint. This ensures
concentricity of the inner casing relative to the rotor
(1) in this plane.
The support horns provided at the bottom half
inner casing (4), project into the recesses in bottom
half outer casing (5) with clearance on all sides.
Located on top of each support horn is a spacer disc
(11) whose upper surface has a clearance s to the
flange face of the top half outer casing (2). This
clearance thus determines the lift of the inner casing.
As shown in details E, the inner casing is located
axially by the fitted keys (10) arranged on both sides
of the support horns of the bottom half inner casing
(4). Thermal expansion in the axial direction
originates from these points. Radial expansion is not
prevented by these fitted keys, as they are free to
slide in the recesses of the bottom half outer casing.
Shoulders on the bottom half outer casing (5)
project into corresponding recesses in the bottom
half inner

casing (4) and together with the fitted keys (14)


provide a centering system for the inner casing (3, 4)
in the transverse plane This arrangement allows axial
and radial expansion of the inner casing relative to
the outer casing while the fitted keys (14) maintain
transverse alignment.

5.1-0310-01/3

IP Turbine
Blading

Steam Turbine
Description

Gap SealIng
Sealing strips (7) are caulked into the inner
casing (1) and the rotor (4) to reduce leakage
losses at the blade tips. Cylindrically machined
surfaces on the blade shrouds are opposite the
sealing strips. These surfaces have stepped
diameters in order to increase the turbulence of
the steam and thus the sealing effect. In case of
an operation disturbance, causing the sealing
strips to come into contact with opposite surfaces,
they are rubbed away without any considerable
amount of heat being generated. They can then
easily be renewed at a later date to provide the
specified clearances.

Moving and Stationary Blades


The IP turbine with advance blading consists of
2x12 (double flow) drum stages. All stages are
reaction stages with 50% reaction. The stationary
and moving blades of all stages are provided with
inverted T -roots in moving blade and hook type
roots in Guide blade which also determine the
distance between the blades. All these blades are
provided with integral shrouds, which after
installation form a continuous shroud. The moving
and stationary blades are inserted into
appropriately shaped grooves in the rotor (4) and
in the inner casing (1) and are bottom caulked
with caulking material (5). The insertion slot in the
rotor is closed by a locking blade which is fixed by
grub screws. End blades, which lock with the
horizontal joint are used at the horizontal joint of
the inner casing (1).

1 Inner Casing
2 Guide Blade
3 Moving Blade
4 Turbine Shaft
5 Caulking piece
6 Sealing strip
7 Caulking wire

7
5

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0320-02

Steam Turbine
Description

Function
The function of the shaft seals is to seal the
interior of the turbine casing against the
atmosphere at the front (thrust bearing end) and
rear shaft penetrations of the IP turbine.
The shaft seals are axial-steam-flow noncontacting seals.
In the region subject to low relative
expansion in the vicinity of the combined journal
and thrust bearing, the seal strips are caulked
alternatively into the shaft and into springsupported segmented rings in the casing,
forming a labyrinth to impede the outflow of
steam.
In the region subject to greater relative
expansion at the exhaust end, see-through seals
are used, in which the seal strips are located
opposite each other,

BHEL Haridwar

IP Turbine
Shaft Seals

caulked into the shaft and into seal rings


centered in the outer casing.
The outer seal rings can be removed for
inspection and if necessary seal strips can be
replaced during a short turbine shut down
keeping module in place.
Gap Sealing
Sealing between the rotating and stationary
elements of the turbine is achieved by means of
seal strip (9) ,caulked into seal rings (3;5) and
into the rotor (4) (details A and C). The pressure
gradient across the seal is reduced by
conversion of pressure energy into velocity
energy which is then dissipated as turbulence as
the steam passes through the numerous
compartments according to the labyrinth
principle.

5.1-0330-01/1

Seal Rings
The seal rings (3), the number of which
depends on the pressure gradient to be sealed
are divided into several segments as shown in
Section BB and mounted in grooves in the rings
such that they are free to move radially. Each
segment is held in position against a shoulder by
helical springs (6) and by the steam pressure
above the seal rings (3). This provides the
proper clearance for the seal gaps. Should
rubbing occur the segments concerned can
retreat. The heat developed by light rubbing of
the thin seal strips (9) is so slight that it cannot
cause deformation of the rotor (4).

5.1-0330-01/2

When the turbine is started from the cold or


warm state, the seal rings naturally heat up
faster than the mounting rings. However. they
can expand freely in the radial direction against
the centering force of the helical springs (6).
Steam Spaces
Steam spaces are provided within the shaft
seals. From space P leakage is drawn off to the
steam seal header. The slight amount of
leakage steam which are still able to pass the
seal ring are conducted from the space R into
the seal steam condenser.

IP Turbine

Steam Turbine
Description

RearBearing Pedestal

Arrangement
The bearing pedestal is located between the
IP and LP turbines. Its function is to support the
turbine casing and bear the weight of IP and LP
rotors.
The bearing pedestal houses the following
turbine components:

Journal bearing
Shaft vibration pick-up
Bearing pedestal vibration pick-up
Hand barring arrangement

Connection
Foundation

of

Bearing

Pedestal

and

The bearing pedestal is aligned on the


foundation by means of hexagon head screws
that are screwed into it at several points. On
completion of alignment the space beneath the
bearing pedestal is filled with special non
shrinking grout. The bearing pedestal is
anchored to the foundation by means of anchor
bolts. The anchor bolt holes are filled with gravel
which gives a considerable vibration damping
effect.

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0340-02

Steam Turbine
Description

Construction
The function of the journal bearing is to support
the turbine rotor. Essentially, the journal bearing
consists of the upper and lower shells (3, 6),
bearing cap (1), torus piece (7), cylindrical
support (14) and the keys (10). The bearing
shells are provided with a babbit face which is
precision machined. Additional scraping is
neither necessary nor permissible. Both bearing
shells are fixed by means of taper pins and
bolted together.
In order to prevent the bearing from exerting a
bending moment on the rotor (5), it is pivotmounted in the cylindrical support (14). For this
purpose, the torus piece (7) with shims (12, 13)
is bolted to the bearing shell (6). A projection in
cap (1) with key (9) fits into a corresponding
groove in the bearing shell (3) and prevents
vertical movement of the bearing shells.
Centering of the bearing shells in the vertical
plane is achieved by means of keys (8).

BHEL Haridwar

IP Rear Journal Bearing

The bearing shells are fixed laterally by spacers


(10) which are bolted to each other. Each spacer
is held in position in the bearing pedestal (11) by
two laterall collars. The temperature of the
bearing bodies is monitored by thermocouples
(15) as shown in section C-C.

Oil Supply
Lubricating oil is admitted to the bearing shells
from both sides, from where it flows to oil spaces
milled into the upper and lower shells at the
horizontal joint that are open to the rotor end. Oil
from the oil space machined in the babbitting is
carried through the rotor (5) and emerges from
the bearing shell from where it is collected in the
oil return cowling (4) and drained into the
bearing pedestal (11).

5.1-0345-01/1

Jacking Oil
As shown in section B-B, two threaded
nozzles (17) are arranged at the lowest point of
the lower bearing shell (6) through which high
pressure oil is supplied to the space below the
journal when the rotor is turning at low speed
(on start-up and shutdown). This high pressure
oil floats the shaft to prevent dry friction and
overcome breakaway torque during startup, thus
reducing torque requirements of the hydraulic
turning gear.
A seal (18) prevents high pressure oil from
penetrating the space between threaded nozzle
and ring (16) and thus from lifting the babbit.
Any leakage oil can drain through passages in
the bearing shell below the ring.
Removal of Bearing Shells
Not only the upper shell (3) but also the lower
bearing shell (6) can be removed without the
removal of rotor (5). To enable this to be done,
the shaft is lifted slightly by means of jacking
device but with in the clearance of the shaft
seals. The lower bearing shell can then be
turned upwards to the top position and removed.

5.1-0345-01/2

Steam Turbine
Description

IP Turbine
Casing Supports and Guides

The turbine casing is supported on the support


horns such as to make allowance for the thermal
expansion.

It is essential for the casing to retain


concentric alignment with the rotor which is
supported independently

1 HP Turbine rear bearing pedestal


2 IP turbine
3 IP turbine rear bearing pedestal

Fig.1 Connection between turbine casing and


bearing pedestal

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0350-01/1

The turbine casing (2) is supported with its


two front and two rear support horns on the
bearing pedestals(1,3) at the turbine centerline
level. This arrangement determines the height of
the casing and also allows thermal expansion to
take place in the horizontal plane by the support
horns sliding on the sliding pieces (6;16) of the
bearing pedestals (1,3). To prevent lift off the
turbine casing (2), holders (4;15) hold down
projections of the support horns which engage in
mating recesses in the bearing pedestal.
When the turbine is being erected, a
clearance s is established between the thrust
bars (5;14) and the turbine casing (2) support
horn projection.
Guides
The central location of the turbine casing at right
angles to the turbine centerline is provided by
the guides shown in section B.B .These guides
allow the turbine casing to expand freely.

5.1-0350-01/2

Fixed Point
The fixed point for the turbine casing (2) is
located at the front horn support at the turbine
centerline level and is formed by the parallel
keys ((7;10). Axial expansion of turbine casing
(2) originates from this point

Steam Turbine
Description

LP Turbine
Casing

Construction
The LP turbine casing consists of a doubleflow unit and has a triple shell welded casing.
The outer casing consists of the front and rear
walls, the two lateral longitudinal support
beams and the upper part. The front and rear
walls as well as the connection areas of the
upper part are reinforced by means of circular
box beams. The outer casing is supported by
the ends of the longitudinal beams on the base
plates of the foundation.

1
2
3
4

Outer casing, upper half


Diffuser, upper half
Inner outer casing upper half
Inner- inner casing, upper half

Inlet Connections
Steam admitted to the LP turbine from the IP
turbine flows into the inner casing (4,5) from
both sides through steam inlet nozzles before
the LP blading Expansion bellows are
provided in the steam piping to prevent any
undesirable deformation of the casings due to
thermal expansion of the steam piping.

5
6
7
8

Inner inner casing, lower half


Inner outer casing lower half
Diffuser lower half
Outer casing lower half

Fig. 1 LP Turbine (Longitudinal


section)
BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0410-00/1

Arrangement of Inner Casing in Outer


Casing
The LP casing has a double-flow inner
casing. This inner casing is a double shell
construction and consists of the outer part
(3,6) and the inner part (4,5). The inner shell is
suspended in the outer shell to allow thermal
movement and carries the front guide blade
rows.
The rear guide blade rows of the LP stage
are bolted to the outer shell of the inner
casing. The complete inner casing is
supported in the LP outer casing (1,8) in a
manner permitting free radial expansion
concentric with the shaft and axial expansion
from a fixed point (Fig.2).
Support and Guiding of Outer Casing
The outer casing rests with the brackets at
the end of the longitudinal beam on the base
plates fixed to the foundation crossbeam. The
outer casing of the LP turbine is axially fixed at
the respective front brackets (Fig.2).
In the lower area of the circular beams
which reinforce the front and rear walls of the
outer casing, the casing is guided in the
vertical centre plane
(Fig.1, 3) which takes
the radial and axial expansion into account.

5.1-0410-00/2

Two guide plates are welded vertically to


the lower inner bend of each of the beams.
The guiding piece (12) which is rigidly
connected to the foundation crossbar, fits
between these plates. Fitted pieces(11)
inserted between the square guiding piece(12)
and the plates maintain alignment of the
casing in the centre plane and permit
expansion transverse to the axis of the
machine.
Support and Guiding of Inner Casing in
Outer Casing
The complete assembled inner casing rests
in the horizontal plane with 4 brakets on the
sliding piece(15, 18) placed in the plates
bolted to the longitudinal support beam of the
casing. The two brackets (detail C Fig.5) on
the turbine side are fixed in the axial direction
by fitted keys (16) as opposed to the brackets
on the generator side (detail D Fig.6) which
are not fixed. Any thermal expansion in the
axial direction thus originates from here.
The spacer bolts( 17) prevent lifting of the
inner casing. The clearance of these spacer
bolts in the holes of the brackets is
dimensioned to permit the inner casing to
expand horizontally on sliding piece (15) of the
fixed support transverse to the axis of the
machine, and on sliding piece (18) of the nonfixed support transverse and parallel to the
machine axis. As thermal expansion in the
vertical direction originates at approximately
the level of the horizontal.

Fig.3 Guiding of the Outer Casing


joint, the concentricity of the inner casing with
the shaft is ensured in this plane. As shown in
detail E (Fig.2,4) two casing guides are
located at the lower half (6) of the outer shell
to prevent any transverse displacement of the
inner casing from the centerline of the turbine.
Radial and axial expansions is not prevented
by fitted keys(14) in these casing guides
Suspension of the Inner Shell
The inner shell (4,5) is suspended in the
outer shell (3,6) in the horizontal plane and is
guided axially in the vertical plane (Fig.7and
8). In the horizontal plane, the upper half (4) of
the inner shell is supported by four brackets
resting on the support plates (21,22) located at
L and M of the joint face of the lower half of
the outer shell (Fig.9 & 10). The brackets of
the upper part (3) of the outer shell which
project over the cover plates (20) , prevent
lifting of the inner shell. The slight clearance
between these cover plates and the brackets
permits free horizontal expansion of the inner
shell in all directions at the support points.
Thermal expansion in the vertical plane
originates at the joint face. This ensures
concentricity of the inner shell with the shaft in
this plane.

serve to align the inner shell, lower half (5) in


the outer shell, lower half (6) by the use of
jacking bolts during erection. On the IP turbine
side, 2 fitted keys (19) are inserted between
each bracket and recess. As shown in detail L,
these fitted keys fix the inner shell in the axial
direction and thermal expansion thus
originates from here

The brackets of the inner shell, lower half (5)


project into recesses of the outer shell, lower
half (6) These brackets are provided with
clearance on all sides and

5.1-0410-00/3

3 Outer shell, upper half


4 Inner shell, upper half
5 Inner shell, lower half
6 Outer shell, lower half
Fig. 7 Inner Casing, Longitudinal Section
In the vertical plane 4 centering pins (26)
which are guided in bushings (25) are
provided for the suspension as shown in detail
A Fig. 11. The lower ends of the centering pins
are fitted into keys (27) which slide in axial
grooves in the inner shell. This arrangement
permits axial displacement of the inner shell
relative to the keys (27) and vertical
displacement along the axis of the centering
pins(26) while displacement transverse to the
axis of the unit prevented by the keys. Thermal
expansion transverse to the axis of the unit
originates from these keys so that
concentricity of the inner shell with the shaft is
also maintained in this plane. The bushings
(25) have an eccentric bore and by turning
them during alignment of the inner casing, the
inner shell can be moved laterally. After the
alignment has been completed, the bushings
are fixed in position by grub screws.

5.1-0410-00/4

Steam Turbine
Description

Atmospheric relief diaphragms are provided in


the upper half of each LP exhaust end section
to protect the turbine against excessive
pressure. In the event of failure of the low
vacuum trips the pressure in the LP turbine
exhaust rises to an excessively high level until
the force acting on the rupturing disc (1)
ruptures the breakable diaphragm (2) thus
providing a discharge path for the steam. The
diaphragm

BHEL Haridwar

Atmospheric Relief Diaphragm

consists of a thin rolled lead plate. To insure


that the remnants of the diaphragm and
rupturing disc are not carried along by the
blow-off steam a cage with brackets (5) is
provided. As long as there is a vacuum in the
condenser the atmospheric pressure forces
the breakable diaphragm and the rupturing
disc against the supporting flange (3).

5.1-0420-00

Steam Turbine
Description

LP Turbine
Blading, Drum Blading

Arrangement
The drum blading stages 1 to 3 of the double
flow LP turbine are of reaction type with 50%
reaction. They are Located in the inner-Inner
casing and form the initial stages of the LP
blading. The LP stages following these drum
stages are described in detail in next chapter.
Guide and moving blades
All guide and moving blades of drum stages
have integral shrouds, which after installation
form a continuous shrouding. The moving
blades (7) of the last drum stage are tapered
and twisted. All stationary and moving blades
have T -roots which also determine the
distance between the blades. They are
inserted into the matching grooves in the
turbine shaft (5) and inner casing (1) and are
caulked in place with
caulking material (6). The insertion slot in the
rotor is closed by means of a locking blade
which is secured in its position by means of
grub screws between shaft and lock blade .In
casing, blades at joint planes are fixed by
means of grub screws.
Inter stage Sealing
In order to reduce blade tip losses, tip to tip
sealings are provided in these stages. Thin
sealing strips (9) are caulked in inner casing
(1) and turbine rotor (5). The sealing fins are
machined on the shrouds of moving and
stationary blades opposite to the sealing strips
in inner casing or rotor (Detail A). In the event
of rubbing due to a fault , little heat will be
generated due to rubbing of thin sealing strips.
These can be renewed at a later date to
provide the correct radial clearances.

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0430-01

Steam Turbine
Description

Guide and Moving Blades


The last three stages of the LP turbine are
also reaction stages. Each stage is made up of
guide and moving blades.

The stationary blade rows (2, 5, 7) are made


by welding inner ring, blades and outer ring
together to form Guide Blade Carriers in two
halves, that are bolted to inner outer casing
(1). The blades of rows 2 & 5 are of precision
cast steels and the blades of row 7 are made

BHEL Haridwar

LP Turbine
Blading, Low Pressure Stages

from steel sheets to form hollow blades.


Suction slits are provided in the blades of row
(7). Through these slits water particles on the
surface of these last stage guide blades are
drawn away to the condenser.
The moving blades (3) of first LP stage are
tapered,

twisted and have integral shrouds with T -root.


The last two stages of moving blades (6,8)
have curved fir-tree roots (View-X) which are
inserted in axial grooves in the turbine shaft
(4) and secured by means of clamping pieces
(11). Axial movement of the blades

5.1-0440-01/1

is prevented by segments of locking plate


segments (12) and the end segments are spot
welded
at
joint.
The
difference
in
circumferential speed at the root and tip of the
moving blades is taken into consideration by
the twisted design of the blades.

5.1-0440-01/2

Inter stage sealing


In order to reduce blade tip
losses at the stationary blade rows
(2,5,7). sealing strips (9) are caulked
into turbine shaft. Opposite to this,
sealing strips are also caulked on the
inner ring of stationary blade rows as
shown in Detail A. This arrangement
permits favourable radial clearances
to be attained. In case of rubbing, the
thin seal strips are worn away without
generating much heat. They can be
easily replaced at a later date to
restore the required clearances.

Steam Turbine
Description

LP Turbine
Shaft Seals

Function
The function of the axial shaft seals situated
between the bearing casings and the LP
exhaust casing is to seal the inner space of
the LP exhaust casing against atmospheric
pressure at the passages through the shaft.
Gap Sealing
The sealing effect between the moving and
stationary parts of the turbine is achieved by
means of sealing strips (4) which are caulked
into the individual seal rings (2), The prevailing
pressure is reduced according to the labyrinth
principle by conversion into velocity with
subsequent turbulence in many sections.

strips (4) due to this light pressure are so slight


that it cannot cause deformation of the rotor
(5). When the turbine is started from the cold
or semi-warm state, the sealing rings naturally
heat up more quickly than the steam seal
casings. They can then expand radially without
hindrance against the centering force of the
helical springs.
Steam Spaces
Steam spaces are provided within the shaft
seal. When the plant is started up and in
operation, sealing steam enters space Q to
prevent air penetrating the space, which is
under a vacuum. The slight amount of steam
that passes the center seal ring is drawn off
from space R into the seal steam condenser.

Sealing Rings
The sealing rings (2), the number of which
depends on the pressure existing in the
turbine, are split into several segments as
shown in section A-A and arranged in Tshaped annullar grooves in the steam seal
casing (1) so that they can move radially.
Several helical sprir1gs (3) force each
segment against a shoulder and hold it in this
position. This permits the correct clearance in
the sealing gaps. Should rubbing occur, the
segments concerned retreat. The frictional
heat developed by the thin

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0450-01

Steam Turbine
Description

LP Turbine
Rear Bearing Pedestal

Arrangement
The bearing pedestal is situated between
the LP turbine and generator. Its function is to
bear the weight of LP rotor.
The bearing pedestal
following turbine components:

contains

the

Bearing pedestal vibration pick-up

Journal bearing

Shaft position measuring device

Shaft vibration pick-up


Connection
Foundation

of

Bearing

Pedestal

and

The bearing pedestal is aligned on the


foundation by hexagonal screws that are
bolted into the bearing pedestal. To overcome
friction resistance, balls are arranged under
the heads of these hexagonal screws. After
alignment the space under the bearing
pedestal is filled in with special nonshrink
grout, resistant to expansion and contraction.
The bearing pedestal is also connected to the
foundation by means of anchor bolts.

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0460-02

Steam Turbine
Description

Journal Bearing

Construction
The function of the journal bearing is to
support the turbine rotor. Essentially, the
journal bearing consists of the upper and lower
shells (3, 6), bearing cap (1), torus piece (7),
cylindrical support (14) and the keys (10). The
bearing shells are provided with a babbit face.
The bearing bore is precision machined and
additional scraping is neither necessary nor
permissible. Both bearing shells are fixed by
means of taper pins and bolted together.
In order to prevent the bearing from
exerting a bending moment on the rotor (5), it
is pivot-mounted in the cylindrical support (14).
For this purpose, the torus piece (7) with
shims (12, 13) is firmly bolted to the bearing
shell (6). A projection in cap (1) with shims (9)
fits into a corresponding groove in the bearing
shell (3) and prevents vertical movement of
the bearing shells.. Centering of the bearing
shells in the vertical plane is achieved by
means of keys (8).

1
2
3
4

Cap
Tab washer
Upper bearing shell
Oil return cowling

BHEL Haridwar

5
6
7
8

Rotor
Lower bearing shell
Torus piece
Key

The bearing shells are fixed laterally by the


keys (10) which are bolted to each other. Each
key is held in position in the bearing pedestal
(11) by two lateral collars. The temperature of
the bearing is monitored by thermocouples
(15) as shown in section C-C.
Oil Supply
Lubricating oil is admitted to the bearing
shells from both sides, from where it flows to
oil spaces milled into the upper and lower
shells at the horizontal joint that are open to
the rotor end. Oil from the oil space machined
in the babbitting is carried through the rotor (5)
and emerges from the bearing shell from
where it is collected in the oil return cowling (4)
and drained into the bearing pedestal (11).
Lift Oil
As shown in section B-B threaded nozzles (17)
are arranged at the lowest point of the lower
bearing

9 Shim
10 Key

13 Shim
14 Cylindrical support

11 Bearing Pedestal
12 Shim

5.1-0470-00/1

shell (6) through which high pressure oil is


supplied during start-up. This high pressure oil
relieves the bearing to overcome breakaway
torque and prevent dry friction, thus reducing
the torque requirements of the hydraulic
turning gear.
The lift oil flows into the above mentioned
threaded nozzles (17) through passages in the
lower bearing shell (6). A seal (18) prevents
high pressure oil from penetrating the space
between threaded nozzle and ring (16) and
thus from lifting the babbit. Any leakage oil can
drain through passages in the bearing shell
below the ring.
Removal of bearing shells
Not only the upper shell (3) but also the
lower bearing shell (6) can be removed without
the removal of the shaft (5). To enable this to
be done, the shaft is lifted slightly by means of
the jacking device but within the clearance of
the shaft seals. The lower bearing shell can
then be rotated to the top position and
removed.

15
16
17
18

Termocouple
Ring
Threaded nozzle
Sealing ring

Also refer to tne following sections


[1] 5.1-0510 Hydraulic Turning Gear

5.1-0470-00/2

Steam Turbine
Description
Arrangement
The hydraulic turning gear is situated
between the main oil pump and the journal
bearing in the HP turbine front bearing pedestal.

Hydraulic Turing Gear

Function
The function of the hydraulic turning gear is
to rotate the shaft system at sufficient speed
before start-up and after shut-down in order to
avoid irregular heating up or cooling down and
thus avoid any distortion of the turbine rotors.
The air flow set up by the blades along the inner
wall of the casing during turning operation
provides good heat transfer conducive to
temperature equalization between upper and
lower casing halves.
Operation
During turning gear operation, the shaft
system is rotated by a blade wheel which is
driven by oil supplied by the auxiliary oil pump.
This oil passes via a check valve into the nozzle
box (1) and from there into the nozzles (2) which
direct the oil jet in front of the blading.
Return Oil Flow
After passing the blading, the oil drains into
the bearing pedestal and flows with the bearing
oil into the return flow line.
Manual Turning Gear
A manual turning gear is provided in addition
to the hydraulic turning gear to enable the
combined shaft system to be rotated manually.
Lifting of Shaft
To overcome the initial break-away torque on
start-up and to prevent dry friction, the bearings
are relieved during turning gear operation by
lifting oil supplied from below i.e. the shafts are
lifted slightly.

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0510-01

Steam Turbine
Description

Function
The turbine generator is equipped with a
mechanical barring gear, which enables the
combined shaft system to be rotated manually
in the event of a failure of the normal hydraulic
turning gear.
It is located at IP - LP pedestal

Construction
The barring gear consists of a gear
machined on the rim of the turning gear wheel
(10) and pawl (6). This pawl engages the ring
gear and turns the shaft system when
operated by means of a bar attached to laver
(1). The pawl (6) is shown disengaged and the
lever (1) resting against a stop. The lever (1) is
held in position by latch (7).

BHEL Haridwar

Mechanical Barring Gear

Operation
Take the following steps to make the
barring gear ready for operation: Remove
cover (2) unlatches at (7) and attach a bar to
lever (1).
Barring of lever (1) will rotate the
combined turbine generator shaft system.
After barring has been completed, return
lever (1) and pawl (6) to the position shown in
figure and secure lever (1) by means of latch
(7) Replace cover (2).
The barring gear may only be operated
after the shaft system has been lifted with
high-pressure lift oil. If it is hard to start turning
by means of the mechanical barring gear, this
may be due to incorrect adjustment of the
jacking oil system or due to a rubbing shaft.
Before steam is admitted to the turbine.
corrective action must be taken

5.1-0520-01

Steam Turbine
Description
Function
When the turbine is started up or shut
down, the hydraulic jacking device is used to
maintain the oil film between rotor and
bearings. The high-pressure oil is forced under
the individual bearing, thus raising the rotor.
The necessary torque from the hydraulic
turning device or from the manual turning
device is reduced in this way. The highpressure oil also provides motive force to
hydraulic turning gear motor installed in front
bearing pedestal.
Speed Limit Values
In order to avoid damage to the bearings,
the jacking oil pump must be switched on
below a certain speed. The exact speeds for
switching on and off can be seen in the
Technical data 2-0103.
Jacking Oil Pump
The jacking oil pumps, one number AC
(13) and one number DC(14) are jack-screw
immersion pumps situated on the tank (10)
supply the high pressure oil for the lifting
device. The oil is drawn off directly by one of
the two pumps. The pressure oil piping of the
jacking oil pump that is not in operation is
closed by the check valve (12). In order

1 HP turblne
2 IP turblne
3 LP turblne
4 Generator
5 Exciter

6 Check Valve
7 Fine control valve
8 Pressure Limiting Device
9 Bypass Valve
10 Main Oil Tank

BHEL Haridwar

Hydraulic Jacking Device

to protect the jacking oil system from damage


due to improper switching ON of the jacking oil
pump when the check valve (12) is closed, a
spring-loaded safety valve (11) is situated in
the piping between the jacking oil pump (13)
and the check valve (12). The necessary
pressure in the system is kept constant by
means of the pressure-limiting valve (8). The
pressure-limiting valve can be relieved by the
bypass valve (9). The superfluous flow from
the pump is conducted into the main oil tank.
The necessary jacking oil pressures are
set for each bearing by the fine control valves
(7) in the oil pipes. Check valve (6) in the
jacking oil pipes prevent oil from flowing out of
the bearings into the header during turbine
operation when the jacking oil system is
naturally switched off.
Valve Arrangement
The fine control valve (7) of the turbine
bearings, the check valves (6) and the
pressure gauges are arranged in boxes, which
are connected laterally to the bearing
pedestals.

11
12
13
14
15

AC Motor driven lifting oil pump 16 Valve


DC Motor driven lifting oil pump c Drain
Spring loaded safety valve
Check valve
Duplex filter
5.1-0530-66-01

Steam Turbine
Description
The turbine control system description for
500 MW steam turbine comprises the
following:
General Description
Start-up Procedure
Speed Control
Electrical Speed Measuring
Protective Devices
Overspeed Trip Test
Testing of Stop Valves
LP Bypass System (General)
Extraction Check Valve
Swing Check Valve in CRH line
Testing of Swing Check Valves in the Cold
Reheat Line
Automatic Turbine Tester, General
Automatic Turbine Tester, Protective
Devices
Automatic Turbine Tester, Stop Valves
HP Actuator
Electro-hydraulic Gland Steam Pressure
Control
Control System Diagram
List of Parts
Lubrication Chart
Lubrication Chart, Index
Turbine generator unit MAA50HA001
MAB50HA001and MAC10HA001 comprises
three-cylinder reheat condensing turbine
with condenser MAG10BC001 and a directdriven three-phase a.c. generator.
The turbine has a hydraulic speed governor
MAX46BY001 and an electric turbine
controller. The hydraulic speed governor
adjusts control valves MAA10+20AA002 and
MAB10+20AA002 by way of hydraulic
amplifier MAX45BY011 whilst the electric
turbine controller acts on these control
valves by way of electro-hydraulic converter
MAX45BY001.
Hydraulic amplifier MAX45BY011 and
electro-hydraulic converter MAX45BY001
are switched in parallel to form a minimum
gate. The system not exercising control is in
its maximum position.
The special operating conditions existing in
reheat condensing turbines necessitate
additional control elements. On start-up of
the high-pressure boiler it is necessary to

BHEL Hardwar

General Description

start up the turbine straight away with a


considerable steam rate and, due to the high
temperature in the reheater to admit steam
to the reheater immediately.
As long as the HP section of the turbine is
unable to accommodate all the steam
supplied by the boiler, the rejected steam is
routed directly to the reheater via HP bypass
valve. The steam from the reheater which
cannot be accommodated by the IP section
with its control valves MAB10+20AA002 and
reheat stop valves MAB10+20AA001 is
routed into condenser MAG10BC001 by way
of LP bypass stop & control valves.
The IP turbine must be fitted with its own
control valves to prevent steam remaining in
the reheater from entering the turbine via the
IP and LP section and causing further
acceleration of the turbine after the main
steam control valves have been closed in
the event of load rejection or trip. In addition,
the steam pressure in the main steam line
would increase after sudden closure of the
main steam control valves, thus causing the
HP by pass valve to open, with the result
that even more steam would flow into the IP
section of the turbine.
It is the function of main oil pump MAV21
AP001, driven directly by the turbine shaft,
to supply oil for bearing lubrication, for the
oil circuit for the overspeed trip test, and for
the primary oil circuit, pressure in which is
generated by hydraulic speed transmitter
MAX44AP001.Two
Electrically
driven
auxiliary oil pumps are provided for auxiliary
oil supply. The LP control fluid circuit (8 bar)
and the HP actuators of the main steam
control valves, reheat control valves are
supplied by two full-load control fluid pumps
installed in the control fluid tank.
The turbine is equipped with an electrohydraulic seal steam control system, LP
bypass (EHA Type), an automatic turbine
tester for the protective devices, main and
reheat Stop & Control Valves and an
automatic functional group control.

5.1-0600-01/1

Steam Turbine
Description
Mode of Operation
The turbine is started up and brought up to
speed with the assistance of the control
valves MAA10+20AA002 and MAB10+20
AA002. If the hydraulic controller is to
govern start-up, the reference speed setter
MAX46BY001 must be set to minimum
speed during this process. In this case the
speed reference from the electric controller
is at maximum. If conversely, start-up is to
be governed by the electric controller,
reference speed setter MAX46 BY001 is set
to maximum and the speed reference from
the electric controller to minimum. The
combined stop and control valves are closed
because the trip fluid circuit is not yet
pressurized. Turning hand-wheel KA01
clockwise
or
operating
motor
MAX47BY001M of start-up and load limiting
device MAX47BY001 in the close direction
releases spring KA06 in auxiliary follow up
piston KA08 via the linkage, thereby
preventing a buildup of auxiliary secondary
fluid pressure. The hydraulic amplifier
MAX45BY011 with follow-up pistons KA01
and KA02 is now in the control valves closed
position so that a buildup of secondary fluid
pressure is prevented when main trip valves
MAX51AA005 and MAX51M006 are latched
in.
Further turning of hand-wheel KA01 moves
pilot valve KA02 of start-up and load limiting
device MAX47BY001 further downwards,
admitting control fluid first into the start-up
fluid circuit and then into the auxiliary start
up fluid circuit. The start-up fluid flows to the
space above the pilot valve of test valves
MAX47AA011+012 and MAX47AA021+
022, forcing them down against the action of
the springs. The auxiliary start-up fluid
raises the pilot valves of main trip valves
MAX51AA005 and MAX51AA006, thereby
moving them into their normal operating
position and permitting trip fluid to flow to
test
valves
MAX47AA011+012
and
MAX47AA021+022 of the main stop valves
and reheat stop valves. At the same time,
overspeed
trip
release
devices
MAY10AA001 and 002 are latched in if they
have been tripped. The function of non
return valve MAX42AA011 is to interrupt

BHEL Hardwar

Start-up Procedure

transiently the fluid supply to solenoid valve


MAX48AA202
from
the
connection
downstream of filters MAX42BT001 and
MAX42BT 002 during latching in of main trip
Valves MAX51AA005 and MAX51AA006 by
means of start-up and load limiting device
MAX47BY001, because the pressure drops
in this line considerably for a short time as a
result of the high flow of fluid required to fill
the drained trip fluid system during this
latching in-period. The pressure upstream of
solenoid valve MAX48AA202 is maintained
via orifice MAX42BP022 during this period.
This ensures that the solenoid valve remains
in the position shown. The auxiliary start-up
fluid circuit at the start-up and load-limiting
device MAX47BY001 is fed from the system
down stream of filter MAX42BT003 (fluid
supply during testing), since the pressure in
the system is subject to no significant
change during start-up. It is not possible to
supply the hydraulic fluid connection of
solenoid valve MAX48AA202 from this
system, as this would have an in admissible
effect on the trip fluid system while the
latching operation with the solenoid valves
MAX48AA201 and MAX48AA202 during
testing is taking place.
After latching in, the trip fluid circuit is
closed. The trip fluid now flows to the space
above servomotor piston KA01 of stop
valves MAA10+20AA001 and MAB10+20
AA001 forcing it down against piston discs
KA002. Operation of the start-up and loadlimiting device is continued until their lower
limit position is reached.
When hand-wheel KA01 is turned back or
motor MAX47BY001M of start-up and load
limiting device MAX47BY001 is operated in
the open direction, the control fluid is
allowed to drain first from the auxiliary startup fluid circuit and then from the start-up
fluid circuit. The pilot valve of test valves
MAX47AA011+012 and MAX47 AA021+022
are forced upwards by the springs,
whereupon the trip fluid above servomotor
piston KA01 slowly drains off. The pressure
difference thus created lifts both pistons
together into their upper limit position, thus
causing main stop valves MAA10+20 AA001
and reheat stop valves MAB10+20 AA001 to

5.1-0610-01/1

open. Main trip valves MAX51AA005 and


MAX51AA006 are now held in their
operating position by the fluid pressure
beneath the differential piston.
Once the main & reheat stop valves are
open, further turning of hand-wheel KA01 or
operation of motor MAX47BY001M of the
start -up and load limiting device in the open
direction will after passing through a certain
dead range, cause lever KA03 and sleeve
KA04 to move further downwards, as a
result of which the auxiliary secondary fluid
pressure begins to increase and acts via
hydraulic amplifier MAX45 BY011 and follow
up pistons KA01 and KA02 to gradually
open control valves MAA10+20AA002 and
MAB10+20AA002. This brings the turbine
up to about 85 to 90% rated speed. Speed
controller MAX46BY001 now cuts in to
maintain turbine speed. Start-up and load
limiting device MAX47BY001 is then brought
into the fully open position. A pressure
gauge MAX44CP501 and electric speed
transducer MYA001CS011-013 are used to
measure speed.
Reference speed setter MAX46BY001 is
used for further speed run-up for connecting
the turbine-generator unit in parallel and for
bringing it on load. Turning hand-wheel
KA01 of the reference speed setter or
operation of motor MAX46BY001M increase
the tension of speed setting spring KA02 to
increase speed. Since in interconnected
operation speed is determined by grid
conditions, actuation of the reference speed

5.1-0610-01/2

setter has the effect of changing turbine


output.
Load Limitation
Start-up
and
load
limiting
device
MAX47BY001 engages mechanically in
controller bellow KA09 of hydraulic speed
governor/controller MAX46BY001 so that it
can serve simultaneously as a load-limiting
device. This means that opening of the
control valves MAA10+20AA002 and
MAB10+20 AA002 is limited to an adjustable
setting. This setting is made manually or
from the control room via motor
MAX47BY001M.
Electro-hydraulic Turbine Controller
If the turbine is to be started up with the
electro-hydraulic turbine controller, the
reference signal from the electric speed
controller must first be set to minimum so
that this takes over running up the turbine generator unit from turning speed. Start-up
and load limiting device MAX47BY001 is
brought into its open position once the stop
valves have been opened. Slowly raising the
speed reference from the electric controller
cuts in the electric speed control system,
and the turbine-generator unit is brought up
to rated speed and synchronized.
Further loading is governed by the electric
power controller by increasing the load
reference within the admissible rate of load
change.

Steam Turbine
Description

Speed control may be exercised either


hydraulically or electro-hydraulically.
Hydraulic Control
Main oil pump MAV21AP001 supplies the
bearing and primary oil circuits with control
oil whilst hydraulic speed transmitter
MAX44AP001 acts as a pulse generator for
the control circuit, providing a primary oil
pressure proportional to the speed. This oil
pressure can also be read directly from
speed
indicator
pressure
gauge
MAX44CP501. This primary oil pressure
acts on diaphragm KA09 of hydraulic speed
governor MAX46BY001 against the force of
speed setting spring KA02 which is
tensioned by reference speed setter
MAX46BY001.The travel of diaphragm
KA09, which can be limited by starting and
load limit device MAX47BY001, is
transmitted by linkage KA03 to sleeves
KA04 of auxiliary follow-up pistons KA08,
the pistons KA05 of which are held against
the medium pressure by spring KA06.
Medium drains off according to the amount
of port overlap between piston and sleeve
and a medium pressure corresponding to
the tension of spring KA06 is built up. This
auxiliary secondary medium pressure acts
as a pulse signal via pilot valve KA07 of
hydraulic amplifier MAX45 BY011.
Piston KA08 of this hydraulic amplifier
assumes a position corresponding to the
auxiliary secondary medium pressure and
operates the sleeves of follow-up piston
KA01and KA02 via a linkage system. A
feedback system stabilizes the position of
pilot valve KA07 and piston KA08 of
hydraulic amplifier MAX45BY011. As
already described for auxiliary follow-up
piston KA08, a secondary medium
pressure corresponding to the position of
the sleeves and to the related spring
tension builds up in the follow up pistons of
hydraulic amplifier MAX45BY011. Any
change in the position of linkage KA03
results in a proportional change of the

BHEL Hardwar

Speed Control

secondary medium pressures in the follow-up


pistons of the hydraulic amplifier.
The secondary medium circuits and the
auxiliary secondary medium circuits are
supplied from the trip medium circuit by way
of orifices.
The varying secondary medium pressure in
the follow-up pistons of the hydraulic amplifier
in turn effects changes in the positions of
their associated control valves or other
control devices.
Electro-hydraulic Control
The speed of the turbine is measured
digitally. For this purpose electrical speed
transducers MYA01CS011 to 013 are
mounted on the high-pressure end of the
turbine shaft.
The electro-hydraulic converter constitutes
the link between the electrical and hydraulic
parts of the governing system. The electrohydraulic converter consists of the speed
control converter MAX45BY001 and a
plunger coil system CG001T. The signal from
the electro-hydraulic controller actuates the
control sleeve via the plunger coil system.
The control sleeve determines the position of
pilot valve KA07 in the manner of a follow-up
piston. The further mode of action is the
same as that of the hydraulic speed
governor. Two differential transmitters
CG001A and CG001K are located at piston
KA08 of electro-hydraulic converter MAX45
BY001 as feedback transmitters to the
electro-hydraulic controller. This stabilizes the
control process.
Change-over from Hydraulic to Electrohydraulic Control
As already mentioned, Change-over from one
control system to the other is possible even
during operation as the two controllers are
connected in parallel downstream of the
associated follow up piston batteries, which
form a minimum value gate. This means that

5.1-0620-01/1

it is always the controller with the lower set


point, which leads.
If the turbine is operated with the hydraulic
governor, the speed set point of the electrohydraulic controller is set at maximum
speed which prevents the electro-hydraulic
control system from coming into action. To
bring in the electro-hydraulic control
system, the speed set point of the electrohydraulic controller must be reduced slowly
until the secondary medium pressures drop
slightly. When this occurs, the electrohydraulic controller has taken over. Then
the reference speed setter of hydraulic
governor speed MAX46BY001 is set to
maximum speed. The electro-hydraulic
controller is then fully effective and can
operate over the entire load range. The
hydraulic speed governor also acts as a
speed limiter in the event of failure of the
electro-hydraulic controller. In this case,
operation of the turbine may immediately
be continued by means of the hydraulic
speed governor.
Change-over from Electro-hydraulic to
Hydraulic Control
Change-over is performed in the reverse
sequence. First reduce the set point at
reference speed setter MAX46BY001 until
the secondary medium pressures drop
slightly. This indicates that the hydraulic
speed governor has taken over. Then set
the set point of the electro-hydraulic
controller to maximum. The hydraulic
speed governor is then completely effective
and can operate over the entire load range.
Adjusting Device for Valves
An adjusting device, which makes it
possible to change the setting response of
the HP and IP control valves, is provided
for limiting the HP exhaust steam
temperature.
In normal operation, control medium is
admitted to the space below the pistons of

5.1-0620-01/2

regulating cylinders MAX45BY001 KA10 and


MAX45BY011 KA10 by way of energizing
solenoid valve MAX42AA051, whereby the
pistons move into their upper end positions
against the force of the spring and, via a
linkage, tension the springs of follow-up
pistons KA02 of the control valves in such a
way that this produces the desired setting
response of the IP control valves in relation to
the HP control valves.
If the condition Turbine load less than set
minimum load and the ratio of HP exhaust
steam pressure to main steam pressure
greater than a set value is fulfilled, e.g.
after a load rejection, solenoid valve
MAX42AA051 is de-energised, thereby
cutting off the flow of control medium to the
regulating cylinders and allowing the control
medium under the pistons to drain off. The
pistons are moved into their lower end
position by the restoring springs and the
springs of follow-up pistons KA02 are
adjusted so that the IP control valves do not
begin to open until the HP control valves
have opened to a greater extent, with the
result that the HP exhaust steam temperature
is lowered.
For operation of the plant without the HP and
LP bypass stations, a manual adjusting
mechanism KA11 is also provided for
adjusting the relationship between the valves
such that the reheat valves open before the
main steam valves. Under these operating
conditions, solenoid valve MAX42AA051 is
energised and an interlock is provided to
prevent de-energisation.
This adjustment may only be performed
manually and must always be performed on
both follow-up piston batteries MAX45BY001
and MAX45BY011, to ensure that changeover from hydraulic to electro-hydraulic
control and vice versa is possible at all times.
This manual adjustment must always be
reversed before the HP or LP bypass station
is brought into operation.

Steam Turbine
Description

The electrical speed signals originate from


the electrical speed transducers which
consist of four ferromagnetic type speed
probes, MAY01CS011 to 014 (one as spare)
and a toothed wheel with 60 teeth made
around its circumference located on the
main oil pump shaft.
The teeth of the wheel act upon the four
stationary speed probes. When turbine
rotates, square wave signals are generated
in the probes. The frequency of these
voltages is proportional to the rotational
speed of the turbine. The output of these
speed probes are fed to the input modules
which provide digital output signals.
The three values for the rotational speed
obtained by this process are continuously
monitored for failures. If one of the speed
probes fail, the control circuit continues to
operate without interruption, using two

BHEL Hardwar

Control System
Electrical Speed Measuring

remaining speed probes. The output is then


fed to the speed measuring unit, electrohydraulic controller and speed target unit.
The speed-measuring unit incorporates two
speed ranges. The lower range covers 0360 rpm and the upper range 0-3600 rpm.
The changeover from one range to the other
is completely automatic.
A speed indicator mounted on the hydraulic
control equipment rack provides local
speed-readings. Indicating lights located
near the speed indicator show which range
is engaged.
From the speed-measuring unit, speed
signals are also provided to the turbine
stress evaluator/controller, automatic turbine
tester and recorders. Output signals are
available for purchasers remote speed
indicators and functional group automatic
(FGA).

5.1-0621-02

Steam Turbine
Description
Overspeed Trip
Two overspeed trips MAY10 AA001 and 002
are provided to trip/shut down the turbine in
the event of overspeed. Each trip device
consists of an eccentric bolt/striker fitted in
the emergency governor shaft with its center
of gravity displaced from the axis of rotation
and held In position against centrifugal force
by a spring up to an adjustable preset speed
of 10 to 12 % above the normal turbine
operating speed. At the preset overspeed,
centrifugal force overcomes the spring force
and the eccentric bolt/striker flies outwards
into its extended position. In doing so it
strikes the pawl which releases the piston of
the overspeed trip release device KA01.
Through combined spring force and fluid
pressure, the piston opens the auxiliary trip
fluid circuit to the main trip valves MAX51
AA005 and MAX51AA006.
Thrust-Bearing Trip
Thrust bearing trips MAD12CY011/012/013
are tripped electrically in the event of
excessive axial displacement of the turbine
shaft.
Pressure Switch
Installed in the trip fluid circuit are two
pressure switches MAX51CP011 and
MAX51CP012 which bridge the longtime
delayed relays of the reverse-power
protection system in such a way that the
generator is shut down by response of the
short-time delayed relays as soon as it
begins to motor. The annunciation Turbine
trip initiated is transmitted simultaneously to
the control room.
Remote Solenoid Trip
Remote solenoid trip is activated via
solenoid valves MAX52 AA001 and MAX52
AA002. The remote solenoid trip may be
initiated manually from the control room by
push button, by the electrical low-vacuum
trip or the thrust bearing trip or other
protective devices.

BHEL Hardwar

Protective Devices

Low-Vacuum Trip for Turbine Protection


An increase of pressure in the condenser
causes the valve of low-vacuum trip MAG01
AA011 to move downwards from its upper
position under the force of the pre-tensioned
spring. This action depressurizes the space
below the right-hand valve. The right-hand
valve is moved into its lower position by a
spring and thus opens the auxiliary trip fluid
circuit. Opening the auxiliary trip fluid circuit
depressurizes the fluid below the differential
pistons of main trip valves MAX51AA005
and MAX51AA006 and the differential
pistons are activated by a spring. This
closes the control fluid inlet to the trip fluid
circuit and at the same time opens the main
trip fluid circuit to drain, causing the trip fluid
pressure to drop and all stop and control
valves of the turbine to close. Limit switch
MAG01CG011B signals to the control room
that the low-vacuum trip is not in its normal
operational position. Limit switch MAG01
CG011C indicates in the control room that
turbine trip has been initiated by the lowvacuum trip.
To make it possible to latch-in the trip
devices and thus to build up trip fluid
pressure for adjusting and testing the control
loop or similar purposes when the turbine is
shut down and no vacuum exists, the lowvacuum trip has an auxiliary piston which is
loaded with primary oil pressure above the
adjustable compression spring. When the
turbine is shut down there is no primary oil
pressure and so the auxiliary piston is
unable
to
tension
the
adjustable
compression spring arranged above the
diaphragm system. The spring below the
diaphragm system lifts the valve, closing the
auxiliary trip fluid circuit so that the trip
devices can be latched in.
As soon as the turbine is started up and
brought up to speed, primary oil enters the
space above the auxiliary piston, forcing in
into its lower end position at a turbine speed
far below rated speed. Thus the low-vacuum
trip is reset for initiation of turbine trip before
the turbine has reached rated speed.

5.1-0630-01/1

Solenoid Valves for Load Shedding Relay


Solenoid valves MAX45 AA001 and MAX46
AA011 are provided to prevent the turbine
from reaching trip-out speed in the event of
a sudden load rejection. These solenoid
valves are actuated by the load shedding
relay if the rate of load drop relative to time
exceeds a predetermined value. Solenoid
valve MAX45AA001 opens the IP secondary
fluid circuit directly. Solenoid valve MAX46
AA011 opens the auxiliary secondary fluid
circuit. Pilot valve KA07 of hydraulic
converter MAX45BY011 moves upward and
allows the control fluid to flow to the area
below piston KA08 of the converter. Piston
KA08 moves to its upper end position,
thereby depressurizing all secondary fluid
circuits.
Since the reheat IP secondary fluid circuit
opens directly, the IP control valves (which
control the major portion of the power
output) close without any appreciable delay.
A small delay is involved in closing all other
control valves by depressurizing the
auxiliary secondary fluid circuit, but his
action is still performed before an increase
in turbine speed causes the speed controller
to respond. At the same time, the extraction
check valves, which are dependent on
secondary fluid via extraction valve relay
MAX51AA011, close.
After an adjustable interval, the solenoid
valves are reclosed, permitting secondary
fluid pressures corresponding to the reduced
load to build up again.
Turbine Trip Gear
The trip fluid is taken from the control fluid

5.1-0630-01/2

via main trip valve MAX51AA005 and


MAX51AA006 and flows both to the
secondary fluid circuits and to the stop
valves
MAA10+20AA001
and
MAB10+20AA001. The main trip valves
serve to rapidly reduce the fluid pressure in
the trip fluid circuit. If the pressure below the
differential piston of main trip valves MAX51
AA005 and MAX51AA006 drops below a
preset adjustable value, the piston in each
valve is forced downwards by the spring,
opening the drain passage for the trip fluid
and closing the control fluid inlet.
If the pressure in the trip fluid circuit drops
below a predetermined value, spring loading
separates the upper and lower pistons of
main stop valves MAA10+20 AA001 and
reheat stop valves MAB10+20 AA001, and
all the stop valves close very rapidly. At the
same time, the control valves and extraction
check valves also close, as the secondary
fluid circuits are fed from the trip fluid circuit.
Thus on trip initiation, all turbine stop and
control valves close.
Manual local Trip Method of Initiating
Turbine Trip
Manual local initiation of turbine trip is
performed by way of local trip valve MAX52
AA005. The valve must be pressed
downwards manually, thus opening the drain
passage for the auxiliary trip fluid. The two
limit switches MAX52CG005C and MAX52
CG005E indicate in the control room that trip
has been initiated locally by hand.

Steam Turbine
Description

Overspeed Trip Test

Testing with Turbine under Load


Condition
Overspeed trips MAY10 AA001 and 002 can
be tested using test device MAX62AA001
with the turbine running under load or noload conditions. To operate the test device,
pilot valve KA03 is first pushed downwards
and held in this position. This isolates the
auxiliary trip medium circuit from the
overspeed trips and prevents the main trip
being initiated by the overspeed trips.
Subsequent operation of hand-wheel KA01
moves the center pilot valve downwards.
This action blocks the drain and allows the
control oil to flow through the center bore of
the pump shaft into overspeed trips. The
control oil pressure thus builds up and
moves the eccentric bolts/strikers outwards
against the spring force, releasing the pawls
of the overspeed trip releasing device, as a
results of which the pilot valve moves rapidly
inwards. The pressure in the auxiliary rip
medium circuit, up to the over speed trip test
device, then collapses. Operation is followed
by observing the reading at pressure gauge
MAX52CP501.

When this happened, pilot valve KA02 must


be pushed downwards to admit control
medium into the auxiliary start-up medium
circuit to the differential pilot valve of the
overspeed trip device. The pilot valve moves
towards the right and latches the overspeed
trip device in again.

The trip pressure is read off at pressure


gauge MAX62CP501. If during operation at
rated speed, this pressure should deviate
from the baseline value as recorded in the
test report, a defect in the overspeed trip
may be assumed. If the trip pressure is too
high, the bolt may be made to move freely
by rapidly operating the pilot valve by means
of hand-wheel KA01 several times in
succession. If this measure does not have
the desired result, the turbine must be shut
down and the emergency governor to be
inspected.

Testing with Turbine under No-Load


Condition
Overspeed trips MAY10AA001 and 002
must be tested at regular intervals by
running the unloaded turbine up to trip
speed. This is done by operating lever KA07
of hydraulic speed governor MAX46BY001,
which presses linkage KA03 downwards,
thus increasing the secondary medium
pressures. This causes the control valves to
open and the turbine starts to overspeed.
The actual speed at which trip occurs can be
read off at pressure gauge MAX44CP501.

As soon as the auxiliary trip medium


pressure drops to 0 at pressure gauge
MAX52CP501, the center pilot valve must
be returned to its original position using
hand-wheel KA01. The pressure in the test
line should then return to 0, as can be read
off at pressure gauge MAX62CP501. The
bolts/strikers of the overspeed trips should
return to their original position.

BHEL Hardwar

The buildup of pressure in the auxiliary startup medium circuit between the overseed trip
test device and the overspeed trip release
device can be followed at pressure gauge
MAX48CP501. When pilot valve KA02 is
then released, the auxiliary start-up medium
pressure returns to 0 pressure. The auxiliary
trip medium pressure must then remain at its
full value (readable at pressure gauge
MAX52CP501). If this is the case, pilot valve
KA03 may be released. The test is
completed. If, when valve KA02 is released,
the auxiliary trip medium pressure collapses,
pilot valve KA02 must be pushed
downwards again and must be held in this
position a little longer. It is essential that the
auxiliary trip medium pressure must remain
steady before valve KA03 is released.

Limit switches MAY10CG001&002C of


overspeed trip release device MAY10
AA001 and 002 indicate in the control room
that main trip valves MAX51AA005 and
MAX51AA006 have been actuated by
overspeed protective device.

5.1-0631-01

Steam Turbine
Description
Main Steam Stop Valves
The stop valves can be tested for freedom of
movement independently of each other even
during operation with the aid of the test
valves MAX47AA011 to 012 attached to
each of them. The main stop valves MAA10
and 20AA001 may only be tested at a load
that is less than 80% of the maximum
output.
If the test is conducted with the initial
pressure controller out of operation, the
main stop valves may only travel out of the
open position to about 50% closed at the
most and are to be reopened immediately. If
the initial pressure controller is in operation
complete closure of a main stop valve may
be performed. This, however, is conditional
upon the response time of the initial
pressure controller being high enough to
keep the initial pressure constant even
during the testing procedure.
First the main control valve concerned
MAA10 or 20AA002, is to be closed by
pressing of pushbutton in the supply unit. If
in operation, the initial pressure controller
opens the other main control valve
accordingly. Once the control valve has
been closed the stop valve can be closed. It
is to be reopened immediately.

BHEL Hardwar

Testing of Stop Valves

The main control valves may be closed for


testing purposes for not longer than 4 to 5
minutes so that the unbalanced steam flow
is only present for a short period to avoid
significant effects on the HP turbine casing.
It is a precondition for testing the main stop
valves that there should be a mixing header
in the steam leads between the boiler and
the stop valves.
Reheat Stop Valves
Testing of a reheat stop valve must be
conducted at a power output at which the
reheat control valves MAB10 and 20 AA002
are fully open. First the associated reheat
control valve is to be closed by pressing of
pushbutton in the supply unit. Then the
reheat stop valve MAB10 or 20 AA001 is
closed by actuating test valve MAX47AA021
and 022 and reopened. On completion of
the test the reheat control valve is to be
reopened.
As for the main steam stop valves it is a
precondition for testing the reheat stop
valves that there should be a mixing header
in the steam leads between the boiler and
the stop valves.

5.1-0632-01

Steam Turbine
Description
Function
The function of the LP bypass control
system (EHA Type) is to monitor the
pressure in the reheat system and to control
it under certain operating conditions. During
start-up and shutdown, and at operation
below minimum boiler load, the volume of
steam not utilized by the IP and LP cylinders
of the turbine must be bypassed to the
condenser via the LP bypass valves. This
requires the bypass control system to
maintain the pressure in the reheater
constant in accordance with the preset
reference value. In
the event of
disturbances, e.g. load shedding or trip out,
the amount of excess reheat steam
bypassed to the condenser.
Hydraulic Power Supply Unit (HPSU)
The hydraulic unit serves to supply the
necessary pressurized fluid to the actuators.
The hydraulic power unit has two pumps.
One pump is always in operation and the
other is stand-by.
Two nos. filtration circuits are provided in
order to maintain the cleanliness of system
for proper functioning of hydraulic system.
Hydraulic fluid, a phosphate ester is chosen
for high pressure hydraulic system, which
ensures good fire protection. The fluid has
good lubricating properties and allows a
comparatively easy maintenance.
A regeneration unit for hydraulic fluid is
provided to maintain its properties/quality.
Electro-hydraulic Actuator for LP Bypass
Stop Valve

LP Bypass System
(General)
Electro-hydraulic Actuator for LP Bypass
Control Valve
The LP bypass control valve actuator is an
electro-hydraulic actuator with an external
control fluid supply from centralized
Hydraulic Power Unit (HPSU). The control
block converts the electrical signal from the
controller into flow of hydraulic fluid. It
controls the intake and discharge of
hydraulic fluid to and from the piston
chambers of the actuator in a continuous
mode, thus permitting very precise
positioning of the actuator. The control block
will position the valve as well as block the
cylinder in case of hydraulic fluid failure.
Water Injection System
During LP Bypass operation a part or entire
steam flow produced by boiler is routed to
the condenser. In order that the condensate
pumps do not have to supply the injection
water flow required for the full boiler capacity
and to prevent the amount of excess water
flow becoming too high, under normal startup and shut down conditions, a regulating
type water injection system to optimize the
water quantity to be mixed with LP Bypass
steam is provided.
Actuator for water injection valve may be
hydraulic or pneumatic type.
A separate flow controller is provided to
regulate the spray water valve.

Note:- This is a general description of LP


Bypass System (EHA Type). Refer O&M
manual supplied alongwith equipments
by vendor for detail description.

The LP bypass stop valve actuator is an


electro-hydraulic actuator with an external
control fluid supply from centralized
Hydraulic Power Supply Unit (HPSU). The
unit is designed to operate a single acting
cylinder with a spring in closing direction.
The unit has a solenoid valve for opening &
closing of stop valve and two trip solenoid
valves for fail close/positive close function.
Operation of any one trip solenoid valve is
sufficient to close the stop valve.

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0640-01-1

Steam Turbine
Description

The function of extraction check valves


LBQ50, LBS21, LBS31, LBS41 and LBS42
AA001and 002 is to prevent the backflow of
steam into the turbine from the extraction
lines and the feed water heaters.
Two free-swinging check valves are
installed in each extraction lines A2, A3, A4
and A5. In the event of flow reversal in the
extraction
lines,
the
valves
close
automatically, whereby actuator KA01
assists the closing movement of the disc.
The mechanical design of the swing check
valves is such that they are brought into the
free -swinging position by means of trip fluid
pressure via actuator KA01 and the disc is
moved into the steam flow by means of
spring force acting via the lever, shaft and
disc lever and closes if differential pressure
is either lowered or reversed.
The trip supply to actuator KA01 is
controlled by extraction valve relay MAX51
AA011, changeover valves MAX51AA028,
MAX51AA031 etc.
Extraction valve relay MAX51 AA011
actuates the swing check valves in
accordance with the secondary fluid
pressure, suitable adjustment of the spring
in relation to piston KA02 sets the turbine
load at which the swing check valves are
released for opening or assisted in closing.
The release setting for opening cannot be
arbitrarily adjusted towards higher turbine
output, as the swing check valve will open
even without the release action if the steam
pressure difference exerts a greater force
than the closing spring.

Extraction Check Valve

there is a danger that the contents of the


feed water heaters will flash into steam. In
this case, closure of the swing check valves
is assisted for a short time by means of
pistons KA01 of auxiliary slide valve MAX51
AA011. In normal operation pilot valve KA01
passes trip oil to pilot valve KA02. In the
event of an abrupt output drop, the pressure
on the top side of pilot valve KA01 drops,
where as depressurization beneath the
piston is delayed by a check valve and the
pressure in fluid accumulator MAX45BB001.
The resulting differential pressure moves the
piston upward to interrupt the trip fluid supply
to the swing check valves, whose closing
movement is assisted by the spring force of
actuator via a flow restrictor. The pilot valve
moves back into its original position to open
the way for the trip fluid to release the swing
check valves.
Turning the handwheel on the changeover
valves MAX51AA048, MAX51AA051 etc.
close the associated swing check valves
within the bounds of the effectiveness of the
spring.
The swing check valve in extraction lines A4
can also be triggered by differential pressure
switch LBS42CP002. This differential
pressure switches energizes solenoid valves
MAX51AA028 and MAX51AA031 if the
steam flow drops below a preset rate
(differential pressure), thereby further
assisting the closing action of the swing
check valve.
The position of all swing check valves is
indicated via position transmitters-CG001A
and CG002A.

In the event of major output drops above


the opening point of the swing check valves,

BHEL Hardwar

5.1-0650-01

Steam Turbine
Description
In order that the turbine may be completely
separated from the steam when it is
stationary, an additional check valve
LBC10 AA001 is fitted in the line between
the HP cylinder and the reheater and
operating through pilot valve MAX42AA001
+002 and the rotary actuator KA01
depending on the pressure in the
associated secondary medium circuit. The
swing check valve opens fully when the
control valves reached approx. 5 to 10% of
their full-power travel. Only when the
control valves reach this point again as
they are being closed, the swing check
valve brought into steam flow again by the
hydraulic actuator. Thus when the steam
flow in the normal direction ceases, the

BHEL Hardwar

Swing Check Valve


Cold reheat steam line
check valve is closed by the actuator KA01
and prevent the steam in the cold reheat line
from returning to the turbine. By removing the
valve from the steam flow during operation
above 5 to 10% of maximum power,
additional pressure losses during normal
operation are avoided. If, during start-up, the
steam pressure on the inlet side of the valve
and at the same time the secondary medium
pressure is not yet sufficient to open the
valve, the steam pressure will open the swing
check valve against the medium pressure in
the manner of a safety valve.
The Open and Control position of the swing
check valve are indicated in the control room
via the limit switches.

5.1-0651-01

Steam Turbine
Description

The check valve LBC10AA001 in cold


reheat line is wide open during normal
operation
by
its
associated
rotary
servomotor KA01. For testing the movability,
the check valve can be moved in closing
direction by interrupting the connection
between pilot valve MAX42 AA002 and HP
secondary fluid line with closing of shut-off
valve MAX45AA566 (pilot valve and shut-off
valve are installed in the turbine hydraulic
control rack).
By closing the shut-off valve the pilot valve
MAX42AA002 is reversing and rotary
servomotor is moving the check valves in
closing direction. Because the torque of
these servomotor is limited, the check
valves can not be closed completely. This

BHEL Hardwar

Testing of Check Valves


in Cold Reheat Line
can be brought only in an intermediate
position.
When the check valve starts moving, the
open position limit switch will change
position, which is indicated in the control
room. With this indicator the regular
movement of the check valve can be
checked after closing shut-off valve
MAX45AA566 nearby upto this value. After
this check the shut-off valve has to be
reopened. The check valve is moved then in
its wide-open position. At the position
indicator in the control room it can be
checked if the check valve has reached
again its wide-open position.

5.1-0652-01

Steam Turbine
Description

Function
Healthiness of the protective devices and the
stop and control valves is vitally important for
the operational reliability and availability of
the turbine. Hence, it is essential that these
equipments are always kept in a fully
serviceable condition. Economy has dictated
longer intervals between turbine overhauls,
with the result that testing of the equipments
and devices is now necessary at regular
intervals during normal operation.
There are manually operated devices for
testing the free operation of the stop and
control valves. However, these tests do not
cover all components involved in an
automatic trip with the result that the
conditions only party corresponds to those
prevailing during a real trip.
The system
Any possible mal-operation associated with
manually operated devices are avoided with
fully automatic tests by means of the
automatic turbine tester. Full protection for
the turbine during testing is also assured by
suitable circuit arrangements. This increases
the operational reliability and availability of
the plant.
The automatic turbine tester is realised in
digital technology.
System adaptation
The system is subdivided into functional
groups for each device. Each group contains
the device itself and all necessary
transmission elements for initiation of a
normal trip.
The automatic turbine tester is divided into
the following 2 subgroups:

BHEL Hardwar

Automatic Turbine Tester


General

1. Protective devices
Description:
Automatic
Turbine
Tester, Protective device.
2. Main stop and control valves
Description: Automatic Turbine tester,
stop and control valves.
The complete testing of all components
which must operate when an automatic trip
becomes necessary is assured, despite the
subdivision into two testing groups
(protective devices, stop and control
valves), because the main trip valves which
store the trip signal by mechanical hydraulic
means are operated together with each
protective
device
and
subsequent
satisfactory reduction of the trip oil pressure
after the valves are monitored.
Nature of the description
The descriptions mentioned above contain
the practical sequence of the tests on the
individual devices and gives details of
possible irregularities. The description of
equipment contained in the automatic
control cubicle (stepping switches, interlock
modules, etc), the control panel in the
control room and schematic circuit diagrams
are contained in the separate electrical
section of the Operating Manual for the
automatic turbine tester.
For the understanding of the automatic
turbine tester from these descriptions it is
assumed that the reader is fully conversant
with the functioning of the individual
protective devices and valves within the
overall turbine governing and protection
system.

5.1-0660-00

Steam Turbine
Description

Scope of Testing
The Automatic turbine tester (ATT)
subgroup for the protective devices is
divided into a preliminary test and the
following four individual testing systems.
 Remote trip solenoid MAX52AA001
 Remote trip solenoid MAX52AA002
 Over speed trips MAY10AA001/MAY10
AA002
 Low vacuum trip MAG01AA011
One or more systems can be selected for
testing at the control panel and the selection
is stored. The start of the test program
automatically causes a preliminary test to be
carried out on the protective channels which
are to be effective during actual testing and
then establishes the test circuit. Once the
first test selected has been completed and
the protective device has latched in again,
the test circuit is restored to its normal
operational configuration. Further selected
tests must be started individually by
pressing the Test push-button to start the
program.
General
During normal operation, the protective
devices act via main trip valves MAX51
AA005 and MAX 51AA006 on the stop and
control valves and extraction swing check
valves. The remote trip solenoids MAX52
AA001 and MAX52 AA002, over speed trips
MAY10AA001/MAY10AA002
and
low
vacuum trip MAG01AA011 actuate main trip
valves MAX51AA005 and MAX51AA006 by
opening the auxiliary trip fluid circuit.
For the duration of testing of the protective
devices, a test circuit is established .In order
to keep the trip fluid circuit effective, it is
isolated from main trip valves MAX51 AA005
and MAX51AA006 by means of change-over
valve MAX51AA211 and supplied with fluid
via solenoid valves MAX51AA201 and
MAX51AA202 (remote trip during testing).

BHEL Hardwar

Automatic Turbine Tester


for Protective Device

Trip Initiation during Testing


To provide normal protection for the turbine
during testing, any trip initiation signals from
the protective devices will de-energize the
solenoid valves for remote trip during testing
and the same time initiate the reset
program. This also applies to all normal
electrical remote trips such as generator
protection, etc. For the duration of testing,
two electrical speed signals are formed to
provide
protection
against
turbine
overspend.
During all electrical testing of the protective
devices, the electric trip action is prevented
however, all annunciations are activated as
for actual trip. The appropriate section of the
alarm annunciation system is thus also
tested.
Features of the Automatic Turbine Tester
The automatic turbine tester is distinguished
by the following features:
 Individual testing
protective device.

of

each

turbine

 Automatic testing, upon selection of a


test, of the devices that protect the
turbine during that test.
Testing of the protective devices for
normal turbine operation can only be
performed if the preliminary test has run
without fault and the protection of the
turbine during testing is assured.
 Monitoring of all program steps for
execution within a certain time.
 Interruption if the running time of any
program step is exceeded or if trip is
initiated.
 Automatic reset of the test program after
a fault.
 Protection of the turbine during testing
provided by special test protective
devices.

5.1-0661-00/1

Setting Data
The setting data for the pressure switches
are listed in the setting record Measuring
Point List. The actually set values are
logged in the Commissioning Test
Record.The test running times, etc. are
entered in the functional diagrams.
Test Sequence
Start of Testing
The test begins with the selection of the
protective devices subgroup. This is
performed by pressing the subgroup On/Off
push button.
The subgroup remains on until switched off
when the program has been completed.
While the protective devices subgroup
program is running, the other subgroups are
blocked.
The On/Off push-button is also used to
acknowledge alarms.
Selection
After the subgroup has been switched on,
the protective device to be tested is selected
by pressing the selection push button for the
individual device.
A separate selection push-button is provided
for each protective device. Only one
selection may be made at a time. Selection
of a further test is possible only once all
other programs have ended
Test Push-Button
The automatic test program is started by
pressing the Test push-button
Cancel Push-Button
This push-button can be used to terminate
the test program running at any time and to
initiate the reset program. The reset
program has priority over the test program.
Lamp Test Push-Button
All the signal lamps on the control panel can
be tested by pressing the Lamp Test PushButton.

5.1-0661-00/2

Individual Tests
The individual test is performed after
completion of the preliminary test and after
the test circuit has been established.
Successful completion of each individual
test is annunciated by the limit switches on
main trip valves MAX51AA005 and MAX51
AA006, pressure switch MAX52CP211 in
the auxiliary trip fluid circuit and pressure
switch MAX 51CP209 in the trip fluid circuit
between change-over valve MAX51AA211
and the main trip valve MAX51AA006. The
associated limit switch also annunciates
when a protective device (except for the
remote trip solenoids) has been activated.
On completion of each individual test, all
activated protective devices are returned to
their normal operating position by reset
solenoid valves MAX48AA201 and MAX48
AA202 and the test circuit is deactivated.
Whenever several of the same types of
protective device are provided, only one will
be described in the following, as the test
procedure is the same for all.
Preliminary Test
Pressing the Test push-button automatically
initiates a test of the protective circuits to be
effective during testing.
Function
The function of the preliminary test is to
detect any faults in the protective circuits to
be used during testing, and, if any are
detected, to inhibit testing of the protective
device, as this would leave the turbine
without protection.
Test Sequence
In the course of the preliminary test,
solenoid valves MAX51AA201 and MAX51
AA202 (remote trip during testing) are
automatically tested before the test circuit is
established. These valves (MAX51AA201
and MAX51AA202) are first energized,
resulting in a buildup of control fluid
upstream of changeover valve MAX51AA
211.lnitiation of Schmitt triggers (in the
speed
measuring
unit)
de-energizes
solenoid valve MAX51AA201 and the control

fluid up stream of changeover valve MAX51


AA211 is drained. Successful completion of
testing is annunciated by pressure switch
MAX51CP207 between solenoid valve MAX
51AA201 and changeover valve MAX51AA
211. Subsequently, solenoid valve MAX51
AA202 is de-energized via the second
channel of its Schmitt trigger, thereby
depressurizing the control fluid still present
between solenoid valves MAX51AA201 and
MAX51AA202. This process is monitored by
pressure
switch
MAX51CP205.
On
successful completion of the preliminary
test, the test circuit is automatically
established, which permits realistic testing of
the protective devices without initiating
turbine trip.
Solenoid valves MAX51AA201 and MAX51
AA202 (for remote trip during testing) are
again energized whereupon control fluid is
supplied to change over valve MAX51
AA211. Then solenoid valve MAX61AA201
is energized, effecting changeover from trip
fluid to control fluid. The control fluid in this
line drains off, and the pressure difference
drives changeover valve MAX51AA211 into
its test position (lower end position), thereby

actuating limit switch MAX51CG211C which


annunciates this status.
De-activating the Test Circuit
The test circuit is deactivated in the reverse
order on completion of the selected test and
after automatic latching of the protective
device concerned in its normal operating
position.
Hydraulic Test Signal Transmitters
The function of the hydraulic test signal
transmitters is to activate the related
protective device (with the exception of the
remote trip solenoids). Each protective
device has an associated test signal
transmitter. For testing the over speed trip
device, the associated test signal transmitter
builds up a test pressure relatively slowly
and passes it to the overspeed trips, for
testing the low vacuum trip, an air pressure
signal is introduced to the device via an
orifice. The testing signals to remote trip
solenoids MAX52AA001 and MAX52AA002

are formed within the automatic turbine


tester itself and not by a test signal
transmitter.

5.1-0661-00/3

Main Trip Valves


MAX 51 AA005 and MAX 51 AA006
Only one of the two main trip valves is
described in the following, as they are
constructional and functionally identical.

Function
The function of the main trip valve is to
amplify and store the hydraulic or
mechanical (manually initiated local) trip
signal. It must respond in the course of
every successful protective device test.
Operation
Each main trip valve is kept in its position by
auxiliary trip fluid pressure. If a protective
device is actuated, the auxiliary trip fluid
circuit is depressurized and the main trip
valve is activated. This connects the trip fluid
and auxiliary trip circuits to drain and shuts

off the control fluid supply to the turbine


valves. At the same time, limit switch 1 is
actuated.
Auxiliary start-up fluid pressure forces
differential piston (3) into its normal
operating position. Control fluid IV is then
free to pass through to buildup the pressure
in the trip fluid and auxiliary trip fluid circuits.

5.1-0661-00/4

Pressure switches MAX48CP201 and


MAX48CP202 monitor the orderly pressure
collapse of auxiliary start-up fluid circuit after
latching-in of main trip valves.
Attention: The lever for manual actuation of
the main trip valve must not be test operated
during turbine automatic testing operation,
as the electrical trip action is always initiated
via the manual trip-out limit switch.
Remote Trip Solenoids
MAX52 AA001 and MAX52 AA002
The twin electrical remote trip feature
consists of the two remote trip solenoid
valves MAX52AA001 and MAX52AA002.
0ne trip channel is described here, as the
test procedure is the same for both.
Function
The function of the remote trip solenoids is
to depressurize the auxiliary trip fluid circuit
in the shortest possible time, thereby
bringing main trip valves MAX51AA005 and
MAX51AA006 into their trip positions, in the

event of a malfunction requiring electrical


trip initiation.
During normal operation, the remote trip
solenoid isolates the auxiliary trip fluid circuit
from the drain. For testing, the automatic
turbine
tester
switches
over
the

solenoid valve so that the auxiliary trip fluid


circuit is connected to drain. Trip initiation is
monitored downstream of the main trip
valves by pressure switches MAX51CP209
and MAX52CP211 in the auxiliary trip fluid
circuit. In addition, the limit switch of each
main trip valve must annunciate successful
completion of the test.
Latching -in
On successful completion of testing, remote
trip solenoids MAX52AA001 and MAX52
AA002 are de-energized. The reset program
is then started.

Overspeed Trips
MAY10AA001/MAY10AA002
Function
The two over speed trips are provided to
protect the turbine against over speeding in
the event of load rejection coincident with
failure of the speed controller. As they are
particularly important to the protection of the
turbine, they can also be locally tested by
manually with the aid of the over speed trip
test device MAX62AA001 (hydraulic test
signal transmitter) during turbine operation
at rated speed. (For description see Over
Speed Trip Test).

Operation
When the preset over speed is reached, the
eccentric flybolt/striker (2) of each over
speed trip activates piston (5) and limit
switch (6) annunciate via pawl (4). This
connects the auxiliary trip fluid circuit to

drain, thereby depressurizing it. The loss of


auxiliary trip fluid pressure causes the main
trip valve to drop which in turn causes the
trip fluid pressure to collapse.
To activate the over speed trip at rated
speed, as the test routine performed by the
automatic turbine tester requires, a specific
force, equivalent to the increase in
centrifugal force between rated speed and
preset trip over speed, is needed .For
testing, this force is exerted by the test oil
pressure, acting on the flybolt /striker (2) .On
the basic of the existing defined geometry,
the test oil is reproducible measure for the
trip speed, and can therefore be used to
check whether the over speed trip responds
at the desired setting.
Test Sequence
The test oil pressure is produced using the
hydraulic test signal transmitter, which is
also used for manual testing. First the
command is given to the actuator motor to
go into the trip position (down). After a
certain idling time, the test oil pressure
builds up to act on the two over speed trip
flybolts/strikers (2).
If the two bolts are functioning correctly, they
will fly outwards into the trip position when
the defined pressure is reached, thereby
activating the main trip valve via pawl (4),
piston (5) and the auxiliary trip fluid circuit.
The two over speed trips are monitored for
activation at the given test oil pressure by

the two pressure switches MAX62CP211


and MAX62CP212 in the test oil line, and
the limit switch (6). Pressure switches MAX
62CP211 and MAX62CP212 are preset to
respond at a certain level (approx.O.15 bar)
below and above the test oil reference

5.1-0661-00/5

pressure respectively. This test oil reference


pressure
is
determined
during
commissioning
and entered
in the
commissioning test record. Limit switch (6)
must respond within the pressure range
between the settings of pressure switches
MAX62CP211 and MAX62CP212. A slow
buildup of pressure is required for this
operation, that is why a relatively long
monitoring period equivalent to the running
time of the actuator, has to be selected.
Premature response of the over speed trips
is annunciated.
Latching-in
Once the trip has been initiated, the actuator
of the hydraulic test signal transmitter is
driven back until the limit switch annunciates
that normal position has been reached.
Monitoring must be continued until the test
oil pressure at pressure switch MAX62
CP213 is less than 0.1 bar.

operation, the pressure in the turbine


condenser exceed a preset valve.
Operation
When the condenser pressure exceeds the
adjusted limit, the piston (6) is moved
downwards by this pressure, which acts
against diaphragm {4), and the spring force
(3). Thereby pressure below piston (7) drops
and this piston moves in its lower end
position by spring force connecting the
auxiliary trip fluid circuit to the drain. The
resultant depressurization of the auxiliary
trip fluid circuit actuates main trip valves
MAX51AA005 and MAX51AA006, thereby
closing all turbine valves.

This double check-back of the hydraulic test


signal transmitter having returned to normal
position ensures that, after completion of
testing, the over speed at which the turbine
will trip is not reduced due to test oil
pressure remaining effective and that the
over speed trip will not be set off
prematurely in the event of load reduction.
While test oil pressure is decreased, the two
over speed flybolts/strikers spring back into
their normal positions at a pressure well
above 0.5 bar.
Subsequently, piston (5) is brought back into
its normal position by the pressure of
auxiliary start-up fluid II and latched-in with
pawl (4). At the same time, piston (5) shuts
off drain channel IV, so auxiliary trip fluid III
can build up pressure. Once this has been
done, the auxiliary start-up fluid can be
depressurized.

Low Vacuum Trip


MAGO1 AAO11
Function
The function of the low vacuum trip is to
operate the main trip valve if, during normal

5.1-0661-00/6

Test sequence
After energizing of test signal transmitter
(solenoid valve) MAG01AA201, fitted in the
signal line to the condenser, this signal line
is blocked off and simultaneously the space
above diaphragm (4) is connected to
atmosphere. The air flow via orifice causes a
slow increase of pressure by which the
pistons (6) and (7) move to their trip position
connecting the auxiliary trip fluid circuit to
the drain.

The low vacuum trip is monitored for


operation within the specified vacuum range
by observing pressure switches MAG01
CP202 and MAG01CP204.
Latching-in
When test signal transmitter (solenoid valve)
MAG01AA201 has been de-energized and
the connection between low vacuum trip and
the condenser re-established, condenser
pressure builds up again above diaphragm
(4). Piston (6) moves into its upper end
position thereby opening the passage for the
control fluid flow to piston (7). When piston
(7) is in its upper end position, the auxiliary
trip fluid circuit is closed again. Restoration
of normal operating configuration is
annunciated by the limit switch of the low
vacuum trip and by pressure switches
MAG01CP201

Dispersion of the auxiliary start-up fluid


pressure is monitored by pressure switch
MAX48CP201. The second reset solenoid
MAX48 AA202 is then de-energized to
disperse the pressure between the twosolenoid valves. This is monitored by
pressure switch MAX48 CP202. The use of
two reset solenoids ensures that main trip
valve MAX51AA005 and MAX51AA006 and
over speed trip will always be sure to be
actuated if either one of the two reset
solenoids is de-energized.

Reset Solenoids
MAX48 AA201 and MAX48 AA202
Function
The function of the reset solenoids is to
restore the tripped protective devices to their
normal operating positions during the ATT
reset program.
Operation
The reset solenoids are two 2/3-way
solenoid valves, fitted in the auxiliary startup fluid line. Both solenoid valves are
energized in the course of the reset program
conducted after each subtest, so that
auxiliary start-up fluid II is supplied with
control fluid III. The control fluid pressure
forces all protective devices back into their
normal operating positions and the trip fluid
and auxiliary trip fluid pressure can build up
again.
When the protective devices have latched-in
again, reset solenoid MAX48AA021 is deenergized first to shut oft the control fluid
supply through this value.

1 Compression
spring
2 Coil
3 Valve disc

I Aux. start-up fluid


II Aux. start-up fluid
to protective devices
III Control fluid

Fig. 7 Reset Solenoid

5.1-0661-00/7

Steam Turbine
Description

The following description refers to a


standard stop and control valve assembly.
The same text applies analogously to both
the main stop and control valves and the
reheat stop and control valves. The valve
assembly described is drawn in the closed
position (ready for start-up).
General
The stop and control valves of the turbine
are the final control elements actuated by
the protective devices arid it is, therefore,
equally important that these, as well as the
protective
devices,
should
function
reliably. The testing of these valves in
conjunction with testing of the protective
devices, as already described in
Automatic Turbine Tester, General
ensures that all elements which must
respond on turbine trip are tested for their
ability to function reliably.
Each stop valve is tested together with its
associated control valve. The automatic
turbine tester is designed so that only one
valve assembly may be selected and
tested at any time.
Test Requirements
To avoid turbine output changes and initial
pressure variations due to the closing of
the control valve under test during ATT,
the electro-hydraulic turbine controller
must be in operation prior to testing. To
facilitate compensation by the controller,
the closing time of the control valves is
relatively long, and to enable initial
pressure to be maintained constant,
testing is only permissible when the
turbine output is below a certain value.
Special Conditions during Testing
The main stop and control valves may only
be tested if no other ATT subgroup is
running.
During testing the selected control valve
(MAA10+20AA002) is closed completely

BHEL Hardwar

Automatic Turbine Tester


Stop and Control Valves

by means of a motor operated actuator


(-AA002M) acting on pilot piston (KA06)
parallel to pilot value (KA05). This result in
a closing movement simulating that which
occurs when the associated secondary
fluid pressure drops. The resultant,
constant slow closing movement is
necessary in order to keep the output
constant. Thus the conditions for actuation
of the valve are the same during testing as
during normal actuation by the controller.
The stop valves, which are held in the
open position by trip fluid pressure during
normal operation, are subjected to exactly
the same hydraulic conditions during
testing as would be the case in the event
of actual turbine trip, as the action of the
protective devices is simulated by the
solenoid valve (MAX61AA211 and 212).
The steam side conditions during testing
are somewhat more severe than during
actual trip, as the pressure downstream of
the stop valve can not drop off during
closure because the control valve is
closed. This means that the steam
pressure acting against the spring closure
force is greater than in the event of normal
trip.
The automatic turbine tester intervenes
only in the fluid circuits normally used to
control the valves and uses only trip fluid
to actuate the test valves (MAX47AA011
and 012) and to reset and open the stop
valves. Thus closure of the valves cannot
be impeded in the event of a genuine trip
during testing, regardless of the stage,
which the test has reached. This also
applies to the control valves, as the ATT
does not interrupt the secondary fluid
circuit and secondary fluid can thus be
depressurized in the normal manner in the
event of a trip.
Features of Automatic Turbine Tester
The ATT has the following features:


Separate part-testing of each valve


assembly.

5.1-0662-01/1

 Time-related monitoring of all program


steps, and their implementation.
 Interruption due to running
exceeded or turbine trip.

time

Automatic reset of test program after a


fault.

Protection of the turbine during testing


provided by special test protective
circuits.

Setting Data
The setting data for the pressure switches
used to monitor the individual valve
movements are listed in the setting record
Pressure Switch settings. The actual set
values are logged in the Commissioning
Test Record. The test running times, etc.,
are entered in the functional diagram.
Test Selection Units
There are two nos. of combined main
steam and control valves and two nos.
of combined reheat stop and control
valves, each of which is tested as a
separate unit and has a separate selection
push-button on the ATT control panel.
They are as follows:
Selection1:
Main stop and control valve (LHS)
Selection 2:
Main stop and control valve (RHS)
Selection 3:
Reheat stop and control valve (LHS)
Selection 4:
Reheat stop and control valve (RHS)
Test Procedure
Start of Test
The test starts with the selection of
subgroups by pressing the On/Off pushbutton.
The subgroup remains on until it is
switched off after the programme is

5.1-0662-01/2

concluded. When one subgroup program


is running, the other subgroup is blocked.
The
On/Off
push
button
also
acknowledges signals:
Selection
If the test requirements have been fulfilled,
the valve, assembly (e.g. main stop and
control valve (LHS)) to be tested is
selected by switching in the subgroup by
pressing title selection push-button.
A separate selection push-button is
provided for each combination of stop and
control valve assembly. Only one selection
may be made at a time. Selection of a
further test is not possible until the
programme already selected has ended.
Operation Push-button
The test run is started by pressing the
Operation push- button in the Stop and
Control valves tile.
Shutdown Push-button
This push-button can abort the current unit
test and introduce the reset program,
which has priority over the test
programme.
Lamp Test Push-button
All lamps on the panel are tested by
pressing the Test push-button.
Closure of Control Valve
If all the test requirements have been
fulfilled and the selection and operation
push buttons pressed, the control valve
(MAA10 and 20AA002) is closed by
means of the associated actuator (test
motor AA002M). Operation of the
actuator (KA01) is continued until limit
switch (-CG002C) and limit switch (AA002M S72, S73) on the actuator is
tripped to annunciate that the control valve
being tested is in closed position.

During this time, the turbine output


controller compensates for the effects of
closure of the valve being tested on the
turbine output by opening the remaining
control valves.
The running time for closure of the control
valve is monitored. If the control valve is
functioning properly, it will close within the
preset running time.
Closure of Stop Valve
Then the solenoid valve (MAX61AA211
and 212) energized. This allows trip fluid
to flow to the space below changeover
slide valve (MAX61AA011 and 012), which
moves into its upper end position and
connects the space below piston disc
(KA02) with the drain. The pressure in this
space drops rapidly and is monitored by
pressure
switch
(MAX51CP223,228).
When the pressure at this pressure switch
has dropped slightly below the breakaway
pressure of piston disc (KA02), monitoring
of the stop valve closure time starts. The
associated
limit
switch
(-CG001E)
annunciates entry of the valve into its
closed position, thus making it possible to
monitor the valve closing action for
completion
within
the
maximum
permissible running time.
Opening of Stop Valve
Next, solenoid valve MAX47AA211 and
212 is energized (test position) and trip
medium is admitted to the control surface
of the piston in the test valve MAX47
AA011 and 012. The pilot moves into its
lower end position against the spring
force, thus permitting trip medium to flow
to the space above piston KA01 of the
stop valve. This piston is forced
downwards by pressure of the medium,
thereby tensioning the spring between
piston KA01 and piston disc KA02 and
finally pressing against piston disc KA02.
Up to this point the medium pressure
above piston KA01 is relatively low, being
equal to the spring force acting against it.
The spontaneous pressure rise when
piston KA01 has made contact with piston
disc KA02, and thus on completion of the
spring tensioning action, is detected by

pressure switch MAX51CP222, 227. If all


conditions are fulfilled within this relatively
long monitoring period, solenoid valve
MAX61AA211 and 212 is de-energized
(operating position), so that trip medium is
once again able to flow to test valve
MAX47AA011 and 012 and the drain is
blocked off again. The buildup of trip
medium pressure is monitored by pressure
switch MAX51CP221, 226.
When the pressure is sufficiently high, the
stop valve is opened by de-energizing
solenoid valve MAX47AA211 and 212
(operating position). Test valve MAX47
AA011 and 012 switches over, admitting
trip medium to the underside of the piston
disc KA02 and after a certain amount of
further travel, slowly connects the space
above piston KA01 with the drain. The
resultant pressure difference causes the
tensioned piston relay to open the stop
valve. As soon as the open position is
reached, the full trip medium pressure
builds up. This is monitored by pressure
switch MAX51CP221, 228 and by limit
switch CG001D. Testing of the stop valve
is now completed.
Re-Opening of Control Valve
If the conditions are fulfilled within the
specified monitoring period, the control
valve is reopened. The motor of positioner
AA002M is operated in the opening
direction. Positioner AA002M moves the
control valve into its original position in the
reverse sequence to the closing action.
Again the initial pressure and output are
kept constant by the appropriate controller.
Operation of positioned -AA002M is
continued until, after a certain amount of
over travel, it has positively ceased to
influence the controller. This position is
detected by limit switch AA002 MS61 or
AA002 MS62. If the control valve is
functioning properly, it will open within the
preset running time.
Cancellation of Selection
On conclusion of testing of each
combination of valve assembly, the
selection is automatically cancelled and
the programme is shut down.

5.1-0662-01/3

Interruption due to Running Time


Exceeded
The reset program is automatically
initiated if the running time for any step in
the test program is exceeded. If any
running time is exceeded during the reset
program, the program halts. In either case,
the alarms Fails signal and Time overrun
generated. If the Faults in ATT alarm is
displayed, the fault lies in the automatic
tester itself.

5.1-0662-01/4

Interruption due to Turbine Trip


If electrical turbine trip is initiated during
testing, all solenoid valves are deenergized and positioner AA002M is
returned to its extreme position and the
programme cancelled. All equipments
associated with the automatic turbine
tester are automatically returned to their
normal position.

Steam Turbine
Description
The actuator is of the two-stage
amplification type, i.e. it incorporates pilot
and main control mechanisms. The
actuating forces for movement of the HP
control valve are generated, in the opening
direction, by main actuator piston KA02
under the force of the control fluid and, in
the closing direction, by the disc spring
column. During actuation main pilot valve
KA07 acts as a 3-way valve to allow the
control fluid to flow to the space behind main
actuator piston KA02. Main pilot valve KA07
is actuated via the resetting linkage by
means of auxiliary pilot piston KA06 which is
subject to control fluid pressure on both
sides.
The actuating signal given by the signal fluid
pressure acts on the face of pilot valve KA05
pressing it against the resetting spring on
the opposite side. Acting as a 4-way valve,
the pilot valve allows fluid to flow to both
sides of auxiliary pilot piston KA06. When

BHEL Hardwar

HP Actuator

the signal fluid pressure changes, pilot valve


KA05 is displaced which results in
movement of auxiliary pilot piston KA06. The
movement of piston KA06 is transmitted via
the resetting linkage of the pilot mechanism
to the resetting spring, causing spool valve
KA05 to return to the central position which
establishes proportionality between the
signal fluid pressure and the travel of
auxiliary pilot piston KA06.
At the same time, main pilot valve KA07
displaced via the resetting linkage system by
auxiliary pilot
piston
KA06,
effects
displacement of main actuator piston KA02
whose movement returns main pilot valve
KA07 to the central position via the resetting
mechanism. Consequently the position of
the pilot and main actuator pistons are
proportional to the secondary fluid pressure
in the steady state (on completion of the
control action).

5.1-0665-00

Steam Turbine
Description
Function
With all shaft seals subject to a positive
pressure difference, the escaping steam is
throttled to a low pressure and fed into a
header 1.1, which is common to all shaft
seals. Those seals, which are under
vacuum, must be supplied with seal steam
to prevent the ingress of air. The supply of
steam is taken from the header 1.1. The
amount of leakage steam and seal steam
required depends on the pressure at the
seals, which, in turn, is primarily
dependent on the turbine load.
The function of the control system is to
maintain the pressure at the bleed-off
points of all seals at the same preset
pressure. This is effected by exhausting
steam from the header (e.g. to the
condenser) or supplying extra steam to the
header 1.1, according to operating
conditions.
Arrangement
Leak-off control valve 1.3 is used for
discharging surplus steam from the header
1.1 and seal steam supply control valve
1.4 for admitting extra steam to it. All
valves are actuated by type HSA-1-K
electro hydraulic actuators. The actuators
1.11 are under the continuous control of
an electric controller 1.9 each via an
electro hydraulic converter. The electro

BHEL Hardwar

Electro-hydraulic Seal
Steam Pressure Control
hydraulic converter comprises a control
coil, which adjusts the position of the
impingement plate of the hydraulic
preamplifier.
Controller
The function of the electric controller 1.9 in
conjunction with the transducer 1.6 and
the actuating elements (control valves) is
to maintain a controlled variable at a
preset valve by adjusting the final
controlling elements. The actual valve of
the
control
system
is
acquired
continuously by the transducer 1.6 and
compared against the set value in the
electric controller 1.9. If the actual value
deviates from the set value, one of the
final controlling elements (either the leakoff or steam supply control valve) is
adjusted until the actual value again
agrees with the set value. Only if there is a
large control deviation, e.g. during a fullload trip, are all valves operated
simultaneously. The electric controller is
realised in digital technology.
Mode of Operation
The input signal coming from the controller
flows through the solenoid (31). The
magnetic field of the solenoid together with
the magnetic field of the permanent
magnet system (42) exercises a force on
the freely pivoted armature (30). This force
reacts against the force generated by the

5.1-0670-01/1

tension of the return spring. If the input


signal is changed, the equilibrium will be
disturbed and, therefore, there will be a
deflection of the armature retained by the
spring (32) and return spring (36). The
baffle plate (29) then covers the tworebound nozzle tips (15) to an unequal
extent. In the oil flow that flows through
two-choke valves (21) to the rebound
nozzles (16), a pressure differential is
created. The oil pressure existing in the
rebound nozzles is applied to the face of
the slide gate (1a). The slide gate is
deflected and releases the oil flow to or
from the hydraulic cylinder (5.1). The
deflection of the slide gate is dependent

5.1-0670-01/2

upon the magnitude of an input signal


change. The greatest amount of deflection
and, therefore, the fastest change in the
Hydraulic cylinders position is already
achieved with an input signal change of
delta I 3 mA.
Following smaller changes in signal, the
hydraulic
cylinder
operation
is
correspondingly slower. The servo-valve
enables an extremely sensitive control by
virtue of its special construction. The main
cylinder piston moves and in so doing
changes the position of the coupled
actuator. At the same time, the tension in
the return spring (36) changes via the
return rod (44) and the adjustment lever

(39), until the tension of the springs and


magnetic forces reach a state of
equilibrium. The armature returns to its
mid position, the pressures on the faces of
the slide gates (1a) are of equal
magnitude. The slide gate moves to its
mid position, the oil flow to the cylinder is
initially reduced and, when the slide gate
(1a) reaches its middle setting it is
completely shut off, and the main piston of
the hydraulic cylinder is in its set position.
The position of the main piston or rather
the actuator is directly proportional to the
input signal on the servo valve.
Double Blocking Valve
A double blocking valve is connected to
the outlet side of the servo-valve. The
pump pressure opens the hydraulically
operated check valve (8). the connections
to the hydraulic cylinder (5.1) are free. If
the oil supply fails, both hydraulically
operated check valve close. The hydraulic
cylinders piston will be retained in its last
position.
Display of control deviation /Adjusting
the set value
The control deviation is displayed on each
of the two desk tiles for the valves. The
two instruments are connected in parallel.
The set value for steam pressure in the
header can be adjusted between 0 and 22
mbar at the controller by means of the set
value push-button.

Electric manual control


The controller can be switched off by the
push button Controller on/off. Then the
valves can be controlled directly by hand
by
means
of
the
push-button
Higher/Lower below the valve position
display with the aid of the remote-control
manual control setter of the electrical
equipment. The inscription Higher/Lower
refers to the change in pressure when the
push-button is operated, e.g. Higher
means increasing the pressure (the leakoff steam control valve closes or the seal
steam control valve opens). Manual
control is disconnected during automatic
control; the manual control setter is then
automatically tracked to the controller
output voltage by the equalizing controller
so that when changing over from
automatic control to manual control the
manual control setter is already in the
correct position. Under manual control the
equalizing controller automatically tracks
the output voltage of the disconnected
controller 1.9 to the manual control
voltage. If the control deviation has been
reduced to zero by positioning the valves
before the controller is switched on, the
change-over from manual control to
automatic control will be bump less;
otherwise the controller regulates the
pressure to the preset value after it has
been switched on. Thus, it is quite easy to
switch the controller on and off during
operation.

5.1-0670-01/3

5.1-0670-01/4

5.1-0680-01/1

Steam Turbine
Description

Control System
Diagram Legend

Power Plant identification System

Title

Coordinete

LBB01 CP511

Pressure Gauge, Steam before


Bypass Valve

E8

LBC10 AA001
KA01
LBC10 CG001 B
C
D
E

Swing Check Valve of CRH


Rotary Servomotor
Limit Switch, Open Position
Limit Switch, Closed Position
Limit Switch, Open Position
Limit Switch, Closed Position

E7
E7
E7
E7
E7
E7

LBS21 AA001
KA01
LBS21 CG001A

Extraction Check Valve A2


Servomotor
Remote Position Indicator

E12,13
E12,13
E12,13

LBS31 AA001
KA01
LBS31 CG001A

Extraction Check Valve A3


Servomotor
Remote Position Indicator

E13
E13
E13

LBS31 AA002
LBS31 CG002 A

Extraction Check Valve A3


Remote Position indicator

E13
E13

LBS41 AA001
KA01
LBS41 CG00 1A

Extraction Check Valve A4


Servomotor
Remote Position Indicator

C10
C10
C10

LBS41 AA002
KA01
LBS41 CG002A

Extraction Check Valve A4


Servomotor
Remote Position Indicator

C10
C10
C10

LBS42 AA001
KA01
LBS42 CG001A

Extraction Check Valve A4


Servomotor
Remote Position Indicator

AB11
A 11
B 11

LBS42 AA002
KA01
LBS41 CG002A

Extraction Check Valve A4


Servomotor
Remote Position Indicator

AB1 1,12
A12
B12

LBQ50AA001
KA01
LBQ50CG001 A

Extraction Check Valve A5


Servomotor
Remote Position Indicator

E9
E9
E9

LBQ5OAA002
LBQ50 CG002A

Extraction Check Valve A5


Remote Position Indicator

E9
E9

Power Plant identification System

MAA10 + 20
CG001 B,F,H
C,G,J
D
E
MAA10+ 20
AA002
KA01
KA02
KA05

Main Stop Valve


Piston
Piston Disc

ABC7
AB7
B7

Limit Switch, Open Valve Position


B7
Limit Switch, Closed Valve Position B7
Limit Switch, Open Valve PositionATT B7
Limit Switch, Closed Valve PositionATTB7

Main Control Valve


Servomotor
Piston
Pre Control Pilot Valve

BHEL Hardwar

BC7,8
C7,8
C7
C7

Coordinete

KA06
KA07
KA09
M
AA002 MS61

Relay Piston for Pre Control Pilot ValveC7


Main Pilot Valve
C7
Hand wheel for Testing Device
B7
Electrical Motor for Testing Device
B7
Torque limit Switch,
Testing Device 100% ATT
B7
MS62 Travel Limit Switch,
Testing Device 100% ATT
B7
MS72 Torque Limit Switch,
Testing Device 0% A TT
B7
MS73 Travel Limit Switch,
B7
Testing Device 0% ATT

MAA10 + 20
CG002 A
C
MAB10 +20
AA001
KA01
KA02
MAB10 + 20
CG001 B,F,H,
C,G,J
D
E

MAB10+ 20
AA002
KA01
KA02
KA05
KA06
KA07
KA09
M
MS61
MS62
MS72

MAA10 + 20
AA001
KA01
KA02

Title

MS73

MAB10 + 20
CG002
A
C
MAD12
CY011,012,013
MAG01 AA011
MAG01CG01 B
C
E
MAG01AA016

Remote Position Indicator


C7
Limit Switch, Closed Valve Position ATT C7

Reheat Stop Valve


Piston
Piston Disc

ABC9
A9
A9

Limit Switch, Open Valve Position


A9
Limit Switch, Closed Valve Position A9
Limit Switch, Open Valve Position ATT A9
Unlit Switch,Closed Valve Position ATT A9

Main Control Valve

BC9,10

Servomotor
C10
Piston
C10
Pre Control Pilot Valve
C10
Relay Piston for Precontrol Pilot ValveC10
Main Pilot Valve
C10
Hand wheel for Testing Device
B10
Electrical Motor for Testing Device B10
Torque Limit Switch,
Testing Device 100% ATT
B10
Travel Limit Switch,
Testing Device 100% ATT
B10
Torque Limit Switch,
Testing Device 0% ATT
B10
Travel Limit Switch,
B10
Testing Device 0% ATT

Remote Position Indicator


C10
Limit Switch, Closed Valve Position C10
ATT
Electrical Thrust Bearing Trip

D8

Low Vacuum Trip.


Limit Switch, Not Reset
Limit Switch, Alarm
Limit Switch, Alarm ATT
Condenser Safety Device
(Bypass Control)

B5
B5
B5
B5
G9

5.1-0681-01/1

Power Plant identification System

Title

Coordinete

MAN01AA001
MAN AA011
MAN01CP511
MAN01DP001
KA01

Twin Check Valve


G9
Hydraulic Pressure Switch
E10
Pressure Gauge. Water Injection
F10
Electro-Hydraulic Bypass Governor
F7
Hand Adjustment
F7

MAN11 + 12
AA001
KA01
KA02

LP Bypass Stop Valve


Actuator
Pilot Valve

MAN11 +12
CG001 B, D
C, E

D12
F11
E12

Limit Switch, Open Valve Position


E11
Limit Switch, Closed Valve Position E11

MAN11 +12
AA002
KA01
KA02
KA05
KA06
KA07
MAN 11 + 1 2
CG002
A
B

MAN11 +12
AA003
KA01
MAN11 + 12
CG003
B
C
MAN11 + 12
AA004
KA01
MAN11 + 12
CG004
B
C
MAN11 + 12
CP501

LB Bypass Control Valve


D12
Servomotor
D11
Piston
D11
Pre Control Pilot Valve
C11
Relay Piston for Precontrol Pilot Valve C11
Main Pilot Valve
C11

Remote Position Indicator


Limit Switch, Interlocking Raheater
Safety Valves

C12

Water Injection Valve


Servomotor

A13
A13

MAX32BT021

MAX32BT081

G9

MAV21 AP001

Main Oil Pump

E1

MAV21BT001

Oil Filter
(Hydraulic Control Equipment Rack)

D4

D8

MAX42AA011

Non-Return Valve

B1

MAX42BT001

Fluid Filter
(Hydraulic Control Equipment Rack)

C1

Fluid Filter
(Hydraulic Control Equipment Rack)

C2

Fluid Filter
(Hydraulic Control Equipment Rack)

B4

Fluid Filter (Hydraulic


Bypass Control Equipment Rack)

G6

MAX42BT002

MAX42BT003

MAX42BT022

Fluid Filter for Water Injection Valves


(Hydraulic Bypass Control
Equipment Rack)
A12

MAX42CP501

Pressure Gauge, Control Fluid


(Hydraulic Bypass Control
Equipment Rack)

Pressure Gauge, Control Fluid Water


Injection Valve Open
B12

MAX42CP512

Pressure Gauge. Control Fluid Water


Injection Valve for Sequential Water
Injection Open
B13

MAX44AP001

Hydraulic Speed Transmitter

E1

MAX44CP501

Pressure Gauge, Primary Oil

A5

MAX45BB001

Accumulator for Extraction Valve


Relay

E4

MAX31
BB21, 26

Accumulator for HP Servomotor,


Reheat Control Valves

B9

KA02

MAX31 BB021
BB041,049

Accumulator for HP Servomotor,


Bypass Control Valves

5.1-0681-01/2

A7

F6

MAX42CP511

MAX45BY001
KA01

Fluid Filter for Pre Control.


Main Control Valves

C11

Slide Valve for Swing Check Valve


Cold Reheat

MAX42AA002

B7

MAX32
BT011 +012

Fluid Filter for Pre Control,


Bypass Control Valves

D7

Accumulator for HP Servomotor,


Main Control Valves

C11

A10

Slide Valve for Swing Check Valve


Cold Reheat

A13
A13

A 14

Fluid Filter for Pre Control,


Reheat Control Valves

MAX42AA001

Water Injection Valve for Sequential


Water Injection
A14
Servomotor
A14
Limit Switch Open Position
Limit S witch Closed Position

Coordinete

Pressure Gauge. Control Fluid


(Hydraulic Control Equipment Rack) C2

MAX42BT021

Limit Switch, Open Position


Limit Switch, Closed Position

Title

MAX41 CP50l

D11

pressure Gauge. Steam behind


Bypass Valve

MAX31
BB011, 016

Power Plant identification System

KA04
KA05
KA06
KA07
KA08
KA10
KA11

Electro-Hydraulic Converter
Follow-Up Piston for Main
Control Valves
Follow Up Piston for Reheat
Control Valv8S
Sleeve
Piston
Helical Spring
Pilot Valve
Piston
Adjusting Device Control Valves
Manual Adjusting Device

F4
F5
F5
F4
F4
F4
G4
F4
F5
F5

Power Plant identification System


MAX45
CG001

A
K
T
B
C

Title

Coordinete

Remote Position Indicator


F4
Remote Position Indicator
F4
Moving Coil
F4
Limit Switch Operating Without Bypass
Valves and Adjusting Device Blocked F5
Limit Switch, Displacement of
Control Valves
F5

MAX45BY011
KA01
KA02

Hydraulic Converter
F2
Follow-up Piston for Main Control Valves F3
Follow-Up Piston for Reheat Control F3
valve
KA04
Sleeve
G3
KA05
Piston
G3
KA06
Helical Spring
F3
KA07
Pilot Valve
G2
KA08
Piston
G3
KA09
Proportional Band Adjustment
G2
KA10
Adjusting Device Control Valves
F4
KA11
Manual Adjusting Device
F4
MAX45CG011 B
Limit Switch, Operation without Bypass
Valves and Adjusting Device Blocked F3
C
Limit Switch, Displacement of control
valves
F4
MAX45CP501

MAX45CP511

Pressure Gauge Secondary Fluid


Main Control valves

F2

Power Plant identification System


MAX47CG001F
MAX47CP501
MAX48 CP501

Title

Coordinete

Limit Switch, 56%


Pressure Gauge, Start-up Fluid
Pressure Gauge,
Auxiliary start-up fluid

G1
G1

MAX51
AA005 +006

Main Trip Valve

B2

MAX 51
CG005+006 C
E

Limit Switch, Alarm


Limit Switch, Alarm, ATT

B2
B2

MAX51 AA011
KA01
KA02

Extraction Valve Relay


Valve
Valve

D5
D5
D5

MAX51AA041

Slide Valve for Extraction


Check Valve A2

MAX51 AA044

E3

E12

Slide Valve for Extraction


Check Valve A3
Slide Valve for Extraction
Check Valve A4

C12

Slide Valve for Extraction


Check Valve A4

A 11

Slide Valve for Extraction


Check Valve A4

C12

Slide Valve for Extraction


Check Valve A4

A11

Slide Valve for Extraction


Check Valve A5

E9

MAX51AA211

Changeover Valve

B3

MAX51 CG211B
C

Limit Switch, up Normal Position ATT B3


Limit Switch, Down- Test Position ATT B3

MAX51CP501

Pressure Gauge, Trip Fluid

MAX51 CP522
527

Pressure Gauge, Trip Fluid above piston


Main Stop Valve
A6

MAX51 AA047
MAX51 AA048

MAX 51 AA 050

E13

Pressure Gauge, Secondary Fluid


Reheat Control Valves

E2

MAX46BY001
KA01
KA02
KA03
KA04
KA05
KA06
KA07
KA08
KA09
M

Hydraulic Speed Governor


Hand wheel
Speed Setting Spring
Link
Sleeve
Piston
Helical Spring
Overspeed Tester Lever
Auxiliary Follow-up Piston
Governor Bellows
Electrical Motor

G1
F2
F1
F1
F2
F2
F2
F2
F2
G1
F1

MAX46CG001 A
B

Remote Position Indicator


Limit Switch 100%
(Start-Up Automatic)

F2
F2

MAX 51 CP523
528

Pressure Gauge, Trip Fluid below piston


Disc Main Stop Valve
B6

Pressure Gauge.
Auxiliary Secondary Fluid

F2

MAX51 CP542
547

Pressure Gauge, Trip Fluid above Piston


Reheat Stop Valve
A9

MAX47
AA011 +012

Test Valve for Main Stop Valves

B6

MAX51 CP543
548

Pressure Gauge, Trip Fluid below Piston


Disc Reheat Stop valve
B9

MAX47
AA021 +022

Test Valve for Reheat Stop Valves

A9

MAX52AA005
MAX52 CG005 C
E

Local/Manual Trip Valve


Limit Switch, Alarm
Limit Switch, Alarm ATT

B2
B2
B2

MAX47BY001
KA01
KA02
M

Starting and Load Limit Device


Hand wheel
Valve
Electrical Motor

F1
F1
F1
F1

MAX 52 CP501

Pressure Gauge, Aux, Trip Fluid

D3

MAX53 AA021

Solenoid Valve Temperature


Dependent Interlocking
Magnet Coil Open
Magnet Coil Closed

MAX46CP501

MAX47CG001 A
B
C
D

Remote Position Indicator


Limit Switch, 100%
Limit Switch, 0%
Limit Switch, 42%

F1
G1
G1
G1

MAX 51 AA051
MAX 51 AA056

A
B

A3

F11
F11
F11

5.1-0681-01/3

Power Plant Identification System

Title

MAX53CG021B
C

Limit Switch 100%


Limit Switch 0%

F11
F11

MAX53 AA022

Solenoid Valve Temperature


Depending Interlocking
Magnet Coil Open
Magnet Coil Closed

F11
F11
F11

MAX53CG022B
C

Limit Switch 100%


Limit Switch 0%

F11
F11

MAX53AA031

Slide Valve for Water Injection Valve A12

MAX53 AA041

Slide Valve for Water Injection Valve


(Sequential Water Injection)
A 13

A
B

MAX 53BY001
KA01
KA02
KA03
KA04
KA05
KA06
KA07
KA08
KA09

Coordinate

Converter for Electro-Hydraulic


LP Bypass Governor
Jet Pipe
Follow -up Piston for LP Bypass
Control Valves
Follow -up Piston for Water
Injection Valves
Sleeve
Piston
Helical Spring
Limit Pressure Amplifier Piston
Differential Pressure Amplifier Piston
Setting Device for Differential Pressure
Amplifier Piston

Power Plant Iden- Title


tification System
MYA01
CS011-013
MAG01 AA201

G6
F6
F7
F7
G7
G7
G7
G7
G7
F7

MAX42AA001

MAX47
AA211 +212

MAX 47
AA221 +222
MAX48
AA201 +202
MAX51AA021

MAX53 BY 011
KA01

LP Bypass limiting Regulator


Jet Pipe

F8
F8

MAX51AA027

MAX51 AA028

F5

Solenoid Valve for start -up Fluid,


Main Stop Valve

B5

Solenoid Valve for Start-up Fluid,


Reheat Stop Valves

B8

Solenoid Valve for Auxiliary


Start-Up Fluid

B1,2

Solenoid Valve for Extraction


Check Valve

E12

Solenoid Valve for Extraction


Check Valve

E13

Solenoid Valve for Extraction


Check Valve A4.1

C 12

Solenoid Valve for Extraction


Check Valve A4.2

A10

Solenoid Valve for Extraction


Signal Fluid Check Valve A4.1

C12

Solenoid Valve For Extraction


Check Valve A4.2

A11

Solenoid Valve for Extraction


Check Valve A5

E9

Solenoid Valve for Control Fluid


Supply during Test

B3

Solenoid Valve for Control Fluid


Supply During Test

B4

C12
MAX51AA031

Test Valve for Main Stop Valves

Solenoid Valve, Adjustment of


Control Valves

F11
MAX51 AA030

MAX61
AA011 +012

B4

Solenoid Valve for Load Shedding Relay


in Auxiliary Secondary Fluid
G2

MAX51AA024

Pressure Gauge, Signal Fluid


Water Injection Valve

Solenoid Valve for Testing


Low Vacuum Trip

MAX46AA011

F7
G6

MAX 53CP511

E1

Solenoid Valve for Load Shedding Relay


in Secondary Fluid to Reheat
Control Valves
E5

Remote Piston Indicator


Moving Coil

Pressure Gauge, Signal Fluid


LP Bypass Valve

Electrical Speed Transmitter

MAX45AA001

MAX53CG001 A
T

MAX53
CP501 +502

Coordinate

B6
MAX51 AA036

MAX61
AA021 +022

Test Valve for Reheat Stop Valves

B8

MAX62AA001
KA01
KA02
KA03
KA001M

Overspeed Trip Test Device


Valve for Test oil
Valve for Auxiliary Start-up Fluid
Valve For Auxiliary Trip Fluid
Electrical Motor

C4
C4
C4
C4
C4

MAX52AA001

Remote Trip Solenoid

C2

MAX62CG001 B
C

Limit Switch, up-Normal position ATT C4


Limit Switch, Down- Test Position ATT C4

MAX52AA002

Remote Trip Solenoid

C2

MAX62CP501

Pressure Gauge, Test Oil Overspeed D1

MAX53AA051

Solenoid Valve for Sequential


Trip Water Injection

MAX51 AA201

MAY10
AA001 +002
KA01

Overspeed Trip
Releasing Device

E2
E2

MAY10
CG001 +002 C
E

Limit Switch, Alarm


Limit Switch Alarm ATT

E3
E3

5.1-0681-01/4

MAX51AA202

MAX61AA201

C13

Solenoid Valve for Changeover from


Trip Fluid to Control Fluid
C3

Power Plant identification System


MAX61
AA211 +212

MAX61
AA221 +222

LBB001 CP011

LBS42 CP002

MAA50CP006
MAG01CP201

MAG01CP202
MAG01CP203

MAG01CP204

MAG10CP011

MAG 10CP012

Title

Coordinete

MAX48 CP202
Solenoid Valve for Testing of
Main Stop Valves

C5,6
MAX51
CP011 +012

Solenoid Valve for Testing of


Reheat Stop Valves

C8

Pressure Transducer Hot Reheat


steam

E8

Differential Pressure Monitor for


Extraction Check Valve-A4
(Batron -Cell)

B11

Pressure Transducer 1st State Pressure


(By Pass Control)
E7
Pressure Switch, low-Vacuum Trip,
Vacuum min.

B4

Pressure Switch, low-Vacuum Trip,


Vacuum max.

B4

Pressure Switch, low-Vacuum Trip,


Vacuum min.

B5

Pressure Switch, low-Vacuum Trip


Vacuum max.

B5

Pressure Switch, Electrical Low


Vacuum Trip.
Signal Pressure to high

E13

Pressure Switch, Electrical low


Vacuum Trip, Alarm

E13

Pressure Switch Electrical low Vacuum


Trip Interlocking MAG10CPO12
E14

MAG10CP016

Pressure Switch for Energizing of


Vacuum Breaker

MAN01CP001

Pressure Switch for Sequential


Water Injection

MAX45 CP211

Pressure Switch For Reheat Control


Valves Secondary Fluid
Pressure Switch For Auxiliary
Start-up Fluid

MAX51
CP013

MAX51
CP205 +206

MAG10CP013

MAX48 CP201

Power Plant identification System

E13

MAX51
CP207 +208

MAX51
CP209 +210

Coordinete

Pressure Switch for Auxiliary


Start-up Fluid Between Solenoid
Valves MAX48AA201 and202

B1

Pressure Switch for Trip Alarm

A1

Pressure Switch for Trip Fluid


(Automatic Start-up)

A1

Pressure Switch for Trip Fluid Between


Solenoid Valves MAX51 AA201
and 202
B3
Pressure Switch for Trip Fluid Ahead of
Changeover Valve MAX51 A211
B3
Pressure Switch for Trip Fluid Ahead of
Changeover Valve MAX51 AA211
B2,3

MAX51CP 221
+226

Pressure Switch for Trip Fluid ahead of


Main Stop Valve, Test Valve
B6

MAX51CP222
+227

Pressure Switch for Pressure above


Piston of Main Stop Vale

B7

MAX51 CP223
+228

Pressure Switch for Pressure below


Piston Disc of Main Stop Vale

A7

MAX51CP242
+247

Pressure Switch for Trip Fluid above


Piston of Reheat Stop Valve

A9

MAX51 CP243
+248

Pressure Switch for Trip Fluid Below


Piston Disc of Reheat Stop Valve

B9

MAX52CP211

Pressure Switch for Auxiliary


Trip Fluid

B3

Pressure Switch for Test oil of


overspeed Trip max

D1

Pressure Switch for Test oil of


overspeed Trip max.

D1

Pressure Switch for Test oil of


overspeed Trip Pressure Collapsed

D2

MAX62 CP 211

G8
MAX62 CP 212
E2

Title

MAX62 CP 213

C2
MAX45 AA031

Pressure Converter for IP secondary


Oil

E4

5.1-0681-01/5

Steam Turbine
Description
No.

1
2

3
4
5
6

10
11
12

13

14

15

16

17

Lubrication
Point
Overspeed test
device
Reduction gear of
overspeed trip
test device
Bearing of low
vacuum trip
Main control valve
stem
Main stop valve
stem
Limit Switch
attachment on
main stop valve
Limit Switch
attachment on
main control valve
Hinge of main
control valve
position indicator
LAWA actuator
VR 16 of main
control valve
Reheat control
valve stem
Reheat stop valve
stem
Limit switch
attachment on
reheat stop valve
LAWA actuator
VR 16 of reheat
control valve
Hinge of reheat
control valve
position indicator
Limit switch
attachment on
reheat control
valve
Hinge of
extraction swing
check valve
Adjusting gear of
starting and load
limit device

BHEL Hardwar

Filling
Quantity

Lubrication Chart

Lubricant

Turbine oil*
200g

Grease
Servogem-2
Turbine oil*

10g

Molykote
M30
Molykote
M30

Every 1 to 2
months

Use no oil
or grease

Molykote
M30

Every 1 to 2
months

Use no oil
or grease

Calypsol
SF7-026

Every 104
Operating
hours
After every
dismantling
After every
dismantling
Every 1 to 2
months

0.4 kg

0.4 kg

Molykote
M30

Every 104
Operating
hours
Every 1 to 2
months

Molykote
M30

Every 1 to 2
months

Molykote U
Molykote U
Molykote
M30
Calypsol
SF7-026

Molykote U

200g

Remarks

Use no oil
or grease
Use no oil
or grease
Use no oil
or grease

Molykote U

0.4 kg

Every 1 to 2
months
Every 1 to 2
months

Top-up
Quantity

Every 1 to 2
months
After every
dismantling
After every
dismantling
Every 1 to 2
months

Molykote U

0.4 kg

Lubrication
Interval

Grease
Servogem-2

Use no oil
or grease
Use no oil
or grease
Use no oil
or grease

Use no oil
or grease
Use no oil
or grease

After every
dismantling
Every 1 to 2
months

Use no oil
or grease
10g

5.1-0690-01/1

No.

18

19

20
21

22

23

24

25

26
27

28
29

30

*
**

Lubrication
Point
Journal for
hydraulic speed
governor
Adjusting gear of
reference speed
setter
Bearing of
trimming device
Hinge of cold
reheat swing
check valve
Journal of
Converter for
bypass governor
Bearing of
condenser safety
device for bypass
operation
Hinge of bypass
control valve
position indicator
Limit switch
attachment on
bypass control
valve
Bypass control
valve stem
Limit switch
attachment on
bypass stop valve
Bypass stop valve
stem
Stem guides of
shaft seal steam
valve

Shaft seal steam


valve actuators

Filling
Quantity

Lubricant

Turbine oil*

200g

Grease
Servogem-2
Turbine oil*
Molykote U

Top-up
Quantity

Every 1 to 2
months
Every 1 to 2
months

10g

Every 1 to 2
months
After every
dismantling

Use no oil
or grease

Every 1 to 2
months

Turbine oil*

Every 1 to 2
months

Molykote
M30

Every 1 to 2
months

Use no oil
or grease

Molykote
M30

Every 1 to 2
months

Use no oil
or grease

After every
dismantling
Every 1 to 2
months

Use no oil
or grease
Use no oil
or grease

After every
dismantling
After every
dismantling

Use no oil
or grease
Use no oil
or grease.
Lubrication
point not
shown
Lubrication
point not
shown

Molykote
M30
Molykote U
Molykote U

Hydraulic oil
to DIN 51517
and VDMA
24318 H-LP
oils**

1stoil change
after 6
months,
thereafter
every12
months.

7 to 9 kg

Turbine oil 46/Servoprime 46 of IOC, Turbinol 47 of HPCL or equivalent


HLP 46 (VG) ISO of IOC

5.1-0690-01/2

Remarks

Turbine oil*

Molykote U

7 to 9 kg

Lubrication
Interval

5.1-0690-01/3

Steam Turbine
Description

Function
The function of the hydraulic speed governor
is to operate the control valves to give the
appropriate turbine steam throughput for the
particular load condition. The arrangement
and functioning of the governor within the
overall governing system is described in the
section on governing.
Construction
The principal components of the speed
governor are the bellows (8), the link (11),
the speed setting spring (13), the sleeve (5)
and the follow-up piston (4). The primary oil
supply from the hydraulic speed transmitter
is available at connection a1. A fire
resistant fluid is used as the hydraulic fluid in
the governing system. An additional bellows
(9) prevents primary oil getting into the
control fluid circuit if there be a leakage in
the governor bellows (8). In this case, the
leakage oil can be drained off via connection
c1 . In case a leak in the bellows (9) occur,
the control fluid that has leaked in will also
be drained off via connection c1.
The primary oil pressure (connection a1) is
dependent on the speed and determines the
position of the link (11) via the bellows (8)
and the push rod (10). The speed setting
spring (13) opposes the primary oil
pressure. Its pre-compression can be varied
either by hand or remotely by the motor (16).
The sleeve (5) which can slide on the
bottom end of the follow-up piston (4) is
attached to the link (11). The follow-up
piston is held against the auxiliary
secondary fluid pressure (connection b) by
the tension spring (3). The follow-up piston
and the sleeve have ports, which at normal
overlap allow sufficient fluid to escape to
produce equilibrium between the auxiliary
secondary fluid pressure and the force of the
tension spring (3).
Each steady-state position of the link (11)
and hence of the sleeve (5) corresponds to
a specific force from the tension spring (3)
and hence to a specific secondary fluid
pressure which in turn determines the
position of the control valves.

BHEL Haridwar

Hydraulic Speed Governor


with Starting and Load
Limiting Device

Mode of Operation
If the primary oil pressure falls (as a result of
increasing load and the resulting drop in
speed), the link (11) and the sleeve (5)
sliding on the follow-up piston (4) are moved
downwards by the speed setting spring (13)
so that the overlap of the ports in the sleeve
and the follow-up piston is reduced. This
causes the pressure in the auxiliary
secondary fluid circuit to rise and the followup piston follows the movement of the
sleeve against the increasing force of the
tension spring (3) until normal overlap of the
ports and equilibrium are restored. The lift of
the control valves is increased in this
manner by the increased secondary fluid
pressure.
Conversely, a rise in primary oil pressure
causes the lift of the control valves to be
reduced.
When the pre-compression of the speed
setting spring (13) is varied with the
reference speed setter it changes the
relationship between the primary oil
pressure and the secondary fluid pressure
and hence the relationship between speed
and power output.
Lever (12) allows the link (11) to be
depressed by hand to give a lift signal to the
governor, e.g. to provide a second means of
overspeeding the machine for testing the
overspeed trips in addition to the overspeed
trip tester.
Starting and load limiting device
Before start-up, the pilot valve (21) is
brought to its bottom limit position either by
hand or remotely by the motor (20). This
causes the bellows to be compressed via
the lever (6) and the pin (7) until the
governor assumes the position Control
valves closed. With the pilot valve (21) in
the bottom limit position, control fluid from
connection a can flow simultaneously to the
auxiliary start-up fluid circuit (connection
u1) and as start-up fluid via connection u

5.1-0710-00/1

to the stop valve to prepare these for


opening. When the pilot valve (21) is moved
back the auxiliary start-up fluid circuit is
depressurized and subsequently the start-up
fluid connection u is opened to the return
c. This opens the stop valves. Further
upward movement of the pilot valve (21)

5.1-0710-00/2

causes the pin (7) to release the bellows as


with falling primary oil pressure and the
control valves are opened. The release of
the bellows can be limited by the pin (7) so
that the control valves do not open any
further despite a further reduction in primary
oil pressure.

Steam Turbine
Description
Function
The adjusting gear is used for manual or
motor operation of the reference speed
setter and the starting and load limiting
device.
Mode of Operation
The speed/load adjusting gear is operated
either manually or by means of motor (28).
The rotary movement of the motor shaft is
transmitted to worm wheel (15) via worm
wheel (9) and the worm attached to it.
Wormwheel (15) is located axially on the
threaded portion of the hand wheel spindle
(16) by insert (5) and the gear casing (11).
The spindle (16) is connected with bushing
(4) by a feather key so as to permit the

BHEL Haridwar

Adjusting Gear

spindle to slide axially in the bushing (4),


which can rotate in cover (19). Spring (6)
forces the thrust rings (18) against bushing
(4) which prevents bushing (4) and spindle
(16) from turning. Spindle (16) however, can
be moved axially by turning the worm wheel
(15).
Spindle (16) can be moved up or down
depending on which direction worm- wheel
(15) turns. The limit of travel is set by limit
rings (14 and 17). If either stop has been
reached the thrust rings operates as a slip
coupling. The thrust rings also protect the
motor (28) from overload in the event of
restrictive movement within the adjusting
gear.

5.1-0720-00

Steam Turbine
Description

Electro-hydraulic Converter
for Turbine Control System

Function
The electro-hydraulic converter is the
connecting element between the electrical
and hydraulic parts of the turbine control
system. It converts the signals from the
electric controller into the hydraulic signals
and amplifies them before transmitting them
to the actuating devices.
Construction
The principal components of the converter
are moving coil system (12), sleeve (10),
pilot valve (6), amplifier piston (3), follow-up
pistons (21), differential transformer (1) and
actuator (17). Bushings and follow-up
pistons A are connected to each other via
the adjusting screws (24), spring end pieces
and the springs (22). The control signals
from the electro-hydraulic controller operate
the sleeve (10) via the moving coil system
(12). This sleeve slides up and down on the
top end of the pilot valve (6) and determines
the position of the valve in the manner of a
follow-up piston. The pilot valve and sleeve
have ports which depending on the overlap,
control the amount of trip fluid flowing from
connection x. In the steady-state condition,
the pilot valve is in its center position and
the trip fluid pressure acting on the face of
the pilot valve is in equilibrium with the force
of compression spring (9). The pilot valve is
kept in rotation by control fluid flowing from
tangential holes in an integral collar to give
greater freedom of reciprocal motion and
achieve high response sensitivity.
When the pilot valve is deflected from its
center position, control fluid from connection
a is admitted to the space above or below
the amplifier piston (3) with the opposite side
of the piston opened to the fluid drain. The
resulting motion of the amplifier piston is
transmitted via lever (13) to the sleeves (20)
which in turn can slide on the following-up
pistons (21). The secondary fluid circuits,
which are fed from the trip fluid circuit via
throttles and supply the various actuating
devices, are connected at point b. The
secondary fluid pressures are determined by
the tension of springs (22) which

BHEL Haridwar

counter balance the fluid pressure acting on


the follow-up pistons (21). Each follow-up
piston and sleeve (20) has ports, which
control the secondary fluid flow according to
their overlap. When the throttling area is
changed by the movement of the sleeve
(20), it also changes the pressure in the
follow-up piston causing it to follow the
movement of the sleeve. This varies the
tension of springs (22) until equilibrium is
regained between the spring force and the
new secondary fluid pressure. Each position
of the amplifier piston (3) thus corresponds
to a specific position of the sleeves (20) and,

5.1-0730-02/1

Controlling action with the Elctrohydraulic Converter


When the electric controller gives a
command to open the control valves, the
sleeve (10) is moved upwards by the moving
coil system (12), thus decreasing the fluid
drain area. This causes the pressure below
the pilot valve (6) to increase and the pilot
valve moves upwards and opens the way for
control fluid from connection a to flow to the
space below the amplifier piston (3).
The following movement of the amplifier
piston (3) then slides the sleeves (20)
downwards over the levers (13,19) reducing
the drain area between the sleeves and the
follow-up pistons, causing the pressure in
the follow-up pistons and secondary fluid
circuits to rise.

therefore, the follow-up pistons (21). The


position of the follow-up piston is the
determining factor for the secondary fluid
pressure at point b.
The initial tension of the follow-up piston
springs can be varied by means of the
setscrews (24).

The motion of the amplifier piston (3)


produces a simultaneous feedback action on
the pilot valve (6) via the differential
transformers (1). The sleeve (10) is moved
back until the new position of the amplifier
piston causes the pilot valve (6) to assume
its center position and equilibrium is restored
between the fluid pressure below the pilot
valve and the compression spring force (9).
When a command is given to close the
control valves, the controlling action is
similar but in the reverse sequence.
Adjusting Device for Valves
The follow-up pistons B and the lever (14)

5.1-0730-02/2

of the rotary shaft (15) situated above it are


connected by the springs (22) of follow-up
pistons B, the guide pin (16) and the
setscrews (30). During normal operation an
energized solenoid valve allows control fluid
a1 to flow under the piston (25) of the
actuator (17). The piston (25) is moved
upwards against the forces of the spring
(26). Stop (34) locked in normal position by
pin and the initial tension of the tension
springs (22) of the follow-up pistons B is
adjusted by means of the lever (28, 14)
which results in the IP control valves
opening in relation to the HP control valves
as intended for this operation.

Setting Device for start-up without


Bypass Valves
If the plant is started up without bypass
system, the IP/reheat stop and control
valves must open before the main steam
stop and control valves. For this purpose,
the hand wheel (32) is set in the upper end
position. Signal from limit switch (33):
Setting device in operation without
bypass system position.

If the condition turbine load less than a set


minimum load and the ratio of HP
exhaust steam pressure to main steam
pressure greater than the set pressure
ratio is fulfilled, for example after load
shedding, the solenoid valve will be deenergized. This blocks the flow of control
fluid to the actuator (17) and allows control
fluid under the piston (25) to flow into the
return pipe. The force of the spring (26)
moves the piston into the lower end position
and the tension springs (22) of the follow-up
pistons B are adjusted so that the IP control
valves do not begin to open until the HP
control valves are wider open. The lever (28)
then rests on the precisely set stop (34).
Limit switch (29) indicates: Setting device
engaged.

5.1-0730-02/3

Steam Turbine
Description

Function
The function of the hydraulic amplifier is to
amplify the signals from the hydraulic speed
governor (connection b1) so that they are
sufficient for the actuating devices.
Construction
The principal components of the amplifier
are amplifier piston (1), pilot valve (7),
follow-up piston (2) with sleeves (3),
mechanical feedback system (6) and
actuator (21). Bushings and follow-up
pistons A are connected to each other via
the setscrews (10), spring end pieces and
springs (11). Auxiliary secondary fluid flows

over the pilot valve (7) via connection b1. In


the steady-state condition, the pilot valve is
in its center position and the pressure in the

BHEL Haridwar

Hydraulic Amplifier
for Turbine Control System

auxiliary secondary circuit and the force of


spring (8) are in equilibrium. The pilot valve
is kept in rotation by control fluid flowing
from tangential holes in an integral collar to
give greater freedom of reciprocal motion
and high response sensitivity.
When the pilot valve is deflected from its
center position control fluid from connection
a is, admitted to the space above or below
the amplifier piston (1) with the opposite side
of the piston opened to the fluid drain. The
resulting motion of the amplifier piston is
transmitted via lever (5) to the sleeves (3)
which in turn, slide on the follow-up piston
(2). The secondary fluid circuits, which are

fed from the trip fluid circuit via throttles and


supply the various actuating devices, are

5.1-0740-02/1

connected at point b. The secondary fluid


pressures are determined by the tension of
springs (11), which counterbalance the fluid
pressures acting upon the follow-up pistons.
Each follow-up piston (2) and sleeve (3) has
ports, which control the secondary fluid flow
according to their overlap. When the
throttling area is changed by movement of
the sleeve (3), it also changes the pressure
in the follow-up piston causing it to follow the
movement of the sleeve, This varies the
tension of spring until equilibrium is regained
between the spring force and the new
secondary fluid pressure. Each position of
the amplifier piston (1) corresponds to a
specific position of the sleeve (3) and the
follow-up piston (2). The position of the
follow-up piston is the determining factor for
the secondary fluid pressure at point b.

5.1-0740-02/2

The initial tension of the follow-up piston


springs can be varied by means of the
adjusting screws (10, 14), and the levers
(15, 16).
Controlling action with the Hydraulic
Governor
The pressure above the pilot valve (7) is
varied by the hydraulic governor via varying
the auxiliary secondary fluid pressure
connected at b1. An increasing auxiliary
secondary fluid pressure causes the
secondary fluid pressure at the connection
b to rise and open the actuating devices; a

reduction in the secondary fluid pressure


causes the actuating device to close. The
motion of the amplifier piston produces a
simultaneous feedback via lever (6) and
causes the pilot valve to assume its center
position when the new position of the
amplifier piston is reached. Each auxiliary
secondary fluid pressure corresponds to a
certain position of the piston (1) which, in
turn, results in a certain secondary fluid
pressure at connection b with each
auxiliary fluid pressure. The degree of
proportionality of the hydraulic governor can
be adjusted by varying the position of lever
pivot (6) with the setscrew (9).
The follow-up piston B and the lever (15) of
the rotary shaft (12) situated above it are
connected by the springs (11) of follow-up
pistons B, the guide bolts (13) and the
setscrews (14).
During normal operation, an energized
solenoid valve allows control fluid a1 to flow
under the piston (20) of the actuator (21).
The piston (20) is moved upwards against
the force of the spring (19). Stop (25) locked
in normal position by pin and the initial
tension of the tension spring (11) of the
follow-up piston B is adjusted by means of
the lever (15, 16) which result in the IP
control valves opening in relation to the HP
control valves as intended for this operation.

If the condition Turbine load less than a


set minimum load and the ratio of HP
exhaust steam pressure to main steam
pressure greater than the set pressure
ratio is fulfilled, for example after load
shedding, the solenoid valve will be de deenergized. This blocks the flow of control
fluid to the actuator (21) and allows control
fluid under the piston (20) to flow into the
return pipe. The force of the spring (19)
moves the piston into the lower end position
and the tension springs (11) of the follow-up
pistons B are adjusted so that the IP control
valves do not begin to open until the HP
control valves are wider open.
The lever (16) then rests on the precisely set
stop (25). Limit switch (17) indicates:
Setting device engaged.
Setting Device for Start-up without
bypass valves
If the plant is started up without bypass
system, the IP/reheat control valves must
open before the main steam control valves.
For this purpose, the hand wheel (24) is set
in the upper end position.
Signal from limit switch (23): Setting device
in operation without bypass system
position.

5.1-0740-02/3

Steam Turbine
Description

Construction and Mode of Operation


The electrical speed pick-up located in the
front bearing pedestal indicates the exact
speed through all speed ranges of the
turbine.
The
measuring
procedure
functions as follows: A toothed wheel (1) is mounted on shaft
(2) of main oil pump. The speed probes
are installed around the periphery of the

BHEL Haridwar

Electrical Speed Pick-Up

toothed wheel, which rotates, with the


rotation of the turbine shaft. On rotation of
the toothed wheel (1), electrical impulses
are generated as a result of alternating
effect between the speed probe (3) and
the toothed wheel (1). The output
frequency is conducted to the speedmeasuring unit.

5.1-0760-01

Steam Turbine
Description

Pressure Converter

Function
The pressure converter is installed in the IP
secondary oil circuit. It does not permit to
raise the IP secondary oil pressure beyond
certain value.
Construction
The pressure converter is provided with a
follow up piston (3), which slides in the
bushing (6) at the top, and in the sleeve (2)
at the bottom. The bushing and follow up
piston are connected to each other via the
set screw (9, 10) and the spring (4). There
are drainage slots in the follow up piston (3)
and sleeve (2), through which a larger or
smaller amount of fluid can flow into the fluid
return line c depending on how much they
overlap. The fluid pressure prevailing in the
follow up piston (3) is connected to the
reheat control valves for speed control via
connection x.
Mode of Operation
When the setscrew (9) of the pressure
converter has been appropriately set, IP
secondary fluid pressure is permitted to
increase to certain value.

1 Ring
2 Sleeve
3 Follow up piston
4 Spring
5 Casing
6 Bushing
7Cover

BHEL Haridwar

8 Cap
9 Set Screw
10 Set Screw

c Return flow
x IP secondary fluid

5.1-0761-00

Steam Turbine
Description

Function and Arrangement


One stop and one control valve are
combined in a common body. The main stop
valve provides a means of isolating the
turbine from the main steam line and can
rapidly interrupt the supply of steam to the
turbine. The function of the control valve is
to regulate the flow of steam to the turbine
according to the prevailing load.

BHEL Haridwar

Combined Main Stop


and Control Valves

Stop Valve
The steam enters the valve casing (13) via
the Inlet connection and remains above the
stop disc (1). The main valve disc
incorporates a pilot disc formed from the end
of the valve steam (3). The valve stem is
sealed by packing rings (6). On the back of
the valve disc is a raised seat which comes
into contact with a neck bush (4) when the

5.1-0810-01/1

valve is fully open and so provides extra


sealing at this point for the stem. Both stem
and disc are secured against torsion. The
valve body cover (2) is held in the valve
casing (13) by a threaded ring (8). There is a
U-shaped gasket (5) between cover and
casing. The two legs of the gasket are
pressed against the sealing face to give a
tight joint .The stop valve is opened
hydraulically and closed by spring force.
Testing Main Stop Valve
Each stop valve must be tested at regular
intervals to ensure proper functioning. A
testing valve is provided for this purpose.

5.1-0810-01/2

Control Valves
The stem and disc (16) of the control valve
are in one piece. Balancing holes in the
valve disc reduce the operating force
required. The valve stem and disc (16) are
guided in the cover (17) and the stem is
sealed by packing rings (20). When the
valve is fully opened, the raised seat of the
valve disc rests against the neck bushing
(18) and provides additional sealing. As with
the stop valve, the valve body cover (17) is
held in the casing by a threaded ring (21)
and is sealed by U-shaped gasket (19). The
control valve is actuated by the piston of the
servomotor (26) that is operated by a cup
spring in the closing direction and
hydraulically in the opening direction.

Steam Turbine
Description

The operative part of the servomotor


consists of a two-part piston, the lower discshaped part of which is connected via piston
rod to the valve stem. The other part of the
piston is bell-shaped and moves within the
housing, which is in the form of a cylinder.
Two spiral springs are placed between the
two halves of the piston at the lower end a
spring plate is interposed between the
springs and the piston disc. When trip fluid
is admitted to the space above the bellshaped part of the piston, it moves this half
of the piston downwards, compressing the
springs, until it seats against the piston disc.

Servomotor for Main


and Reheat Stop Valves

the piston and the piston disc connected to


the valve stem moves to close the valve.
Just before the valve disc seats, the piston
disc enters a part of the cylinder where the
diametral clearance is reduced. This
arrangement restricts the flow of fluid past
the piston disc and so produces a braking
action, which causes the valve disc to seat
gently.
All fluid connections are routed through a
test valve. All operations can be controlled
by means of the test valve and the starting &
load limiting device and main trip valve.

After the main stop valves have been


opened, the turbine is started by the control
valves. Before the main stop valves can be
opened,
however,
they
must
be
pressurized, i.e. prepared for opening, by
admitting trip fluid from the trip fluid circuit to
the space above the piston to press it down
against the piston disc after overcoming the
resistance of the springs. The edge of the
bell-shaped half of the piston is designed to
produce an fluid tight seal with the piston
disc.
To open the valve, fluid from the trip fluid
circuit is admitted to the space below the
piston disc and, simultaneously, the space
above the bell-shaped half of the piston is
opened to drain. This causes both halves of
the piston to move together in the direction,
which opens the valve. In order to reduce
fluid leakage past the bell-shaped part of the
piston when the valve is open, a back seat is
provided in the housing against which the
collar of the piston can seat.
When the valve is tripped, the pressure in
the trip fluid circuit, and hence in the space
below the piston disc, falls, with the result
that the springs separate the two halves of

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0811-00

Steam Turbine
Description

The flow of steam to the turbine is regulated


by varying the lift of the control vale by
means of its servomotor.
The control valve is actually moved by the
piston (9), which is loaded, on one side by
the disc springs (10) and on the other side
by hydraulic pressure. The position of the
valve is determined by the secondary fluid
pressure, which is controlled by the
governor. Since large operating forces are
required, the servomotor is of the highpressure type (approx. 32 bar) and has a
pilot control system. The supply of
secondary fluid (connection b) controls the
auxiliary pilot valve (14) which directs control
fluid from connection a1 to the appropriate
side of the pilot piston (4). The pilot piston
operates the main pilot valve (3) through
lever (5) so that when the valve is being
opened, control fluid from connection a is
directed to the underside of piston (9). When
the valve is being closed, fluid drains
through the main pilot valve.
Pilot Control System
When the turbine is running and the valve is
steady at any particular value of lift, the
auxiliary pilot valve (14) will be in the center
position shown in the drawing. In this
position the force exerted by the spring (13)
and the secondary fluid pressure acting on
the auxiliary pilot valve are in equilibrium.
When the governor varies the secondary
fluid pressure to open or close the control
valve, the auxiliary pilot valve is deflected
from this center position. This allows control
fluid (connection a1 ) to flow to one side of
the pilot piston (4) while the other side of the
piston is opened to drain. The movement of
the pilot piston returns the auxiliary pilot
valve to its center position by means of the
feedback
linkage
(12)
thus
giving
proportionality between secondary fluid
pressure and pilot piston travel. The degree
of proportionality of the pilot control system
can be adjusted by varying the position of
the feedback lever pivot (12). The auxiliary
pilot valve is continuously rotated by the
action of fluid issuing from tangential
drillings in a disc mounted on its spindle in

BHEL Haridwar

Hydraulic Servomotor for


Main and Reheat Control Valves

order to ensure that the valve moves freely


at all times.
Main Control System
The movement of the pilot piston (4) deflects
the main pilot valve (3) from its center
position by means of lever (5) so that either,
control fluid from connection a is directed to
the underside of piston (9) and the control
valve opens, or the underside of piston is
opened to drain so that the disc springs can
close the control vale. Shortly before the
main valve disc actually comes into contact
with the seat, the servomotor piston (9)
enters a recess turned in the body and
throttles the flow of fluid draining from the
underside of the piston. This slows down the
valve closing motion and the disc seats
gently. The spring (1) pre-loads the linkage
and prevents any slackness or lost motion at
the pivots. The straight feedback cam (7)
mounted on the end of the servomotor
piston rod (8) returns the main pilot vale (3)
to its center position by means of a lever
system. The slope of the feedback cam is in
two stages to give two degrees of
proportionality, which produce good linearity
of the steam flow characteristics.
Testing Device
The control valve can be operated either by
hand or under power independently of the
governor by means of the testing device (11)
in order to check the free movement of the
valve. The testing device acts on the lever
(5) in the same manner as the pilot piston
(4); the system demanding the smaller valve
lift being in control,
Damping Device
Fig.2 illustrates the auxiliary pilot valve (14)
and the damping device in the secondary
fluid circuit. Any signals in the secondary
fluid circuit are damped out by passing the
secondary fluid through capillary tube (16)
before it enters the auxiliary pilot vale (14).
Any air carried by the secondary fluid is
conducted to the free space in the actuator
via the screw plug (18) and holes in the
casing of the damping device and pilot
valve.

5.1-0812-00/1

5.1-0812-00/2

Steam Turbine
Description

Test Valve
for Emergency Stop Valve

Function
The function of the test valve is to open and
close the emergency stop valve, either by
start-up fluid circuit or manual operation
especially when the emergency stop valve is
being checked for easy movement.

lowering the pressure in the start-up fluid


circuit or by manually turning the hand wheel
(3). The trip fluid can now flow from
connection x to connection x2 via the
auxiliary valve (5) and ducts in the casing,
and thus under the piston disc.

Arrangement
Each test vale (6) and auxiliary valve (5) is
arranged in series behind a solenoid valve
(1, 2).

Testing the Emergency Stop Valves


For testing the emergency stop valve, the
valve (6) is moved slowly downwards by
means of the hand wheel (3). In this way,
trip fluid is admitted to connection x1, and
then connection x2 Iinked to drain c, which
closes the emergency stop valve. After this,
the hand wheel (3) is slowly turned back and
the emergency stop valve opens again. This
procedure is accordingly the reverse of the
closing procedure.

Each emergency stop valve is served by


one test valve, whereby a test valve (6) is
combined with an auxiliary valve (5) in a
common casing. These blocks of test valves
are arranged in frames immediately next to
the relative emergency valve groups.
Opening of the Emergency Stop Valve
In order to open the emergency stop valve,
the valve (6) must first be forced downwards
against the force of the spring (7). This can
either be done by start-up fluid (connection
u) or manually with the hand wheel (3). Trip
fluid (connection x) can then flow to
connection x1 and on over the piston in the
emergency stop valve. The valve must then
be returned to the upper position, either by

BHEL Haridwar

Closing the Emergency Stop Valve by


Automatic Testing Device
When trip fluid is admitted under the
auxiliary valve (5) via connection v, this will
be forced upwards against the force of the
spring (4). This links connection x2 with
drain c via valve (5). Fluid thus drains
under the piston disc in the emergency stop
valve and the valve closes suddenly.

5.1-0813-00

Steam Turbine
Description
Function and Construction
One stop and one control valve are
combined in a common body with their
stems arranged at right angles to each
other. The stop valve can interrupt the
supply of steam from the reheater to the
IP and LP turbines extremely quickly. The
control valve controls the steam flow to
the IP and LP turbines on load rejection,
start-up & shutdown and remains fully
open in the upper load range to eliminate
any throttling losses. Further details of the
arrangement of the valve combination in
the control system can be seen under
section Governing system.
Reheat Stop Valve
The stop valve is a single seat valve with
integral pilot valve. Steam enters via the

BHEL Haridwar

Combined Reheat Stop


and Control Valves
inlet of the valve body (2) and remains
above the valve disc (7) when the stop
valve is closed. A pilot valve, integral with
the valve stem (6) is provided for relieving,
thereby reducing the force necessary for
opening. The valve disc (7) slides in the
bushing of the valve cover (4) and has a
bead on the back which lies against the
base bushing (5) and provides additional
sealing at this point. Metal packing rings (3)
seal the valve stem. The stop valve is
opened hydraulically and closed by spring
force.
Testing Stop Valves
Each stop valve must be checked for
correct operation at regular intervals. A test
valve is provided for this purpose. The
checking procedure is described in section
Test valve.

5.1-0814-00/1

Control Valve
The control valve has a pipe-shaped
valve disc (14) that is bolted to the valve
stem (13) and slides in the bushing in the
valve cover (11) The valve disc is
provided with relieving holes to reduce the
necessary controlling force. A ring fixed in
the bushing of the valve cover prevents
the valve disc from rotating. This valve
disc also has a back sealing that operates

5.1-0814-00/2

when
the
valve
is
fully
open.
Asbestos/graphite packing rings (10) seal
the valve stem (13) in the valve cover (11).
The control valve is operated by the piston
of the servomotor (9) i.e. is opened
hydraulically and closed by disc springs.
In the event of a disturbance in the system
or on trip-out, both stop valve and control
valve close rapidly.

Steam Turbine
Description

The reheat stop and control valves arranged


beneath the turbine operating floor in front of
the turbine-generator unit are suspended at
three points from girders in the upper
foundation plate in such a way that they can
follow thermal expansion of the steam lines.
The ball-and-socket design of the tie caps
(5) and spring body (9) and the disk spring
stack (8) arrangement permit free movement
of the reheat stop and control valve (3) in all

BHEL Haridwar

Hangers for Reheat Stop


and Control Valves

directions. Tensile forces are taken up via


the disk spring (8) and tie rod (6) by girders
(1) that rest horizontally on shims in a
recess in the foundation and are connected
to the foundation via clamping plates.
Tie rod (6) is screwed into rod cap (5) and
when the correct elevation of the reheat stop
and control valve (3) has been established,
is secured to prevent turning.

5.1-0815-01

Steam Turbine
Description
Function
Steam Strainers are installed in the main
steam lines and in the hot reheat lines from
the boiler. They protect the admission
elements of the HP and IP turbines from
foreign objects, which could be picked up in
the boiler or associated piping.
Construction
The strainer screen (2) is made of
corrugated strip wound on a frame. This

design offers a high degree of resistance,


even to particles impinging at high velocity.
The frame consists of two rings (1, 6) and a
number of rods (5) welded between the
rings. The rods are additionally held by
reinforcing rings (4) welded inside them. The
strainer is designed for a single direction of
flow from the outside inwards. For longer
strainers, the screen is made up of several

BHEL Haridwar

Steam Strainer

parts. The end turns of the corrugated strip


are then tacked to the T -section
intermediate rings (3). The maximum mesh
size of the strainer, which inner diameter
determined by the
height of
the
corrugations, is 1.6 mm. The effective area
is made atleast three times the crosssectional area of the pipe. The strainer is
used for both initial commissioning of the
turbine and for regular operation.

Fig. 3 Corrugated metallic` strip

5.1-0816-00

Steam Turbine
Description

Changeover Valve
for Bleeder Check Valve

Function
The function of the changeover valve is to
manually operate the actuator of the
bleeder check valve.
Mode of Operation
The trip fluid (connection x) holds the valve
(10) in the upper end position (illustrated)
against the force of the spring (8). The trip
fluid flows via the holes in the valve to
connection x 1 and then on to the actuator
of the bleeder check valve. The valve can
be moved downwards by means of hand
wheel (1). In this way connection x1 is
connected to the fluid drain c and the fluid
drains away from the actuator of the bleeder
check valve. The spring of the actuator can
then initiate the closing of the check valve. If
the pressure drops at the trip fluid
connection x, the spring (8) pushes the
valve (10) downwards. In this way the fluid
drain of the actuator is also freed.
1 Hand wheel
2 Spindle
3 Cap nut
4 Bush
5 Lip ring

6 Cover
7 Bush
8 Spring
9 Ball
10 Valve
11 Cover

c Drain fluid
x Trip fluid
x1 Trip fluid to actuator

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0840-00

Steam Turbine
Description

Function
The auxiliary valve controls the fluid supply
to the extraction check valve actuators and
its function is to give the check valves a
signal to close in the case of a drop in load
or trip-out so that steam can not flow out of
bleeder lines back to the turbine. The
auxiliary valve serves several check valves.
Mode of Operation
Trip fluid is admitted through connection x
on the body (10) (section A-B). Secondary
fluid from follow-up pistons of main control
valves is admitted to the spaces above and
below the valve (11) through connection b2
As the pressure above and below the valve
(11) are equal under normal conditions, the
valve is held in the lowest position by the
force of the spring (7).

BHEL Haridwar

Auxiliary Valve
of Extraction Check Valve

With this position of the valve, the trip oil


x can flow to the other valves and as
soon as these valves have been
switched to the upper position by
secondary fluid from follow-up piston of
reheat control valves-on to the changeover valves of the extraction check
valves (connection x1). The check
valves are then free to open. On a
reduction in load, as mentioned above,
the pressure above the valve (11) is
reduced accordingly while the Pressure
below the valve is retained for a while.
This is made possible by the fact that the
pressure reduction below the valve is
retarded by the ball (15) and the
pressure in the accumulator (connection
b) until the equilibrium is re-established

5.1-0841-00/1

between the pressure in the accumulator


and the new pulse fluid pressure
(connection b2) via the equalizing passage
in the cover (12). Owing to the brief
differential surge, the valve (11) is forced
upwards against the action of the spring (7),
thus cutting off the trip fluid supply to the
check valves and opening the fluid return.
As a result of this, the check valves receive
a closing impulse and close at reduced or
reversed differential steam pressure.
The valves (16), (section C-D) are acted
upon from below (connection b1) by the
load -dependent secondary fluid pressure of
the control valves. If the secondary fluid
pressure exceeds the value set by adjusting
the springs, these valves are forced

5.1-0841-00/2

upwards against the action of the springs


and open the path for the trip fluid to the
changeover valves of the extraction check
valves. The lift of the valves is limited by a
collar at their lower end. By appropriately
setting the springs (14) to the valves, it can
be ascertained at which secondary fluid
pressure i.e, at which turbine load, the check
valves open or receive an impulse to close.
If the pressure in the secondary fluid circuit
drops, the valves are pushed downwards by
the force of the springs and the inlet ports
from the trip fluid circuit are cut off, the bleed
valves thus receiving an impulse to close.
The fluid in the line to the changeover valves
can drain off through the opened fluid return
c.

Steam Turbine
Description
Function
The function of the rotary vane actuator
flanged to the swing-check valve is to
open or close the swing-check valve fitted
in the cold reheat line.
Operation
When the pilot valve operated by the
transformer of the speed controller
passes control fluid via connections d to
the interior of the actuator, the adjacent
connection d1 is depressurized. The
control fluid then flows through bores in
the body into the two diametrically
opposite chambers turning rotary vane (2)
on actuator shaft (8) into contact with the

BHEL Haridwar

Rotary Vane Actuator


for Reheat Swing-Check Valve

segments (1). This rotary movement,


transmitted by actuator shaft (8) to shaft (3)
of the swing-check valve via coupling (5;6)
closes the swing-check valve. Conversely,
the swing-check valve is opened when
control
fluid
is
admitted
through
connections d1
Seals, Fixing
Actuator shaft (8) is guided in bushings
(11) at both ends of the segments (1) and
is sealed off by seal ring (10). The
segments (1) are fixed in body (12) and in
cover (13) by means of fitted pins. Leaking
fluid c is drained to the header.

5.1-0853-01

Steam Turbine
Description

Pilot Valve for Rotary Vane


Actuator of Swing-Check Valve

Function
The function of the pilot valve is to control
the admission of control fluid to the moving
vane actuator in such a way that the swingcheck valve is operated in accordance with
the pressure in the secondary fluid circuit.
Mode of operation
The swing-check valve is kept open as long
as the pressure in the secondary fluid circuit
does not drop below a definite limit value. If
signal fluid enters the body via connection
b, the valve (10) is lifted against the action
of the spring (5). The initial tension of this
spring and thus the point at which the swingcheck valve opens can be adjusted. If the
valve (10) is lifted beyond the center position
illustrated, the control fluid entering at
connection a flows on to a chamber of the
actuator via connection a2 to open the
swing-check valve. Connection a1 then
communicates with the fluid return c via
passages in the body, permitting the fluid to
drain away from the actuator chambers not
supplied with control fluid. If the valve (10)
drops below the center position illustrated,
the control fluid will then be conversely
admitted to the actuator chambers in such a
way that the swing-check valve closes.
To prevent the valve (10) from seizing in its
sleeve (9) during operation control fluid is
passed through the center bore and out
through the tangential bores at the wheel
disc (8) to impart rotary movement to the
valve (10). For this reason, a thrust ball
bearing (7) and a ball (13) is fitted for this
purpose.
1 Throttle capillary tube 12 Slotted nut
2 Cap nut
13 Ball
3 Setscrew
4 Hood
5 Compression spring
6 Spring disc
7 Thrust ball bearing
8 Wheel disc
9 Valve bush
10 Valve
11 Bush
c Return
a Control fluid
b Signal fluid
a1 Control fluid(closes swing check valve)
a2 Control fluid(opens swing check valve)

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0854-00

Steam Turbine
Description

Auxiliary Pilot Valve


for Rotary Vane Actuator
For Reheat Swing-Check Valve

Function
The function of the auxiliary pilot valve for
the pilot valve for the reheat check valve
actuator is to control the admission of
control fluid to the pilot valve in such a way
that the swing-check valve is actuated in
accordance with the pressure in the
secondary fluid circuit.
Operation
The swing-check valve is kept open as long
as the pressure in the secondary fluid circuit
does not drop below a definite limit value.
Secondary fluid entering body (9) via
connection b lifts spool (7) against the
action of the spring (3). The initial tension of
this spring and thus the point at which the
swing-check valve opens can be adjusted. If
spool (7) is lifted beyond its central position
as illustrated, the control fluid entering at
connection a flows on via connection a1 to
connection b of the pilot valve to open the
swing- check valve via the rotary actuator. If
spool (7) drops below its central position as
illustrated, control fluid is admitted to the
opposite chambers of the rotary actuator, so
that the swing-check valve closes.
To prevent spool (7) from seizing in its
sleeve (6) control fluid is passed through the
center bore in the spool during turbine
operation and out through tangential bores
in the upper part of spool (7) to impart rotary
motion to the spool. A deep-groove ball
bearing (5) between spool (7) and spring
retainer (4) reduces friction from the rotary
motion.

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0855-00

Steam Turbine
Description

Gland Steam Control Valve


along with Actuator

Function
One function of the gland steam control
valve, which is situated in the grand steam
pipe of the seal steam system, is to supply
the shaft seals with seal steam during startup and in the lower load range. A further
function is to keep the set pressure in the
header constant in order to prevent air
penetrating the vacuum of the shaft seals.

Construction and Mode of Operation


The gland steam control valve is operated
by the pneumatic actuator which is moved in
the open direction by air pressure and in
closed direction by the spring force.
The gland steam pressure controller feeds 4
to 20 mA control signal to the positioner
which in turn gives the corresponding air
pressure to the actuator for the operation of
gland steam control valve.
The cross section view of gland steam
control valve alongwith actuator of gland
steam system is also given here.
1-Body
26-Bonnet Bush
2-Seat
27-Extended Bonnet
3-Plug
28-1 -6UNC-2B Nut
4-Bush
29-1 -6UNC-2A Stud
5-Packing
30-Flow Divider
6-Spring
7-Washer
8-Threaded Bush
9-Washer
10-Body Gasket
11-Adaptor
12-Nut
13-Yoke Bonnet
14-Travel Indicator
15-Wiper Ring
16-Oil Seal
17-Coupling
18-Diaphragm Plate
19-Diaphragm
20-Actuator
21-Spring
22-Actator Nut
23-Bush
24-Hand Wheel Position Indicator
25-Needle Roller Bearing

BHEL Haridwar

Suppliers catalogue may be referred for


complete details. Valve alongwith actuator is
supplied by M/S Samson Controls Pvt. Ltd.
B-43, Wagle Industrial Estate, Road No. 27,
Thane (Maharashtra)

5.1-0860-02

Steam Turbine
Description

Leakage Steam Control Valve


along with Actuator

Function
The function of the leakage steam control
valve, which is situated in the leakage steam
pipe of the seal steam system, is to drain
excessive steam from the header in order to
keep the set pressure in the seal steam
header.
Construction and Mode of Operation
The leakage steam control valve is operated
by the pneumatic actuator. Valve is moved
in the open direction by the air pressure and
moved in closed direction by spring force.
The gland steam pressure controller feeds 4
to 20 mA control signal to the positioner
which in turn gives the corresponding air
pressure to the actuator for the operation of
leakage steam control valve.
The cross sectional view of leakage steam
control valve alongwith actuator of gland
steam system is given here.
1-Body
2-Seat
3-Plug
4-Bush
5-Packing
6-Plug stem
7-Lock Nut
8-Threaded bush
9-Retainer Ring
10-Body Gasket
11-Adaptor
12-Ext. Bonnet
13-Yoke
14-Travel Indicator
15-Coupling (Clamp)
16-Diaphragm plate
17-Diaphragm
18-Actuator casing
19-Spring
20-Actuator nut
21-1 6UNC-2B Nut
22-1 6UNC-2A Stud

BHEL HarIdwar

Suppliers catalogue may be referred for


complete details. Valve alongwith actuator is
supplied by M/S Samson Controls Pvt. Ltd.
B-43, Wagle Industrial Estate, Road No. 27,
Thane (Maharashtra)

5.1-0870-02

Steam

Steam Turbine
Description

Function
The Function of the main trip valve is to
open the trip fluid circuit in the event of
abnormal conditions, thereby closing the
valves and thus shutting off admission of
steam to the turbine.
Construction
The main trip valve consists of mainly two
valves (12) that slide in the casing (11) and
are loaded by the springs (5,6). The valves

BHEL Haridwar

Main Trip Valve

(12) are designed as differential pistons


being forced tightly against the body
assemblies (10) by the rising pressure of the
fluid. Control fluid flows into the casing (11)
via connection a and with a tripping device
latched in (in the position shown), into the
trip fluid circuit via connection x. The trip
fluid circuit leads to the stop valves and the
secondary fluid circuits. Via passage drilled
in the body (11) (Section A-A) fluid flows to
the auxiliary trip fluid circuit, which leads to
the hydraulic protection devices.

5.1-0910-00/1

Operation
When starting the unit, the valves (12) are
lifted by the aux. start up fluid (connection
u1 ) against the force of the springs (5,6)
and forced tightly against the assemblies
(10). In this way pressure is build up in the
trip fluid circuit (x) and the auxiliary trip fluid
circuit (x1). The pressure in the auxiliary trip
fluid circuit keeps the valve in the position
shown while the aux. start up fluid drains
through the start up device.
Should the fluid in the pressure in the
auxiliary trip fluid circuit drop below a
specific value for any reason (e.g. by
tripping of a protection device) the valves

5.1-0910-00/2

(12) move downwards due to the spring


force and their own weight, thus connecting
connections x and x1 with the fluid back
flow c. This depressurizes the trip fluid
circuit which causes the main and reheat
stop valves to close. The fluid supply to the
secondary fluid circuits is also shut off, thus
causing the control valves to close.
The two valves (12) work independently of
each other so that even if one valve fails the
function of the tripping device is not
impaired. The limit switches (1) transmit
electrical signals to the control room.

Steam Turbine
Description

Emergency Trip Valve


for Manual trip out

The emergency trip valve enables the


machine to be manually tripped out.
The valve consists of the valve cone (8),
which slides in the bushing (9) and is
loaded by the spring (7), and the ball head
(1) with the spindle (4).
During normal operation the valve (8) is
forced tightly against the bushing (6) by
the pressure of the auxiliary trip fluid
arising at connection x1 . To actuate the
trip, the ball head (1) is pushed
downwards. This opens the valve and
connects the auxiliary trip fluid circuit
(connection x1 ) with the fluid back flow
c, The drop in pressure in the auxiliary
trip fluid circuit actuates the emergency
tripping device. The limit switch (2) shows
the tripping of the valve.
On start-up, before the auxiliary trip fluid is
pressurized, the valve (8) is forced
upwards against the bushing by the
auxiliary start-up fluid (connection u1).
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Ball head
Limit switch
Cover
Spindle
spring
Bushing
Spring
Valve cone
Bushing
Casing
Cover

x1 Auxiliary trip fluid


u1 Auxiliary start-up fluid
c Return fluid

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0911-00

Steam Turbine
Description

Solenoid Valve for


Remote Trip-out

Function
The solenoid valve is installed in the
auxiliary trip fluid line to the automatic trip
gear and, when operated, causes the
auxiliary trip fluid circuit to be opened and
the turbine stopped, The solenoid valve is
remote-controlled electrically, e.g. from the
control room or from a protective device.
Construction
The directions of flow are indicated by
arrows on the body. The solenoid sleeve (4)
is bolted to the casing (6) and is inserted in
the magnet casing (1) with the armature (3).
The complete valve element is placed in the
body (6) and held by the plug (11). The two
valve discs (8) seal the valve seats (9). The
solenoid valve and the line to the automatic
trip gear are ventilated by means of the
screw (12).
Mode of Operation
When the solenoid (1) is not energized, the
armature (3) is moved downwards by the
spring (2) so that the valve disc (8) is
pressed against the valves seats (9) to
provide sealing. The solenoid valve is
operated by energizing the solenoid (1). The
armature and the valve discs are drawn
upwards against the force of the spring (2)
so that the auxiliary trip fluid a is linked with
the drain c and the pressure in the line to
the automatic trip gear collapses.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
a
c

Magnet casing
Spring
Armature
Solenoid sleeve
Hexagonal nut
Casing
Ring
Stem with two valve discs
Valve seat
O-ring
Plug
Ventilation screw
Auxiliary trip fluid to automatic trip gear
Drain

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0912-00

Steam Turbine
Description

Over speed Trip

Function and Construction


The function of the overspeed trip is to stop
the turbine when the permissible speed is
exceeded. It is fitted in the turbine rotor (7)
and consists of the eccentric bolt/striker (4),
adjusting screw (6), spring (5) and the screw
plug (1).
Mode of Operation
The overspeed trip mechanism is set by the
adjusting screw (6). By appropriate
adjustment of the screw, the center of
gravity of bolt/striker (4) is positioned
eccentrically to the turbine shaft so that
below the tripping speed the bolt is held in
the position shown by the spring (5) against
the centrifugal force. In this position, the bolt
bears against the screw plug (1). If the
turbine rotational speed exceeds the
overspeed setting, the centrifugal force
overcomes the force of the spring (5) and
forces the bolt/striker (4) out of the turbine
rotor (7). This activates the turbine
automatic stop mechanism.

1
2
3
4

Screw plug
Guide bushing
Guiding foil
Bolt/striker

5 Spring
6 Adjusting screw
7 Turbine rotor
8 Guide ring

Fig. 1 Arrangement of overspeed trip in


turbine rotor

BHEL Haridwar

5.1-0920-00

Steam Turbine
Description

Function
The function of the overspeed trip releasing
device is to open the auxiliary trip fluid circuit
and thereby shut down the turbine when an
overspeed is reached which would subject
the rotor to high centrifugal force.
Construction
The overspeed trip releasing device located
in the bearing pedestal consists of valve
bodies (4,10), pilot valve and rods (3,5,7,8),
pawls (12) and limit switch (1). The bellows
16) on the pilot valves and rods prevent
hydraulic control fluid from entering bearing
pedestals and lubrication system. When the
turbine is started up, the pilot valve, rods
and pawls are latched by auxiliary start-up
fluid u1 .

BHEL Haridwar

Overspeed Trip Releasing Device

Turbine Trip by Overspeed Trip Device


When the overspeed trip operates, the
eccentric bolts/striker fly out radially and
strike pawls (12). The impact of the
bolt/striker rotates the pawls outwards
against the force of torsion springs (11). The
latches of the pawls release rod (8) which, in
turn, moves towards the shaft (13) due to
the force of spring-loaded pilot valve (3) and
force of the auxiliary trip fluid x1. This
movement opens fluid drain c to the
auxiliary trip fluid and the resulting loss in
pressure and trips the turbine. The electrical
trip signal is transmitted to the control room
by the limit switches (1).

5.1-0921-00/1

Testing the Overspeed Trips for Free


Movement
Proper functioning of the overspeed trips is
important since severe damage may result
from excessive over speeds. The overspeed
trip test device makes it possible to check
the bolts/strikers as well as pilot valves and
rods (3, 5, 7, 8) without interrupting
operation of the turbine.

5.1-0921-00/2

Start-up
Before restarting the turbine following a trip,
latch in the overspeed trip. This is done by
admitting auxiliary startup fluid u1 into pilot
valve body (4) and forcing the respective
pilot valve (3) outwards until rod (8) engages
the latch of the pawl. The auxiliary start-up
fluid flow is interrupted and auxiliary start-up
fluid flows via a hole to fluid drain c.

Steam Turbine
Description
Function
The function of the overspeed trip test
device is to test and exercise the overspeed
trip. The overspeed trip consists of
bolts/strikers which protrude against the
force of a spring under the effect of
centrifugal force during an overspeed
condition. The bolt/striker strikes a pawl and
thus opens the auxiliary trip fluid circuit and
in turn trip fluid circuit so that the stop and
control valves immediately interrupt the
admission of steam to the turbine. Perfect

BHEL Haridwar

Overspeed Trip Test Device

functioning of the overspeed trip is of the


utmost importance.
Construction
The overspeed trip test device consists of
three pilot valves (4,10, 11) combined in
valve block (12). Pilot valve (11) is held in
the position by spring (9), which bears
against guide piece (15) and rod (7). In this
position auxiliary trip fluid can pass to the
overspeed trip release device via connection
x and x1. If the pilot valve (11) is pushed

5.1-0922-00/1

inwards and held by means of the knob (6),


the auxiliary trip fluid circuit (connection x
and x1) is separated from the overspeed
trip release apart from a small quantity of
fluid which is permitted to pass to fill up the
empty pipe after the test operation. This
prevents the emergency trip from being
actuated by the overspeed trip.

bore of the pilot valve. By means of


handwheel (5), the pilot valve (10) can be
moved inwards so that the passage from
connection a2 is blocked from drain c1.
Control oil can now flow from connection a1
via the bushing (13) and the pilot valve (10)
to connection a2 and the bolts/strikers of
the overspeed trip.

Pilot valve (10) performs the function of


admitting test oil to the eccentric
bolts/strikers of the overspeed trips, causing
them to protrude from the turbine shaft
during the overspeed trip test operation.
Pilot valve (10) is guided in guide bushings
(13,14). A center bore with radial openings
is provided in the pilot valve. An annular
chamber in the bushing (13) is connected to
test oil connection a1. In the position
shown oil is prevented from entering the

Pilot valve (4) is used for resetting the


overspeed trip release device after the test
operation. When pilot valve (4) is pushed
inwards against the force of spring (3),
control fluid can flow from connection a to
u1, thus latching in the overspeed trip
device. During start-up, connections u and
u1 provide a passage for auxiliary start-up
fluid for latching in the overspeed trip release
device. After the test operation, the pilot
valves (4,11) are blocked.

5.1-0922-00/2

Steam Turbine
Description
Function
The purpose of the low vacuum trip is to
operate the main trip valve when a failure
of vacuum occurs in the condenser, thus
tripping out the main and reheat stop and
control valves and shutting off the supply
of steam to the turbine within the shortest
possible time.
Operation
The condenser vacuum is connected via I
(connection to condenser) to the top side
of the diaphragm (8). The space below the
diaphragm is at atmospheric pressure.
Upon failure of the condenser to maintain
proper vacuum, diaphragm (8) is forced
downwards by the increase in pressure
and the force of the spring (7) against the
force of spring (10), thus moving valve (9)
downwards. This establishes a connection
between x1 (control fluid) and drain c so
that the auxiliary trip fluid circuit is

BHEL Haridwar

Low Vacuum Trip

depressurized and the main trip valve


operates.
Concurrently,
valve
(11)
actuates the limit switches (15), which
initiates an alarm contact.
The range in which the vacuum safety
device operates can be varied by adjusting
the initial tension of the spring (7) by
means of the adjusting screw (5).
In order to isolate the auxiliary trip fluid
circuit during starting, auxiliary pilot valve
(9) is lifted by means of the spring (10) so
that drain c is shut off, thereby
establishing pressure in the auxiliary trip
fluid circuit when no vacuum exists.
As primary oil pressure builds up with the
increase in turbine speed, piston (2) is
forced into the lower position. This lower
position is reached when the speed is still
far below the rated value at which time the
low vacuum trip safety device is ready to
operate.

5.1-0935-00

Steam Turbine
Description

Condenser Safety Device

Function
The function of the condenser safety device
situated in the control fluid circuit of the
bypass control system is to protect the
condenser, when there is an excessive
increase in pressure in the condenser, by
opening the control fluid lines so that the
resulting drop in pressure causes the
bypass valves to close.
Mode of Operation
The steam space in the condenser is
connected with the spring space above the
diaphragm (5) via connection I. The space
below the diaphragm is at atmospheric
pressure. If the pressure in the condenser
increases excessively, the diaphragm (5),
and thus the valve (6), is forced downwards
out of the upper end position by the
increasing pressure and the force of the
spring (4). This shuts off the connection a1
to the bypass valve from connection. a
which is from the converter and connects it
to drain c.
The pressure range in which the vacuum
safety device operates can be varied by
adjusting the initial tension of the spring (4)
by means of the adjusting screw (2).
During commissioning the valve (6) is
automatically moved into the upper end
position, where it keeps the control fluid
circuit closed, as soon as the negative
pressure in the condenser falls below the
preset value. In order to be able to close the
control fluid circuit when there is still
insufficient vacuum in the condenser, the
valve is lifted via the lever (10) and cam (9)
but is not yet brought into its upper end
position. As already mentioned, this end
position is not reached until there is
sufficient vacuum.
After this, the lever (10) and cam (9) drop
down and do not impair the functioning of
the vacuum safety device. Any leakage fluid
can drain off through passages in the valve
sleeve (7) and the casing (8).

BHEL Hardwar

5.1-0940-00

Steam Turbine
Description

Solenoid Valve for Temperature


Controlled Interlock

Function
When there is an unallowable rise in
condenser temperature due to lack of
injection water a temperature sensor
situated in the condenser dome sends
electric signals to the solenoid valve which
open the signal fluid circuit of the bypass
valve actuators, thereby closing the bypass
valves so that the steam flow to the
condenser is interrupted.
Mode of Operation
During normal operation, the control fluid a
holds the main control valve (7) against the
force of the compression spring (8) in the
center position as shown here, This provides
the connection between the signal fluid from
pressure switch for injection water b and
the stop and control valve operator of the
bypass stop valve b1 , If the temperature in
the condenser rises to an unallowable value,
the solenoid valve (3) is moved downwards
against the force of the compression spring
(4) so that the control fluid a arising before
the main control valve (7) is connected with
the drain c.
Simultaneously, the control fluid a can flow
behind the main valve (7) so that the main
valve moves forwards against the force of
the compression spring (6) and the signal
fluid circuit b1 is opened and connected to
the drain c and the bypass stop and control
valve closed.

BHEL Hardwar

5.1-0950-00

Steam Turbine
Description

Vacuum Breaker for


Reducing the Running Down
Time of the Turbine

Function
With normal shut down or tripping of the
machine, the function of the vacuum breaker
is to cause an increase in condenser
pressure by conducting atmospheric air into
the condenser together with bypass steam
flowing into the condenser from the bypass
station. When the pressure in the condenser
increases, the ventilation of the turbine
blading is increased, which causes the turbo
set to slow down so that the running down
time of the turbo set and the time needed for
passing through critical speeds are
shortened?
Partial and Total Vacuum Breakers
The partial vacuum breaker is used when
the running down time is to be shortened
with normal shut down and plant conditions
are free of disturbance. Taking blade stress
into
consideration,
the
permissible
operational condenser pressure of 0.3 bar
should not be exceeded. For this reason the
limiting value for the condenser pressure
has been set at 0.2 bar.
In special cases requiring a rapid shut down
of the turbo set, the total vacuum breaking is
employed.
Electrical Control of Partial Vacuum Breaker

The vacuum breaker valve is actuated to


open once by a manual key. It closes
automatically when the pressure in the
condenser rises. This control achieves a
rapid passing through the speed range up to
hydraulic shaft turning operation. The
pressure transmitters installed in the
condenser for registering the pressure
increase is set at 0.18 bar so that the
condenser pressure will not exceed 0.2 bar
after the valve has closed.
Electrical Control of Total Vacuum
Breaker
So that the vacuum can also be broken
without limitation due to condenser
pressure, a manual key is provided. This key
opens the vacuum breaker valve. However,
it can not go into the closing position until
the close key provided for closing is used.

BHEL Haridwar

1234567-

LP Turbine
Pressure Transmitter
Solenoid Valve
Vacuum Breaker Valve with actuator
Condenser
Condensate Pump
Water Injection Valve

d Steam from IP Turbine


d1 Bypass Steam
k Condensate
I Atmospheric air
c Drain

This control enables a complete equalization


of condenser and ambient pressure.
Automatic Control
The vacuum breaker is also actuated
automatically by the turbine fire protection
system to shut the turbo set down more
quickly. It is switched back manually using
the close key in this case.

5.1-0960-02-1

Mode of Operation of Vacuum Breaker


Solenoid Valve (SV):-When the solenoid
valve is energized, it used to provide the
signal air to the volume booster to supply
enough air to the actuator to open the
vacuum breaker valve.
Volume Booster (VB):-This is used to
supply exact volume of air to the actuator
to meet the required time for opening of the
vacuum breaker valve.
Quick Exhaust Valve (QEV):-This is used
to close the vacuum breaker valve (when
supply to solenoid valve fails or solenoid
valve gets de-energized to close the
vacuum breaker valve) by exhausting the
air supplied to the actuator of vacuum
breaker valve within the allowable time for
its closing.
Air Filter Regulator (AFR):-This is used to
supply air to SV and VB. Maximum air
2
pressure shall be 7kg/cm .
Note:-The vacuum breaker valve is always
in closed condition during normal operation
of turbine.

Working Arrangement:Opening Process:When the magnet of solenoid valve is


excited / energized then the signal air is
supplied to volume booster for its operation.
Pressurized air from volume booster through
quick exhauster valve is supplied to the
actuator to open the vacuum breaker valve.
Closing Process:When the magnet of solenoid valve is not
excited/de-energized then the vacuum
breaker valve is closed as air gets
exhausted from the actuator through quick
exhauster valve as well as volume booster
and at the same time further signal air
supply from solenoid valve is also cut-off.

5.1-0960-02-2

Suppliers catalogue may be referred for


complete details.

Steam Turbine
Description

Changeover Valve
for Testing Device

Function
The function of the changeover valve is to
shut off the flow of trip fluid into the trip
fluid circuit while the protective devices
are being tested for proper operation by
means of the Automatic Turbine Tester
(ATT) and to allow control fluid a to flow
in so that the stop valves do not close
when the safety devices respond.
Mode of Operation
During normal operation, the control fluid
a1 in the space under the lower piston
(8) of the changeover valve keeps the
valve in the upper end position shown
here. In this way, connection x is
connected with connection x1 and trip
fluid can flow into the trip fluid circuit. The
space above the piston (6) (connection
a) remains depressurized during normal
operation.
When safety devices are checked for
proper operation, the space below the
lower piston (8) is depressurized by
means of a solenoid valve and control
fluid a enters the space above the upper
piston, which moves the valve into the
lower position. Due to the connection now
made between connections a and x1,
control fluid a can flow freely into the trip
fluid circuit, which keeps the stop valves
open for the duration of the test. Two limit
switches (1) transmit the position of the
valve to the control room.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Limit switch
Piston rod
Seal
Bushing
Inset
Upper piston
Sliding bushing
Lower piston

BHEL Haridwar

9 Body
10 Cover
a Control fluid
a1 Control fluid
c Fluid drain
x Trip fluid from
tripping device
x1 Trip fluid to trip
fluid circuit

5.1-0980-00

Steam Turbine
Description

Oil Supply System MAV


System Description

Accompanying system diagram


(Drawing No. 2-13100-N1101 on Sheet No.
On Sheet No.5.1-1000-66/4)
Process engineering functions of the
hydraulic and lubricating oil system
The hydraulic and lubricating oil system has
the following process engineering functions:
Lubrication and cooling of the turbine and
generator bearings with turbine oil drawn
from the main oil tank by the oil pumps and
forwarded via cooler and filter to the
bearings; pressures and flow rates are set
with throttle valves.
 Supplying motive oil to turning gear.
 Backflow of the turbine oil to main oil tank.

Components of the hydraulic and


lubricating oil system

Description and function of components of the


hydraulic and lubricating oil system
The components of the hydraulic and lubricating oil
system and their function are described below:
 Main oil tank
The oil necessary for operation is stored in the
main oil tank. The oil pumps draw the turbine oil
from the main oil tank and forward it to where it is
needed. Large solid contaminants in the returning
oil are removed by the strainers in the main oil tank
before the oil reaches the suction section of the
main oil tank.
Air and oil vapour are drawn out of the main oil tank
by the oil vapour extractor.
The main oil tank level is monitored.
The turbine oil can be drained from the main oil
tank.
Injector
MAV21 BN001
MAV21 BN002

In addition to piping, manually operated


valves, and monitoring equipment, the
following tanks, pumps, drives, coolers, filters
and valves are necessary for operation of the
hydraulic and lubricating oil system:
Main oil tank and oil pumps
Main oil tank
Injector feeder pump
MAV 21 BN001
Injector feeder pump
MAV 21 BN002
Main oil pump driven by
MAV 21 AP001
the turbine shaft
Auxiliary oil pump 1
MAV22 AP001
Auxiliary oil pump 2
MAV23 AP001
Emergency oil pump
MAV24 AP001
Turning gear oil supply valve


Oil coolers and oil filters


.Oil cooler 1
Oil cooler 2
Double multiport butterfly
valve
Oil temperature control valve
Lubricating oil filter

MAV51 AA001

MAV41 BC001
MAV41 BC002
MAV41 AA521
MAV41 AA001
MAV42 BT001

 Lubricating oil supply to bearings


lubricating oil valve
AA502
upstream of turbine bearing 1
lubricating oil valve
upstream of turbine bearing n
lubricating oil valve
upstream of generator bearing n

MAV42

Injector is located upstream of the main oil pump,


which is driven by the turbine shaft. The injector is a
submersible pump, which draws the turbine oil
directly from the main oil tank using turbine oil and
forwards it to the main oil pump under positive
pressure.
Main oil pump
MAV21 AP00I
The main oil pump is driven by the turbine shaft
and assumes the function of oil supply just before
the turbine generator unit reaches rated speed.
Auxiliary oil pumps
auxiliary oil pump 1
auxiliary oil pump 2

MAV22 AP001
MAV23 AP001

The auxiliary oil pumps are submersible pumps,


which draw oil directly from the main oil tank.
One of the two auxiliary oil pumps supplies the
hydraulic and lubricating oil system with turbine
oil as long as the main oil pump is unavailable
when turbine generator speed is too low for
supplying oil, e.g., during start-up or shutdown of
the turbine. generator or during turning gear
operation

Emergency oil pump
MAV24 AP001
The emergency oil pump is a submersible
pump, which draws oil directly from the main 'oil
tank. The turbine oil is forwarded by the
emergency oil pump while bypassing the oil
cooler and oil filter in the lubricating oil system
when the auxiliary oil pumps are unavailable for
turbine oil supply due to a fault in three-phase
power supply.

see below
see below

There is a lubricating oil throttle valve (coded


according to the system diagram) in the
lubricating oil line upstream of every turbine or
generator bearing.

BHEL,HARDWAR

5.1-1000-66/1

Motive oil valve of the


MAV51 AA001
turning gear
The motive oil valve of the turning gear is actuated
by the associated motor.

Oil coolers

oil cooler 1
oil cooler 2

The bearing-specific oil flow rates are set with


the throttle valves in the lubricating oil lines
upstream of the turbine and generator bearings.

MAV41 BC001
MAV41 BC002

One oil cooler is always in operation to remove


the heat generated by the turbine and generator
bearings from the turbine oil. The second oil
cooler is on standby. Changeover to the standby
oil cooler must be made when the oil cooler in
operation clogs or leaks.,
The maximum flow rate of the cooling water
.through the oil cooler in operation must be
maintained for good heat transfer and preventing
deposits in the cooler tubes.


Double multiport butterfly


MAV41 AA521
valve
The double multiport butterfly valve is the
changeover valve for the oil coolers.

Oil temperature control


MAV41 AA001
valve
The lubricating oil temperature upstream of the
turbine and generator bearings is maintained by
the oil temperature control valve.

The oil temperature control valve is a multiport


valve in which hot and cold turbine oil is mixed to
obtain the desired lubricating oil temperature of
approx. 45-degree C downstream of the control
valve.
 Duplex lubricating oil filters
lubricating oil filter
MAV42 BT001
One element of the switchable duplex lubricating
oil filter is always in operation to protect the
turbine and generator bearings against solid
contaminants.
The differential pressure across the lubricating oil
filter in operation is a measure of filter clogging.
 Double multiport butterfly valve
The double multiport butterfly valve is the
changeover valve for the lubricating oil filters.
 Lubricating oil throttle valves upstream of
turbine and generator bearings

Piping and valves

The turbine oil is supplied to where it is needed


through piping. The dimensions of the oil lines are a
function of oil velocity and the oil pressure during
operation.
Piping, oil coolers, and oil filters are equipped with
drain valves. Oil coolers and oil filters can be filled
and vented.
Air and oil vapour is extracted from the return lines.
Sampling valves are provided for taking oil samples.
Passive turbine fire protection
The main oil tanks, oil pumps, oil coolers, oil
filters, and important oil system valves are
installed in separate compartment of the turbine
building. This compartment is designed with a
sump for catching leak oil. The sump volume is
the same as that of the main oil tank.
The oil lines are laid in ducts, which can collect
leak oil and prevent it from contacting machine
parts on which it can ignite.
Information for operation and maintenance


Technical Data
The Technical
information:

Data

contain

the

following

- nominal capacity of the main oil tank


- reference values for the capacity of the
lubricating oil system including the oil-side
volume of the system tanks, coolers, filters, and
piping, which are filled during operation
- highest and lowest oil level in the main oil tank
during turbine generator operation at rated ,s.peed
- reference values for the amount of oil which
must be filled into the main oil tank for operation
of the hydraulic and lubricating oil system and
for the amount of oil necessary for flushing the
oil system during commissioning or inspection
and overhaul
- manufacturer, type designation, and design data
of oil pump motors
- setpoint and limit values of the lubricating oil
temperature for operation and shutdown of
the turbine generator unit

5.1-1000-66/2
-

manufacturer, type designation , and fineness


of the lubricating oil system filter

reference values for oil heatup in the bearings


and bearing-specific oil requirement

auxiliary oil pump must be switched off.


Extended parallel operation of the main and auxiliary
oil pumps shall be avoided.


The main oil tank is dimensioned so that the total oil


in the tank is not recirculated more than 8-10 times
per hour. The turbine oil in the system takes up air
during every recirculation. This air is released from
the turbine oil in the course of the dwell time in the
main oil tank. Large amounts of air in the turbine oil
are either due to an excessive turbine oil recirculation
rate or due to an inadequate air release property of
the turbine oil.


Sub-loop controls of the hydraulic and


lubricating oil system.

Dimensioning of the main oil tank

Sub-loop controls for the oil Pumps


All oil pumps of the hydraulic and lubricating oil
system driven by electric motors are controlled
by the switching commands of the associated
sub-loop controls. The oil pumps should always
be switched on in a certain sequence to ensure
the lubricating oil supply to the turbine and
generator bearings in the event of a drop in oil
pressure in the hydraulic or lubricating oil
system. The sub-loop controls of the oil pumps
must be in AUTO mode as long as the line of
shafting is driven by steam or the turning gear.

Setting of the throttle valves of the hydraulic


and lubricating oil system

The throttle valve settings for the hydraulic and


lubricating system are optimised during initial startup when the turbine generator unit is running at
rated speed:

Changeover of oil coolers and filters


Standby oil coolers and standby lubricating oil
filters must be filled and vented before
changeover.

The
INJECTOR
(MAV21BN001
/
MAV21BN002) ensure a positive pressure of
approx. 0.2 bar in the suction line immediately
upstream of the main oil pump.

Venting of the oil coolers

The oil-side vent of the oil cooler in operation


must be open.

Lubricating oil throttle valves upstream of the


turbine and generator bearings, e.g.,
lubricating oil throttle valve upstream of the
first turbine bearing MAV42 AA501.
The mass flows of the oil necessary for
lubricating and cooling are set using the
lubricating oil throttle valves upstream of the
turbine and generator bearings in accordance
with the reference values given in the Technical
data. The lubricating oil throttle valve upstream
of every bearing should be adjusted so that the
turbine oil in the bearing heats up to approx. 20
K.

Characteristics of the main and auxiliary oil


pumps are designed with respect to one another
so that the main oil pump assumes the oil supply
just before the turbine generator unit reaches
rated speed. If the auxiliary oil pump is still in
operation when the takeover criteria of the main
oil pump are fulfilled, the

5.1-1000-66/3

Steam Steam Turbine


Description

Accompanying system diagram

(Drawing No. 2-13100-N1103 on Sheet No. 5.11001-66/2 )


Process engineering function of the oil vapour
extraction system
Oil vapour forming, for example, due to turbulent flow
of turbine oil in the bearing pedestals and due to release
of entrained air in the oil return lines and main oil tank is
removed by one of the two extractors of the oil vapour
extraction system.
The negative pressures above the oil surface in the
bearing pedestals, oil return lines, and main oil tank
prevent turbine oil or vapour from escaping into the
atmosphere.
Turbine oil and oil vapour are separated in the oil
separator of the oil vapour extractors so that the air
released into the atmosphere is virtually free of oil.
Components of the oil vapour extraction system
In addition to piping the following equipment is necessary
for operation of the oil vapour extraction system :


Oil vapour extractors and oil separator
oil vapour extractor1
MAV82 AN001
oil vapour extractor2
MAV82 AN002
throttle valve upstream of
MAV82 AA511
oil vapour extractor1
throttle valve upstream of
MAV82 AA512
oil vapour extractor2
check valve of
MAV82 AA001
oil vapour extractor1
check valve of
MAV82 AA002
oil vapour extractor2
oil separator
MAV82 BT001
 Throttle valves downstream of bearing
pedestals
bearing pedestal 1
MAV81 AA501
bearing pedestal 2
MAV81 AA503
bearing pedestal 3
MAV81 AA505
gen. brg. pedestal
MAV81 AA507
exciter bearing pedestal
MAV81 AA511

Throttle valves of oil return lines
throttle valve
MAV81 AA521
throttle valve
MAV81 AA522
Description and function of components of the oil
vapour extraction system
The components of the oil vapour extraction system
and their function are described in the following :

BHEL, Hardwar

Oil System MAY


Oil Vapour Extraction System
System Description
Oil vapour extractors
oil vapour extractor 1
MAV82 AN001
oil vapour extractor 2
MAV82 AN002
check valve of
MAV82 AA001
oil vapour extractor 1
check valve of
MAV82 AA002
oil vapour extractor 2
One of the two single-stage oil extractors, whose
characteristic is matched to volumetric flow of oilenriched air, must be in operation as long as the
generator is filled with hydrogen.
The check valves downstream of the oil vapour
extractors prevent the extractor in operation from
drawing in air tough the standby extractor.

Oil separator
MAV82 BT001
Virtually all of the turbine oil in the vapour phase is
removed by the oil separator. Inadequate oil
separation is usually caused by excessive
volumetric flow of oil vapour. Consequently, the
throttle valves in the oil vapour extraction lines
must not be opened too far and the lid of the main
oil tank must be airtight.

Adjustable throttle valves in the oil vapour
extraction lines
Volumetric flow in the oil vapour extraction lines is
adjusted with throttle valves so that negative
pressures in the bearing pedestals equal the
reference value of approx. 5-10 mm of water column.
The negative pressures in the oil return lines and
main oil tank must be matched to this reference value
without degrading oil separation in the oil separator
due to excessive volumetric flow.
If the pressure in one bearing pedestal or in the main
oil tank is considerably lower than the reference
value, there is a risk of dust, moisture, or leak off
steam from the immediate atmosphere being drawn
into the oil system.
Notes on operation of the
oil vapour extraction system
During extended shutdowns the oil system fills with
air as the oil slowly flows back into the main tank. When
the system is started up again by activating the pump,
resuming oil flow, the air is driven out and accumulates in
the bearing pedestals. Pressure build-up in the bearing
pedestals and discharge of oil through the seal rings can
be prevented by filling the system using the emergency
oil pump.

5.1-1001-66/1

Steam Turbine
Description

Oil System MAV


Oil Discharge and Vent System
System Description

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Accompanying system diagram:


(Drawing No. 2-13100-N1103 On sheet 5.1-1001-66/2)

Process engineering functions of the oil


discharge and vent system
The valves and pipes of the oil discharge and
vent system are used to discharge the turbine oil
from the components of the oil system, and to vent
certain components.
The discharged turbine oil is temporarily stored
and then refilled into the main oil tank. The turbine
oil is purified either before or during the refill
process.
Components of the oil discharge and vent
system
The oil discharge and vent system contains
valves with ID codes as shown on the system
diagram, and the piping required for discharging
the turbine oil and venting the oil system
components.
Description and function of components of the
oil discharge and vent system
 Oil drain valves
The oil drain valves, the ID codes of which are
given in the system diagram, are used to drain the
following oil system components :
- Main oil tank
MAV10 BBOO1
The main oil tank is drained if the entire turbine
oil fill is to be discharged, or if the main oil tank is
to be cleaned during inspection and overhaul.
The entire oil fill is discharged if the oil system,
including all components thereof, is to be cleaned
or if the turbine oil is to be reconditioned or
replaced.
-Oil cooler 1
MAV41 BC001
-Oil cooler 2
MAV41 BC002
The turbine oil must be discharged from
one of
the oil coolers if a check on leak tightness or
condition is to be performed or if the oil cooler is to
be cleaned.
- lubricating oil filter 1
MAV42 BT001
- Jacking oil filter
MAV35 AT001
Oil filters must be drained on each cleaning
operation or whenever the filter elements are
changed.
-Oil piping systems
The turbine oil in the oil piping systems is
discharged when the oil system is drained
completely, or before corrective action is
undertaken to eliminate leaks. The turbine oil must
be discharged into a clean oil tank or into clean oil
drums.
If the entire turbine oil fill is to be discharged, an
appropriately sized stationary or mobile oil tank
must be provided. An oil pump is used to return

BHEL,HARDWAR

turbine oil to the main oil tank. Under normal operating


conditions, all oil drain valves must be closed in order
to avoid interruption of the oil supply.
Oil drain valves of the oil tank, the oil coolers and the
oil piping system are to be locked against unauthorised
or accidental opening.

Draining the jacking oil system
Note that the jacking oil filter system is drained using
the drain line of the jacking oil filter. The appropriate
valves must be aligned to route oil flow to the jacking
oil filter used for drainage.

Vent valves
The vent valves, the ID codes of which are given in the
system diagram, must be used to vent the following oil
system components:
- Oil cooler 1
MAV41 BC001
- Oil cooler 2
MAV41 BC002
The valves in the vent lines of the oil coolers
must be open at all times.
-Lubricating oil filter
MAV42 BT001
- Jacking oil filter
MAV35 AT001
The filter housing of the switchable duplex filters of the
operating oil systems must be filled and vented after
the filter elements have been cleaned.
The vent lines feed into the oil return line or into the oil
tank of the oil discharge system, to avoid oil loss during
venting.

Information
for
operation
and
maintenance
Incorrect
valve
positions,
inadequate
protection of valves against unauthorized
actuation, incorrect turbine oil fill and discharge
procedures, and failure to isolate valves can
result
in
faulty
operation,
damage,
contamination of waste water or buildings, and
loss of turbine oil. For this reason, all
information on this subject in this system
description must be observed. In particular, the
following information must also be complied with:

Complete drainage of the oil system before


changing the turbine oil fill when changing the
turbine oil fill, the used oil must be fully
removed from the system so that the
properties of the new turbine oil are not
adversely affected.
If necessary, flanges and threaded joints must
be disconnected and valve bonnets removed,
so that the used oil can be completely
removed. Once discharged, the used oil must
be disposed of properly.
 Isolation of oil system components
Before an oil drain valve is opened, there must
be oil-side isolation of the component to be
drained.
Before the main oil tank is drained, the operating

5.1-1002-66-1

Steam Turbine
Description

Oil System MAV


Oil Discharge and Vent System
System Description

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

oil pumps which draw the turbine oil from the


main oil tank must be deactivated to prevent the
oil pumps from running dry.
 Discharging the turbine oil into drums
To allow rouse of the turbine oil, drums into
which the oil is discharged must be free of
contaminants of any kind.
Drums must not overflow when being filled with
the discharged oil, nor must they be damaged
during transportation.
Due to the amount of time and the large

5.1-1002-66/2

transportation effort involved, turbine oil should only be


discharged into drums if neither stationary nor mobile oil
tanks are available.

 Oil level in the main oil tank


The oil level in the main oil tank must be topped
up while the turbine generator unit is operating
at rated speed, since this operating condition is
used as the basis for defining the reference
operating level for the oil.
Care should be taken that the reference
operating level is not exceeded.

Steam Turbine
Description
Accompanying system diagram:
(Drawing No. 2-13100-N1103 On sheet 5.1-1001-66/2)

Process engineering function of the oil


conditioning system
Turbine oil is subjected to stringent requirements
in terms of purity, since the properties of the turbine
oil and the condition and proper functioning of the
turbine generator components which come into
contact with that oil can be adversely affected by
solid or liquid contaminants.
The function of the oil conditioning system,
which can be kept in continual operation
independently of the operating oil systems, is to
either maintain or restore the purity of the turbine
oil.
ID codes of the oil conditioning system
components
 Multipurpose oil conditioning station

BHEL, Hardwar

Oil System MAY


Oil Conditioning (Purification)
System Description
Description of the oil conditioning system
arrangement
A multipurpose oil conditioning station is available
for turbine oil conditioning.
Information for operation and maintenance
Valve positioning during normal
operation
The positions of the manually operated valves of
the oil conditioning system during normal
operation are given in the position list for
manually operated valves appended to the
operating instructions.
 Operation and maintenance of the oil
conditioning system.
For all questions regarding the operation and
maintenance of the oil conditioning station,
please refer to the manufacturer's instructions..

5.1-1003-66

Steam Turbine

Main Oil Tank

Description
Function
The main oil tank contains the oil necessary for
the lubrication and cooling of the bearings, for the
jacking system and for the hydraulic turning gear. It

not only serves as a storage tank also for deaerating


the oil.
The capacity of the tank is such that the full quantity
of oil is circulated not more than 8 times per hour.
This results in a retention time of approx. 7 to 8
minutes from entry into the tank to suction by the
pumps. This time allows sedimentation and
detrainment of the oil.
1 Suction pipe (injector)
2 A.C. auxiliary oil pump

BHEL Hardwar

8
9

Oil inlet
Riser section inlet

3
4
5
6
7

D.C emergency oil pump


Jacking oil pump
Oil level indicator
Riser section drain
Main section drain .

10
11
12
13

Inspection port
Oil vapour Ehauster
Level switch
Oil strainer

Oil Flow in Tank


Oil returning to the tank from the oil supply
system first flows through a submerged inlet (8) into
the riser section of the tank where the first stage of
deaeration takes place as the oil rises to the top of
the tank. Oil overflows from the riser section through
the oil strainer (13) into the adjacent section of the
tank where it is then drawn off on the opposite side
by the suction pipe or the oil pumps.

5.1-1010-01/1

Oil pumps

Oil Strainer

The main oil pumps draws the oil through a


suction pipe (1) situated at the flow end of the tank
(1). This suction pipe is constructed as an injector to
aid the suction of the main oil pump which has to
overcome a certain suction head. Power oil is
conducted to the injector via an injection pipe. This
injection pipe also fills the suction pipe of the main
oil pump when the plant is being started up.

The basket type oil strainers (13) are mounted in the


tank. They are of brass wire mesh of 0.25 mm
filtration particle size and can be exchanged by
opening the tank cover.

The auxiliary oil pumps (2,3) arranged on the


tank are electrically driven rotary oil pumps(2). The
jacking oil pumps(4) also situated on the tank, are
electrically driven jack-screw immersion pumps (3).
All pumps immerse in the oil contained in the tank
and draw oil from the deepest point in order to
obtain oil as free of air as possible. The driving
elements of the pumps are fixed to the base plates
of the tank covet.

Oil Vapour Exhaust


The whole tank is made as airtight as possible.
Oil vapour exhausters (11) produce a slight negative
pressure in the tank, in the return drain lines and in
the spaces in the bearing pedestals so that oil
vapour arising is drawn off.
Oil Level Indicator
The main oil tank has a direct reading oil level
indicator and a fluid limitswitch. This permits signals
to be transmitted when maximum and minimum
levels have been reached. Extra tank volume is
provided between the normal operating level and the
tank cover to accept oil from the entire oil supply
system when the turbine is shut down, The tank is
constructed with a sloping bottom with drain
connections at the lowest point (6,7).

Also refer to the following sections


(1) 5.1-1020 Main oil Pump
(2) 5.1-1030 Auxiliary oil Pump
(3) 5.1-1040 D.C Emergency oil pump
(4) 5.1-1050 Jacking oil pump

5.1-1010-01/2

Steam Turbine

Main Oil Pump with

Description

Hydraulic Speed Transmitter

Function
The main oil pump is situated in the font bearing
pedestal and supplies the entire turbine with oil that is
used for bearing lubrication, cooling the shaft journals
and as primary and test oil. The main oil pump is
driven direct from the turbine shaft via the coupling
(11). If the turbo-set is out of operation or the main oil
pump fails, auxiliary oil pumps take over the
necessary oil supply. These pumps also convey oil
into the suction branch of the main oil pump until the
main oil pump has started to draw from the main oil
tank which is situated at a lower level [1].
Construction
the double flow impeller (5) is an integral part of
the pump shaft. The pressure and suction chambers
are sealed off from each other by seal rings (4) which
are split and secured against turning at the joint. The

BHEL Hardwar

pump shaft (5) runs in the journal bearing (1) and the
combined journal and thrust bearing (7). Both
bearings are lubricated with filtered 011. If the
overspeed trip test device, which is described
separately [2] is actuated, overspeed trip test oil a
flows to the overspeed trip devices via the oil tube
(16) built into the pump shaft (5).
Hydraulic Speed Transmitter
The pump shaft (5) also carries the hydraulic
speed transmitter (14) which runs in the bearing (7)
and in rings (13). The hydraulic speed transmitter
operates on the same principle as a centrifugal pump
impeller. Any change in speed gives rise to a
pressure change in primary oil circuit a1 which
serves as a control impulse for the hydraulic speed
controller. The hydraulic speed transmitter (14) is
supplied with control oil from the hydraulic control

5.1-1020-01/1

equipment rack via the oil supply reservoir (9). ! \n


annular bead in the speed transmitter ensures that its
interior is atways covered with a thin layer of oil to
maintain a uniform initial pressure. Excess oil drains
into the bearing pedestal.
Electrical Speed Plck-up
The pick-up for the electrical speed transmitter
(12) is a nonmagnetic disc into which small magnets
are inser1ed around the circumference. When the
disc rotates as the pump runs, ~h8 alternating effect
between the magnets and the Hall generators, not
shown here, gives rise to a voltage signal which is
forwarded to the electrical speed display [3].

Fig. 2

5.1-1020-01/2

Hydraulic Speed Transmitter, Cross Section

Steam Turbine

Auxiliary Oil Pump

Description
Description
The auxiliary oil pump is a vertical one-stage
rotary pump with a radial impeller and spiral casing. It
is fixed to the cover of the oil tank and submerges
into the oil with the pump body. It is driven by an
electric motor that is bolted to the cover plate (1). The
oil enters the suction connection from underneath and
is supplied to the oil system via the pressure pipe
(18). The pump shaft has: a sleeve bearing (12) in the
pump casing and a grooved ball bearing (7) in the
bearing yoke. The bearings are lubricated from the
pressure chamber of the pump; the sleeve bearing
via a bore in the casing; the grooved ball bearing ,ia
a lube line.
Assembly
The pump is assembled before dispatch and can
be mounted on and bolted to the oil tank as a
complete unit. When connecting, care must be taken
the piping is not stressed when bolted.
Dismounting
Exchanging the Impeller
After the motor has been disassembled and the
pressure pipe disconnected. the pump must be

BHEL Hardwar

removed from the tank as a complete unit. After the


suction casing (14) has been removed and the shaft
nut (16) loosened. The impeller can be extracted. It is
advisable to renew the split rings (17) when
exchanging the impeller. The now clearance between
split ring and impeller neck is 0.3 mm in diameter.
Exchanging the Bearings
When dismantling the pump must be removed as
above. Loosen the pump casing from the pressure
line and suspension pipe from cover plate. Remove
coupling halves from the shaft by means of an
appropriate device. Remove retaining ring (6), loosen
bearing nut (6) and detach grooved ball bearing.
Extract pump shaft after the unscrewing of impeller.
The pump is reassembled in reverse order.
Adjusting Pump Rotor
During assembly, the rotor rests on the sealing
ring of the suction casing. Lift the rotor by means of
the bearing nut (5) until the rotor sits firmly with the
shoulder of the shaft and the distance ring (8) at the
inner ring of the grooved ball bearing. Secure the
bearing
nut
with
threaded
pin.

5.1-1030-01

Steam Turbine

D.C. Emergency Oil Pump

Description
Function
The emergency oil pump is of the vertical,
centrifugal, submerged type and serves for lubrication
and cooling of the bearings during emergency
conditions.
Location
The unit is located on top of the main oil tank and
driven by a D.C. motor. The complete pump -motor
assembly is attached to mounting plate (1) which is
bolted to the top of the main oil tank.
Construction
Oil is delivered by impeller (15) via the intake (141
to volute (13) from where the oil flows through
discharge pipe (18) to the oil supply system.

BHEL Hardwar

The vertical pump shaft (9) is connected to the motor


shaft by a flexible coupling equipped with rubber sleeved coupling studs. The radial ball bearing (7)
carries the downward thrust load of the pump and with
the lower babbitted sleeve bearing 112) guides the
shaft. The lower sleeve bearing is mounted in volute
113). Pressure lubrication is provided to both
bearings. The lower bearing is supplied with oil
through a drilled oil passage from the discharge side
of the pump. The upper bearing is oil fed by pipe (10)
which connects to the pump discharge. Seal rings (17)
form a seal between the impeller suction and the
pump
discharge.

5.1-1040-01

Steam Turbine

Jacking Oil Pump

Description
Function
The jacking oil pump is a self-priming screwspindle pump with three spindles and internal
bearings The pump supplies the jacking oil that is
needed for lifting the shafting at low speeds [1].
Construction, Mode of Operation
The screw-spindle pump is connected vertically to
the cover plate (2) of the main oil tank via a support
(5) and immerses with the suction casing (15) into the
oil, The drive is an electric motor that is bolted to the
cover plate (2). The oil now into the suction branch of
the suction casing (15) from underneath and is
supplied to the lifting oil system by the pump via the

BHEL Hardwar

pressure pipe (3).


The driving spindle (16) and the two moving
spindles (20) run in the inner casing (13). The fluid
pressure to which the spindle thread is subjected on
the pressure side is compensated by the driving
spindle by means of the balancing piston (shrunk-on
sleeve) running in the throttle bushing (11). With the
hollow moving spindles, the axial thrust is
compensated by the balancing pistons arranged on
the suction side which run in the balancing bushings
(21).
The throttle bushing (11) and the driving spindle
(16) form a throttling gap that separates the pressure
area from the following area. The oil that leaves the

5.1-1050-00/1

throttle gap. flows via the grooved ball bearing (7) into
the support and from there back into the main oil tank.
The grooved ball bearing is lubricated with this oil.
The driving spindle is fixed by means of the grooved
ball bearing in the bearing carrier (9) that is bolted to
the pressure casing (12) of the pump.

Due to the special profile given by the sides of the


threads the three spindles form sealed chambers, the
contents of which are continuously being moved
axially from the suction side to the pressure side of
the pump as the spindles rotate.

Also refer to the following sections


[1] 5.1-0100 Technical Data
[1] 5.1-0510 Hydraulic Turning Gear
[1] 5.1-0530 Hydraulic Lifting Device

5.1-1050-00/2

Steam Turbine

Oil Throttle

Description
Arrangement
The oil throttles arranged immediately before
the bearing in the lubricating lines serve for
adjusting the necessary amount of oil for the
bearings. While the left half of the sectional view
represents the oil throttle during oil flushing, the
right half shows the oil throttle in normal operation.
Construction
The main parts of the oil throttle are the body
(8), in which either the oil strainer (7) which is held
in place by the screw plug (6), for the flushing
process or the adjustable throttle piece (5) with
parts (1, 2, 3) for normal operation are inserted.
Operation
The flushing process is carried out before the
turbine is taken into service. After the flushing, the
oil strainer (7) as well as the screw plug (6) are to
be exchanged with the throttle piece (5) and the
screw plug (3) with the capped nut (11. By means
of the adjustable throttle piece, the cross section
of the passage is then adjusted for normal
operation, according to the necessary amount of
the lubricating oil and consequently the lubricating
oil flow adapted to the required oil exit temperature
of the bearing.

BHEL Hardwar

5.1-1080-00

Steam Turbine

Oil Throttle

Description
Arrangement
The oil throttles arranged immediately before
the bearings in the lubricating lines inside the
bearing pedestals serve for adjusting the
necessary amount of oil for the bearings. While
the Fig. 1 represents the oil throttle during normal
operation, Fig. 2 shows the oil throttle during final
stage of oil flushing.
Operation
The flushing process is carried out before the
turbine is taken into service. The strainer (7) is

BHEL Hardwar

installed in final stage of flushing. The oil strainer


(7) as well as the blind cover (6) are to be
exchanged with the throttle spindle (1), cap nut
(2), nut (3) and cover (4). By means of adjustable
throttle, the cross section of the oil passage is then
adjusted for normal operation. according to the
necessary amount of the lubricating oil and
consequently the lubricating oil flow adapted to the
required oil exit temperature of the bearing.

5.1-1081-00

Steam Turbine

Three-way Control Valve

Description

For Lubricating Oil Temp. Control

Description
The three way temperature control valve has the
function of regulating the lubricating oil temperature
at 45 C. Possible oil flow paths for regulating the oil
temperature are:
All lubricating oil flows through oil cooler.
Lubricating oil flows through oil cooler and
bypass piping.
 All lubricating oil flows through bypass piping.



Valve Type
Three way Angle Valve with Electric Actuator.

BHEL Hardwar

5.1-1090-01

Steam Turbine
Description

H.P. Control Fluid Pump


With LP Extraction

Description
The extraction or dual pressure pump is a
vertical rotary pump in multiple stages. It is attached
to the cover of the fluid tank and submerges in the
control fluid. Drive is provided by an electric motor
located on the cover plate (1). Control fluid enters
the suction casing (10) from below and is conducted
into the LP control fluid circuit via the pressure pipe
(19) and into the HP control fluid circuit via pressure
pipe (23). The pump shaft is guided by a sleeve
bearing (11) in the suction casing and by ball
bearings (25) in the bearing support (4). The ball
bearings and the bevel gear coupling are lubricated
by oil from the 1st stage pressure chamber via
lubricating pipe (22).The sleeve bearing is lubricated
via a passage in the casing.
Assembly
The pump is delivered in assembled state and
can be placed as a unit on the tank and bolted to it.
When connecting the pressure pipe care must be
taken that the piping is not stressed when bolted.
Exchanging the Rotors
When the motor has been dismantled and the
pressure piping removed. the pump must be
extracted as a unit from the tank. After the suction
casing has been removed and the rotating wheel nut
loosened, the 1 st stage rotating wheel can be
extracted. In order to dismantle the other stages, the
baffle ring and then the stage casing are removed. It
is expedient to renew the seal rings when
exchanging the rotating wheels. The new clearance
between seal ring and the neck of the rotating wheel
is 0.3 mm in diameter. The pump is assembled in
the reversed sequence.
Exchanging the Bearings (11 and 25)
The pump is first taken apart; loosen pump
casing from pressure piping and bearing support
from the cover plate; remove coupling half from the
shaft by means of special device; remove bearing
securing device; loosen nut (2) and ball bearings
(25). The pump is assembled in the reversed
sequence.
Adjusting Pump Rotor
During assembly the shaft is supported by the
sealing ring of the suction casing. The shaft is lifted
by means of the nut (2) until the rotor with shaft
shoulder and distance ring (24) sits firmly on the
inner ring of the ball bearing. Bearing nut is then
secured with threaded pin.

BHEL Hardwar

5.1-1110-00

Steam Turbine
Description

Plate-type Filter

The plate type filter cleans the oil or fluid


used in the governing system.
Construction
The plate type filters are installed in
Governing and LP Bypass racks. Single stage
plate type filters are used in LP Bypass racks
while in Governing rack the filter has three
stages. The filtering elements are arranged in
parallel inside the casing. The main components
of the filter are: handwheel (1), filter top (2), filter
element (3), body (4) and sludge drain plug (5).
Mode of Operation
The control fluid enters the body at the right
hand arrow and passes through the filter
element (3). The sludge gets arrested on the
surface ot the cartridges. The clean fluid flows
out to the machine.
Operation and Maintenance
To clean the plate type filter, use the
handwheel (1) to turn the filter cartridges. The
sludge and dirt removed collect at the bottom of
the body (4) in the sludge collection chamber.
The handwheel (1) should be turned 2 or 3
revolutions daily. Accumulated sludge is to be
removed at fairly long intervals when the plant is
shut down by removing the screw plug (5). The
filter cartridges need not be removed.
Disturbance
If the filter is not given due attention and the
handwheel not turned regularly, it may happen
that the cartridges become so clogged that it is
impossible to turn the main spindle, and there is
only a very slight flow of fluid through the filter.
In such cases no force should be applied under
any circumstances. It is relatively easy to correct
this kind of trouble when the machine is
shutdown: Remove the element from the body
carefully. The cartridges can now be cleaned
thoroughly by using a noncorrosive cleaning
fluid and with the aid of a brush.

BHEL Haridwar

Do not take the cartridges apart. After the filter


element has been cleaned, place it back in the
position. It is possible that the gland in the filter
top may become loose or sticky. In such cases
tighten the gland nut or replace the packing. Be
sure not to tighten the nut too much so as to
prevent the cartridges from being turned.

5.1-1120-00

Steam Turbine
Description
Function
Duplex filters permit the dirty fiter elements to be
cleaned during operation.

Construction
The Duplex filter consists of two filter bodies and
is fitted with a change-over device which enables the
filter to be switched as desired. The filter bodies are
designed according to the pressure stage and the
relevant codes and the filter itself is designed to
provide safety taking into account the differential

Duplex Filter
for Pilot Control of Control Valves

Mode of Operation of Differential pressure


Gauge
The casing is divided into two pressure chambers by
a diaphragm sealed piston. The first chamber is
connected with the filter enterance and the other
with the exit. In the normal case (
p = O ), the
piston is held in the zero position by a tension
spring. On an increase in the differential pressure,
the piston is pushed against the tension spring. Each

alteration in pressure corresponds to a certain


piston setting. This position is transferred

pressures.

magnetically i.e. with low friction,

Installation of Duplex Filters

to the indicating disc and the two contacts


outside the pressurized area. At certain red portion
of the two viewing windows of the indicating disc
which occures for example when filter contamination
increases and at specified switching points a
particular contact, thus correspond to the prevailing
differential pressure.

When the filter is being bolted to the foundation, the


casing must not be subjected to any external
stresses. This also applies when the piping is being
connected .Care must be taken that the fluid flows
through in the correct direction. The directin of flow
is normally marked on the flanges of the filter bodies.

Differential Pressure Gauge


The function of the device is to measure and give a
visual indication ofthe variation in the differential
pressure

Fig.3 Differential Pressure Gauge

Valve Changeover Device


The changeover device consists of two
changeover valves arranged one above the other.
Valve discs (4) that control the path of flow in the
valve casing are moved by means of a star-wheel
via spindle that has a left and right hand thread.

Fig.2 Cylindrical Filter

This construction guarantees synchronized


movement of the two valves discs whereby one
filter chamber is switched on before the other
chamber is switched off, Without causing the
flow to be interrupted .A visual indicator on the
upper valve casing shows the prevailing
direction of flow and switching.

BHEL Hardwar
5.1-1130-00/1

Operating the Changeover Valve


The large arrow on the switching gauge (1) gives
the direction of flow and the small arrow the
switching direction. Before operating the changeover
device, the pressure equalizing coak (2) must be
open.
The duplex filter is switched to the other filter
chamber by turning the star-wheel (3) in the given
direction. By means of a turning lever, the valve
discs can be easily loosened. The star-wheel (3) is
also tightened to the end position by means of this
turning lever. The valve discs (4) open in the
appropriate direction of flow and the change-over
process is then completed. The cock of the pressure
equalizing pipe must then be closed so that one filter
chamber is hermetically sealed.
Start-up and Cleaning
 Change-over device in intermediate position;
both filter chambers in operation
 Open vents in both chambers
 Start-up plant slowly
 Close vents when air has escaped and fluid
begins to come out
 Block one filter chamber by opening changeover
device. While the first filter chamber is filtering
,the shut off chamber is in reserse until the
permissible differential pressure has been
reached due to contamination. When the
permissible differential pressure has been
reached ,one must switch over to the clean filter
chamber as follows:
 Open pressure equalizing cock and check
whether the reserve chamber is full by opening
the vents for a short time
 Change over
 Close pressure equalizing cock.
 Open vent in shut-off half ; this relieves the
control fluid and gives the possibility of checking
whether the changeover device has blocked the
flow to the filter chamber.
 Disassemble the casing cover of the shutoff filter
chamber.
 Remove filter element vertically in an upwards
direction,
 Clean mesh of filter element with appropriate
cleaning material and by blowing through the
mesh from the clean side (see filter cleaning
instructions).
 Re-insert cleaned filter element.
 Close casing through cover; vent is still open.
Before replacing cover take care that condition
and position of seal are perfect. If necessary
change seal.
 Open pressure equalizing cock until filter half is
deaerated.
 Close vent. Filter half is ready as reserve again.

Removal and Installation of Changeover


Valve
Belore removing the changeover valve, care
must be taken that the fluid in the casings is not
under pressure.

5.1-1130-00/2

Fig.4 Changeover Valve


1
2
3
4









Switching position indicator


Pressure equalizing cock
Star-wheel
Valve disc

Unscrew switching gauge.


Loosen valve discs by turning star-wheel
Disassemble upper cover.
Unscrew valve stem with valve disc(4).
Check sealing rings and renew if necessary.
Screw valve stem with valve disc(4) back again.
Close casing with cover.
Assemble switching gauge.
 Disassemble lower cover.
 Unscrew Valve stem with valve disc.

Cleaning the Filters


1. Normal Cleaning
1.1 With multi-part filters, each element is cleaned
in dividually.
1.2 Brush the individual elements with a not too
hard brush and suitable cleaning agent over a
bath or container and rinse.
1.3 Blow compressed air from the clean side
through the filter that has been cleaned in this
way in order to remove any dirt particles
caught in the filter mesh. The cleaning
process can be carried out with filter cleaning
apparatus (Fig. 5).
Application according to Item 2.3
2.
2.1

2.2
2.3

Cleaning Obstinate Dirt


Place complete filter in a container with a
cleaning agent for several hours or spray
repeatedly at short intervals.
Treat filter elements as described under 1.2
and 1.3.
Using filter cleaning apparatus (Fig.5) and
suitable agent, blow through filter thoroughly
from clean side.
Fig. 5 CIeaning device for filter element

3.

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8

Cleaning Disassembled Filter Elements


(Only with bolted construction)
Only when absolutely necessary to be
performed with great care.
loosen all nuts (a) on respective filter element
and remove.
Detach lower filter plate (b)
Detach filter casing (c)
Remove support pipe (d)
Clean strainer basket as in Item 2
Clean all parts. also upper filter plate (g) and
stay rod (e)
Check all seals (f) and strainer basket for
damage and renew if necessary
Assemble filter elements and bolt firmly. Care
must be taken here that strainer basket and
seals sit properly.

4.

Cleaning Agents
Suitable cleaning agents are e.g. air,
water,
steam,
Tri-Perchlorethylene,
petrol, benzene, diesel oil, etc.
The application depends on their cleaning
capacity and their compatibility with the
media to be filtered.

5.1-1130-00/3

Steam Turbine
Description
General
Of the various types of fire resistant fluid, the
only ones suitable for use with our turbines are
phosphoric esters of the group HS-D which have
a low water and chlorine content.
Their chemical composition and structure
necessitate certain measures and alterations
compared with an oil system.
Fire resistant fluid systems for our turbines
are provided with a bypass regenerating plant.
The design of this plant is made to the
specifications of the fluid manufacturer. Any
acids and ageing products are removed during
operation by continuous filtering through
Fullers-earth and mechanical filters.
The mode of operation of this natural earth
treatment is based on a ion-exchange reaction.
In addition to the precautions against acidifying
of the fluid, continuous care is taken that any
solid particles are separated by the fine filter so
that they can not speed up the reaction. The fine
filter of this plant retains particles of Fullers
earth as well as providing the essential
cleanliness of the whole system and increasing
the life of the filters.

BHEL Haridwar

Regenerating Plant

The Fullers earth needed for regenerating


the fire resistant fluid must be dry with a residual
water content of not more than 1% of the weight.
If required Fullers earth must be dried at a
temperature not exceeding 105 C.
The US strainer number 30/60 mesh is the
granular size to be used (or this must
correspond to the details from the fluid
manufacturer). The dust proportion of the
granulate must not be used. The amount of
earth must not be too little and must be stamped
or shaken to avoid the formation of gaps and
channels which would reduce the effectiveness
of the Fullers earth.
The efficiency of the regenerating plant is to
be controlled by an exact record of the
neutralization value and the degree of purity.
Construction of Regenerating Plant
The filter group consists of one dry filter (10),
2 Fullers earth filters (6) and a mechanical Filter
(7). The cleaning and deacidifying takes place in
a separate circuit. A pump (4) conducts a
constant amount of fluid through the filter group
and back into the tank (1). When the filter is
contaminated there is an increase

5.1-1140-00/1

in the fluid pressure. A spring safety valve (3) is


installed to protect the system against an
excessively high increase in pressure.
Dry Filter
Fluid first enters the dry filter . The cartridges
inside the filter remove dirt and water from the
fluid.The outer media layer filters out silt, rust
and other particular contaminants. The inner
layers absorb water and will chemically bond it
so that no water will release downstream.When
the cartridge reaches its water holding limit, the
media swells and the differential pressure
rapidly increases. The differential pressure
indicator reaches the all-red range.This signals
the operator that the cartrdge must be changed.
Fullers earth Filter (Fig. 2)
The Fullers earth filter contains three
sections with a special granulate which binds
any acid present in the fluid. Two filters work in
parallel and can not be switched over.
Mechanical Fine Filter (Fig. 3)
Following the Fullers earth filters is a fine
filter with textile inserts of finest mesh. These
inserts retain the finest particles of dirt, both
metallic and nonmetallic impurities. In this way
the fine filter also serves the safety of the control
fluid system by trapping any particles of
granulate that may be circulating. The fine filter
also separates water particles and other ageing
materials which would make it necessary so
renew the control fluid too soon.
Commissioning and Maintenance of the
Filter Plants
 The filters are to be continuously deaerated
by slightly opening the vent valve.
 Observe pressure increase on pressure
gauge
 The acid content must be checked by
examining the fluid in the laboratory at certain
intervals.
 If there is a constant increase in the acid
value. the granulate is exhausted and must
be replaced earlier than originally intended.
 The increasing contamination of the filter can
be measured by the constant increase in
pressure. The differential pressure indicators
installed in the system show optically the
degree of contamination. When the white-red
segments are only showing red, the filter
material must be changed.
Exchanging the Earth Filling (Fig. 2)




Switch off pump


Open filter drain (6). Drain Filter (Flg.2)
Loosen cover bolts

5.1-1140-00/2

Fig. 2 Fullers Earth Filter


1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Connection for pressure gauge


Connection for air exhaust
Connection for safety valve
Control fluid Inlet
Contrul fluid outlet
Connection to drain tank
Filter basket with gauge




Lift cover taking care not to damage seal


Loosen drain pipe screws and lift basket
cover
Extract filter basket (7) carefully and centrally
Clean inside of filter casing
Clean filter basket (7)
After cleaning care must be taken that the
parts are completely dry
Fill filter basket and Insert. The earth must be
carefully pressed down without use of
excessive force so that the sections are filled
compactly in order to prevent later settling of
the earth and the possible formation of
channels
Insert clean basket cover and tighten well
with screw so that no Fullers earth can
escape
Close drain (6).
Replace cover carefully and tighten uniformly
by means of screws (pay attention to seal)
Switch on pump (4).










Instructions for Installation of Filter


Cartridges
of Fine Filter (Fig.3)
The filter cartridges (8) are to be immersed in
the control fluid before the first commissioning
and installed in the filter. The cartridges must be
placed above the standpipes such that the large
opening of the filter cartridge faces downwards.
By inserting the rubber and metal discs and the
clamping springs in this sequence, the filter
cartridges are stressed by means of the
clamping screws to equalize an alteration in the
length of the filter cartridge column.
Means of Cleaning
The following are to be used for cleaning:
Textile and paper cloths without threads,
benzine,
white
spirit,
trichloroethylene,
perchloroethylene and compressed air.
When using these, the respective accident
prevention rules are to be observed.
Remains of cleaning materials are to be
Carefully
removed
(when
chlorinated
hydrocarbon is used there must be no increase
in the chlorine content of the FRF).
Each newly cleaned surface is susceptible to
corrosion. In order to protect the surfaces,
therefore, they must be moistened with FRF or a
corrosion protection medium compatible with
FRF immediately after cleaning.
1 Connection for pressure gauge
2 Connection for air exhaust
3 Connection for safety valve
4 Control fluid inlet
5 Connection for thermometer
6 Control fluid outlet with flow gauge
7 Connection for sludge outlet and
drainage
8 Filter cartridges

Fig. 3 Mechanical Fine Filter

5.1-1140-00/3

Steam Turbine
Description

Drain System MAL


System Diagram
Index

System Diagram
MAL
MAG

Turbine Drains System


Turbine Drains System

BHEL, Hardwar

Drawing No. 1-13100-N1131 on sheet No. 5.1-1210-66/2


Drawing No. 1-13100-N1131 on sheet No. 5.1-1210-66/2

5.1-1210-66/1

Steam Turbine
Description

System Diagram
Index

System Diagram
MAN
LCE

Condenser Spray System


Condenser Spray System

Drawing No. 2-13100-N1141On sheet 5.1-1220-66/2


Drawing No. 2-13100-N1141On sheet 5.1-1220-66/2

MAA
MAB
MAC

HP-IP-LP Scheme
HP-IP-LP Scheme
HP-IP-LP Scheme

Drawing No. 1-13100-N1142 on sheet 5.1-1220-66/3


Drawing No. 1-13100-N1142 on sheet 5.1-1220-66/3
Drawing No. 1-13100-N2142 on sheet 5.1-1220-66/3

BHEL, Hardwar

5.1-1220-66/1

Steam Turbine
Description

Component Diagram
Index

Component Diagram
MAA

HP Stop & Control Valves

Drawing no. 4-18000-40022

on sheet 5.1-1230-66/3

MAB

IP Stop & Control Valves

Drawing no. 4-18000-40022

on sheet 5.1-1230-66/4

MAN

LP Bypass Valve (ETA Type)

Drawing no. 4-18000-40022

on sheet 5.1-1230-66/5

MAW

Seal Steam /Leak off Steam Valve

Drawing no. 4-18000-40022

on sheet 5.1-1230-66/6

Drawing no. 4-18000-40021

on sheet 5.1-1230-66/7

MAD

Measuring Points on Turbine Generator


Bearings

BHEL, HARDWAR

5.1-1230-66-1

Steam Turbine
Description
ACOMPANYING SYSTEM DIAGRAMS
Drg nos. 1-13100-91121 & 3-13100-N1122 on Sheet nos.
5.1-1240-66/4 & 5.1-1240-66/5
Process engineering function of the shaft seal steam
system
The process engineering function of the shaft seal
steam system is to prevent the escape of shaft seal
steam from the turbine to the atmosphere and the ingress
of air into the turbine and the condenser. The provision is
also made for drawing the leak off steam from U-Ring, in
case of failure, the spindles of Main Steam Stop & Control
valves, HRH Steam Stop & Control Valves and LPBP
Stop & Control Valves under leak off steam system.
The subsystems of the shaft seal steam system have
the following functions:

Seal and leakoff steam system
exhausting of leakoff steam from shaft seals
having a positive internal pressure and from valve
stem seals.
supplying the shaft seals having a subatmospheric internal pressure with seal steam.
admission of excess leakoff steam to the
condenser.

Leakage steam system
exhausting of leakage steam from the leakage
steam chambers of the shaft seals.
condensing of leakage steam in the seal steam
condenser.
exhausting of leakage steam to atmosphere
during faulted seal steam condenser operation.
extraction of air from the seal steam condenser
using one of the leakoff steam condenser
exhausters.

Leakage steam condensate system
exhausting of leakage steam condensate to the
waste water system.
Components of the shaft seal steam system
In addition to piping, monitoring equipment and
manually operated valves, the following equipment and
valves are necessary for operation of the shaft seal steam
system:

Seal steam supply System
Seal steam control valve
MAW10AA001
Motor-operated bypass valve
MAW15AA001
Valve upstream/downstream of seal steam control
valve
-upstream of seal steam
MAW10AA010
control valve
-downstream of seal steam
MAW10AA512
control valve

Leakoff steam discharge system
Leakoff steam control valve
MAW50AA001
Motor-operated bypass valve
MAW55AA001
Valve upstream/downstream of leakoff control valve
- upstream of leakoff steam
MAW50AA010
of control valve
- downstream of leakoff steam
MAW50 AA512
control valve

BHEL,HARDWAR

Shaft Seal Steam System MAW


System Description

Leakage steam system
Butterfly valves in the leakage steam lines of the shaft
seals
st
- 1 casing front
MAW82 AA501
MAW81 AA501
- 1st casing rear
nd
- 2 casing front
MAW83 AA501
nd
- 2 casing rear
MAW84 AA501
rd
- 3 casing front
MAW85AA501
rd
- 3 casing rear
MAW86AA501
Isolation valve upstream of the
MAW80AA001
seal steam condenser
MAW80AC001
Isolation valve upstream of
MAW80AA011
leakoff steam condenser exhauster 1
Leakoff steam condenser
MAW80AN001
exhauster 1
Isolation valve upstream of
MAW80AA012
Leakoff steam condenser exhauster 2
Leakoff steam condenser
MAW80AN002
exhauster 2
Valve upstream of seal steam
MAW10AA011
Supply control valve
The control of this valve is temperature dependent
and the valve is open as long as the temperature of
steam before this valve is more than pre-set value.
Description and function of the components of
the shaft seal steam system
The components of the shaft seal steam system
and their function are described in the following.:

Valve upstream of the seal steam control valve
MAW10AA011
The control of this valve is temperature dependent
and the valve is open as long as the temperature of
steam before this valve is more than pre-set value.
Seal
steam
control
valve

MAW10AA001
The seal steam control valve is positioned by the
shaft seal steam controller. The valve opens if the
amount of leak-off steam is not sufficient to satisfy
seal steam requirements. During start up & shut
down and at low load operation range up-to 35%,
steam from auxiliary source is supplied to system
through seal steam control valve. The pressure in the
header is maintained at slightly higher than the
atmospheric pressure at a pre-set value (1.023 ata)
by seal steam pressure controller. An electrical
pressure controller connected to a valve lift controller
acts on the actuator of the seal steam leak-off and
supply valves. Each valve is equipped with an elctrohydraulic actuator. If the electro hydraulic actuating
fails, the seal steam leak-off and supply valves may
be moved to required position with the help of built-in
manual pump.
 Motor-operated bypass valve
MAW15AA001
The bypass valve can be opened from the control
room if the seal steam control valve is not able to
satisfy seal steam requirements, e.g., as a result of
faulted seal steam control valve operation, or if the
steam pressure upstream of seal steam inlet valves

5.1-1240-66/1

5.1-1240-66/2

Keeping the seal steam line upstream of the


seal steam control valve warm

The warmup valve is used to keep the seal steam line


upstream of the seal steam control valve warm.
Opening and closure of the warmup valve is
dependent on the steam temperature upstream of the
seal steam control valve.

Exhausting
the
leakage
steam
to
atmosphere
Under normal operating conditions, the leakage
steam is condensed in the seal steam condenser.
If the seal steam condenser is not available, the
leakage
steam
must
be exhausted
to
atmosphere.

5.1-1240-66/3

Steam Turbine

Operation of the Turbine

Description

Introduction

In the Operation section of the manual


the steps of startup, power operation and
shutdown of the turbine are given.
Also, the activities that must be
performed during shutdown to maintain
operability are described.
Basic knowledge of operation and
monitoring of turbines are taken for
granted. Further knowledge gained during
the commissioning period gives the
operating
staff
a
more
complete
understanding
of
turbine
generator
operation.

Role of Turbine Stress Controller


(TSC)
The function of TSC is to continuously
monitor and evaluate the main components
of turbine viz. Main steam stop and control
valve, HP rotor, HP casing and IP rotor in
respect of their material limits and fatigue
life. It monitors the operational non steady
state thermal stresses affecting the steam
admission area, and the turbine dedicated

BHEL Hardwar

computing channels perform on going


calculations of material fatigue. This allows
turbine operation within a set envelope
against various permitted stress types or
loading
combinations.
Temperature
margins are indicated on CRT during all
operating conditions.
The turbine can be operated in line with
three different stress limits or operating
modes viz. Fast, Normal and Slow, which
are selected by operator action. To
safeguard shaft material, switch over from
slow to normal or fast mode is not
permitted until the temperature in shaft
center line exceeds 100 C . Beyond this
point, it is possible to switch over from S
(slow) to N (normal) mode or from N to F
(fast) mode at any time. However. Before
the TSC enables switch over from F mode
to back to N mode or from N to S mode, it
automatically checks whether there will still
be a positive temperature margin of 15 C
in the new mode once this change over has
been affected.

5.2-0001-01

Steam Turbine

Specification of Steam, Oil and

Operation Control

Fluid

The efficiency of turbine and functioning of its


components depend, among other things, on
whether the steam quality and the properties of the
operating fluids fulfil the requirements listed in the
Description section of this manual. Particular care
should always be taken during startup that the
purity and the physical & chemical properties
comply with the turbine manufacturers guidelines.

Steam Purity
The steam purity must comply with the guideline
on Steam Purity (1) before startup and power
operation is begun.
Blade deposits reduce the efficiency. Deposits
can only be removed by time-consuming processes
[2] and occur during power operation when normal
values are exceeded.
Immediate corrective action must be taken to
restore the required steam Quality specified in the
guideline [1].

Turbine Oil
Oil Specifications guideline [3] lists the
requirements for the operating fluid. Also

maintenance instruction on Oil Care [4] should be


followed. Regular sampling and laboratory checks
will indicate that the turbine oil complies with the
specifications.
The purity (freedom from liquid and solid
impurities), air-release properties and foaming
characteristics of the oil are important to the
functioning of the turbine generator units
components.

Control Fluid
The guideline Control Fluid [5] has the
requirements for this operating fluid. The
maintenance instruction Care of Control Fluid [6]
should also be followed. Regular sampling and
laboratory checks will indicate that the control fluid
complies with the specifications.
The purity (freedom from liquid and solid
impurities),
neutralization
coefficient
as a
characteristic for aging, air-release properties and
foaming characteristics of the fluid are important to
the functioning of the turbine generator units
components.

Also refer to the following sections

[1] 5.1-0120
[2] 5.3-0070
[3] 5.1-0310
[4] 5.3-0080
[5] 5.1-0140
[6] 5.3-0082

BHEL Hardwar

Steam Purity Required Values


Steam Washing of Turbine
Oil Specification
Oil Care
Fire Resistant Fluid
Care of Control Fluid

5.2-0002-00

Steam Turbine

Testing of Turbine Components

Operation

General

Introduction
The operational reliability and availability of a
turbine is assured only if all the vital components and
monitoring equipment for operation are in the specified
condition at all times.
This applies particularly to :
controllers
protective devices
safety devices
stop and control valves and other important turbine
valves
 monitoring equipment





The units operating parameters can provide


important information on the condition and reliability of
the turbine unit and its systems,

Testing Intervals
The following recommendations, for time Intervals
between tests have been compiled, on the basis of
experience gained by the turbine manufacturer and the
operators.

BHEL Hardiwar

Countermeasures for Abnormal Conditions


It is recommended that all abnormal conditions
detected in the course of testing be eliminated by the
countermeasures specified in the remedial action and
maintenance instructions in the turbine manual.
In some cases the desired condition may be
restored sooner or prevented from deteriorating if the
testing intervals are shortened. Use of this opportunity
is recommended. Shorter testing intervals also make it
easier to detect and monitor any progressive
deterioration in the condition of component.
On this basis, the optimum timing for the
necessary remedial actions may be determined in the
light of other factors, requiring consideration.

Performance of Tests
Tests are generally performed by the operators
properly qualified plant personnel.
As a rule the performance testing should be
executed immediately after maintenance or overhaul
activities, such as major inspection, in the presence of
concerned
qualified
personnel
form
BHEL.

5.2-0020-00

Turbine Systems - Testing


Testing Intervals - Controllers

Turbine Governor
- function
- setting

Plant Status

Load Shedding Relay


- function
- setting
Bypass Controller
- function
- setting
Seal Steam Controller
- function

Running

During or after overhaul

After shutdown > 1 month

yearly

monthly

Test Cycle
After start-up

weekly

COMPONENT
- Type of test

shutdown

Steam Turbine
Operation

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

Fluid Temperature
Controller
- function
Oil Temperature
Controller
- function

BHEL Hardwar

5.2-0021-01

Steam Turbine
Operation

Turbine Systems - Testing


Testing Intervals
Automatic Turbine Tester

Automatic
Tester for
Devices
-

Running

During or after overhaul

shutdown

Plant Status

After shutdown > 1 month

yearly

monthly

Test Cycle
After start-up

weekly

COMPONENT
- Type of test

Turbine
Protective

functioning of remote
trip solenoid
functioning & setting of
overspeed trips
functioning & setting of
hydraulic
low
vacuum trip

BHEL Hardwar

5.2-0022-01

Steam Turbine
Operation

Turbine Systems - Testing


Testing Intervals
Automatic Turbine Tester

Automatic
Turbine
Tester for Stop & Control
valves
- free movement of stop
valves
- free
movement
of
control valves

BHEL Hardwar

Running

During or after overhaul


X

shutdown

Plant Status

After shutdown > 1 month

yearly

monthly

Test Cycle
After start-up

weekly

COMPONENT
- Type of test

5.2-0023-01

Steam Turbine

Main Trip Valves


- functioning and breakaway pressure
Overspeed Trips
- functioning and setting during testing with
hydraulic test signal transmitter
- functioning and setting during testing by Overspeed

Thrust Bearing Trips


- functioning

shutdown

running

Plant
Status
After shutdown>1
month
During or after overhaul

Test Cycle
After start -Up

Yearly

Component
Type of test

Weekly

Testing Intervals- Protective Devices

Monthly

Operation

Turbine Systems-Testing

x
x

Hydraulic Low Vacuum Trip


- functioning and setting
Electrical Low Vacuum Trip
- functioning and setting

Bypass Mode Low Vacuum Trip


- functioning and setting
Reverse Power Protection
- functioning at each shutdown
- functioning and setting

Oil Starvation Trip


- functioning and setting

Turbine Fire Control System


- functioning
- alarms

1
1

Alarms from Protective Devices


.functioning and setting of binary signal transmitters

BHEL Hardwar

x
x

x
x

x
x

x
x

x
x

5.2-0024-01

Safety Valves
- functioning and set pressure

Rotary Pump Relief Valves .


- functioning and set pressure

Shutdown

Running

Plant
Status
During or after overhaul

Test Cycle
After start Up
After shutdown>1 month

Component
Type of test

Weekly

Testing Intervals-Safety Devices

Yearly

Operation

Turbine Systems-Testing

Monthly

Steam Turbine

Subloop Control for Auxiliary and Emergency Oil Pumps


- functioning
- setting of pressure switches

x
x

x
x

Automatic Changeover Units for Control Fluid Pumps


- functioning
- setting of pressure switches

x
x

x
x

Extraction NRV Checks


- functioning
- setting of differential pressure switches

x
x

x
x

* At each shut-down and startup

BHEL Hardwar

5.2-0025-01

Turbine Systems Testing

Operation

Testing Intervals- Valves

Control Valve
- free movement
using starting and load limiting device.
test gear or trip actuation
- leak tightness
(in conjunction with test of reverse power protection at
each shutdown)
- free movement
(observe control valves lift at each load change)
Extraction Valves
- free movement
by observation of position indicators

BHEL Hardwar

x
x

x
x

2-4

Shutdown

Running

Vacuum Breaker
- functioning at each shutdown
CRH NRV
- free movement
by operating pushbutton on desk

During or after overhaul

Stop Valve
- free movement
using starting and load limiting device.
test valve or trip actuation
- breakaway pressure
- leak tightness at each startup

Plant
Status
After shutdown>1month

Yearly

Test Cycle
After start -Up

Monthly

Component
Type of test

Weekly

Steam Turbine

5.2-0026-01

Turbine Systems - Testing


Testing Intervals Monitoring Devices

Plant Status

Alarms
- functioning
Binary
Signal
Transmitters
- functioning and setting
Speed Indicators
Temperature Gauges
Expansion
Measuring
Devices
Vibration
Measuring
Devices
liquid Level Measuring
Devices
Valve lift Transducers
- accuracy of indication

BHEL Hardwar

Running

During or after overhaul

After shutdown > 1 month

yearly

monthly

Test Cycle
After start-up

weekly

COMPONENT
- Type of test

shutdown

Steam Turbine
Operation

5.2-0027-01

BHEL Hardwar

Shutdown

Running

During or after overhaul

Steam Pressures
Steam Temperatures
Steam Mass Flow Rates
Casing Temperatures
Bearing Metal Temperatures
Expansion
Vibration
liquid Levels
Oil Pressures
Oil Temperatures
Control Fluid Pressures
Control Fluid Temperatures
- recording of operating values for long term monitoring
purposes

Plant
Status
After shutdown>1 month

Test Cycle
After start -Up

Yearly

Component
Type of test

Weekly

Turbine Systems-Testing
Testing Intervals- Operating Parameters

Monthly

Steam Turbine
Operation

5.2-0028-01

Steam Turbine
Operation

Introduction
Startup of the turbine and auxiliary systems
must always be performed to ensure
operational reliability and economy.
Startup is a phase where almost all
operating values are subject to change.
Monitoring of these transient operating
state by the monitoring instrumentation
demands close attention.
It is very important that all control
operations are always performed in the
recommended sequence.
To fulfill these requirements, startup
schematics are prepared to show all control
operations and monitoring criteria for the
turbine and its auxiliary systems.
The startup schematics of the turbine
manual are compiled so that with their help

BHEL Hardwar

Starting the Turbine

the turbine generator unit can be started up


from the control room by operating the
control devices by watching the analog
displays.
The schematics have added instructions
that must be followed during startup or
operation of the system. Instrumentation
and control functions are given in ATRS
functional
schematics.
To
maintain
operational reliability and economy, certain
tests must be performed during all phases
of turbine operation. This furnishes
information on the condition of turbine
generator components.
Since some tests must be carried out
before or during the startup phase, a list of
the tests and their intervals [1] is given at
the beginning of the system- startup
schematics.

5.2-0110-01

Steam Turbine

Startup and Shutdown Diagrams

Operation

Symbols

The symbols commonly used in other


operating documents are used for the
startup and shutdown schematics.
Normally, the check back from the
execution of a switching or control operation
also constitutes the enabling criterion for the
following switching or operating step.
If there are other criteria to be fulfilled
before a step can be enabled, these criteria
are listed prior to the first or next step, as the
case may be.
Unless otherwise stipulated. the criteria
are and gated, i.e. all criteria must be
fulfilled.
An or gate between two or more
criteria indicates that one of several criteria
must be fulfilled.
The symbols and rules apply to all
schematic
representations
of
control
operations contained in the turbine manual.
References to further explanations are
identified in the schematics by the number of
the instruction concerned. The operating
values given in the schematics are nominal
values and may deviate from the actual

BHEL Hardwar

values recorded in the logs and from the


actual settings of the binary signal
transmitters.
Insofar as symbols with indices are used
instead of values, only the values recorded
in the logs shall be used.
Symbols used:
+ interrogation from the control room
= interrogation from the local control
station
interrogation at equipment
(N) + manual switching operation from
control room
(N) = manual switching operation from
local control station
(N) - manual switching operation at
equipment
**
switching
operation
triggered
automatically (can, however, also be
performed manually from control
room)
*
switching
operation
triggered
automatically (can, however. also be
performed manually from local
control station)
*
switching
operation
triggered
automatically (manual actuation not
possible)

5.2-0111-00

(01)
(02)

(03)

(04)

(05)

Steam Turbine

Start of Turbine/Generator

Operation

Startup Diagram (General)

+ TURBINE/GENERATOR START UP
PREPARE
+ PREPARATION FOR START UP
COMPLETED
+ EXTERNAL SYSTEMS READY FOR OPERATION
CHECK
CIRCULATING WATER FOR CONDENSER
AVAILABLE
COOLING WATER FOR COOLERS
AVAILABLE
AUXILIARY STEAM
AVAILABLE
DEMINERALIZED WATER SUPPLY
AVAILABLE
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
READY FOR OPRN.
VACUUM PUMP
READY FOR OPRN.
THE EXTERNAL SYSTEMS DO NOT BELONG TO
THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY (TURBINE/GENERATOR).
POSITION OF VALVES ACCORDING TO SINGLE
LINE DIAGRAMS OF SYSTEMS.
INSTRUCTIONS OF EXTERNAL SYSTEMS MUST
COMPLY WITH TURBINE OPERATION.
+ EXTERNAL SYSTEMS
READY FOR OPRN.
+ OIL SYSTEM AND TURNING GEAR
START
START OF OIL SYSTEM APPROX.6 HOURS
PRIOR TO TURBINE START.EXTEND
TIME IN ADVANCE OF TURBINE START IF
OIL TEMPERATURES ARE EXTREMELY LOW.
WITH FGA (OIL SUPPLY)
OR
MANUAL OPERATION AT OPER. CONSOLE
FGA=FUNCTIONAL GROUP AUTOMATIC
+ SHAFT
TURNS
CF-RECONDITIONING-PLANT AND HEATERS
IN OPERATION
PRIOR TO CONTROL FL PUMP OPERATION THE
CONTROL FLUID TEMPERATURE SHOULD BE
> 20C
TEMP. RATE DURING HEATER OPERATION
1-2 K / HOUR
START OF OPERATION OF RECONDITIONING
AND HEATERS IN ACCORDANCE WITH INITIAL
TEMPERATURE AND HEATING RATE.
OPERATE RECONDITIONING PLANT CONTINUOUSLY
IF NEUTRALISATION NUMBER TENDS TO INCREASE
+ TEMPERATURE IN CONTROL FLUID TANK
> 20C
+ CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM
START
WITH FGA (CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM)
OR
MANUAL OPER.AT OPER.CONSQLE
+ CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM
IN OPERATION
+ CONDENSING PLANT
START
TIMING OF CONDESING-PLANT START MUST
AGREE WITH TIMING OF FIRST STEAM ENTERING
THE CONDENSING PLANT
THE CONDENSING PLANT DOES NOT BELONG TO
THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY (TURBINE/GENERATOR).
POSITION OF VALVES ACCORDING TO SINGLE
LINE DIAGRAM OF SYSTEMS.
INSTRUCTIONS OF THE MANUFACTURER OF THE
CONDENSING PLANT MUST AGREE WITH TURBINE
OPERATION.
+ CONDENSATE PUMPS
ON
WITH FGA (CONDENSING PLANT)
OR
MANUAL OPER.AT OPER.CONSOLE

BHEL Hardwar

REF. TO 5.2-0133

REF. TO 5.2-0130

REF. TO 5.2-0135

REF.TO 5.2-0140

5.2-0112-00/1

(06)

(07)
(08)

(09)
(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

VACUUM PUMPS
WITH FGA (CONDENSING PLANT) :
OR
WITH SLC(AIR REMOVAL)
OR
MANUAL OPER, AT OPER, CONSOLE

+ SEAL SYSTEM SUPPLY


WITH SLC (SEAL STEAM)
OR
MANUAL OPER, AT OPER,CONSOLE
+ VACUUM
+ SEAL STEAM PRESSURE
+ STATE OF OPERATION OF STEAM GENERATOR
+ STEAM GENERATOR
+ CRITERIA FOR BYPASS OPERATION
+ START OF BYPASS OPERATION
+ MAIN STEAM (MS) LINE
WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL)
OR
MANUAL OPER. AT OPER. CONSOLE
+ MAIN STEAM (MS) LINE
+ CRITERIA FOR WARMING UP TURBINE
+ TURBINE
WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL)
OR
MANUAL OPER. AT OPER. CONSOLE
+ TURBINE
+ CRITERIA FOR SPEEDING UP TURBINE/
GENERATOR
+ TURBINE/GENERATOR TO RATED SPEED
WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL)
OR
MANUAL OPER. AT OPER. CONSOLE
+ TURBINE/GENERATOR SPEED
+ CRITERIA FOR SYNCHRONISING

ON

ON

< P AMB
> P AMB
CHECK
IN OPERATION
FULFILLED
OBSERVE
WARM UP

WARMED UP
CHECK
WARM UP

SPEED UP

REF. TO 5.2-0160

3000 RPM
FULFILLED

SYNCHRONISED

+ LOADING CRITERIA

FULFILLED

5.2-0112-00/2

REF. TO 5.2-0160

WARMED UP
FULFILLED

+ GENERATOR BREAKER
WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL)
OR
AUTOMATIC SYNCHRONISER
+ GENARATOR

+ TURBINE/GENERATOR

REF. TO 5.2-0150
REF. TO 5.2-0160

ON

LOAD

REF. TO 5.2-0210

REF. TO 5.2-0210

Steam Turbine

Preparation for Startup

Operation

Startup Diagram

(01)

PRESERVATION DEVICES
AIR DRYER
CONNECTING FLANGES
AIR OUTLET SOCKETS

REMOVE
REMOVED
CLOSED
CLOSED

(02)

INSPECTION OPENINGS
MAN-OR HANDHOLES IN
- LP TURBINE
- CROSS AROUND PIPES
- CONDENSER

CLOSE

(03)

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

VOLTAGE SUPPLY
DRIVES
REMOTE CONTROLS
CONTROLS
MEASURING DEVICES
ALARM DEVICES
SUPERVISORY EQUIPMENT
PROTECTIVE DEVICES
TESTING DEVICES

(04)

+ LIGHT BULBS FOR PANEL AND ALARMS


+ DEFECTIVE LIGHT BULBS

(05)

+
+
+
+

MEASURING EQUIPMENT READY FOR OPERATION


CHECK OF O-SETTING
RECORDERS
RECORDERS

(06)

+
+
+
+
+

LIQUID LEVELS
LEVEL OF CONDENSER
LEVEL. IN U-LOOPS
LEVEL OF OIL TANK
LEVEL OF CONTROL FIUID TANK

(07)

FILTERS

(08)

+ TEST PROGRAM (STANDSTILL)


TESTING INTERVALS

CARRY OUT REFER TO 5.3-0061


OBSERVE
REFER TO 5.2-0020

(09)

+ TEST PROGRAM (STARTUP)


TESTING INTERVALS

CARRY OUT REFER TO 5.3-0030


OBSERVE
REFER TO 5.2-0020

(10)

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

GENERATOR READY FOR OPERATION


GENERATOR HYDROGEN
SEAL OIL SYSTEM
PRIMARY WATER SYSTEM
OIL VAPOUN EXTRACTION
SUBLOOP CONTROL OIL PL/MPS AND FANS
IMPORTANT OPER. VALUES GENERATOR
LIQUID IN GENERATOR

BHEL Hardwar

SWITCH ON
ENERGISED
ENERGISED
ENERGISED
ENERGISED
ENERGISED
ENERGISED
ENERGISED
ENERGISED
CHECK
REPLACED
CHECK
CARRIED OUT
SWITCHED ON
TIME ADJUSTED
CHECK
NORMAL
NORMAL
NORMAL
NORMAL
CLEAN

CHECK
FILLED
IN OPERATION
IN OPERATION
IN OPERATION
ON
NO ALARM
NO ALARM

5.2-0113-00

Steam Turbine

Operating Position of

Operation

Manually Operated Valves

Introduction

Most of the manually operated valves in


a turbine generator unit have to be in a
defined position prior to startup, and this
position must be checked before the unit
goes into operation.

manually on the local control


console
manually in the control room

for remote controlled valves only

Lead Sealing of Valves


It is recommended that all valves, the
position of which remains unchanged during
operation be secured In position with lead
seals. All that need then be checked is that
the seals are undamaged.
The valves which are secured with lead
seals must be identified in the check list.
Symbols and definitions

Measures for the setting of valves


manually on location

BHEL Hardwar

Operating positions
Open
Closed
Mode-Dep.

Permset
Operational

=
=

/FG

Mode-dependent
(position varies with
mode of operation,
cannot be classed as
Open or Closed) .
permanently set
ready to opetate (e,g,
control valves)
Position cannot be
controlled
manually
(controlled
by
automatic
functional
group controls or by
medium carried)

5.2-0120-00

Steam Turbine
Operation
(01)

+
-

Oil System and Turning Gear


Startup Diagram

SYSTEM READY FOR OPERATION


MANUAL OPERATED VALVES )GENERAL)

CHECK
CHECKED
AND IN POSITION
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
IN SERVICE
IN SERVICE
ADJUSTED

ROOT VALVES IN IMPULSE PIPES


VALVES AHEAD OF TRANSMITTERS
VALVES BEFORE / AFTER PUMPS
PERMANENT VENTS
VENTS OF COOLERS
VALVES IN FILLING LINES (PERMANENT)
VALVES BEFORE / AFTER FANS IN SERVICE
VALVES BEFORE/AFTER STAND BY FANS
DRAIN VALVES OF COOLERS
DRAIN V ALVES OF TANKS
DRAIN VALVES OF FILTERS
VALVES IN TEMPORARY V~NTS
VENTS OF COOLERS (WATER SIDE)
VENTS OF FILTERS
VALVES IN TEMPORARY FILLING LINES
V ALVES OF PRESSURE TEST CONNECTIONS
VALVES IN SAMPLING LINES
VALVES IN IMPULSE PIPES FOR TESTING
MULTI WAY VALVES OF COOLERS
MULTI WAY VALVES OF FILTERS
THROTTLE VALVES IN VAPOUR LINES
SPEC. MAN. OPER. VALVES OF SYSTEM
THROTTLE VALVES IN JACKING Oil LINES
RELIEF VALVE OF JACKING Oil SYSTEM
COOLING WATER VALVES OF STANDBY
OIL COLER
DRAIN OF OIL COOLER WATER SIDE
FILLING LINE OF STANDBY OIL COOLER OIL SIDE
VALVE POSITION OIL PURIFYING PL!ANT
+ OIL PUMPS

OIL PUMPS ON MANUAL CONTROL


OR
OIL PUMPS ON SUBLOOP CONTROL
OIL PRESSURES
+ OIL VAPOUR FAN (TURBINE)

+ OIL VAPOUR FAN (GENERATOR)

+ SUBLOOP CONTROL OIL VAPOUR FAN GEN.

BHEL Hardwar

CHECKED
AND IN POSITION
ADJUSTED
ADJUSTED
CLOSED
OPEN
OPEN
ADJUSTED

READY FOR OPRN

MAV22 APOO1
MAV23 APOO1
MAV24 APOO1
MAV31 AP 0 01
MAV32 APOO1
MAV33 APOO1

SWITCH ON
SWITCH ON
NORMAL
ON
OR
OR READY FOR OPRN
OR
ON
OR
OR READY FOR OPRN
OR

ON

MAV82 ANOO1
MAV82 AN002
MAV82 ANOO2
MAV82AN-OO1
MKO31 ANOO1
MKO32 ANOO1
MKO32 ANOO1
MKO31 ANOO1

----------------------

5.2-0130-02/1

ONE OUT OF TWO VAPOUR FANS OF THE


TURBINE OIL TANK AND THE GENERATOR
MUST BE IN OPERATION AS LONG AS THE

GENERATOR IS FILLED WITH HYDROGEN.


ONE OIL COOLER OIL SIDE

CHECK OIL COOLER(S)IN SERVICE AT THE


INDICATOR AT THE CHANGE-OVER VALVE(S).
DO NOT ADJUST ANY INTERMEDIATE POSITION
OF CHANGE-OVERVALVE.
COOLING WATERFOR OIL:COOLER(S)
OPERATION OF THE COOLING WATER SYSTEM
ACCORDING TO SEPARATE INSTRUCTIONS NOT
INCLUDED IN THE TURBINE MANUAL
SERVICE O!L COOLER (WATER SIDE)

IN SERVICE

AVAILABLE

FILLED
MAV41 BCOO1
AND VENTED OR MAV41 BCOO2
VENTED
DRAINED
MAV41 BCOO1
AND DRIED OR MAV41 BCOO2

COOLING WATER PIPE


STAND BY OIL COOLER WATER SIDE
IF THE OIL COOLER IN STANDBY CAN NOT BE
DRIED BY OIL FLOWING VIA THE FILLING
AND THE VENT LINE, THE OIL COOLER IN STAND
BY MUST BE EXPOSED TO THE FULL FLOW OF
THE COOLING WATER ONCE WEEKLY TO
PREVENT DEPOSITS CAUSING CORROSIVE
ATTACKS TO THE MATERIAL
+ SLC OIL TEMPERATURE CONTROL
THE OIL TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER CAN BE
SWITCHED DN/OFF MANUALLY. IT ALSO GETS
ON/OFF COMMANDS FROM FGA ON FULFILLMENT
OF CERTAIN CRITERIA
- OIL LEVEL IN TANK
COMPARE ACTUAL VALUES WITH STANDSTILL CONDITION VALUES OF OIL PUMPS.
- OIL FILTERS INCLUDING STANDBY FILTERS
FILTER ELEMENTS CLEANED OR REPLACED
OIL PROPERTIES
OIL CLEAR.
NO COLLECTION OF WATER AT THE BOTTOM
OF THE OIL TANK.
-

(02)

+ GENERATOR READY FOR OPERATION


+ MANUAL OPERATED VALVES GENERATOR
REFER TO GENERATOR MANUAL
+ GENERATOR HYDROGEN
+ HYDROGEN PURITY
+ SEALL OIL PUMP AIR SIDE
+ STANDBY SEAL OIL PUMP AIRSIDE

+ SEAL OIL PUMP GAS SIDE


THE DC SEAL OIL PUMP WILL ONLY BE
OPERA TED IF THE AC POWER SUPPLY
IS FAULTY
+

SUBLOOP CONTRSCOF SEAL OIL PPS.


THE SEAL OIL PLANT MUST ALSO BE IN
OPERATION IF THE TURNING GEAR
WILL BE OPERATED EVEN THE GENERATOR
IS NOT FILLED WITH HYDROGEN.

5.2-0130-02/2

MAV41 BCOO1
OR MAV41 BC002

ON

NORMAL

MAV10 CL521

READY FOR OPRN


NORMAL

CHECK
ADJUSTED
FILLED
> 95%
MKG25 CQO01
ON
MKW11 APOO1
OR MKW21 APOO1
OFF
MKW21 APOO1
OR MKW11 APOO1
AND MKW31 APOO1
ON
MKW13 APOO1

ON

-------------------AND -------------------

+ SEAL OIL SYSTEM


+ LIQUID IN GENERATOR

(O3)

NO ALARM
NO ALARM

+ CRITERIA FOR BEGIN OF START UP


IF THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA ARE FULFILLED
THE SYSTEM WILL BE STARTED UP FROM
STANDSTILL
+ AUXILIARY OIL PUMP

CHECK

OFF

+ EMERGENCY OIL PUMP


THE DC EMERGENCY OIL PUMP WILL OPERATE
IF AC POWER SUPPLY FAILS
+ TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE
AND
+ SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR
+ SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUX OIL PUMPS
AND
+ SUBLOOP CONTROL EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS
+ JACKING OIL PUMPS

(04)

.
(05)

----------------AND MKA22 CLOO1


AND MKA23 CLOO1
AND MKA23 CL 011

OFF

MAV22 APOO1
AND MAV23 APOO1
MAV24 APOO1

CLOSED

MAV51 AAO01

OFF
OFF

MAV51 EEO01
MAV22 EEOO1

OFF
OFF

MAV24 EEO01
MAV31APOO1
AND MAV32 APOO1
AND MAV33 APO01

AND
+ SBULOOP CONTROL JACKING OIL PUMPS

OFF

MA V30 EEOO 1
AND MAV33 EEO01

START

FGA OIL SYSTEM


FOR OPERATION OF PUSH BUTTONS REFER TO
MANUAL FOR THE FGA
OR
OIL SYSTEM MANUAL OPERATED START

AUXILIARY OIL PUMP SWITCH

AUXILIARY OIL PUMP

ON

MAV22 APO01
OR MAV23 APO01
ON
MAV22 APO01
OR MAV23 APO01

OR WITH FGA OIL SUPPLY


(05/S) +

(06)

+
+
+
+
+

AUXILIARY OIL PUMP 1


OR AUXILIARY OIL PUMP 1
AUXILIARY OIL PUMP 2 MANUAL OPERATION
OIL PRESSURE
LUB OIL PRESSURE
OIL LEVEL IN TANK
FILTER LUB OIL SYSTEM
DIFERENTIAL PRESSURE ACROSS FILTER
PRESSURE BEHIND FILTER
LOCAL INDICATOR
CHECK STAND BY FILTER BY LOCAL
CHANGE OVER

+ TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE


+ TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE
OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL
+ SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR
+ SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR
+
OR WITH FGA (OIL SUPPLY)

ON
FAULTED
ON
> 5 KG/CM2
>1.2 KG/CM2
NOALARM
NO ALARM
NOT HIGH
NOT LOW
NOT INITIATED

MAV22 APO01
MAV22 APO01
MAV23 APO01
MAV21 CPO01
MAV42 CPO01
MAV1O CLOO1
MAV42 CP013
MAV42 CPO14
MAV42 B1001

OPEN
OPEN

MAV51 AAO01
MAV51 AAOOl

SWITCH ON
ON

MA V 51 EEOO1
MAV 51 EEO01

5.2-0130-02/3

(06/S) +

(7)

ON

MAV51 EEO01

ON
< 210 RPM
> 240 RPM

+
+

TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE


OIL LEVEL IN TANK

OPEN MAV 51 AAO01


NO ALARM MAV 10 CLO01

SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS


AND
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY Oil PUMPS
AND
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY Oil PUMPS
OR WITH FGA (OIL SUPPLY)

SWITCH ON

+
+
+

(07/S) *+

(08)

SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR


SUBLOOP CONTROL OPENS AND CLOSES THE
TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE DEPENDING
TURBINE/GENERATOR SPEED.
TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE (OPEN)
TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE (CLOSED)
TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE CLOSES DURING
STARTUP AND OPENS WHEN THE TURBINE
IS COASTING DOWN AFTER SHUTDOWN.
DO NOT SWITCH OFF SUBLOOP CONTROL
AS LONG AS TURBINE IS IN OPERATION TO
MAKE SURE TURNING GEAR CUTS IN IF
TURBINE WILL BE SHUTDOWN.

SWITCH ON
ON

SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS


AND

ON

ON

SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS


ON
THE SUBLOOP CONTROLS START THE AUXILIARY
OIL PUMPS AND THE DC EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS
DEPENDING ON PRESSURE.
AUXILIARY Oil PUMP 1
< 4.8 KG/CM2
MAV21 CPO11
AUXILIARY Oil PUMP 2
< 4.5 KG/CM2
MAV21 CP012
AC EMERGENCY Oil PUMP
< 1.1 KG/CM2
MAV42 CP011
DC EMERGENCY OlL PUMP
< 1.1 KG/CM2 OR MAV42 CPO 12
SIMULTANEOUSLY ALARMS WILL BE ACTUATED.
LUBRICATING OIL PRESSURE
MAV 21 CP011
AND/OR
LUBRICATING OIL
MAV42 CP011
THE SUBLOOP CONTROLS OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS
AND JACKING OIL PUMPS MUST NOT BE SWITCHED
OFF UNTIL THE SHAFT STOPS COMPLETELY.

+
+
+
+
+
=

SEAL OIL PRESSURE GENERATOR END


SEAL OIL PRESSURE AIR SIDE TURBINE END
SEAL OIL PRESSURE AIR SIDE EXCITER END
SEAL OIL PRESSURE GAS SIDE TURBINE END
SEAL OIL PRESSURE GAS SIDE EXCITER END
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF SEAL OIL PUMPS
THE SUBLOOP CONTROL OF THE SEAL OIL PUMPS

CHECK
> P MIN MKW71 CP511
> P MIN MKW71 CP521
> P MIN MKW73 CP511
< P MIN MKW73 CP521
ON

START THE PUMPS DEPENDING ON SEL OIL PRESSURE.


P MIN ACCORDING TO ACTUAL H2 PRESSURE.
(09)

+ JACKING OIL PUMP SWITCH

ON

+ JACKING OIL PUMP

ON

OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL

5.2-0130-02/4

MAV31 APO01,
OR MAV32 APO01
MAV31 APOOl
OR MAV32 APO01

SUBLOOP CONTROL OF JACK1NG OIL PUMP


+ SUBLOOP CONTROL OF JACKING OIL PUMP

OR WITH FGA(OIL SUPPLY)


(09/S)*+ SUBLOOP CO~TROL OF JACKING OIL PUMP
+ JACKING OIL PUMP
OR JACKING OIL PUMP
+ JACKING OIL PUMP MANUAL OPERATION
SUBLOOP CONTROL STARTS AND STOPS THE
JACKING Oil PUMP 1 DEPENDING ON
TURBINE/GENERATOR SPEED CRITERIA.
JACKING OIL PUMP 1 ON
JACKING OIL PUMP 1 OFF

SWITCH ON MA V30 EEOO1


AND
MAV33 EEOO1
ON
MAV30 EEOO1
AND MAV33 EEOO1
ON
MAV30 EEO01
AND
MAV33EEOO1
ON
MAV31 APOO1
FAULTED MAV31 APO01
ON
MAV32 APO01
OR MAV33 APO01

< 510 RPM


> 540 RPM

AND
SUBLOOP CONTROL STARTS THE JACKING OIL
PUMP 2 DEPENDING ON JACKING OIL PRESSURE

5.2-0130-02/5

Steam Turbine
Operation
(01)

+
-

Oil System and Turning Gear


Startup Diagram

SYSTEM READY FOR OPERATION


MANUAL OPERATED VALVES )GENERAL)

CHECK
CHECKED
AND IN POSITION
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
IN SERVICE
IN SERVICE
ADJUSTED

ROOT VALVES IN IMPULSE PIPES


VALVES AHEAD OF TRANSMITTERS
VALVES BEFORE / AFTER PUMPS
PERMANENT VENTS
VENTS OF COOLERS
VALVES IN FILLING LINES (PERMANENT)
VALVES BEFORE / AFTER FANS IN SERVICE
VALVES BEFORE/AFTER STAND BY FANS
DRAIN VALVES OF COOLERS
DRAIN V ALVES OF TANKS
DRAIN VALVES OF FILTERS
VALVES IN TEMPORARY V~NTS
VENTS OF COOLERS (WATER SIDE)
VENTS OF FILTERS
VALVES IN TEMPORARY FILLING LINES
V ALVES OF PRESSURE TEST CONNECTIONS
VALVES IN SAMPLING LINES
VALVES IN IMPULSE PIPES FOR TESTING
MULTI WAY VALVES OF COOLERS
MULTI WAY VALVES OF FILTERS
THROTTLE VALVES IN VAPOUR LINES
SPEC. MAN. OPER. VALVES OF SYSTEM
THROTTLE VALVES IN JACKING Oil LINES
RELIEF VALVE OF JACKING Oil SYSTEM
COOLING WATER VALVES OF STANDBY
OIL COLER
DRAIN OF OIL COOLER WATER SIDE
FILLING LINE OF STANDBY OIL COOLER OIL SIDE
VALVE POSITION OIL PURIFYING PL!ANT
+ OIL PUMPS

OIL PUMPS ON MANUAL CONTROL


OR
OIL PUMPS ON SUBLOOP CONTROL
OIL PRESSURES
+ OIL VAPOUR FAN (TURBINE)

+ OIL VAPOUR FAN (GENERATOR)

+ SUBLOOP CONTROL OIL VAPOUR FAN GEN.


ONE OUT OF TWO VAPOUR FANS OF THE

BHEL Hardwar

CHECKED
AND IN POSITION
ADJUSTED
ADJUSTED
CLOSED
OPEN
OPEN
ADJUSTED

READY FOR OPRN

MAV22 APOO1
MAV23 APOO1
MAV24 APOO1
MAV31 AP 0 01
MAV33 APOO1

SWITCH ON
SWITCH ON
NORMAL
ON
OR
OR READY FOR OPRN
OR
ON
OR
OR READY FOR OPRN
OR

ON

MAV82 ANOO1
MAV82 AN002
MAV82 ANOO2
MAV82AN-OO1
MKO31 ANOO1
MKO32 ANOO1
MKO32 ANOO1
MKO31 ANOO1

----------------------

5.2-0130-51/1

TURBINE OIL TANK AND THE GENERATOR


MUST BE IN OPERATION AS LONG AS THE

GENERATOR IS FILLED WITH HYDROGEN.


ONE OIL COOLER OIL SIDE

CHECK OIL COOLER(S)IN SERVICE AT THE


INDICATOR AT THE CHANGE-OVER VALVE(S).
DO NOT ADJUST ANY INTERMEDIATE POSITION
OF CHANGE-OVERVALVE.
COOLING WATERFOR OIL:COOLER(S)
OPERATION OF THE COOLING WATER SYSTEM
ACCORDING TO SEPARATE INSTRUCTIONS NOT
INCLUDED IN THE TURBINE MANUAL
SERVICE O!L COOLER (WATER SIDE)

IN SERVICE

AVAILABLE

FILLED
MAV41 BCOO1
AND VENTED OR MAV41 BCOO2
VENTED
DRAINED
MAV41 BCOO1
AND DRIED OR MAV41 BCOO2

COOLING WATER PIPE


STAND BY OIL COOLER WATER SIDE
IF THE OIL COOLER IN STANDBY CAN NOT BE
DRIED BY OIL FLOWING VIA THE FILLING
AND THE VENT LINE, THE OIL COOLER IN STAND
BY MUST BE EXPOSED TO THE FULL FLOW OF
THE COOLING WATER ONCE WEEKLY TO
PREVENT DEPOSITS CAUSING CORROSIVE
ATTACKS TO THE MATERIAL
+ SLC OIL TEMPERATURE CONTROL
THE OIL TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER CAN BE
SWITCHED DN/OFF MANUALLY. IT ALSO GETS
ON/OFF COMMANDS FROM FGA ON FULFILLMENT
OF CERTAIN CRITERIA
- OIL LEVEL IN TANK
COMPARE ACTUAL VALUES WITH STANDSTILL CONDITION VALUES OF OIL PUMPS.
- OIL FILTERS INCLUDING STANDBY FILTERS
FILTER ELEMENTS CLEANED OR REPLACED
OIL PROPERTIES
OIL CLEAR.
NO COLLECTION OF WATER AT THE BOTTOM
OF THE OIL TANK.
-

(02)

+ GENERATOR READY FOR OPERATION


+ MANUAL OPERATED VALVES GENERATOR
REFER TO GENERATOR MANUAL
+ GENERATOR HYDROGEN
+ HYDROGEN PURITY
+ SEAL OIL PUMP AIR SIDE
+ STANDBY SEAL OIL PUMP AIRSIDE

+ SEAL OIL PUMP GAS SIDE


THE DC SEAL OIL PUMP WILL ONLY BE
OPERA TED IF THE AC POWER SUPPLY
IS FAULTY
+

SUBLOOP CONTRSCOF SEAL OIL PPS.


THE SEAL OIL PLANT MUST ALSO BE IN
OPERATION IF THE TURNING GEAR
WILL BE OPERATED EVEN THE GENERATOR
IS NOT FILLED WITH HYDROGEN.

5.2-0130-51/2

MAV41 BCOO1
OR MAV41 BC002

ON

NORMAL

MAV10 CL521

READY FOR OPRN


NORMAL

CHECK
ADJUSTED
FILLED
> 95%
MKG25 CQO01
ON
MKW11 APOO1
OR MKW21 APOO1
OFF
MKW21 APOO1
OR MKW11 APOO1
AND MKW31 APOO1
ON
MKW13 APOO1

ON

-------------------AND -------------------

+ SEAL OIL SYSTEM


+ LIQUID IN GENERATOR

(O3)

NO ALARM
NO ALARM

+ CRITERIA FOR BEGIN OF START UP


IF THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA ARE FULFILLED
THE SYSTEM WILL BE STARTED UP FROM
STANDSTILL
+ AUXILIARY OIL PUMP

CHECK

OFF

+ EMERGENCY OIL PUMP


THE DC EMERGENCY OIL PUMP WILL OPERATE
IF AC POWER SUPPLY FAILS
+ TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE
AND
+ SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR
+ SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUX OIL PUMPS
AND
+ SUBLOOP CONTROL EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS
+ JACKING OIL PUMPS

(04)

.
(05)

----------------AND MKA22 CLOO1


AND MKA23 CLOO1
AND MKA23 CL 011

OFF

MAV22 APOO1
AND MAV23 APOO1
MAV24 APOO1

CLOSED

MAV51 AAO01

OFF
OFF

MAV51 EEO01
MAV22 EEOO1

OFF
OFF

MAV24 EEO01
MAV31APOO1
AND MAV33 APO01

AND
+ SBULOOP CONTROL JACKING OIL PUMPS

OFF

MA V30 EEOO 1
AND MAV33 EEO01

START

FGA OIL SYSTEM


FOR OPERATION OF PUSH BUTTONS REFER TO
MANUAL FOR THE FGA
OR
OIL SYSTEM MANUAL OPERATED START

AUXILIARY OIL PUMP SWITCH

AUXILIARY OIL PUMP

ON

MAV22 APO01
OR MAV23 APO01
ON
MAV22 APO01
OR MAV23 APO01

OR WITH FGA OIL SUPPLY


(05/S) +

(06)

+
+
+
+
+

AUXILIARY OIL PUMP 1


OR AUXILIARY OIL PUMP 1
AUXILIARY OIL PUMP 2 MANUAL OPERATION
OIL PRESSURE
LUB OIL PRESSURE
OIL LEVEL IN TANK
FILTER LUB OIL SYSTEM
DIFERENTIAL PRESSURE ACROSS FILTER
PRESSURE BEHIND FILTER
LOCAL INDICATOR
CHECK STAND BY FILTER BY LOCAL
CHANGE OVER

+ TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE


+ TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE
OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL
+ SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR
+ SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR
+
OR WITH FGA (OIL SUPPLY)

ON
FAULTED
ON
> 5 KG/CM2
>1.2 KG/CM2
NOALARM
NO ALARM
NOT HIGH
NOT LOW
NOT INITIATED

MAV22 APO01
MAV22 APO01
MAV23 APO01
MAV21 CP901
MAV42 CP901
MAV1O CLOO1
MAV42 CP013
MAV42 CPO14
MAV42 B1001

OPEN
OPEN

MAV51 AAO01
MAV51 AAOOl

SWITCH ON
ON

MA V 51 EEOO1
MAV 51 EEO01

5.2-0130-51/3

(06/S) +

(7)

ON

MAV51 EEO01

ON
< 210 RPM
> 240 RPM

+
+

TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE


OIL LEVEL IN TANK

OPEN MAV 51 AAO01


NO ALARM MAV 10 CLO01

SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS


AND
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY Oil PUMPS
AND
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY Oil PUMPS
OR WITH FGA (OIL SUPPLY)

SWITCH ON

+
+
+

(07/S) *+

(08)

SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR


SUBLOOP CONTROL OPENS AND CLOSES THE
TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE DEPENDING
TURBINE/GENERATOR SPEED.
TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE (OPEN)
TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE (CLOSED)
TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE CLOSES DURING
STARTUP AND OPENS WHEN THE TURBINE
IS COASTING DOWN AFTER SHUTDOWN.
DO NOT SWITCH OFF SUBLOOP CONTROL
AS LONG AS TURBINE IS IN OPERATION TO
MAKE SURE TURNING GEAR CUTS IN IF
TURBINE WILL BE SHUTDOWN.

SWITCH ON
ON

SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS


AND

ON

ON

SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS


ON
THE SUBLOOP CONTROLS START THE AUXILIARY
OIL PUMPS AND THE DC EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS
DEPENDING ON PRESSURE.
AUXILIARY Oil PUMP 1
< 4.8 KG/CM2
MAV21 CP901
AUXILIARY Oil PUMP 2
< 4.5 KG/CM2
MAV21 CP901
DC EMERGENCY OlL PUMP
< 1.1 KG/CM2 OR MAV42 CPO 12
SIMULTANEOUSLY ALARMS WILL BE ACTUATED.
LUBRICATING OIL PRESSURE
MAV 21 CP901
AND/OR
LUBRICATING OIL
MAV42 CP901
THE SUBLOOP CONTROLS OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS
AND JACKING OIL PUMPS MUST NOT BE SWITCHED
OFF UNTIL THE SHAFT STOPS COMPLETELY.

+
+
+
+
+
=

SEAL OIL PRESSURE GENERATOR END


SEAL OIL PRESSURE AIR SIDE TURBINE END
SEAL OIL PRESSURE AIR SIDE EXCITER END
SEAL OIL PRESSURE GAS SIDE TURBINE END
SEAL OIL PRESSURE GAS SIDE EXCITER END
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF SEAL OIL PUMPS
THE SUBLOOP CONTROL OF THE SEAL OIL PUMPS

CHECK
> P MIN MKW71 CP511
> P MIN MKW71 CP521
> P MIN MKW73 CP511
< P MIN MKW73 CP521
ON

START THE PUMPS DEPENDING ON SEL OIL PRESSURE.


P MIN ACCORDING TO ACTUAL H2 PRESSURE.
(09)

+ JACKING OIL PUMP SWITCH


+ JACKING OIL PUMP
OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL

5.2-0130-51/4

ON
ON

MAV31 APO01
MAV31 APO01

SUBLOOP CONTROL OF JACK1NG OIL PUMP


+ SUBLOOP CONTROL OF JACKING OIL PUMP 3

SWITCH ON
AND
ON

MA V31 EEOO1
MAV33 EEOO1
MAV33 EEOO1

OR WITH FGA(OIL SUPPLY)


(09/S)*+ SUBLOOP CO~TROL OF JACKING OIL PUMP
+ JACKING OIL PUMP
OR JACKING OIL PUMP
+ JACKING OIL PUMP MANUAL OPERATION

ON
AND
ON
FAULTED
ON

MAV30 EEO01
MAV33EEOO1
MAV31 APOO1
MAV31 APO01
MAV33 APO01

SUBLOOP CONTROL STARTS AND STOPS THE


JACKING Oil PUMP 1 DEPENDING ON
TURBINE/GENERATOR SPEED CRITERIA.
JACKING OIL PUMP 1 ON
JACKING OIL PUMP 1 OFF

< 510 RPM


> 540 RPM

AND
SUBLOOP CONTROL STARTS THE JACKING OIL
PUMP 2 DEPENDING ON JACKING OIL PRESSURE

5.2-0130-51/5

(01)

Steam Turbine

Condensing Plant

Operation

Startup Diagram

SYSTEM READY FOR OPERATION


MANUAL OPERATED VALVES (GENERAL)

ROOT VALVES IN IMPULSE PIPES


VALVES AHEAD OF TRANSMITTERS
PERMANENT VENTS
VALVES IN FILING-LINES
(PERMANENT)
VALVES BEF/BEH FANS IN SERVICE
VALVES BEF/BEH STANDBY FANS
ISOLATING VALVES BEF/BEH CONTROL VALVES
VALVES IN TEMPERARY VENTS
VALVES IN TEMPERARY FILING LINES
VALVES IN BYPASS LINES
VALVES OF PRESSURE-TEST CONNECTIONS
VALVES IN SAMPLING LINES
VALVES IN IMPULSE-PIPES FOR TESTING
VALVES IN DRAIN-LINES

CHECK
CHECKED
AND IN POSITION

OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
CLOSED
OPEN
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED
CLOSED

SPEC.MAN.OPER.VVLS .OF SYSTEM

CHECKED
AND IN POSITION
VALVE AHEAD OF SEAL-STEAM CONDENSER
OPEN
VALVE IN SEAL STEAM LINE TO ATMOSPHERE
CLOSED
ISOLATING VALVES BEF/BEH SEAL STEAM SUPPLY LINE
OPEN
BYPASS VALVE OF SEAL STEAM SUPPLY LINE
CLOSED
BYPASS VALVE OF SEAL STEAM LEAK-OFF VALVE
CLOSED
THROTTLE VALVES IN VAPOUR LINES
ADJUSTED
VALVES IN AIR SUCTION LINES
OPEN
ISOLATING VALVES IN AIR SUCTION LINES
CLOSED
VALVES IN AIR SUCTION LINES
OPEN
FROM AIRCOOLER OF CONDENSER
VALVES IN SEALING WATER-LINES
OPEN
FOR VACUUM VALVES
VALVES IN SEALING WATER-LINES
OPEN
FOR VACUUM BREAKER
VALVES IN SPRAY-WATER-LINES
OPEN
FOR STAND- PIPES
OPEN
VALVES BEHIND VACUUM BREAKER
OPEN
LEVEL OF CONDENSER
NORMAL
LEVEL IN U-LOOPS
NORMAL
U-LOOPS FILLED BY MEANS OF
FILLING VALVES
SET-POINT SEAL STEAM CONTROLLER
>P AMB
FIX SETTING

BHEL Haridwar

5.2-0140-02/1

(02)

+
+

(03)

EXT SYSTEMS READY FOR OPERATION


CIRCULATING WATER OF CONDENSER
CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM
DOES NOT BELONG TO THE SCOPE OF
SUPPLY<TURBINE/GENERATOR>
SPECIAL INSTRUCTION FOR
CIRCULATING WATER PUMPS
VENTING OF THE CIRCULATING
WATER SYSTEM MUST AGREE WITH TURBINEOPERATING AND HAVE TO BE FOLLOWED
NOTEMAXIMUM CIRCULATING WATER
SPEED IN CONDENSER TUBES
MUST NOT BE EXCEEDED
CONDENSING SYSTEM
THE CONDENSATE SYSTEM
DOES NOT BELONG TO THE SCOPE OF
SUPPLY<TURBINE/GENERATOR>
SPECIAL INSTRUCTION FOR CONDENSING PUMPS
CONDENSER LEVEL CONTROL
MINIMUM FLOW CONTROL
HEATER
MUST AGREE WITH TURBINEOPERATING AND HAVE TO BE FOLLOWED

VACUUM PUMPS
THE VACUUM PUMPS
DO NOT BELONG TO THE SCOPE OF
SUPPLY<TURBINE/GENERATOR>
OPERATIONAL READINESS ACC.
TO SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS

AUX. SYSTEM FOR SHAFT SEALS


THE AUX. SYSTEM
DO NOT BELONG TO THE SCOPE OF
SUPPLY<TURBINE/GENERATOR>
POSITION OF VALVES AHEAD OF
- SEAL STEAM SUPPLY VALVE
ACCORDING TO SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM
IF APPLICABLE REFER TO
SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS

CRITERIA FOR BEGIN OF START UP


IF THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA
ARE FULFILLED THE SYSTEM
WILL BE STARTED-UP FROM
< STANDSTILL> .
TURNING GEAR
CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM

+
+
+
+
+

+
+

5.2-0140-02/2

CHECK
AVAILABLE

DRAIN OF SEAL STEAM HEADER


SEAL STEAM CONTROL AND
WARM UP VALVE SEAL STEAM
AND VACUUM BREAKER
AND SEAL STEAM EXHAUST FAN
VACUUM PUMPS
AIR SUCT-VALVE PUMP

IN OPERATION

READY FOR OPERATION

AVAILABLE

CHECK

IN OPERATION
IN OPERATION
CLOSED
OFF
CLOSED
CLOSED
OFF
AND OFF
CLOSED

REF TO S.2.0130
REF TO S.2.0135
MAL81AA001
MAW11AA001
MAW10AA001
MAW80AN002

(04)

(05)

(06)

+ DRAIN OF SEAL STEAM HEADER


+ DRAIN OF SEAL STEAM HEADER
OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL
+ SUBLOOP CONTROL DRAINS
+ DRAIN OF SEAL STEAM HEADER
POSITION OF DRAIN VALVE(S)
DEPENDING ON TEMPERATURE
CRITERIA IN HEADER
VALVE(S) <OPEN> STEAM-TEMP.
VALVE(S) <CLOSEQ> STEAM-TEMP.
+ AIR SUCTION EQUIPMENT
AND
+ SHAFT SEAL STEAM SUPPLY
OR WITH FGA <CONDENSING PLANT>
+ FGA <CONDENSING PLANT>
OPERATION OF PUSH BUTTONS
REFER TO MANUAL FOR THE FGA.
FGA=FUNCTIONAL GROUP AUTOMATIC

OPEN
OPEN

MALe-1AA011
MAL81AA011

SWITCH ON
OPEN

< 120 CEL


>150 CEL
START
START
START

+ SEAL STEAM EXHAUST FAN

SWITCH ON

+ SEAL STEAM EXHAUST FAN

ON

AND
+ SEAL-STEAM CONTROL
+ SEAL-STEAM CONTROL
AND
+ WARM-UP VALVE SEAL STEAM
+ WARM-UP VALVE SEAL STEAM
+ WARM-UP CONTR. <SEAL-STEAM>
+ WARM-UP CONTR. <SEAL-STEAM>
SLC <SEAL-STEAM
SLC=SUBLOOP CONTROL
(06/S)*+ SEAL STEAM EXHAUST FAN

MALOOEEO01
MAL81AA011

MAW80ANO01
OR MAW80AN001
MAW80ANO01
OR MAW80ANO02

SWITCH ON
ON
OPEN
OPEN
SWITCH ON
ON

ON
OR

MAW11AA011
MAW11AA011

MAW80ANO01
MAW80ANO02

AND
(06/S)*+ SEAL-STEAM CONTROL
AND
(06/S)*+ WARM-UP CONTR. <SEAL-STEAM>
BY STEAM FLOW THROUGH THE
WARM-UP VALVE THE STEAMTEMPERATURE UPSTREAM OFTHE
SEAL-STEAM SUPPLY VALVE
WILL BE INCREASED UNTIL THE
REQUIRED TEMPERATURE WILL
BE REACHED.
THE SEAL STEAM SUPPLY VALVE
MUST NOT BE OPENED UNTIL
THE TEMPERATURE CRITERIA
IS FULFILLED AND A MINIMUM
VACUUM IS REACHED IN THE
CONDENSER.
CRITERIA FOR OPENING THE
SEAL STEAM SUPPLY VALVE
STEAM-TEMPERATURE
VACUUM

ON

ON

> 220 CEL


< 0.7 BAR

5.2-0140-02/3

(07)

+ VACUUM-PUMPS
THE VACUUM PUMPS DO NOT BELONG
TO THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY OF THE
<TURBINE/GENERA TOR>.
OPERATION OF PUMPS AND VALVES .
FOR AIR REMOVAL PRIOR TO AND
DURING OPERATION ,\CCORDING
TO SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS. .
IOPERATION OF PUMPS AND VALVES
FOR AIR REMOVAL PRIOR TO AND
DURING OPERATION REFER
TO PLANT-MANUAL
+ VACUUM-PUMPS

SWITCH ON

ON
AND

(08)

+ AIR-SUCT -VALVE VACUUM PUMP


+ AIR-SUCT-VALVE VACUUM PUMP

(08/S)*+

+ VACUUM

MAJ60ANO01
MAJ70ANO01
MAG10CPO01

+ TEMP. AHEAD OF SEAL-ST. SUPPLY VLV

> 220 CEL

MAW10CTO01

OPENINGOFSEAL-STEAMSUPPLYVLV

+ SEAL STEAM PRESSURE


+

(10)

OPEN
OPEN

ON
AND
< 0.7 BAR

(09) * +

VACUUM PUMP

MAJ60ANO01
MAJ70ANO01

VACUUM

+ VACUUM PUMP OPERATION


CHANGE IN OPERATION OF VACUUMPUMPS SERVES THE PURPOSE TO
HAVE ALL VACUUM PUMPS IN OPERATION WHICH ARE NECESSARY
TO REMOVE AIR AND GAS FROM
THE CONDENSER DURINGOPERATION. OBSERVE ALL CRITERIA INVOLVING VACUUM PUMP-OPERATION.

OBSERVE
>P AMB
< 0.15 BAR

CHANGEOVER

GENERAL OUTLINE:
+ SERVICE VACUUM PUMP
AND
+ STARTUP A. STANDBY VACUUM PUMPS

5.2-0140-02/4

ON
CFF

MAW11AAO01
MAW20CPO01

Steam Turbine
Description
(01)

+ SYSTEM READY FOR OPERATION


- MANUAL OPERATED VALVES
ACCORD. TO LIST OF
VALVE-POSITION

Bypass-System
Start of Operation
CHECK
CHECKED

AND IN POSITION
+ BYPASS-CONTROLLER ON
+ BYPASS-CONTROLLER
+ FIXPRESSUREREFERENCEVALUE
THE SETTING OF THE FIX
PRESSURE REFERENCE VALUE
DEPENDS ON THE REQUIREMENTS
OF THE STEAM-GENERATOR
F.E. THE SYSTEM FLOW THROUGH
THEREHEATER.
THE SETPOINT HAS TO BE
RAISED DURING STARTUP TO
MEETTHE DESIGN-VALUE FOR
MINIMUM LOAD OF THE STEAMGENERATOR.
FIX PRESSURE REFERENCE
VALUE AS DESIGNED.
+ HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SWITCH
THE H(DRAULIC PRESSURE
SWITCH MUST ONLY BE
BLOCKED FOR THE PURPOSE
OF TESTING.
(02)

+ EXT. SYSTEM READY F. OPERATION


EXTERNAL SYSTEMS = SYSTEMS
BEYOND THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY
OF THE TURBINE/GENERATOR
+ CIRCULATING WATER OF CONDENSER

KG/CM2

...KG/CM2
DELOCKED

CHECK

AVAILABLE

+ CONDENSATE PUMPS

IN OPERATION

+ VACUUM-PUMPS

IN OPERATION

+ VACUUM
(03)

NOT FAULTED

+ INT. SYSTEM READY FOR OPERATION


INTERNAL SYSTEMS = SYSTEMS
WITHIN THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY
OFTHETUR8JNE/GENERATOR.

BHEL Hardwar

< 0,6 KG/CM2


CHECK

5.2-0150-00/1

+ Oil SYSTEM

IN OPERATION

+ TURNING GEAR

IN OPERATION

+ CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM

IN OPERATION

+ VACUUM-PUMPS

IN OPERATION

+ VACUUM

(04)

(05)

(06)

+ STATE OF OPERAT. STEAMGENERATOR

< 0,6 KG/CM2

CHECK

+ STEAM-GENERATOR

IN OPERATION

+ REHEAT PRESSURE/FIX PRESS.


REF. VALUE

RELATION < 1

+ CRITERIA FOR BEGIN OF STARTUP

CHECK

+ BYPASS STOP VALVE

CLOSED MAN11AAO01
AND MAN12AAO01

+ BYPASS CONTROL VALVE

CLOSED
AND

+ HYDR. SIGNAL OF BYPASS CONTROL

< 1.0. KG/CM2

+ SP RAY WATER PRESSURE

< 1.0 KG/CM2

+ REHEATPRESSURE/FIXPRESS.
REF. VALUE

RELATION = 1

+ START OF BYPASS-OPERATION
BYPASS OPERATION STARTS IF
THE STEAM PRESSURE UPSTREAM
OF THE BYPASS VALVE MEETS
THE PRESS-REFERENCE VALUE.
* + BYPASS STOP VALVE

OBSERVE

OPENS
AND

* + SPRAY WATER VALVES (STAGE 1)


DESIGNATLON OF THE SPRAY.
WATER VALVES ACCORDING TO
SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM.

OPEN

* + BYPASS CONTROL VALVE

OPENS
AND

+ INTERLOCKS OF BYPASS-CONTROLS
THE BYPASS-CONTROL AND
STOP VALVES CLOSE IF THE
FOLLOWING CRITERIAARE
FULFILLED:
VACUUM
SPRAYWATERPRESSURE

5.2-0150-00/2

MAN11AAO02
MAN12AAO02

MAN11AAO01
MAN12AAO01

MAN11AAO02
MAN12AAO02

NOT INITIATED

> 0.6 KG/CM2


< 9,5 KG/CM2

LIMIT VALUE OF STEAM FLOW NOT INITIATED

THE LIFT OF THE BYPASSCONTROL VALVES WILL BE


LIMITED. IF THE LIMIT
PRESSURE IS REACHED
THE BYPASS-CONTROL VALVE
CLOSE. .

(07)

+ LIFT OF BYPASS-CONTROL-VALVES

100%

+ FIXPRESSURE REFERENCE VALUE

SETHIGHER

+ FIXPRESSURE REFERENCE VALVE

HIGHER

+ LIFT OF BYPASS-CONTROL-VALVES
THIS CASE CAN OCCUR IF
THE FIXPRESSURE REFERENCE
VALUE HAS BEEN REDUCED
BELOW THE DESIGN VALUE
DURING STARTUP.

< 100%

5.2-0150-00/3

(01)

Steam Turbine

Warm up and Startup of Turbine

Operation

Startup Diagram

+ TURBINE READY FOR STARTUP


AND
+ MAIN STEAM LINES READY FOR WARMUP
+ MANUAL OPERATED VALVES
(POSITION ACCORDING TO LINE DIAGRAM)
TEST VALVES OF STOP VALVES
HYDRAULIC VALVES OF EXTRACTION NRV
+ ELECTROHYDRAULIC TURBINE CONTROL
+ ELECTROHYDRAULIC TURBINE CONTROL
+ SPEED REFERENCE VALUE
NORMALLY THE TURBINE WILL BE CONTROLLED
BY THE ELECTROHYDRAULIC CONTROLLER.
REFER TO 5.2-0180 FOR CHANGE OVER TO AND
OPERATION OF HYDRAULIC GOVERNOR
+ STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE
+ SPEED SETTER HYDRAULIC GOVERNOR
+ TURBINE STRESS EVALUATOR/CONTROLLER (TSE/TSC)
+ TSE/TSC
TSE/TSC TEST POSITIVE
NO ALARM
.NO FAULT INDICATOR ILLUMINATED
NO UNREASONABLE POSITION OF DISCS
+ TSE/TSC INFLUENCE ALWAYS
EXEMPTION: TSE/TSC FAULTY
CHANGE OVER WHEN DISTURBED.
IF THE TSE/TSC IS FAULTED THE DIFFERENTIAL
TEMPERATURE AT THE MEASURING POINTS
WHICH REPRESENT THE THERMAL STRESSES
OF CASING AND ROTOR MUST BE EVALUATED.
REF 5.2-0430 IF TSE/TSC ALLOWANCE IS REDUCED.
APPLIES TO ALL MODES OF OPERATION
+ TRIPPING DEVICE TURBINE PROTECTION
OVERSPEED TRIP
IF STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE
+ ELECTRICAL TRIP
+ CASING DIFFERENTIAL TEMPERATURES
HP TURBINE CENTER TOP/BOTTOM

CHECK
CHECK
OPEN.
OPEN
OPEN
ON
NOT FAULTED
< N TURN GEAR

0%
100 %
ON
NOT FAULTED

MAX47 BYOO1
MAX46 BYOO1

ON
REFER TO 5.2-0430

REFER TO 5.1-011.

NO ALARM
MAY10 AAO01
AND MAY10 AAO02
> 20 %
NO ALARM
NO ALARM
< 90C

OR IP TURBINE FRONT TOP/BOTTOM

< 30C

OR IP TURBINE REAR TOP/BOTTOM

< 30C

MAA50 CT051
AND MAA50 CT052
MAB50 CT0 43
AND MAB50 CT044
MAB50 CT06 1
AND MAB50 CT062

CASING DIFFERENTIAL TEMPERATURES DETERMINE


THE DISTORTION OF THE TURBINE CASINGS
(02)

+ GENERATOR READY FOR OPERATION


ALL REQUIREMENTS AS PER GENERATOR MANUAL
FULFILLED BEFORE STARTUP
+ GENERATOR BREAKER
+ EXCITATION BREAKER
+ SEAL OIL PLANT
+ H2 PRESSURE
+ HYDROGEN PURITY
+ H2 TEMPEARTURE CONTROL

BHEL Hardwar

CHECK

OFF
OFF
IN OPERATION
P DESIGN
> 95%
ON

MKG25 CPO03
MKG25 CQO01

5.2-0160-02/1

+ H2 TEMPERATURE CONTROL
+ PRIMARY WATER PUMP
+ STANDBY PRIMARY WATER PUMP

+
+
+
+
+

PRIMARY WATER PRESSURE


SUBLOOP CONTROL PRIMARY WATER PUMPS
PRIMARY WATER CONDUCTIVITY
PRIMARY WATER TEMPERATATUREV CONTROL
PRIMARY WATER TEMPERATURE CONTROL
THE CRITERIA FOR THE GENERATOR HAVE TO
BE FULFILLED FOR ALL MODES OF OPERATION
WHICH CAN OCCURR,

+ DRAIN UPSTREAM OF MCV

NOT FAULTED
ON
OFF

MKF12 APO01
OR MKF22 APO01
MKF22 APO01
OR MKF12 APO01

> P MIN
ON
< 1,5 MYS/CM
ON
NOT FAULTED

MKF12 CPOOl
MKF35 COOOl

OPEN
AND

+ DRAIN HP OUTER CASING


CRITERION: TEMPERATURE HP TURBINE
OR
+ DRAIN HP OUTER CASING CLOSED
CRITERION: TEMPERATURE HP TURBINE
+ DRAIN AHEAD OF SWING CHECK CRH NRV
CRITERION: CRH NRV
+ DRAIN BEFORE IP CONTROL VALVE

OPEN
< 300 C

MAL22 AAOll
> 320 C
OPEN
CLOSED
OPEN

MAL65 AAOll

AND
+ DRAIN DOWN STREAM IP CONTROL VALVE

OPEN
AND

CRITERION: VALVE CASING TEMPERATURE


MINUS SATURATION TEMPERATURE OF STEAM
OR
+ DRAIN BEFORE IP CONTROL VALVE

MAL11AA011
MAL AA011
MAL22 AAOll

MAL26 AAOll
MAL27 AAOll
MAL31 AAOll
MAL32 AAOll

<-20 C
CLOSED

MAL26 AA011
MAL27 AAOll
MAL31 AAO 11
AND MAL32 AAOll

AND
+ DRAIN DOWN STREAM IP CONTROL VALVE
MINUS SATURATION TEMPERATURE OF STEAM
CRITERION: EXTRACTION VALVE
(05)

+ CRITERIA FOR BEGIN OF START UP


IF ALL CRITERIA AS LISTED BELOW ARE
FULFILLED THE TURBINE/GENERATOR WILL
BE STARTED FROM
-TURNING GEAR
-STOP VALVES
+ MAIN STEAM STOP VALVES

CLOSED
> 50 C
CLOSED
CHECK

IN OPERATION
CLOSED
CLOSED

+ REHEAT STOP VALVES

CLOSED

+ HP CONTROL VALVES

CLOSED

+ IP CONTROL VALVES

CLOSED

+ SWING CHECK VALVE COLD REHEAT L4NE

CLOSED

+ EXTRACTION VALVE

CLOSED

(06)

+ DRAINS AHEAD OF MS/RH STOP VALVES

CHECK

(07.)

+ PREWARMING OF TURBINE
OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL)
PROGRAMME (STARTUP)

START

5.2-0160-02/2

START

MAA10 AAOOl
AND MAA20 AAOO 1
MAB10 AAOOl
AND MAB20 AAOOl
MAA 10 AAO02
AND MAA20 AAO02
MAB 10 AAO02
AND MAB20 AAO02
LBC10 AAOOl

OPERATION OF PUSH BUTTONS


REFER TO MANUAL FOR THE FGA
(08)

+ SLC WARM-UP CONTROL


+ SLC WARM-UP CONTROL
OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL)
(08/S) + WARM-UP CONTROL
(09)

SWITCH OFF.
OFF
OFF

DRAIN AHEAD OF HP CONTROL VALVES

CLOSED

MAL11 AA011
MAL AA011
MAL11 AA011
AND MAL12 AA01 1
AND

+ DRAIN AHEAD OF HP CCNTROL VALVES

CLOSED

OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL)


DRAIN AHEAD OF HP CONTROL VALVES

CLOSED

(09/S)*+

(10)

+ STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA


+ MAIN STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA
+ REHEAT STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA
OR
+ MAIN STEAM VALVE TEMPERATURE
RELEASE OF STEP(05) OF THE FGA (TURBINE
CONTROL) OCCURS AFTER THE SLIDING TEMP.
CRITERIA INCLUDED IN THE FGA PROGRAMME
HA VE BEEN FULFILLED

(11)

+ STATE OF OPERATION OF STEAM GENERATOR


+ STEAM GENERATOR IN OPERATION

(12)

+ STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE


OR WITH OF FGA (TURBINE CONTROL)

(12/S) + STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE


STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE
+ MAIN STEAM STOP VALVES

(13)

+ SLC WARM.UP CONTROL


OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL)
(14/S) + SLC WARMUP CONTROL
TRACKING DEVICE
(15)

+ STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE


OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL)
(15/S)+ STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE
+ STARTING AND LOAQ. LIMIT DEVICE
+ REHEAT STOP VALVES

REFER TO 5.2-0170
REFER TO 5.2.0170

< 100 C

CHECK

SET HIGHER

MAX47 BYO01

SET HIGHER
> 42%
OPEN

MAX47 BYO01
MAX47 BYO01
MAA10 AAO01
MAA20 AAO01

+ STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA


+ STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA
FOR CRITERIA REFER STEP (10)

(14)

(16)

CHECK
FULFILLED
FULFILLED

MAL11 AA011
AND MAL12 AA01 1.

CHECK
FULFILLED

SWITCH ON.
SWITCHED ON
SWITCHED ,ON
SET HIGHER

RAISE
> 56 %
OPEN

MAX4B.YO01
MAX47 BYO01
MAX47 BYOO 1
MAB10 AAO01

WAIT
WARM UP PROCEDURE WILL BE GUlDED BY THE
WARM.UP CONTROL. LEADING PARAMETER IS THE
TEMPERATURE ALLOWANCE OF THE TSE/TSC CHANNEL
(ADMISSION). THE DRAINS OF THE CONTROL
VAL VES WILL BE OPENED AND CLOSED DEPENDING
ON THE MAGNITUDE OF TSC ALLOWANCE. IF THE
WARM.UP CONTROL IS DISTURBED OR NOT IN

5.2-0160-02/3

OPERATION OPERATE DRAIN VALVES OF THE HP


CONTROL VALVES MANUALLY. CLOSE ON DECREASING
TSE/TSC ALLOWANCE. OPEN ON INCREASING TSE/TSC
ALLOWANCE. IF THE TSE/TSC IS FAULTY OPERATE
DRAIN V ALVES ACCORDING TO WALL TEMP
AT THE TSE/TSC RECORDER. REFER TO TECHNICAL
DATA FOR LIMITS OF DIFFERENTIAL
TEMPERATURES OF THE TSE/TSC.
(17)

+ DRAINS MAIN STEAM LINE


+ DRAINS MAIIJSTEAM LINE
THE DRAINS OF MS LINE DO NOT BELONG TO
THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY (TURBINE/GENERATOR)
CRITERION: STEAM IN MS LINE SUPER HEATED

CLOSE
CLOSED

(18)

+ STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA


+ MAIN STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA
+ REHEAT STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA
THE RELEASE OF STEP (12) OF FGA (TURBINE
CONTROL) OCCURS AFTER THE SLIDING TEMP.
CRITERIA INCLUDED IN THE FGA PRO(1RAMME
HAVE BEEN FULFILLED

CHECK
FULFILLED
FULFILLED

(19)

+ LOAD REFERENCE VALUE


+ LOAD REFERENCE VALUE

(20)

+ SPEED REFERENCE VALUE


+ SPEED REFERENCE VALUE
THE WARMUP SPEEDMUST NOT EXCEED THE
MINIMUM SPEED OF THE BARRED SPEED RANGE
IN ORDER TO AVOID OPERATION IN RANGES
WHERE NATURAL FREQUENCY OF FREE STANDING
LP BLADES IS TO BE EXPECTED,
OR WITH FGA (TURBINE)
(20/S)*+ SPEED REFERENCE VALUE
THE PREWARMING PROCEDURE IS GUIDED BY THE
TSE/TSC INFLUENCE TO THE ELECTRO HYDRAULIC
CONTROL, THE SPEED WILL BE REDUCED IF THE
TSE/TSC ALLOWANCE IS REDUCED TO ZERO, IF
THE TSE/TSC IS FAULTED THE DIFFERENTIAL
TEMPERATURES AT THE MEASURING POINTS WHICH
REPRESENT THE THERMAL STRESSES OF CASING
AND ROTOR MUST BE EVALUATED. REFER 5,2-0430
IF TSE/TSC ALLOWANCE IS REDUCED
+ SPEED OF TURBINE/GENERATOR
+ TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE
OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL
(21/S)*+ TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE
(21)

22)

+ SPEED OF TURBINE/GENERATOR
+ JACKING OIL PUMP
+ JACKING OIL PUMP

5.2-0160-02/4

CHECK
> 10 %

REF. 5.2-0170 FIG.1,4


REF. 5.2-0170 FIG.L.5

MYA01 DUO01
MYAOL DUOOL

SET HIGHER
> 650 RPM

SET HIGHER

> 240 APM


CLOSE

MAV51 AAOOL

CLOSED

MAV51 AAOOL

> 540 RPM


SWITCH OFF
OFF

MAV31 APOOL
OR MAV32 APO01
MAV31 APOO1
AND MAV32 APOO1

OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL


(22/S)*+ JACKING OIL PUMP

OFF

MAV31 APO01
AND MAV32 APOO1

(23)

+ STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA

+
+
+
+
+

AND
OPERATIONAL VALUES OF TURBINE
CHECK
STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA
FULFILLED
TURBINE STRESS MARGIN
> 30 OK
BEARING VIBRATION
NORMAL
SHAFT VIBRATION
NORMAL
DEFINITION OF NORMAL VALUES OF VIBRATION:
VIBRATION PREVIOUSLY OBSERVED WHEN OPERATING
WITH SAME SPEED AND OTHER PARAMETERS

(24)

(24)

(25)

+
+

(25/S)* +
(26)

CHECK

WARM-UP CONTROL
WARM-UP CONTROL
OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL)
WARM-UP CONTROL

SWITCH OFF
OFF

SPEED REFERENCE VALUE


SPEED REFERENCE VALUE
OR WITH FGA (TURBINE)
SPEED REFERENCE VALUE

SET HIGHER
> 3000 RPM

OFF

(28)

MYAO1 DUO01
MYA01 DUOO1

> 3000 RPM

WAIT
THE LIMITED SPEED REFERENCE VALUE FOLLOWS
THE SPEED REFERENCE VALUE WITH THE PRESET
GRADIENT. DO NOT HOLD THE TURBINE IN THE
CRITICAL SPEED ZONE. THE SPEED GRADIENT
WILL BE REDUCED IF REDUCTION OF THE TSE/TSC
ALLOWANCE OCCUR. THE TSE/TSC INFLUENCE WILL
BE EFFECTIVE VIA THE REFERENCE LIMITER.
IF A SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION OF THE TSE/TSC .
ALLOWANCE OCCURS, THE TURBINE SPEED WILL BE
REDUCED TO WARM UP SPEED. IF THE TSE/TSC IS
FAULTED THE DIFFERENTIAL TEMPERATURES AT
THE MEASURING POINTS WHICH REPRESENT THE
THERMAL STRESSES OF CASING AND ROTOR MUST
BE EVALUATED
REDUCE SPEED REFERENCE VALUE TO WARMUP
SPEED WHEN OPERATING WITHOUT TSE/TSC
INFLUENCE AND THE TSE/TSC ALLOWANCE
REDUCED TO ZERO.

(27)

REF. 5.2-0170 FIG,6

+
+
+
+
+

SPEED REFERENCE VALUE


OPERATIONAL VALUES OF TURBINE
BEARING VIBRATION
SHAFT VIBRATION
BEARING TEMPERATURES

DRAIN AHEAD OF HP CONTROL VALVES

REFER TO 5.1-011..

3000 RPM
CHECK
NORMAL
NORMAL
NORMAL
CLOSE

MAL 11 AAO11

5.2-0160-02/5

AND MAL 12 AA011


+

DRAIN AHEAD OF HP CONTROL VALVES

CLOSED

MAL 11 AA011
AND MAL 12 AA011

(28/S)* +

OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL)


DRAIN AHEAD OF HP CONTROLVALVES

CLOSED

MAL 11 AA011
AND MAL 12 AAO1 1

(29)

AUXILIARY OIL PUMP

SWITCH OFF

MAV22 APO01

AND MAV23 APO01


OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL)
+
+

STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA


GENERATOR

5.2-0160-02/6

CHECK
SYNCHRONIZE REFER TO 5.2-0210

Steam Turbine
Description

Warming-up and Starting the Turbine


Temperature Criteria
Warming-up and Starting the Turbine

The admission steam temperature should


meet the metal temperature as shown in the
diagram below in order to start and load the
turbine in shortest possible time.
Note : The following criteria represent
approximate values, which can be optimized
by operational experience.
Turbines with Automatic Turbine Runup
System (ATRS) should under go optimizing.
Criteria for the opening of stop valves
When opening the main stop valves the
main steam parameters should meet the
following recommended values.


Minimum main steam temperature


ms>s

Fig.1

ms
steam

Main steam temperature at


generator outlet

Temperature of saturated
steam (depending on main
steam pressure)

and
ms>f(mcv50%)
ms

Fig.2

Main steam temperature at


steam generator outlet

mcv50% =

Middle wall temperature of


main control valve casing

BHEL Hardwar

5.2-0170-01/1

Des

Maximum
main
steam
saturation
temperature ahead of the turbine

s>f(mcv50%)

Fig.3

Maximum main steam saturation


temperature ahead of the turbines

mcv 50% =

Middle wall temperature of


main control valve

Starting Cretaria
When the main control valves are opened
the main steam
and reheat steam
temperatures should fulfill the following criteria:


Minimum main steam temperature


ms>s

Fig.1

ms

Main
steam
temperature
ahead of the turbine

Temperature
of
saturated
steam (depending on main
steam pressure)

and
ms>f(HT50%)
ms

HT 50% =

5.2-0170-01/2

Fig.4

Main
steam
ahead of turbine

temperature

Middle wall temperature of HPcasing or simulated middle


phase shaft temperature

Minimum reheat temperature


9Reh > f (9IT 50%)

Fig. 5

9Roh

Steam temperature in the hot


reheat line

9IT 50%

Simulated midwall temperature


of the IP-shaft

Speeding up criteria
Before the turbine is brought to rated speed
the main steam temperature 9MS ahead of the
turbine should fulfill the following criteria:
9MS < f ( 9HT 50% )

Fig. 6(a) & (b)

9MS

Main
steam
temperature
ahead of the turbine

9HT 50%

Middle wall temperature of the


HP-turbine casing or simulated
midwall temperature of HP
shaft

5.2-0170-01/3

Loading criteria
Before the turbine is loaded the reheat
temperature, ahead of the turbine should fulfill
the following criteria
9Reh > f (9IT 50%)

9Reh

9IT 50%

Fig. 7

Steam temperature in the hot


reheat line
Simulated midwall
temperature of the IP-turbine
shaft

5.2-0170-01/4

Steam Turbine

Warming up and Starting the Turbine

Operation

Controller

Operating modes of the control systems and of


the
starting
and
load
limit
device
 Electrical speed Control
- Warmup operation
- Running up the turbine I generator unit
- Rated speed operation
 Hydraulic governor

Warm-up operation

Running up the turbine generator unit

Rated speed Operation


overspeed trip test

 Starting and load limit device

setting operating configuration of main trip valve


Opening the stop valves

Warm up operation

Electrical speed control


 Control range in % rated speed
 Setpoint control

The turbine generator Unit is accelerated and


maintained at constant warmup speed
accelerate unit to rated speed
maintain unit at rated speed
The turbine generator unit is accelerated and
maintained at constant warm-up speed by manual
actuation of the starting and load limit device
When the reference speed setter is in the 0% position,
the hydraulic governor takes over speed control at
approx. 8O% rated speed
so, run -up of the turbine generator unit from
approx. 8O to 100% rated speed is controlled by
the hydraulic speed governor.
Maintain unit at rated speed
Acceleration to 107% of rated speed by the governor;
speed is increased to trip speed using acceleration
lever on casing of hydraulic governor;
During overspeed trip test ,the electrical speed
controller must be disengaged and switched off.
The main trip valves are brought into operating
position when the starting and load limit device is
in the 0% position.
When the starting and load limit device is in
approx 4 0% open position, the stop valves should
be open;
the test valves of the stop valves must be in the
operating position for the opening procedure.
See Hydraulic speed governor
0-107% (limitation by hydraulic speed governor)

The actual setpoint follows the target setpoint


along preset gradients.
The preset gradient is reduced according to a
Limitation of setpoint by turbine, stress evaluator (TSE)
Predeterminaned characteristic to confirm to the
margin generated by the TSE
Application of the TSE signal
The TSE signal must always be present if the TSE
is not faulted.
Oparation with TSE faulted
The actual setpoint no longer follows the target
setpoint if the TSE is defaulted
the actual and target setpoint must be matched up
before the TSE signal can be switched off. When the
signal from TSE is not present, the thermal
stress in the turbine components must be figured
out by comparing. The actual temperature and their
differences with the curves for permissible
temperature margins as given in Technical Data 5.1-011
Target setpoint /actual setpoint

BHEL Hardwar

5.2-0180-00/1

Limitation by higher-level or alternative


controllers or other devices
- Minimum value selection

Hydraulic speed governor


(speed setting device approx.80%)
Starting and load limit device

Operation
- Operating elements and monitoring
instruments
-

Operating logic sequences for changing


the operating mode

3 Hydraulic Speed Governor


 Setpoint control
- Target setpoint factual setpoint

Limitation by higher-level or
alternative controllers or other device
- Minimum Value selection

Electrohydraulic controller
<100% value selection
starting and IQad limit device

Operation
- Operating elements and monitoring
instruments
- Operating logic sequences for
changing operating mode

5.2-0180-00/2

Effecive controller = controller with the lowest


setpoint setting at any time (also applies to other
devices influencing the opening characteristic)
Limit setpoint by hydraulic minimum
value selection;
Limit setpoint by hydraulic minimum
valve selection;
excessive control valve opening can be prevented
by using the starting and load limit device to
limit valve travel.
see arrangement of control desk as described in
controller manual. Pay attention to notes on operation
of release pushbuttons!
See Appendix (for changing the operating mode during
no-load operation see
Power Operation, Controller 5.2-0180

The actual setpoint immediately follows the target


setpoint (no influence from turbine stress evaluator),
During operation with the hydraulic speed governor,
the thermal stresses in the turbine components must
be figured out on the basis of the TSE display or,
if the TSE is faulted, by comparing the actual
temperatures and their differences with the curves
for permissible temperature margins as given in
Technical Data 5.1-011.

Effective controller = controller with lowest


setpoint setting at any time (also applies to other
devices influencing the control characteristic)
Limits setpoint by hydraulic minimum
Limits setpoint by hydraulic minimum
value selection
See arrangement of control desk as described in
in controller manual
See next page

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Turbine generator unit speed


Stop valve position
Control Valve position
Main trip valves
Starting and load limit device
Reference speed setter
Electrical speed reference

= Turning gear speed


= 0%
= 0%
= depressurized
= 40% open
= 0%
= 0%

(1) +
+

Electrical speed reference


Electrical speed reference

raise
= 100%

(2) +
+

Plunger coil
Plunger coil

deenergize
deenergized

(3) +
+
+

Starting and load limit device


Starting and load limit device
Main trip valves

lower
=0%
in operating configuration

(4) +
+
+
+

Starting and load limit device


Starting and load limit device
Stop valve position
Warm-up criteria for main steam lines

raise
>40%
= 100%
fulfilled

(A) +
+
+

Main Steam lines


Criteria for admission of steam into turbine
Steam generation

warm-Up
fulfilled
adequate

(5) +
+
+

Starting and load limit device


Control valves open
Turbine generator unit speed

raise
= warm-up speed

(6) +

Using Starting and load limit device

maintain constant speed

(B) +
+
+

Turbine
Run-up criteria
Steam generator output

Warm-up
fulfilled
adequate

(7) +
+
+
+

Starting and load limit device


Control Valve
Turbine generator unit speed
Turbine generator unit speed

raise
open
> warm-up speed
= 75% rated speed

(8) +
+

Starting and load limit device


Starting and load limit device

raise
= 100% open

(9) +
+

Reference speed setter


Turbine generator unit speed

raise
= rated speed

Operating logic sequence 1:

Starting up the turbine generator unit with the


starting and load limit device and the hydraulic
speed governor
A see Warming up the Main Steam Line
B see Warming up Starting up the Turbine

5.2-0180-00/3

Turbine generator unit speed

+
+

Electrical speed reference


Reference speed setter

> turning gear speed and


< 75% rated speed
= turbine generator unit speed
= 100%

Starting and load limit device

= 56 to 100%

(1) +
+

Starting and load limit device


Starting and load limit device

lower
effective

(2) +
+

Electrical speed reference


Electrical reference

raise
= 100%

(3) +
+

Plunger coil
Plunger coil deenergized

deenergize

(4) +

Using starting and load limit device

maintain constant speed

(5) +
+

Reference speed setter


Reference speed setter

lower
= 0%

Operating logic sequence 2:

Transition from operating with electrical speed controller to


operating with starting and load limit device
(Speed approx, 80% rated speed)

Turbine generator unit speed

+
+
+
+

Electrical speed reference


plunger coil
Reference speed setter
Starting and load limit device

> Turning gear speed and


75% rated speed
= 100%
deenergized
= 0%
effective

(1) +
+

Plunger coil
Plunger coil

energize
energized

(2) +
+

Electrical speed reference


Turbine generator unit speed

lower
= electrical speed reference

(3) +
+

Starting and load limit device


Starting and load limit device

raise
56 to 100 %

(4) +
+

Reference speed setter


Reference speed setter

raise
= 100%

Operating logic sequence 3 :

5.2-0180-00/4

Transition from operating with starting and load limit


device to operation with electrical speed controller
(Speed approx ,80% rated speed)

Steam Turbine
Operation

Power

operation

begins

Load Operation
Introduction

by

synchronizing of the generator. The turbine

runs the risk of reductions in availability and


reliability.

generator load may then be raised or

The operating staff must detect all

lowered according to the commands from

operating conditions that is a danger to tile

the monitoring/controlling equipment,

turbine generator and must immediately

in

particular the load margins from the turbine


stress evaluator (TSE) / turbine stress
controller (TSC), to meet the grid power
requirement.
During power operation, monitoring is
essential for the economic operation of the

correct them.
Regular checking of protection equipment,
long-term monitoring of operating variables
and operational maintenance are very
important for early detection and elimination
of system faults.

turbine generator. Neglecting this principle

BHEL Hardwar

5.2-0200-00

(01)

Steam Turbine

Synchronization and Loading

Operation

Startup Diagram

GENERATR READY TO BE

CHECK

SYNCHRONIZED

(02)

SPEED OF TURBINE/GENERATOR

3000 RPM

DRAIN OF SEAL STEAM HEADER

NORMAL

H2-SUPPL Y SYSTEM

NO ALARM

SEAL-OIL PLANT

NO ALARM

PRIMARY WATER SYSTEM

NO ALARM

LIQUID IN GENERATOR

NO ALARM

STEAM TEMPERATURE CRITERIA

FULFILLED

EXCITATION BREAKER

SWITCH ON

EXCIT ATION BREAKER

SWITCHED ON

OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL)


(02/S)* +

EXCITATION BREAKER

SWITCHED ON

(03)

GENERATOR VOLTAGE SET

HIGHER

GENERATOR VOLTAGE

HIGHER

OR WITH FGA (TURBINE CONTROL)


(03/S)* +

AUTOMATIC SYNCHRONIZER

ON

(04)

GENERATOR VOLTAGE CONTROL

CLOSED

GENERATOR VOLTAGE CONTROL

SWITCHED ON

OR WITH (AUTOMATIC SYNCHRONIZER)


(04/S)* +

GENERATOR VOLTAGE CONTROL

SWITCHED ON

(05)

SYNCHRONOSCOPE

SWITCHED ON

OR WITH (AUTOMATIC SYNCHRONIZER)


+

SYNCHRONOSCOPE

BHEL Hardwar

SWITCHED ON

5.2-0210-00/1

(07)

GENERATOR VOATAGE
BY MEANS OF REFERENCE
VALUE OF VOLTAGE CONTROL

ADJUSTED

GENERATOR/LINE-VOLTAGE
OR WITH (AUTOMATIC SYNCHRONIZER)

MET

(07/5)* +

GENERATOR/LINE-VOLTAGE

MET

(08)

GENERATOR FREQUENCY
BY MEANS OF REFERENCE
VALUE OF SPEED CONTROL

GENERATOR/LINE-FREQUENCY

ADJUSTED

MET

OR WITH (AUTOMATIC SYNCHRONIZER)


(08/5)* +

GENERATOR / LINE-FREQUENCY
GENERATOR FREQUENCY MUST
BE ADJUSTED IN SUCH A WAY
THAT THE NEEDLE OF THE
SYNCHRONOSCOPE TURNS
SLOWLY IN THE DIRECTION
GENERATOR FREQUENCY HIGHER
THAN LINE FREQUENCY =
FAST SYNCHRONIZING.
FAST SYNCHRONIZING ENSURES
THAT THE GENERATOR Will
BE LOADED IMMEDIATELY
AFTER SYNCHRONIZING
THUS PREVENTING REVERSE
POWER RELAY TO BE ACTUATED.

(09)

SYNCHRONIZING DEVICE

GENERATOR BREAKER
IF THE BREAKER WILL BE
SWITCHED ON MANUALLY
ADJUSTED PHASE ANGLE TO
NEEDLE OF SYNCHRONOSCOPE
MUST METT THE ZERO-ANGLE
MARK ON THE SCALE WHEN
SWITCHING IN BREAKER.

MET

START
SWITCHED ON

OR WITH (AUTOMATIC SYNCHRONIZER)


(09/5)* +

GENERATOR BREAKER

(10)

SPEED REFERENCE VALUE

GENERATOR LOAD

5.2-0210-00/2

SWITCHED ON
SET HIGHER
> 10%

MYA01DU001

(11)

STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE

STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE

SET HIGHER

MAX47BYO01

100%

MAX47BYO01

100%

MAX47BYO01

OR WITH FGA (TURSINE CONTROL)


(11/S)* +

STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE

TURBINE STRESS EVALUATOR (TSE)

CHECK

TURBINE STRESS EVALUATOR (TSE)


AT A PRESENT MINIMUM LOAD
THE TSE CHANGES OVER FROM
TEMPERATURE-TO LOAD SCALE

CHANGED OVER

GENERATOR LOAD
LOAD CONTROLLER
THE LOAD CONTROL WILL BE
SWITCHED ON AT A PRESET
MINIMUM LOAD.

(12)

(13)

> 10%
SWITCHED ON

LOAD REFERENCE VALUE

SET HIGHER

MYA01 DUO01

LOAD REFERENCE VALUE

TARGET LOAD

MYA01 DUO01

(13/S)* +

WAIT
LIMITED LOAD REFERENCE VALUE
THE LIMITED LOAD REFERENCE
VALUE FOLLOWS THE TARGET
LOAD REFERENCE VALUE
WITH THE ADJUSTED
LOAD GRADIENT.
THE LOAD GRADIENT WILL
BE REDUCED, IF REDUCTION
OF THE TSE ALLOWANCE OCCUR.
THE TSE INFLUENCE WILL BE
EFFECTIVE VIA THE REFERENCE
LIMITER.

HIGHER

MYA01DUO01

IF THE TSE IS FAULTED THE


DIFFERENTIAL- TEMPERATURES
AT THE MEASURING POINTS
WHICH REPRESENT THE
ADDITIONAL THERMAL STRESSES
OF CASING AND ROTOR MUST
BE EVALUATED.
REFER TO 5.2-0430 IF
TSE-ALLOWANCE IS
REDUCED.

5.2-0210-00/3

(14)

DRAIN DOWNSTREAM RCV

CLOSE

OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL (DRAINS)


POSITION OF DRAINS CHECK
+

DRAIN DOWNSTREAM OF HP-CONTR.


VLV
CRITERIUM:
VALVE CASING TEMPERATURE
MINUS SATURATION
TEMPERATURE OF STEAM

DRAIN OUTER CASING


CRETERIUM:
TEMP.HP-CASING TOP

DRAIN AHEAD OF SWING-CHECK CRH


CRITERIUM:
NON RET.CHECK VLV COLD REH.

DRAIN UPSTREAM RCV

CRITERIUM:
VALVE CASING TEMPERATURE
MINUS SATURATION
TEMPERATURE OF STEAM
+

DRAIN DOWNSTREAM RCV


CRITERIUM:
VALVE CASING TEMPERATURE
MINUS SATURATION
TEMPERATURE OF STEAM

(15)

+
+
+

HEATER OPERATION
HEATERS
EXTRACTION VALVE

(16)

DRAINS OF EXTRACTIONS

5.2-0210-00/4

CLOSED
MAL 15AAO01
AND MAL 16AAO01
> 50 CEL

CLOSED

MAL 22AA011

>320 CEL
CLOSED

MAL65AA011
LBC10AAO01

OPEN
CLOSED
MAL26AA011
AND MAL27 AA 11
> 50 CEL

CLOSED

MAL31AA011
AND MAL32AA011

> 50 CEL

CHECK
IN OPERATION
> 0%
LBO50AAO01
AND LBS41AAO01
AND LBS42AAO01
AND LBS31AAO01
AND LBS21AAO01

CLOSE

MAL47AA011
AND MAL51AA011
AND MAL54AA015
AND MAL55AA011

DRAINS OF EXTRACTIONS

CLOSED
MAL47AAO11
AND MAL51AAO11
AND MAL54AAO15
AND MAL 55AAO11

IF THE EXTRACTION STEAM


FLOW WILL BE REDUCED,
CAUSING THE EXTRACTION
VALVE TO CLOSE THE
RESPECTIVE DRAIN MUST
BE OPEN.

(17)

BOILER/TURBINE LOAD RELATION

BYPASS CONTROL VALVE

CHECK

BYPASS CONTROL VALVE

CLOSED MAN11AAOO2
AND MAN12AAOO2

BYPASS STOP VALVE

CLOSED MAN11AAOO1
AND MAN12AAOO1

5.2-0210-00/5

Steam Turbine
Operation
1 Control System Operating Modes
 Electrical speed control
- During synchronization of generator
-

Hydraulic control
(operation if electrical control system defective)
- During synchronization of generator
-

After synchronization of generator


Load shedding
(disconnection of generator from power grid)

Electrical load control of turbine generator


- Constant pressure operation without
frequency influence
- Constant pressure operation with
frequency influence as given by the
proportional setting of the frequency
control and by the thermal storage
capacity of the steam generator
- Variable pressure operation without
frequency influence

After synchronization of generator


(normal operating mode)
After synchronization of generator
(operating mode if load controller defective)
Load shedding
(disconnection of generator from power grid)

Variable pressure operation with frequency


influence as given by the proportional
setting of the frequency control unit
and the thermal storage capacity of the
steam generator by controlled throttling of
the control valves

Initial pressure control by the electrical


load controller (alternative to limit initial
pressure control)
- Constant pressure operation
(with or without frequency influence)

Power Operation
Controllers

Setting and maintenance of constant synchronization


speed.
Run-up to approx. 2x unit auxiliary power requirement
before changeover to load control.
Power operation up to Pmax or until control.
valves full open.
Interception of turbine generator before it reaches
trip speed;
Maintenance of constant speed at residual load
(auxiliary power requirement);

Setting and maintenance of constant synchronization


speed.
Power operation up to Pmax or until control valves full open.
Interception of turbine generator before it reaches trip
speed;
Back up by overspeed anticipatory relay.
Maintenance of constant speed at residual load
(auxiliary power requirement);

Maintenance of constant load up to Pmax by


positioning control valves.
As above, turbine generator assists in grid frequency
stabilization when frequency changes.

Maintenance of constant load;{steam generator control system takes over control when max. control
valve lift reached).
Maintenance of constant load;
Turbine generator assists in grid frequency stabilization
when frequency changes.

Maintenance of constant pressure in steam generator


as given by proportional settings characteristics of
pressure reference value.

Limit initial pressure control by the electrical load controller


(alternative to initial pressure control)
- Operation of load controller with or
without frequency influence for stabilization
Maintenance of constant pressure in steam generator
of steam generator operation
as given by proportional setting characteristic of
in the event to pressure drops
pressure reference value incorporating response
reference value.

BHEL Hardwar

5.2-0220-00/1

2 Electrical Speed Control


 Control range
- Speed (as % 9f rated speed)

Valve lift
load at design pressure.

Reference limiter
- Target reference value/actual
reference value
- Limitation of reference limiter by TSE
(turbine stress evaluator) component
-

Application of TSE signal

Operation with TSE faulted

limitation by priority or alternative


controllers or other equipment
- Minimum value selection

Hydraulic governor < 100%

Starting and load limit device < 100%

Operation
- Control and monitoring devices
-

Control logic for changing operating


mode
 Instructions for control and operational
monitoring
- speed reference value after changeover
to load control

Hydraulic Governor
Control range
- Speed
- Valve travel at rated speed
- load at design pressure
 Reference limiter
- Target reference value/actual
reference value

0-170%
(limited by hydraulic governor)
100%
100%

The actual reference value tracks the target


reference along a preset gradient.
The present gradient Is reduced in accordance with
a predetermined characteristic to conform to the
load margin generated by the TSE.
The TSE signal must always be present unless the
TSE is faulted. .
The actual reference value no longer tracks the
target reference value if the TSE is faulted;
Actual and target reference value must be matched
up before the TSE signal can be switched off.
The thermal stresses In the turbine components
must be assessed by comparison of the actual temperatures and their differences with the curves for
permissible temperature margins given in
TechnicaI Date 5.1-011.

Controller in effect = controller with lowest


setpoint;
(also applicable to other equipment that affects
the controller output signal.
limits reference value by means of hydraulic minimum
value selection.
limits reference value by means of hydraulic minimum
value selection.
Control valve lift overshot can be prevented by
means of starting and load limit device
See desk allocation diagram in controller manual.
Note instructions on use of release pushbuttons I
See appendix

After changeover to load control the speed


reference value is to be set such that speed will
revert to approx. 0.6% above rated speed in the
event of load shedding.

Limitation by priority or alternative


5.2-0220-00/2

controllers or other equipment

80-107%
100%
100%
Actual reference value tracks target reference
value directly (no TSE component).
During operation with the hydraulic governor in
control, the thermal stresses in the turbine components must be assessed by referring to the TSE
display or, if the TSE is faulted, by comparing
the actual temperatures and their differences with
the curves for permissible temperature margins as
give in Technical Data 5.1-011.

Minimum value selection

Electrohydraulic controller < 100%

Starting and load limit device < 100%

Operation
- Control and monitoring devices
- Control logic for changing operating
mode
 Instructions for control and operational
monitoring
- Actual speed after load shedding

Controller in effect == controller with lowest


reference value;
(also applicable to other equipment that affects
the controller output signal).
Limits reference value by means of hydraulic
minimum value selection.
Limits reference value by means of hydraulic
minimum value selection.

Starting and load limit device

Load Control by the Electrical Controller


Control range
- Valve travel 100%
- Load at design pressure 100%
 Reference limiter
- Target reference value/actual

See desk allocation diagram in controller manual.


See appendix

As dictated by setting of speed reference value


before load shedding with allowance for droop,
After shedding, the actual speed must revert to
rated speed.
During operation with the hydraulic governor in
control, the turbine generator assists in grid
frequency stabilization as governed by the droop
of the controller;
The influence of the frequency component on the
load reference value tending to raise power can
be eliminated by switching in starting and load
limit device

Limitation of reference limiter by TSE

Application of TSE signal

Operation with TSE faulted

Limitation by priority or alternative


controllers or other equipment
- Minimum value selection

Absolute limit load reference value

The actual reference value tracks the target


reference value reference value along a preset gradient.
The present gradient is reduced in accordance with
a predetermined characteristic to conform to the
load margin generated by the TSE.
The TSE signal must always be present unless the
TSE is faulted.
The actual reference value no longer tracks the
target reference value if the TSE if faulted;
Actual and target reference value must be matched
before the TSE signal can be switched off.
The thermal stresses in the turbine components
must than be assessed by comparison of the actual
temperatures and their differences with the curves
for permissible temperature margins given in
Technical Data 5.1-011.

Controller in effect = controller with lowest


reference value;
(also applicable to other equipment that affects
the controller output signal).
Limit reference values by means of electric minimum
selection;
Active in the event of unit malfunctions.

5.2-0220-00/3

Hydraulic speed governor < 100%

Starting and load limit device < 100%

Operation
- Control and monitoring devices
-

Control logics for changing operating


mode
 Instructions for control and operational
monitoring
- Changeover from speed to load and from
load to speed control
- Switching off load controller in the
event of load shedding

Cut in of initial pressure controller

5.2-0220-00/4

Limits reference value by means of hydraulic


minimum value selection
See above

See desk allocation diagram in controller manual.


Note instructions on use of release pushbuttons
See appendix

Valve lift reference value must be matched up prior


To changeover..
Changeover from load to speed control is effected
When the load falls below a preset value;
Changeover back to load control is effected if the
actual load rises above the lower limit within
approx. 2s.
The pressure control deviation must be 0 before
the initial pressure can cut in.

APPENDIX

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Turbine generator speed


Turbine generator load
Plunger coil
Electrical speed controller
Electrical load controller
Electrical speed reference value
Speed changer
Starting and load limit device

= rated speed
= Zero MW
on
in operation
not in operation
= rated speed
= 100%
= 100%

(1) +
+

Speed changer
Speed changer reference value

lower
< electrical speed reference value

(2) +
+
+

Electrical speed reference value


Electrical speed reference value
Valve position controller reference value

raise
= max. speed
> 100%

(3) +
+
+

Plunger coil
Plunger coil
Required speed

switch off
off
reference value higher or lower

(4) +

Speed changer

raise or lower

Control logics 1: Changeover from electrical to hydraulic speed control in idling mode, e.g. for exercising overspeed trips.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Turbine generator speed


Turbine generator load
Plunger Coil
Electrical speed controller
Electrical load controller
Electrical speed reference value
Speed Changer
Starting and load limit device

=rated speed
= Zero MW
off
not in operation
not in operation
= max. speed
= % position for rated speed
= 100%

(1) +
+

Plunger coil
Plunger coil

Switch on
on

(2) +
+

Electrical speed reference value


Electrical speed reference value

lower
< speed setter reference value

(3) +
+
+

Speed changer
Speed changer
Required speed

raise
= 100%
higher or lower

(4) +

Electrical speed reference

raise or lower

Contrl logics 2: Changeover from hydraulic speed control in idling mode e.g. after exercising overspeed trips.

5.2-0220-00/5

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Turbine generator load


Individual valve controller
Plunger coil
Electrical speed controller
Electrical load controller
Electrical speed reference value
Speed Changer
Starting and load limit device

>0MW
in operation
on
in operation
in operation
= rated speed + load component
= 100%
= 100%

(1) +
+

Speed changer
Speed changer reference valve

lower
< electrical speed reference value

(2) +
+
+

Electrical speed reference value


Electrical speed reference value
Valve position controller reference value

raise
= max. speed
> 100%

(3) +
+
+

Plunger coil
Plunger coil
Load

switch off
off
reference value higher or lower

(4) +
+

Speed changer
Hydraulic frequency control

raise or lower
not required

(5) +
+

Starting and load limit device


Starting and load limit device

lower
in effect

(6) +
+
+

Speed changer
Speed changer
Load

raise
= 1 00%
higher or lower

(7) +

Starting and load limit device

raise or lower

Control logic 3: Changeover from electrical to hydraulic speed control during speed controlled Power operation
(procedure (5) onwards: Switching off hydraulic frequency influence)

5.2-0220-00/6

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Turbine generator load


Plunger coil
Electrical speed controller
Electrical load controller
Electrical speed reference value
Speed changer
Starting and load limit device

> OMW
off
not in operation
not in operation
= max. speed
= 100%
= in effect

(1) +
+

Speed changer
Speed changer

lower
in effect

(2) +
+

Starting and load limit device


starting and load limit device

raise
= 100%

(3) +
+

Plunger coil
Plunger coil

switch on
on

(4) +

Electrical speed reference value

< speed changer reference value

(5) +
+
+

Speed changer raise


Speed changer
Load

= 100%
reference value higher or lower

(6) +

Electrical speed reference value

raise or lower

Control logics 4: Changeover from hydraulic to electrical speed control in power operation
(up to procedure (2): switching on hydraulic frequency component)

5.2-0220-00/7

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Turbine generator load


Plunger coil
Electrical speed controller
Pressure component
Pressure controller
Electrical load reference value
Electrical speed reference value
Speed changer
Starting and load limit device

> a MW
on
in operation
on
in operation
= actual # pressure component
= approx 1.005 x rated speed
= 100%
= 100%

(1) +
+
+

Electrical initial pressure controller


Initial pressure controller
Limit initial pressure controller

switch off
off
on

(2) +
+

Initial pressure component


Initial pressure component

switch off
off

(3) +
+

Speed changer
Speed changer reference valve

lower
< electrical load reference value

(4) +
+
+

Electrical speed and load reference values


Electrical speed reference value
Electrical load reference value

raise
= max. speed
= max. load

(5) +
+
+

Plunger coil
Plunger coil
Turbine generator load

switch off
off
reference value higher or lower

(6) +
+

Speed changer
Hydraulic frequency control

raise or lower
off

(7) +
+

Starting and load limit device


Starting and load device

lower
in effect

(8) +
+
+

Speed changer
Speed changer
Turbine generator load

raise
= 100%
reference value higher or lower

(9) +

Starting and load limit device

raise or lower

Control logics 5:

Changeover from electrical load control to hydraulic speed control


procedure (5) + (6) switch off hydraulic frequency influence

5.2-0220-00/8

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Turbine generator load


Plunger coil A
Electrical load controller
Electrical load reference value
Electrical speed reference value
Speed Changer
Starting and load limit device

> 0 MW
off
not in operation
= max. load
= max. speed
= 100%
in effect

(1) +
+

Speed changer
Speed changer

lower
in effect

(2) +
+

Starting and load limit device


Starting and load limit device

raise
= 100%

(3) +
+

Plunger coil
Plunger coil

switch on
on

(4) +
+

Electrical load controller


Electrical load controller on

switch on

(5) +
+

Electrical reference value


Electrical reference value

lower
= approx. 1.005 x rated speed

(6) +
+

Electrical load reference value


Electrical load reference value

lower
< speed setter reference value

(7) +
+
+

Speed changer
Speed changer
Load

raise
= 100%
higher or lower

(8) +
+
+
+

Electrical load reference value


Load
Initial pressure controller
Limit initial pressure

raise or lower
actual load higher or lower
reference value on
required

(9) +

Initial pressure component

switch on

(10) +
+
+

Initial pressure controller control


deviation
Initial pressure controller control
deviation

balance

(11) +
+
+

Initial pressure controller


Initial pressure controller on
Load

switch on

(12) +

Steam generator output reference value

raise or lower

balanced

higher or lower

Control logics 6: Changeover from hydraulic to electrical load control in power operation
Procedure (1) + (2) Switch off hydraulic frequency cornball
Procedure (9) + (10) Switching on pressure condoner

5.2-0220-00/9

Steam Turbine
Operation
Introduction
During startup and shut-downs, there can be iong
period during which Steam turbines are operated at very
low volumetic flows. This operating mode can result in
blade windage in individual stages of multi-stage
turbines.
The direction of the energy conversion cycle at the
affected blade stages is reversed. The mechanical
energy transmitted by the turbine shaft is converted to
thermal energy, which in turn result in an increase in the
temperature of both the steam and the turbine
components.
Unallowably high temperatures can occur as a result
of blade windage, leading to loosening of the blade
assembly of drum stages through plastic deformation.
Turbine casings can undergo deformation due to the
effects of high temperatures.
During steam turbine operation, the operating mode
and limiters and protective devices must be used to keep
heatup due to blade windage within the prescribed Imits.
Thermodynamic and operating factors affecting
blade windage
The following factors can lead to blade windage:
 Volumetric flow Blade windage can occur as a result
of insufficient volumetric flow through a multistage
expansion section of the steam turbine.
The lower the volumetric flow through a blade stage,
the lower the turbine efficiency will be in the case of
very low volumetric flows, steam flow through the
stage is not directed and the steam has to be
accelerated up to the average speed of the rotating
blades, which creates a deceleration effect.
As the volumetric flow decreases, and the turbine
starts to operates at zero load, blade windage result
in transition from power transfer from the blades to
power transfer to the blades.
Blade windage starts in the final blade stages of an
expansion section, and extends towards the first
stages as flow decreases.
 Steam density, steam pressure and turbine generator
speed.
The degree of windage-induced heatup Which occurs
as a result of low volumetric flow through an
expansion section of the steam turbine depends on
the windage power.
The higher the steam density and the turbine speed
to the third power, the greater will be windage power,
and therefore the heatup, in one blade stage.

BHEL Hardwar

Actions to Prevent Unallowable Heat up


Through Blade Wind age
Procedural Instruction
Owing to the proportional relationship between steam
density and steam pressure, the steam pressures in
expansion sections undergoing windage can be used to
determine the degree of heatup due to windage.
General actions to prevent unallowable heatup of the
steam turbine due to windage
Limitation of the period of motoring operation Blade
windage can occur in expansion sections of a steam
turbine if volumetric flow drops to zero, resulting in
the turbine being driven by the generator which acts
as a motor driven by the public power system.
- Activation of short-time reverse power protection
following turbine trips
After turbine trip, which can be initiated during any
operating mode of the turbine generator unit. the
generator must be isolated from the public power
system after no more than four seconds through
activation of the short-time reverse power
protection.
in order to prevent motoring of the generator at
high speed beyond this time period owing to the
interruption in volumetric flow and high steam
pressure in one expansion section.
Activation of long-time reverse power protection
during a (schedule) turbine generator shut-down,
the control valves of the turbine generator unit are
closed, to allow the generator to be isolated from
the public power system through activation of the
long-time reverse power protection.
The maximum time delay for activation of the
long-time reverse power protection specified in the
Technical Data must not be exceeded. The longtime reverse power protection must be functionally
tested in conjunction with leak testing of the
control valves each time the turbine generator unit
is shut down.
 Turbine trip after limit values have been reached
Blade windage causes temperature increases at
certain exhaust-steam or casing -temperature
measuring points. The limit values of the
temperature at which turbine trip is to be initiated are
specified in the Technical Data. if, under particularly
unfavorable conditions, these temperatures are
reached, turbine trip must be initiated, either
manually from the control room, or automatically by
tripping of a protective device.


5.2-0230-00/1

Blade windage in the HP expansion section of a


steam turbine with reheat
At low volumetric flows, blade windage can
occur towards the exhaust end of the HP expansion
section if the steam pressure in or downstream other HP
turbine section is high.
Blade windage can occur during the following modes
of operation:
 No-load or low-load operation during startup of the
tubine generator unit.
 No-load or a auxiliary-power operation following load
rejection.
The risk of unallowable heatup due to windage ,is
particuarly high following load rejection, since this
may coincide with a high reheat steam pressure,
meaning that turbine generator speed temporarily
exceeds rated speed.
 Motoring operation prior to activation of the long- time
reverse power protection during shut-down of the
turbine generator unit
 At overspeed during overspeed trip testing
Actions to be taken to prevent unallowable heatup of
the HP turbine due to windage
 Optimization of the volumetric flow through the HP
turbine by staggered operation of the main steam and
reheat control valves.
 By Specifying a staggered control valve operating
sequence in which the main steam control valve open
before the reheat control valves, the volumetric flow
through the HP turbine during no-load or low-load
operation is optimized so that unallowable heatup
due to windage can only occur under the most
unfavorable conditions e.g. if the pressure
downstream of the HP section is too high.
 Optimization of the volumetric flow through the HP
turbine by means of trimming device
During turbine operation at low volumetric flow, the
trimming device adjusts the staggered operating
sequence of the main steam and reheat control
valves on the basis of HP turbine exhaust steam
temperature, thus ensuring that the largest possible
volume of steam flows through the HP turbine.
 Proper observance of limit conditions for reheat
steam pressure
The steam pressure ration PMS / PRS as a function of
power ratio must not drop below that specified in
Data Sheet.
If the turbine generator unit at a volumetric flow
approaching zero e,g. during turbine generator shutdown prior to activation of the long-time reverse
power protection or during operation at overspeed for
overspeed trip testing, the maximum reheat steam
pressure PRS MAN specified in Data Sheet [1] must not
be exceeded.

5.2-0230-00/2

The limit conditions for reheat steam pressure can be


established on the basis of setpoint values for the
main steam and IP/LP bypass controllers.
Draining the HP turbine by opening the drain valves
in the case of low volumetric flow combined with high
reheat steam pressure, the HP turbine must be
drained by opening the valves in the drain lines
located downstream of the HP control valves, at the
turbine outer casing and upstream of the non return
valve(s) downstream of the HP turbine.
These drain valves are actuated on the basis of a
load signal (p<approx. 5%) or the opening signal of
the HP turbine dump valve, which can be installed as
an additional limiter.
If necessary, the drains sub loop control must be
switched immediately the MANUAL mode and the
drain valves must be opened using a remote manual
command.
Back fitting an HP turbine dump valve
If under unfavorable conditions the cross sections of
the drains compared to the volume of the space
constituted by the HP turbine and the HP
exhaust steam lines up to the non return valve (s) is
not a large enough to ensure sufficiently fast
drainage, the plant operator can arrange with the
turbine supplier for an HP turbine a dump valve to be
beck fitted (e.g. to reduce the time required for
pressure reduction).
Actions to be taken in the event of fault-induced
closure of the main steam stop and/or control valves
One particular fault which can arise occur during
power operation when the volumetric flow through the
HP turbine approaches zero as a result of faultinduced closure of the main steam stop and/or control
valves, but the turbine generator unit continues to
operate because the reheat control valves are still
open. In the event of such a fault, further operation of
the turbine generator unit is not allowed, and must be
stopped through remote manual initiation of a turbine
trip.
The occurrence of this type of fault is indicated by a
load surge, opening of the HP bypass station and an
increase in the HP exhaust steam temperature.
Actions to be taken in the event of backflow of steam
through the check valve(s) downstream of the HP
turbine. Blade windage can occure as a result of nonleak tightness or faulted operation of the check valve
(s) down stream of the HP turbine if pressure in the
reheated is high.
Non-leak tightness or faulted operationof1he check
valve(s) occurs if the steam pressure down steam of
the HP turbine cannot be reduced to less than the
reheat steam pressure down steam of the check
valve (s) must be subjected to regular checks for
freedom of movement and leak tigtness, in order to

prevent adverse effects in terms of blade windage.


 Actions to the taken in the event of a high steam
temperature downstream of the HP turbine
If blade windage occurs in the HP turbine, there will
be an increase in steam temperature at1he
measuring point down steam of the HP turbine.
The limit value of maximum allowable exhaust steam
temperature specified In the Technical Data must not
be exceeded.
After the alarm HP exhaust temperature high has
been issued the following actions must be
implemented immediately to prevent unallowable
heatup due to windage:

establish a steam pressure ratio P MJP AS which


lies above the characteristic curve specified in
Data Sheet (1)
reduce steam pressure in the HP turbine by
lowering the constant-pressure setpoint for the IP/
LP bypass control system
reduce the main steam temperature
if the generator is connected to the public power
system, increase the turbine load

Blade windage in IP turbines


 Causes
In the case of IP turbines, blade windage (which can
result in unallowable heatup of the blading) has a
number of causes, including excessively low.
volumetric flow across the balding.
 Actions
In the case of annunciation IP exhaust steam
temperature high is issued, or if the limit value for the
temperature downstream of the IP turbine specified
for prolonged operation (see Technical Data Sheet) is
exceeded, the load must be increased.

After the alarm LP casing temperature high has been


initiated the spray valve of the LP condensate injection
system must be opened, either automatically or
manually, in order to prevent unallowable heatup due to
windage.
Settings and Tests
Settings of the staggered operating sequences for
main steam & reheat steam control valves in
accordance with the relevant setting diagram.
 Settings of the settings for the staggered operation
of main steam & reheat steam control valves
following inspections and overhauls.


The control valve opening signals and lifts are


recorded as a function of a common opening signal
and the staggered operating sequence is checked
on the basis of the curve generated.


Blade windage in LP turbine


In case of the LP turbine, blade windage (which can
result in unallowable heatup of the blading and the
casing) is likewise caused by excessively low
volumetric flow across the blading.

Actions to be taken to prevent unallowable heatup


of LP turbine due to windage

The following actions can be implemented to prevent


the unallowable heatup due to windage:
 Increase the turbine load.
 Cooling by means of condensate injection.

Functional testing of trimming device for main steam


and rehat control valves after inspections and
overhauls on the basis of the C&I functional
diagrams.
On-line testing for freedom of movement of check
valve (s) downstream of HP turbine at six-weekly
intervals during turbine generator unit operation.
Interruption of the control medium supply result in a
closure command being issued. The check valve (s)
should leave the fully opened position.
Leak testing of the check valve (s) downstream of
the HP turbine during each shut down of the turbine
generator unit.
The leak tightness of the check valve (s)
downstream of the HP turbine must be checked
each time the turbine generator unit is shut down.
The check valve (s) must close during shut down
and, if the main steam stop valves are closed,
reclosure of the turbine drains must not result in an
increase in HP turbine steam pressure while there is
still positive steam pressure in the reheater.
Testing of a activation of long time reverse power
protection in conjunction with leak testing of turbine
control valves during each shut down of the turbine
generator unit.
The turbine controller is used to reduce the steam
turbine load so far that the turbine control valve
close and the generator then acts as motor, driving
the turbine. This reverse power operation causes the
reverse power protection to be activated, which
isolates the generator from the public power system
after a certain time delay has elapsed.

5.2-0230-00/3

Testing of activation of short time reverse power


protection during each shut down of the turbine
generator unit.


5.2-0230-00/4

Isolation of the generator from the public power


system after 4 seconds must be monitored and
recorded.
Testing and maintenance of protective device in the
event that a fault has resulted in a stricter
changeover in the protection circuit (annunciation:
protective device faulted).

Steam Turbine

Startup and Shutdown Diagrams

Operation

Introduction

The turbine-generator should be shutdown


according to operating instruction shown in the
shutdown diagrams.
If an emergency occurs, the turbine generator unit
may be rapidly unloaded and/or be shutdown by
operating the trip push-button or trip valve from any
operating condition.
During shutdown, all tests [1] for this must be
performed. In particular test the overspeed protection
by overspeeding after the recommended interval has
elapsed. This test may be performed when the turbine
is at operating temperature, particular attention is
drawn to this test in this context.
If work has to be performed immediately after
shutdown of the turbine on hot parts or if the turning
gear is to be shutdown, instruction for accelerated
cooling [2] must be followed.

BHEL Hardwar

We recommend accelerated cooling to reduce cool


down time when shutting down the turbine-generator
unit for preventive maintenance or repairs.
Short shutdowns should be used to perform minor
maintenance
unless
large-scale
preventive
maintenance programs or repairs are to be performed.
It is a good idea to have a list ready of those jobs that
can be done during short shutdowns.
Operational readiness should be maintained during
maintenance and testing programs and/or should be
established after their completion to enable speedy
restart of the turbine-generator unit.
During long periods of shutdown the turbine and
other components may be exposed to corrosive
attacks. So care must be taken to ensure all
components are protected against corrosion as
described in the specific instructions.

5.2-0300-00

Steam Turbine
Operation

(01)

Unloading and Shut-Down of


Turbine/Generator
Shut-Down Diagram (General)

TURBINE/GENERATOR

UNLOAD

REF. TO 5.2-0320

OR
+

FGA (TURBINE -CONTROL STANDSTILL)

(02)

START OF BYPASS OPERATION

OBSERVE

REF. TO 5.2-0320

(03)

GENERATOR BREAKER TO BE OPENED

OBSERVE

REF. TO 5.2-0320

REVERSE POWER PROTECTION

INITIATED

(04)

TEST PROGRAM (SHUTDOWN)

(05)

TURBINE TRIP

START

CARRY OUT

REF. TO 5.3.0060

INITIATE

REF. TO 5.2-0320

TURBINE TRIP

INITIATED

REF. TO 5.2-0320

OBSERVE

REF. TO 5.2-0320

START

REF. TO 5.2-0320

OR WITH FGA (TURBINE-CONTROL)


*+
(06)

START OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMP

(07)

TURNING GEAR OPERATION

SHAFT LIFT OIL SUPPLY SYSTEM

IN OPERATION

TURNING GEAR OIL SYSTEM

IN OPERATION

OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL

(08)

*+

SHAFT LIFT OIL PUMP

ON

*+

TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE

STEAM -GENERATOR

NOT IN SERVICE

BYPASS -OPERATION

COMPLETED

CONDENSING PLANT

SHUT DOWN

VACUUM PUMPS

SEAL -STEAM SUPPLY

SHUT -DOWN

CONDENSATE PUMPS

OFF

CIRCULATION WATER SUPPLY

OPEN

REF. TO 5.2-0330

OFF

NOT IN SERVICE
OBSERVE

(09)

CONTROL FLUID PUMPS

SHUT -DOWN

REF. TO 5.2-0320

(10)

OIL SYSTEM WITH FGA (OIL SUPPLY)

SHUT -DOWN

REF. TO 5.2-0340

OR
MANUAL OPERATION AT OPER. CONSOLE
+

SHAFT

OIL SYSTEM

BHEL Hardwar

STANDSTILL
NOT IN SERVICE

5.2-0310-01

(01)

(02)

Operation

Turbine/Generator
Shut-Down Diagram

OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS
LOAD CONTROLLER
LOAD GRADIENT
ADJUSTMENT ACCORDING TO
- REQUIREMENT OF LOAD DESPATCHER
- STEAM GENERATOR CONTROL
- THERMAL INFLUENCE ON TURBINE
+
BYPASS CONTROL
+ FIXED PRESSURE SET POINT BYPASS CONTROL
ADJUSTMENT IN AGREEMENT WITH
PRESSURE REQUIREMENTS - REHEAT PRESSURE DURING START-UP
AND SHUTDOWN
+
ELECTRO HYDRAULIC TURBINE CONTROL
+
BYPASS CONTROL
+
TSC -INFLUENCE
+
TURBINE STRESS CONTROLLER (TSC)
IF THE TSC IS FAULTED THE DIFFERENTIAL
TEMPERATURES AT THE MEASURING POINTS WHICH
REPRESENT THE ADDITIONAL THERMAL STRESSES
OF CASING AND ROTOR MUST BE EVALUATED.
REFER 5.2-0430 IF TSC ALLOWANCE IS REDUCED
+
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS
+
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS
+
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF JACKING OIL PUMPS
+
SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE
+
SUBLOOP CONTROL DRAINS
THE SUBLOOP CONTROLS MUST ALWAYS BE
SWITCHED ON DURING OPERATION
+
TURBINE/GENERATOR LOAD
IT IS ASSUMED THAT THE TURBINE/GENERATOR
WILL BE UNLOADED FROM ANY LOAD TO 0 LOAD
WITHOUT DELAY

+
+

(02/S) * +

(04) *

Unloading and Shut-Down of

+
+
+

(03)

Steam Turbine

+
*+

+
+

LOAD REFERENCE VALUE


LOAD TARGET VALUE
OR WITH FGA (TURBINE -CONTROL)
FGA (TURBINE -CONTROL STANDSTILL)
LOAD TARGET VALUE

LIMITED LOAD REFERENCE VALUE


THE LIMITED LOAD REFERENCE VALUE FOLLOWS
THE TARGET LOAD REFERENCE VALUE WITH THE
ADJUSTED LOAD GRADIENT. THE LOAD GRADIENT
WILL BE REDUCED IF REDUCTION OF TSC
ALLOWANCE OCCUR. THE TSC INFLUENCE WILL
BE EFFECTIVE VIA THE REFERENCE LIMITER.

*+

TURBINE/GENERATOR LOAD: STEAM GENERATOR LOAD


START OF BYPASS OPERATION
BYPASS VALVES OPEN IF LOAD OF STEAM
GENERATOR IS GREATER THAN
TURBINE/GENERATOR LOAD
BYPASS STOP VALVES

*+

BYPASS CONTROL VALVES

BHEL Hardwar

CHECK
ON
ADJUSTED

ON
...KG/CM2

NOT FAULTED
NOT FAULTED
ON
NOT FAULTED

ON
ON
ON
ON
ON

> 0 MW

LOWER
0 MW
START
0 MW
WAIT
LOWER

<1
OBSERVE

OPEN
OPEN

MAN41 AAO01
AND MAN51 AAO01
MAN42 AAOO2
AND MAN 52 AAOO2

5.2-0320-02/1

(05)

+
*+
+

*+
*+

WAIT
LIMITED LOAD REFERENCE VALUE
AUXILIARY POWER SUPPLY SECURED
CRITERION:
AFTER THE GENERATOR CIRCUIT BREAKER IS OPEN
THE UNIT AUX. POWER SUPPLY IS SECURED
OPERATION OF SWITCH GEARS MUST AGREE
WITH AUXILIARY POWER SUPPLY FACILITIES
TURBINE LOAD CONTROLLER
TURBINE SPEED CONTROLLER
AFTER A FIX SET MINIMUM LOAD IS REACHED
THE TURBINE CONTROLLER CHANGES OVER FROM
LOAD TO SPEED CONTROL

LOWER

LOWER

(06)

(06/S)

*+
+
*+

SPEED REFERENCE VALUE


OR WITH FGA (TURBINE -CONTROL)
SPEED REFERENCE VALUE
SPEED REFERENCE VALUE
MAIN STEAM CONTROL VALVES

*+

REHEAT CONTROL VALVES

*+
*+

REVERSE POWER PROTECTION


GENERATOR CIRCUIT BREAKER
MEASURES TO BE TAKEN ON FAILURE.
OF REVERSE POWER PROTECTION

OFF
ON

LOWER
< RATED SPEED
CLOSED
MAA 10 AAO02
AND MAA20 AAO02
CLOSED
MAB 10 AAOO2
AND MAB20 AAO02
INITIATED
OPEN
REF. TO 5.2-0410

(07)

TEST PROGRAM (SHUT DOWN I


TESTING INTERVALS
FGA PROGRAM

(08)

(08/S)

*+
+
*+
*+

TURBINE TRIP
OR WITH FGA
TURBINE TRIP
BEGIN OF COASTING DOWN TIME
TRIP FLUID PRESSURE
MAIN STEAM STOP VALVES

*+

REHEAT STOP VALVES

CLOSED

*+

MAIN STEAM CONTROL V ALVES

CLOSED

*+

REHEAT CONTROL VALVES

CLOSED

*+
*+

SWING CHECK VALVE COLD REHEAT


CLOSED
EXTRACTION NON RETURN VALVES
CLOSED
CODE NO. OF EXTRACTION NON RETURN VALVES
REFER TO SINGLE LINE DIAGRAMS
VACUUM BREAKER
OPEN
VACUUM BREAKER BRINGS VACUUM DOWN TO
O.2KG/CM2 ABS
VACUUM BREAKER CLOSED AT VACUUM
> 0.2 KG/CM2 ABS
IN CASE OF DANGER TO THE TURBINE/GENERATOR
THE VACUUM CAN BE REDUCED SO THAT COAST
P AMB
DOWN TIME WILL BE REDUCED ACCORDINGLY.
SPEED OF TURBINE/GENERATOR
< 3000 RPM

*+

*+
(09)

+
+

(09/s)

STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE


STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE
OR WITH FGA (TURBINE -CONTROL)
STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE

5.2-0320-02/2

CARRY OUT
OBSERVE
INTERRUPT

REF, TO 5.3-0060
REF. TO 5.2-0020

INITIATE
INITIATED
NOTE
0 KG/CM2
CLOSED

MAX51 CPO 13
MAA10 AAO01
AND MAA20 AAO01
MAB10 AAOO1
AND MAB20 AAO01
MAA 10 AAO02
AND MAA20 AAO02
MAB 1 0 AAO02
AND MAB20 AAO02
LBC10 AAO01

MAG10 AAO01

LOWER
0%

MAX47BYO01
MAX47BYO01

0%

MAX47BYO01

(10)

+
+

DE-EXCITATION BREAKER
DE-EXCIT A TION BREAKER

(11)

+
+
+

VACUUM BREAKER
VACUUM
VACUUM BREAKER

(12)

+
+

SPEED REFERENCE VALUE


SPEED REFERENCE VALUE

(13)

+
+

WARM-UP CONTROL (SEAL STEAM)


WARM-UP CONTROL (SEAL STEAM)

(14)

DRAIN UPSTREAM OF MAIN STEAM CONTROL VALVES


OR WITH FGA
DRAIN UPSTREAM OF MAIN STEAM CONTROL VALVES

(15)

START OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMP


OR
START OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMP
OIL PRESSURE
AUX. OIL PUMP BY SUBLOOP CONTROL
OR
OIL PRESSURE
AND
AUXILIARY OIL PUMP
AUX. OIL PUMP BY SUBLOOP CONTROL
OR
LUBE OIL PRESSURE
AND
AUXILIARY OIL PUMP

*+
+
+

EMERGENCY OIL PUMP BY SUBLOOP CONTROL


OIL TEMPERATURE CONTROL VALVE
OIL TEMPERATURE CONTROL VALVE

+
+

SPEED OF TURBINE/GENERATOR
JACKING OIL PUMP

*+

+
+
+
+
+
*+
+

(16)

*+
*+
+

OPEN
OPEN
CHECK
> 0.2 KG/CM2 ABS
CLOSED
LOWER
0%
SWITCH CONTROL
OFF
OPEN
OPEN

MAL11 AA011
AND MAL12 AAO 11
MAL 11 AA011
AND MAL12 AA011

OBSERVE

MAV22 APO01

OBSERVE
< 4.8 KG/CM2
ON

MAV24 APO01
MAV21 CPO01
MAV22 APO01

< 4.5 KG/CM2

MAV21 CPO01

NOT ON
ON

MAV22 APO01
MAV23 APO01

< 1.2 KG/CM2


NOT ON
ON
CLOSE
CLOSED

MA V42 CPO 14
MAV22 APO01
AND MAV23 APO01
MAV24 APO01
MAV41 AAO01
MAV41 AAO01

< 510 RPM


SWITCH ON

MAV31 AP001

JACKING OIL PUMP

ON

MAV31 AP001

OR BY SURLOOP CONTROL JACKING OIL PUMP


JACKING OIL PUMP

ON

MAV31 AP001

JACKING OIL PRESSURE IN HEADER


> 100 KG/CM2
OR
JACKING OIL PRESSURE IN HEADER
< 100 KG/CM2
STAND BY JACKING OIL PUMP BY SUBLOOP CONTROL
ON
OR
STAND BY JACKING OIL PUMP BY SUBLOOP CONTROL
ON
ON FAILURE OF AC POWER
END OF COASTING DOWN TIME
NOTE
THE MEASUREMENT OF COASTING DOWN TIME
WILL GIVE VALUABLE INFORMATION ABOUT
INTERNAL CONDITIONS OF THE TURBINE, ESPECIALLY
WHEN SHUTDOWN OCCURS DUE TO DANGER

MAV35 CP012
MAV35 CP012

MAV33 AP001

5.2-0320-02/3

(17)

+
+
+
*+

(18)

+
+

+
+

+
*+

(19)

+
+
+
+
+

SPEED OF TURBINE/GENERATOR
TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE
TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE
OR BY SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR
TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE

DRAIN VALVES
DRAIN HP OUTER CASING
CRITERION:
TEMPERATURE HP OUTER CASING MIDDLE TOP
OR TURBINE LOAD
DRAIN AHEAD OF CRH SWING CHECK VALVE
CRITERION: CRH NRV CLOSED
DRAIN UPSTREAM OF EXTRACTION VALVES
DESIGNATION OF DRAIN VALVES ACCORDING
TO SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM.
CRITERION: EXTRACTION CHECK VALVES
DRAIN SEAL STEAM HEADER
CRITERION: TEMPERATURE IN SEAL STEAM HEADER
OR WITH SUBLOOP CONTROL
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF DRAINS
DRAIN VALVES BY SUBLOOP CONTROL
CRJTERION : REFER TO MANUAL OPERATION

MODE OF OPERATION STEAM GENERATOR


AND
MODE OF OPERATION BYPASS CONTROLS
AND
MODE OF OPERATION CONDENSING PLANT
STEAM GENERATOR
BYPASS OPERATION
CRITERION:
BYPASS STOP VALVES
BYPASS CONTROL VALVES
THE BYPASS OPERATION IS COMPLETED IF THE
REHEATER OF THE STEAM GENERATOR IS
DEPRESSURIZED. THE REHEATER WILL BE
DEPRESSURIZED BY LEADING THE STEAM INTO
THE CONDENSER OR BY OPENING THE EXTERNAL
REHEATER DRAIN VALVES. THE BYPASS VALVE
WILL BE USED TO LEAD THE STEAM TO THE
CONDENSER. THE FIXED PRESSURE SET POINT
HAS TO BE LOWERED.
CONDENSING PLANT
VACUUM PUMPS
CONDENSATE PUMP
NOTE
IF THE CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM WILL BE SHUT
DOWN WITHOUT SHUTTING DOWN THE
CONDENSATE PUMP THE BYPASS SPRAY
WATER VALVES WILL OPEN.
SEAL STEAM PRESSURE
SEAL STEAM CONTROLLER
SEAL STEAM SUPPLY VALVE
FAN OF SEAL STEAM CONDENSER

5.2-0320-02/4

< 210 RPM


OPEN
OPEN

MAV51 AAOO1
MAV51 AAOO1

OPEN

MAV51 AAO01

OPEN
OPEN

MAL22 AA011

< 300 C
<2%
OPEN

MAL65 AA011

OPEN

CLOSED
OPEN
< 120 C

MAL81 AA011

NOT FAULTED
OPEN

CHECK
CHECK
CHECK
NOT IN SERVICE
COMPLETED
CLOSED
CLOSED

NOT IN SERVICE REF. TO 5.2-0330


OFF
OFF

ON
OR OFF
P AMB
OFF
CLOSED
OFF

REF. TO 5.2-0330

MAW11 AAO01
MAW80 ANOO1
AND MA W80 ANOO2

(20)

+
+
+

TEST PROGRAM (STANDSTILL)


CONTROL FLUID SUPPLIED DEVICES
CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM MANUAL OPERATION
OR WITH FGA (CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM)
FGA (CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM STANDSTILD
OPERATION OF PUSH BUTTONS
REFER TO THE MANUAL FOR FGA.

COMPLETED
NOT IN SERVICE
SHUTDOWN

+
+
+

SUBLOOP CONTROL HP .CONTROL FLUID PUMP


SUBLOOP CONTROL HP -CONTROL FLUID PUMP
HP -CONTROL FLUID PUMP

SWITCH OFF
OFF
OFF

*+
*+

OR WITH FGA (CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM)


SUBLOOP CONTROL HP -CONTROL FLUID PUMP
HP -CONTROL FLUID PUMP

OFF
OFF

(21)

(21/S)
(21/S)

NEUTRALIZATION NO. NORMAL


NEUTRALIZATION NO. DOES NOT
TEND TO INCREASE
CF -RECONDITIONING PUMP
CF -RECONDITIONING PUMP
OR WITH FGA (CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM)

START

(22)

+
+

(22/S)

*+

CF -RECONDITIONING PUMP

(23)

+
+

TEMPERATURE IN CONTROL FLUID TANK


< 50 C
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF CONTROL FLUID HEATER
SWITCH OFF
FLUID HEATER
SWITCH OFF SUBLOOP CONTROL OF CONTROL
FLUID HEA TEA ONLY IF THE CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM
MUST NOT BE OPERATED FOR AN EXTENDED PERIOD ~
OF TIME AND/OR THERE IS SUFFICIENT TIME TO C
HEAT-UP THE CONTROL FLUID IN THE TANK PRIOR
TO RESTART.

MAX16 AP001
OR MAX16 AP002

MAX 16 AP001
AND MAX 16 AP002

SWITCH OFF
OFF

MAX91 APOO1
MAX 91 APOO1

OFF

MAX91 APOO1

MAX11 CTO01

5.2-0320-02/5

Steam Turbine

Condensing Plant

Operation

Shutdown Diagram

(1)

CRITERIA FOR SHUT DOWN


+
STEAM GENERATOR
+
BY PASS OPERATION
+
HP BYPASS VALVES
+
EXTERNAL DRAINS OF STEAM LINES
BEFORE THE CONDENSING PLANT Will BE SHUT
DOWN ALL. ADMISSION STEAM SYSTEM HAVE
TO BE DEPRESSURIZED.

(2)

CHECK
NOT IN SERVICE
COMPLETED
CLOSED
OPEN

+
+

CRITERIA FOR BEGIN OF SHUT DOWN


IF THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA ARE FILLED
THE SYSTEM Will BE SHUT DOWN FROM OPERATION
AIR SUCTION VALVE OF VACUUM PUMPS
SERVICE VACUUM PUMP
VACUUM BREAKER
SEAL STEAM CONTROL
AND
SEAL STEAM SUPPLY VALVE
SEAL STEAM EXHAUST FAN

+
+
+
+

CONDENSATE SYSTEM
CIRCULATING WATER OF CONDENSER
VACUUM BREAKER
WARM-UP CONTROL (SEAL STEAM)

+
+

CONSENSING PLANT MANUAL OPERATION


OR WITH FGA (CONDENSING PLANT)
FGA (CONDENSING PLANT STANDSTILL)
FOR OPERATION OF PUSH BUTTONS REFER TO
MANUAL FOR THE FGA

(4)

+
+

AIR SUCTION VALVE VACUUM PUMP


AIR SUCTION VALVE VACUUM PUMP

(5)

+
+

VACUUM PUMPS
VACUUM PUMPS
THE VACUUM PUMPS DO NOT BELONG TO THE
SCOPE OF SUPPLY OF THE TURBINE/GENERATOR
OPERATION OF VACUUM PUMPS AND VALVES
ACCORDING TO SPECIAL INSTRUCTION.

SWITCH OFF
OFF

(6)

+
+

VACUUM BREAKER
VACUUM BREAKER
OR WITH FGA, SUBGROUPS (SEAL STEAM SUPPLY
STANDSTILL)

OPEN
OPEN

MAG10 AAO01
MAG10 AAO01

(06/S)

*+

VACUUM BREAKER

OPEN

MAG10 AAO01

+
+
+
+

(3)

BHEL Hardwar

CHECK

OPEN
ON
CLOSED
ON
OPEN
ON

MAW11 AAO01
MAW80 ANO01
ORMAW80 AN02

IN OPERATION
AVALABLE
OPEN
ON

SHUT DOWN
START

CLOSE
CLOSED

5.2-0330-01/1

+
+

(07/S)

*+

(07/S)

*+

VACUUM
SEAL STEAM CONTROL
AND
SEAL STEAM SUPPLY VALVE
SEAL STEAM CONTROL
AND
SEAL STEAM SUPPLY VALVE
OR WITH FGA, SUBGROUP (SEAL STEAM SUPPLY
STANDSTILL)
SEAL STEAM CONTROL
AND
SEAL STEAM SUPPLY VALVE

(08)

SEAL STEAM EXHAUST FAN

SWITCH OFF

SEAL STEAM EXHAUST FAN

OFF

(08/S)

*+

OR WITH FGA, SUBGROUP (SEAL STEAM SUPPLY


STANDSTILL)
SEAL STEAM EXHAUST FAN

(9)

+
+

CONDENSATE SYSTEM
CONDENSTATE SYSTEM
THE CONDENSATE SYSTEM DOES NOT
BELONG TO THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY (TURBINEGENERATOR). SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR
-CONDENSATE PUMPS
-CONDENSER LEVEL CONTROL
-MINIMUM FLOW CONTROL
-HEATERS
MUST AGREE WITH TURBINE OPERATION AND
HAVE TO BE FOLLOWED.
THE CONDENSATE SYSTEM CAN ALSO BE
SHUT DOWN AFTER STEP (12) IS CARRIED OUT.

SHUT DOWN
NOT IN SERVICE

(10)

+
+

CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM


CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM
CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM DOES NOT
BELONG TO THE SCOPE OF SUPPLY (TURBINE
GENERATOR).
THE CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM SHOULD STAY
IN OPERATION DURING SHORT DOWNS TO
AVOID CORROSION OF THE CONDENSER TUBES,
THE CIRCULATING WATERSYSTEM CANE SHUT
DOWN AFTER STEP (12) IS CARRIED OUT.

SHUT DOWN
NOT IN SERVICE

(11)

+
+

(11/S)

*+

VACUUM BREAKER
VACUUM BREAKER
OR WITH FGA (SEAL STEAM SUPPLY STANDSTILL)
VACUUM BREAKER

(12)

+
+

(12/S)

+*

+
+
+

WARM-UP CONTROL (SEAL STEAM)


WARM-UP CONTROL (SEAL STEAM)
OR WITH FGA (SEAL STEAM)
WARM-UP CONTROL (SEAL STEAM)

5.2-0330-01/2

> 0.8KG/CM2
SWITCH OFF
CLOSE
OFF

MAW11AAO01

CLOSED

MAW11 AAO01

OFF
CLOSED

MAW11 AAO01

MAW80 ANO01
ORMAW80 AN02
MAW80 ANO01
AND MAW80 ANOO2

OFF
AND

MAW80 ANO01
MAW80 ANOO2

CLOSE
CLOSED

MAG10 AAOO1
MAG10 AAO01

CLOSED

MAG10 AAO01

SWITCH OFF
OFF
OFF

(01)

(02)

Operation

Shutdown Diagram

CRITERIA FOR STANDSTILL


CASING TEMPERATURE
BEFORE THE TURBINE GEAR IS STOPPED, SHAFTS
AND CASING MUST COQL DOWN TO 100 C TO
PREVENT SHAFT DISTORTION DURING STANDSTILL
PERIOD FOLLOWING TURNING GEAR OPERATION.
THE TURNING GEAR MUST BE STOPPED IF ABOVE
TEMPERATURES ARE REACHED, EXCEPT IN CASES
WHERE EXTENDED TURNING GEAR OPERATION IS
REQUIRED e.g. IF THE TURBINE IS TO BE STARTED
IN SHORT TIME.

CHECK
< 100 C

CRITERIA FOR BEGIN OF SHUT DOWN


IF THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA ARE FULFILLED
THE SYSTEM WILL BE SHUT DOWN FROM
TURNING GEAR OPERATION.
SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR
AND
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS
AND
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS
AND
AVXILIARY OIL PUMP

CHECK

+
+
+
+
+
+

(04)

Oil System

+
+

(03)

Steam Turbine

+
+
+
+

(04/S)

*+

(05)

WAITING TIME FOR COOLING DOWN (K4)


SUBLOOP CONTROL OF JACKING OIL PUMPS
AND
JACKING OIL PUMP

FGA (OIL SUPPLY STANDSTILL)


FOR OPERATION OF PUSH BUTTONS REFER
TO MANUAL FOR FGA.
OR
TURNING GEAR MANUALLY OPERATED

SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR


AND
TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE
SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR
AND
TURNING GEAR OIL VALVE
OR WITH FGA (OIL SUPPLY)
SUBLOOP CONTROL TURNING GEAR

MAA50 CT053A
AND MAA50 CT054A

ON
ON
ON
ON

MAV22 APOOl
OR MAV23 APOOl

EXPIRED
ON
ON

MAV31 APOOl
OR MAV32 APO01

SHUTDOWN

SWITCH OFF
CLOSE
OFF

MAV51 AAO01

CLOSED

MAV51 AAOO1

OFF

MAV51AA012

WAIT
THE WAITING TIME IS EXPIRED WHEN THE
SHAFT COMES TO A COMPLETE STOP.
SHAFT

BHEL Hardwar

STAND STILL

5.2-0340-01/1

06)

+
+
+
+
+
+

*+

*+

AND
EMERCJENCY OIL PUMP

*+
*+

(07)

SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS


AND
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS
AND
AUXILIARY OIL. PUMP
AND
EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS
OR WITH FGA (OIL SUPPLY)
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS
AND
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS
AND
AUXILIARY OIL PUMP

+
(06/S)

SUBLOOP CONTROL OF AUXILIARY OIL PUMPS


AND
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF EMERGENCY OIL PUMPS
AND
AUXILIARY OIL PUMP

SWITCH OFF
SWITCH OFF
SWITCH OFF

MAV22 APO01
OR MAV23 APOOl

OFF
OFF
OFF

MAV22 APO01
AND MAV23 APO01

OFF

MAV24 APO01

OFF
OFF
OFF

MAV22 APOOl
AND MAV23 APO01

OFF

MAV24 APO01

WAIT
WAIT FOR SHUTDOWN OF JACKING OIL PUMP UNTIL
THE RELATIVE EXPANSIONS ARE REDUCED AND NO
FURTHER MAJOR AXIAL SHIFTING OF THE JOURNALS
IN THE BEARINGS IS EXPECTED.

(08)

+
+
+
+

(08/S)

*+
*+

SUBLOOP CONTROL OF JACKING OIL PUMP


AND
JACKING OIL PUMP
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF JACKING OIL PUMP
AND
JACKING OIL PUMP
OR WITH FGA (OIL SUPPLY)
SUBLOOP CONTROL OF JACKING OIL PUMP
AND
JACKING OIL PUMP

5.2-0340-01/2

SWITCH OFF
SWITCH OFF

MAV31 APOOl
OR MAV32 APO01

OFF
OFF

MAV31 APO01
AND MAV32 APO01

OFF
OFF

MAV31 APO01
AND MAV32 APO01

Steam Turbine
Operation
Introduction
If service activities or repairs have to be carried out
very soon or immediately after shut down of the
turbine, it is advisable to reduce the cooling down time.
Fast cooling down is necessary especially if activities
are to be executed at turbine parts, which are exposed
to high operational temperatures.

Fast Cooling Down of the Turbine

Fast cooling down during stand still


During stand still air will be sucked through the
turbine by the vacuum pumps resulting in fast cooling
of casing and rotor.

Cooling down of the turbine during operation

Arrangement of the air Inlet sockets

The cooling down of the turbine is to be started


during load operation as follows:

HP turbine: Between main steam stop valves and


control valves.

 Reduce unit power output to the boiler minimum

IP turbine: At the admission pipes between control


valves and IP turbine,

load.
 Slowly reduce admission temperatures to values,

which can be maintained steady by boiler control.


The HP exhaust temperature may not be reduced to
the saturation point corresponding to the HP exhaust
pressure.
 Observe the TSE/TSC lower margin.

NOTE: Do not reduce load and temperature at


the same time because of the danger to exceed the
permissible relative expansion and the lower
margin of the TSE/TSC
Load or temperature reduction have to be stopped
or the rate of change to be reduced depending upon
the limiting values of relative expansion and the lower
margins of the TSE/TSC.
 Operate the turbine with reduced load and steam

temperatures until the lower margin of TSE/TSC do


not change significantly any more.


During normal operation the air inlet sockets are


closed by blank flanges.
Procedure


Open air inlet sockets

Set test valve of all stop valves in the position stop


valve closed.

Operate vacuum pumps

Observe TSE/TSC lower margin and stop vacuum


pumps if limit values are exceeded.

The fast cooling down of turbine has to be


limited to those cases where this measure is
unavoidable with respect to the availability of the
turbine.

Shutdown the turbine in accordance with the


respective instructions after cooling down during
bypass operation has been completed.

BHEL Hardwar

5.2-0350-01

Steam Turbine
Maintenance
Introduction
If a turbine stands idle for a long period it is liable to
corrosion attack which if not prevented by appropriate
means, will cause deterioration of the components.
During long idle periods when the turbine has
cooled to the ambient temperatures, all components
which come into contact with steam vapour, water or
damp air are liable to corrosion attack.
The Effect of Corrosion


Seizure of sliding components due to increased


volume of the products of corrosion,

Heavier wear of corrosion-damaged surfaces,

erosion of material reducing sections and producing


notch effects which weaken the components.

Leaks at valve and fittings,

fouling of the systems which spreads the corrosion


to other areas.

Preventing Corrosion
in Idle Turbines
the condensation produced when the temperature
within the turbine falls below point ( this is the
principal source of the water).
Fig.1 shows the effect of relative humidity on rusting
loss (VA) for a sample of carbon steel.
The rusting loss increase sharply when the relative
humidity is high therefore, to inhabit corrosion attack in
an idle turbine, the relative humidity of the enclosed air
should be maintain below 50% as far as possible.
FIg. 1 Enect of Relative Humidity on Hustling Loss
Vr


Preventing Corrosion During Idle Periods


If complete effectiveness of the following method of

Factors Contributing to Corrosion


Chamically corrosive gases and vapours are
seldom encountered in normal power stations in
sufficiently high concentrations to cause damage.
However, if a turbine is installed in or near a chemical
plant it would be possible for such gases and vapours
to increase the amount of corrosion.
On the other hand, water-which is responsible for a
high proportion of all corrosion -is found in all turbines
which have cooled down and been idle for some time.
The water originates from:


Residual water in inadequately drained spaces

steam leaking into the turbine and condensing

The turbine itself and its connecting pipe work must


be well drained through out the idle period. It is also
advisable to drain the condensate from the condenser.
There are basically two possible methods of
preventing corrosion attack caused by condensation
from the air inside the turbine:


corrosion prevention is to be achieved, it is essential


for no steam at all to enter the turbine while it is idle.
Any auxiliary steam lines which will remain under
steam pressure during a complete unit shut-down must
be isolated in a manner which ensures that no steam
can
enter
the
turbine.


The high relative humidity air inside the turbine can


be exchanged for dry air.

For large turbines, therefore, a method of


prevention is recommended employing an Air dryer to
exchange the high relative humidity air in the turbine
for dry air.

The turbine components can be heated by means of


a hot air blower to a temperature above that of the
outside air.

BHEL Hardwar

5.2-0360-00/1

Filtered air from the atmosphere is drawn into the


Air dryer by a fan and moisture is removed from it In a
rotating drying wheel before it is delivered to the
turbine. The dying wheel which has absorbed the
moisture is dried by a reverse flow of hot air in the
regenerating sector which is separate from absorption
sector.
There will an obvious drop in the relative humidity
only a few hours after switching on the Air dryer. It

Operation of the air -dryer must be executed in


accordance with the instructions of the dryermanufacturer.
The air dryer does not belong to the scope of supply

must be operated continuously while the turbine is idle.


The dryers relatively low power consumption does not
involve any great cost.
The filter of the Air dryer must be clean from time to
time depending on the dust content in the air supply. It
is inadvisable to operate the air dryer without the filter
because of the danger of blockage in the fine tubular
ducts of the absorption wheel. Two air dryers are
needed.
Figure 3 shows the interconnection between airdryers and turbine.
The wet air escapes at the drains behind HP
Turbine at flanges between IP valves and IP casing
and the lowest point of the condensers.
Main steam control valves have to be opened and
blocked in this position.

5.2-0360-00/2

of BHEL.

Preservation of the Oil System


The turbine oil contains corrosion inhibitors
therefore it is unnecessary to adopt any special
measures to preserve oil carrying components except
to operate one of the auxiliary oil pumps for an hour at
intervals of two to three weeks.

Steam Turbine
Operation

The scope and content of the trouble


shooting instructions are limited to criteria or
measures that can be performed by the
control panel operator or the turbine
operator without specialized help and avert
events detrimental to the operation and
availability of the turbine generator unit.

Fault Tracing
Introduction

In the instruction Serious Faults [1], the


remedial measures are indicated against the
faults that could have severe consequences.
The operating staff must be trained to take
proper action should such fault occur.

Also refer to the following sections:


[1] 5.2-0410 : Serious Faults

BHEL Haridwar

5.2-0400-00

Steam Turbine
Operation

Serious Faults
Fault Tracing

Introduction
Many operating faults require the monitoring
staff to take immediate appropriate action if
serious reductions in the availability,
operating reliability and service life of the
turbine are to be averted.
The following criteria and instruction must be
included in the intensive schooling and
training program for the monitoring staff.

Fault
 Other symptoms

Many of the criteria refer not only extreme


conditions requiring immediate action but
also to the trends of the process transients,
which must also be taken into consideration.
The turbine is in danger not only when the
specified limits of a process parameter are
reached but also when the process
parameter deviates markedly or rapidly from
the normal values otherwise observed.

Cause

Remedy

Breaker opens as a result of


an internal or external fault.

Control valves and extraction


valves closed by the turbine
governor to stop the steam
flow through the turbine.

Load rejection


Turbine generator remains


in operation after short
time rise in speed.

Manual intervention is not


possible as automatic shut
down is too fast.


Excess steam from steam


generator is dumped to the
condenser through the
bypass valves.

Prolonged operation at
rated speed with or without
residual load.

Normal procedure

Reduce steam generator to


minimum output immediately, if
this is not done automatically
by the unit control.
Operation
indefinitely.

may

continue

Limits specified in 5.1-0101


must not be exceeded.
Set reference speed setter to
rated speed.
Reduce
main
steam
temperature or load turbine if
HP turbine exhaust steam
temperature approaches to
limits.
General rule: determine cause
of shut-down. Synchronize
generator if permitted by
results of fault tracing.

Load rejection with turbine


trip


Turbine speed reaches trip


speed of overspeed trip.

BHEL Haridwar

Beaker opens as a result of an


internal or external fault.

See also Turbine Trip.


Refer 5.2-0450.

5.2-0410-00/1

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Adverse condition during load


rejection

Investigate conditions, e.g.


load and speed prior to load
rejection.

Control malfunction

Check control
malfunction.

and

attend

Turbine trip


Stop and control valves and


extraction valves close.

Turbine trip by protective


devices

Generator disconnected from


system by reverse power
protection relay.
Speed drops;
Auxiliary oil pump cuts in due
to loss of pressure as speed
drops, turning gear operation
commences.


Reduce condenser vacuum to


shorten coast down.

Turbine-generator unit in
imminent danger

Open vacuum beaker

Stop air extraction

Allow air to condenser


plant.

Reduce steam generator to


minimum output immediately if
this is not done automatically
by the unit control.

Excess steam from steam


generator is dumped to the
condenser through the
bypass valves

General rule: determine cause


of trip. See also 5.2-0450.

5.2-0410-00/2

Overspeed after load rejection.

See load rejection with turbine


trip.

Shaft displacement in thrust


bearing due to damage to
bearing.

Inspect thrust bearing and, if


necessary, repair, see also
5.2-0421. Refer to fault tracing
instructions and eliminate fault.

Condenser vacuum reduced


due to fault in condenser plant.

Refer to relevant fault tracing


instructions and eliminate fault.

Remote trip by protective


devices in steam supply
system, turbine or generator.

Refer to relevant fault tracing


instructions and eliminate fault.

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Suspected that steam is still


entering the turbine.

Attention: do not open


generator breaker manually
(danger
of
impermissible
overspeed).

Reverse power protection


relay fails to open generator
breaker


Turbine control valves


closed by control as load
removed

Check position of control and


extraction valves (Desired
position: 0%).
Trip turbine.
Observe closing of stop
valves, check steam pressure
in turbine, check output
display, reduce condenser
vacuum:

Open vacuum breaker

Stop air extraction from


condenser plant

Allow
air
to
condenser plant

enter

Open turbine drains


Open drains between stop and
control valves
Shut down steam generator;
reduce steam pressure in
steam supply lines.
Fault
in
reverse
protection relay

power

If reverse power protection


relay is not actuated by all or
some of the above mentioned
measures, it is very probable
that there is a fault in the
reverse power protection relay.
In this case, disconnect the
generator from the supply
system
by
opening
the
breaker.

The following parameters


exceed
the
permissible
limits even though remedial
measures have been taken
as prescribed in the relevant
fault tracing instructions


Vibration high

Use load limiting device to


reduce
load
on
turbine
generator unit from any
operating mode to no-load
and/or shut-down unit by
actuating main trip valve.
See 5.2-0420

Reduce condenser vacuum to


shorten coast down.

5.2-0410-00/3

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Casing
differential
temperatures high

See 5.2-0423

Bearing
temperatures high

See 5.2-0421

Temperature differences
between parallel steam
supply lines high

Note: The decision whether


the load limiting device should
be used to further reduce load
before the main trip valve is
actuated will depend both on
the seriousness of the danger
and on the amount by which
the limits are exceeded.

Rapid, large drop in inlet


stream temperature

Condensate
level
condenser very high

metal

in

The following parameters


exceed
the
permissible
limits


Inlet steam pressure high,


pressures and duration of
exposure to excessive
pressures
limited
as
specified in 5.1-0100.

Steam generator output too


high

Reduce
steam
generator
output or increase turbine load

Inlet steam temperatures


high. Temperatures and
duration of exposure to
excessive
temperature
limited is specified in
5.1-0100.

Fault in steam generator

Change
steam
generator
operation, eliminate fault if
necessary.

Steam pressure upstream


of blading and/or extraction
steam
pressure
high.
Pressures and duration of
exposure to excessive
pressure
limited
as
specified in 5.1-0100.

Load too high

Reduce turbine load

Irregularities in the turbine e.g.


blade choking.

Measure stage pressures and


compare with normal values
under
identical
operating
conditions.

Measure internal efficiency.


Reduce
main
temperature
or
turbine load.

HP exhaust temperature
high during no-load or low
load operation.

steam
increase

If these measure do not


reduce
the
temperature,
initiate turbine trip.


LP
turbine
exhaust
temperature high during no
load or low load operation.

Ventilation
blading.

Bypass
stream
temperature high during
bypass operation

Condenser vacuum low.


Injection water pressure too
low. Bypass steam flow rate
too high.

5.2-0410-00/4

heating

through

Start injection into LP turbine


or increase load.
Check condensate pumps.
Reduce
steam
generator
output.

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Fault in valve or turbine tester.

The turbine plant may be


operated with defective valve
for max.1 week.

Control valve or stop valve


fails to open again after
testing
with
automatic
turbine tester


All
measures
as
prescribed in 5.2-0455 fail.

If necessary, the output must


be reduced so that the limits
as prescribed in 5.1-0100 are
not exceeded.
Drain steam line upstream and
downstream of defective valve
thoroughly.
Observe limits for temperature
difference between parallel
steam supply lines.
Shaft assembly runs down
without lubricating oil


Fault in auxiliary and


emergency oil pumps.
Jacking oil pumps in
operation

Check
bearing
metal
temperatures, if impermissibly
high, inspect bearings.

Fault
in
pump(s).

oil

Danger of bearing whipping.


Check
bearing
metal
temperatures. Check bearings.

Fire or fire hazard during


operation

Set off fire alarm. Follow fire


protection
rules.
if
necessary,
initiate
fire
fighting measures.

jacking

At the same time:




Escape of control fluid

Leakage in piping or other


turbine components

Press
fire
pushbutton 1

protection

or
Switch off sub-loop control for
the
control
fluid
pumps
immediately and shut-down
(operating)
pump
(result:
turbine generator unit trips).


Escape of oil from the


lubricating oil system

Leakage in piping or other


turbine components

Press
fire
protection
pushbutton 2 (pressing fire
protection
pushbutton
2
automatically
initiate
fire
protection 1 measures), result:
turbine generator unit trips.

5.2-0410-00/5

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy
or
Shut down turbine generator
unit. Depressurize control fluid
system (measures as above).
Switch off sub loop control for
jacking oil pumps.
Start up jacking oil pumps.
Switch off subloop control for
auxiliary
oil
pump.
If
necessary, shut down auxiliary
oil pump(s). Check to ensure
that subloop control cuts-in
emergency oil pump as oil
pressure drops. Close turning
gear
oil
valve.
Reduce
condenser vacuum to shorten
coast down.

Shaft comes to a standstill


when
fire
protection
measures are initiated

Open vacuum breaker

Stop air extraction from


condenser plant

Allow
air
to
condenser plant

enter

Shut down DC lubricating oil


pump. Keep jacking oil pump
in operation if no leakage from
the jacking oil system.
Turn shaft through 180 degree
at intervals of approx. 10
minutes. For treatment of
turbine
after
complete
standstill shaft see 5.2-0460.
Eliminate leak and perform
hydrostatic pressure test.
Acknowledge initiation of fire
protection measures.
Restart lubricating and control
fluid system.
Commence
operation.

turning

gear

Replace insulating materials


soaked with escaped fluid.
Start up turbine generator unit.

5.2-0410-00/6

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Fire or fire hazard during


turning gear operation

Remedy
Set off fire alarm.
Follow fire protection rules.
If necessary, initiate
fighting measures.

fire

Escape of control fluid

Leakage in piping or other


turbine components

Measures as for fire or fire


hazard during operation.

Escape of oil from the


lubricating oil system

Leakage in piping or other


turbine components

Jacking oil pump stays in


operation.
Close turning gear oil valve.
Switch off sub-loop control for
auxiliary oil pumps.
Shut down auxiliary oil pumps.
Check to ensure that, sub-loop
control cuts in the lubricating
oil pumps as oil pressure
drops. For further measures
see: Fire or fire hazard during
operation.

Escape of oil from the


jacking oil system

Leakage in piping or other


turbine components

Shut down jacking oil pump


(risk of bearing damage is
minor if turning gear stays in
operation).
Isolate and eliminate leak.
Start up jacking oil pump.

Lubricating or control fluid


loss annunciated by level
monitoring circuit


Separate
control
fluid
system
Alarm: fluid level low or very
low (2-out-of-3)

The system must be checked


immediately for leakage if this
alarm is generated in rapid
succession. A leak must be
assumed and appropriate fire
protection measures taken.

 Oil system
Alarm: oil level low

The system must be checked


immediately for leakage if this
alarm is generated.

 Oil system
Turbine trip due to oil level
very low (2-out-of-3)

Fire
protection
measures
initiated automatically.
Note: The trip system is
inoperative during turning gear
operation.

5.2-0410-00/7

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Escape of steam

Leakage in piping or other


turbine components

Isolate steam leakage area


immediately and depressurize
system concerned, if possible.
If there is a rupture hazard
(pre-rupture leak), shut down
turbine
generator
unit
immediately.
Carefully consider risk of
erosion at sealing surfaces
and decide on time of shut
down.

Earthquake

Unload and shut down turbine


generator unit rapidly.
Observe response on bearing
and shaft vibrations.
If necessary, check bearings
and alignment.
Check valve supports.
Check pipe hangers and tank
supports.

5.2-0410-00/8

Steam Turbine
Operation

Vibration
Fault Tracing

Despite all design, manufacturing and


erection measures to prevent it, excessive
vibration can occur and because the various
kinds of vibrations are intermingled, the
reasons for it are difficult to isolate.

manufacturer to determine its cause and


effective measures to be taken to combat it.

If excessive vibration occurs, it is necessary


to carryout extensive tests together with the

The following
data
refers
to
the
characteristics, causes and remedial actions
pertaining to some typical type of vibration.

Fault
 Other symptoms

So, it is difficult to give a complete list of


possible causes and proper corrective action
to be taken, in this instruction.

Cause

Remedy

Suspected
damage,
e.g.
broken blades or metal to
metal rubbing

Caution:
stop
turbine
immediately
even
when
accuracy
of
reading
is
doubtful.

Casing
wall
temperature,
because of rapid temperature
changes.

Clearances
eliminated
casing distortion.

by

Check
whether
increased
vibration is maintained after
load is reduce and when
coasting down.

Casing top-bottom differential


temperatures.

Clearance
eliminated
casing distortion.

by

Measure the time taken to


coast down; listen for noises
during this period.

Bearing metal temperatures

Bearing damage

Unstable running due to self


excited vibration

Reduce
turbine
load
immediately until vibration
decreases; examine vibration;
load turbine slowly to stability
limit.

Many possible causes

Carryout the following tests to


find out the causes:

Rapid
or
instantaneous
increase in vibration over
the permissible limits or the
range of the measuring
system (alarm or instrument
display)


Loud noises and/or the


following
operating
parameters exceed their
limits:

Low-frequency vibration.
Vibration frequency less
than rotational frequency.
Irregular point trace from
recording Instrument.

Vibration increases above


normal value for specific
power outputs and operating
conditions


Vibration values less than


permissible limits

BHEL Haridwar

5.2-0420-00/1

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy
Determine main frequency of
vibration.
Measure vibration at
bearings in three plans:

all

h - Horizontal
v - Vertical
a - Axial
Measure shaft vibration in two
directions at right angles, if
possible.
Measure the phase relation
ship of the bearings and shaft
vibration.
Measure
vibration.

Increased vibration over


entire load range under
steady-state
operation.
Vibration increased above
previous values, including
when passing through
critical speed ranges.

foundation

Measure the vibration in


relation
to
all
principle
operating parameters and their
variations.

Increased vibration at rated


speed


the

Changes in shaft
balance due to:

system

Rotor condition induced by


eccentric coupling.

Examine
magnitude
direction of vibrations.

and

Check the coupling for:


- Firm and proper
coupling bolts

fit

of

- Fit of centering spigot and


recess; redial runout of
coupling faces
- Alignment
Initial corrective action:
- Dynamically re-balance the
rotors (except if coupling
bolts are not tight and
alignment unsatisfactory)
- Correct any discrepancies
found during the checks
Permanent shaft distortion due
to metal to metal rubbing

5.2-0420-00/2

Measure redial runout of shaft.


Initial
corrective
action:
Dynamic re-balancing of rotor,
if runout is less.

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy
Final corrective action: Stress
relieving, thermal stabilisation
and
balancing
at
manufactures works, if runout
is more.

Blade damage

Inspect blading.
If blades in the final LP stages
are damaged, a temporary
corrective measure is to
shorten the blade in the 180
opposite position to damaged
blade or to attach a balancing
weight in the plane of damage
to compensate for the missing
piece (consult manufacturer).
if the blade damage is
suspected
elsewhere
the
appropriate turbine casing
must be opened.

Temporary increase in
vibration during non steady
state operating conditions
(startup,
loading
and
unloading, main steam
temperature changes etc.)

Constant
relationship
between vibration and
specific
changes
in
operating parameters.

Modifications or repair on the


blades during on overhaul

Dynamic balancing of rotor.

Temporary shaft distortion due


to
temporary
non-uniform
temperature distribution during
temperature changes.

Reduce speed, load and/or


rate of change of temperature.

Temporary distortion of shaft


resulting from metal to metal
rubbing at the seal rings
caused by misalignment due to
temperature changes.

Reduce speed, load and/or


rate of change of temperature.

Alignment changes due to


restricted expansion at turbine
casing and bearing housings.

Remove
restriction
to
expansion by improving sliding
of bearing housings and
casing guides.

Many possible causes

Determine relationships by
measuring magnitude and
direction of vibration under
varied operating conditions.

Wait until vibration improves


when steady state conditions
are reached.

If possible, vary only one


operating parameter at a time.

5.2-0420-00/3

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy
After, each variation there
must be a delay for steady
state conditions.
Check the following operating
parameters and conditions:
- Speed
- Active load
- Reactive load
- Valve lift
- Steam temperatures
- Casing temperatures
- Steam pressure
- Oil temperatures
- Bearing metal temperatures
- Casing expansion
- Thrust bearing position
- Shaft eccentricity
Check turbine casing
bearing housing for:
- Freedom
washers

of

and

spacing

- Seating and freedom of


expansion of casing palms
- Freedom of movement for
bearing housings
- Freedom of movement for
piping
Note: Changes in vibration
characteristics due to changes
in temperature usually occur
slowly and at a constant rate.


Increased vibration during


warm-up.

Warm-up speed near a critical.

Change the warm-up speed


within permissible ranges.

Increased vibration during


turbine
acceleration.
Vibration is normal at rated
speed.

Increased
vibration
passing critical speeds.

while

Pass through critical speed


ranges rapidly.

Increased vibration during


turbine acceleration. No
improvement in vibration at
rated speed.

Distortion remaining from an


interruption of turning gear
operation before start-up.

Reduce turbine speed to less


than 400 rpm. and eliminate
shaft
distortion
before
increasing speed.

5.2-0420-00/4

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Balancing
pressure
of
generator axial seal ring not
correctly set.

Adjust seal
pressure.

Many possible causes

After finding out the stability


limits, identify the operating
parameters affecting vibration:

Increased vibration in LP
turbine
and
generator
area.

ring

balancing

Sudden sharp increase in


vibration with accentuated
low-frequency components.
Vibration frequency less
than rotational frequency.


Irregular point trace from


recording instrument

- Oil temperature
- Load
- Control valve lift
- Expansion
- Shaft displacement
- Bearing metal temperatures


Vibration is related to load


and valve lift.

Bearing loading too low.

Increase bearing loading by


changing the alignment.

Vibration
related
to
lubricating oil temperature
changes.

Bearing clearance excessive

Change oil temperature

Changes
properties
viscosity.

in
damping
due changes in

5.2-0420-00/5

Steam Turbine
Operation

Fault
 Other symptoms
Bearing Temperatures High
 Rapid rise of one or more
bearing metal temperatures
to the preset alarm level;
similar temperature rise not
observed before under
comparable conditions

Bearing Temperature
Fault Tracing

Cause

Remedy

If a fault in the temperature


measuring equipment can
be ruled out, the bearing is
damaged

Shut
down
turbine
immediately
to
prevent
consequential damage.

Check oil pressure upstream


of damaged bearing.

Inadequate oil supply

Check
bearing,
analyse
cause of bearing damage
and take corrective action.

Check throttle valve setting.


Check filters for chocking.

 Rapid rise of bearing metal


temperatures

Dirt in oil

Check bearings for sign of


wear; take oil samples.

Tilting of bearing

Check bearing assembly.

Excessive
thrust
thrust bearings)

Fault in oil
control system

(in

Analyse cause of excessive


thrust.

temperature

Check
oil
temperature
downstream of cooler.
Switch off controller.
Establish
normal
temperature.

oil

 Fault in oil controller

Establish
manually

 Fault in cooling water


supply

Check water flow through


cooler.

oil

temperature

Shut-down turbine generator


unit, in case oil temperature
reaches
the
maximum
permissible limit in the event
of cooling water supply
failure.
 Cooling
temperature high

 Slow rise of one or more


bearing metal temperatures

BHEL Haridwar

water

Startup stand-by cooler.

 Oil cooler chocked

Change over to stand by oil


cooler

Misalignment

Check alignment

5.2-0421-01

Steam Turbine
Operation

Fault
 Other symptoms

Casing Temperatures
Fault Tracing

Cause

Remedy

Annunciation: Casing
temperature differentials
top/bottom high
+
(positive)
=
higher
temperature in top half casing
(negative)
=
lower
temperature in top half casing


During start-up, + / -

Uneven heat dissipation due to


not enough steam flow through
casing

If possible, increase steam


flow through turbine to obtain
uniform warm-up.

After
load
reductions,
during
low
power
operation, + / -

As above

As above

After load reductions, +

Steam backflow or entry of


water into turbine through
extraction lines

Open drain valves in extraction


lines; test functioning and leaktightness of extraction valves.
Take measures at the feed
water heaters to prevent back
flow.

During power
+ / -

operation,

Casing temperatures affected


by leaks in sealing elements
inside the turbine

Check condition and measure


clearances at sealing elements
during overhaul and refit or
replace leaky elements as
necessary.
notify manufacturer and ask to
calculate if turbine can be
operated at higher temperature
differentials for the time being

During start-up, -

Casing or steam lines not


properly drained

Check position of drain valves,


open any close drain valves.

During start-up, +

Drain valves still open too


wide, causing uneven steam
flow through turbine

Close drain valves further or


completely.

BHEL Haridwar

5.2-0423-02/1

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

During standstill or turning


gear operation, +

Uneven cooling due to air


currents within the foundation
or inside the turbine

Start turbine very carefully;


wait until the steam admitted
begins to reduce temperature
differentials before running up
to rated speed.

During standstill or power


operation

Uneven heat dissipation due to


imperfect lagging

Repair lagging

Casing temperature
differentials excessive


In any operating mode


(additional
turbine
protection not operative)

Coast
down
turbine
immediately
by
tripping;
observe coast down; record
coast down time.

Turbine generator comes


to standstill after coast
down ( in turning gear
operation)

Carefully try to turn shaft


system using manual shaft
turning device.
Warning: Do not rotate the
shaft system forcibly.
Wait
until
temperature
differential has fallen to
permissible level; set turning
device in operation.

5.2-0423-02/2

Steam Turbine
Operation

Fault
 Other symptoms

Turbine Stress Controller


Measures to Avoid Impermissible
Operation
Cause

Remedy

Admission into main steam line


and main steam stop and
control valves too high, i.e. too
rapid warm-up reduces the
margin.

Open warm-up valves (drains)


between stop and control
valves more slowly.

Upper margin of turbine


stress controller restricted
during
non-steady-state
operation (Upper margin
becoming O)


Limitation
by
TSC
admission
monitoring
channel by TSC detector in
stop valve and/or TSC
detector in control valve
during warm-up of the
main steam line and the
stop and control valves.
stop valves open.

or
Hold warm-up valve position
until a sufficient margin has
developed.
or
Continue to close warm-up
valve(s) until a sufficient
margin has developed.

by
TSC
Limitation
admission
monitoring
channel by TSC detector in
control valve during warmup of the main steam line
and the main steam valves
immediately after opening
of the stop valves.

Stop valves opened at too high


a pressure.

Check
whether
warm-up
valves (drains) between stop
and control valves are closed;
if not, close-warm up valves;
wait for sufficient margin
before re-opening warm-up
valves. If margin is negative,
repeatedly open and close the
main steam stop valves.
General rule: If main stem
temperature can be reduced
when margins narrow, this
should be done in order to
avoid prolonging warm-up.

Limitation by TSC turbine


monitoring channel during
warm-up of the main
steam line.

BHEL Haridwar

Steam already entering the


turbine, causing reduction of
the margin.

Both the admission channel


and the turbine channel must
be observed and step must be
taken to avoid reduction of
margin; retard temperature
increase up-stream of turbine
by throttling the warm-up
valves (drains) between stop
and control valves.

5.2-0430-01/1

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy
Reduce
main
steam
temperature, if possible.

Limitation by TSC turbine


monitoring channel during
warm-up in wait step below
critical speed range.

Turbine is being warmed up


too quickly.

Reduce supply steam flow by


closing the control valves by
means of the speed set point
controller or the starting and
load limit device.

Limitation by TSC turbine


monitoring channel during
turbine run-up to rated
speed.

Increase in steam flow during


acceleration
of
turbine
diminishes margin.

The influence of the TSC on


the set-point controller reduces
the speed gradient or, at a
certain margin, caused the
speed
gradient
to
tend
towards 0.
A
certain
TSC
margin
(determined empirically) must
be available before the turbine
generator until is run up to
rated speed.
Operation of the turbine
generator unit at constant
speed within the critical speed
range is inadmissible.
The control valves must
therefore be closed and the
turbine generator must be
warmed up at a speed below
the lower boundary of the
critical speed range specified
in the Technical Data 5.1-011..
until an appropriate TSC
margin is available.
The turbine generator unit is
automatically run down to the
set warm up speed by means
of the gradient monitor as soon
as a certain permanently set
minimum speed gradient is not
attained.

Turbine run-up causes an


increase in the supply steam
temperature so that the margin
is reduced.

5.2-0430-01/2

Automatic
and/or
measures as above.

manual

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

The TSC display and the


recorder make it possible to
recognize
which
turbine
section has the smallest
margin.
It is therefore possible to widen
the margin reducing the
temperature of the supply
steam to that specific section
within the limits permitted by
the steam generator.
If
the
supply
steam
temperature
cannot
be
reduced, further run-up will
have to be delayed until the
trailing turbine has warmed up
sufficiently.


Margin for IP turbine


reduced; temperature of IP
turbine
low;
reheat
temperature high.

Warm up operation does not


warm up the IP turbine
sufficiently to prevent reduction
of the margin.

Automatic
and/or
measures as above.

manual

Proper adjustment of the


reheat temperature within the
limits permitted by the steam
generator is recommended.
If the turbine generator unit
can be run up to rated speed,
wait for IP turbine to warm up
sufficiently at rated speed
before
synchronizing
the
generator, since further margin
reductions are to be expected
when the unit goes on load if
the IP turbine has not been
warmed up sufficiently.

Limitation by TSC
monitoring channel
power operation.

turbine
during

Steam flow too high in relation


to
turbine
temperature
conditions.

The influence of the TSC on


the setpoint controller reduces
the speed gradient and/or the
turbine load is reduced and the
generator
is
possibly
disconnected from the grid by
the reverse power protection
relay.

5.2-0430-01/3

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Lower margin of turbine


stress controller restricted
during
non-steady-state
operation (Lower margin
becoming 0)


Limitation
by
TSC
admission
monitoring
channel during warm-up of
the main steam line and
the main steam stop and
control valves.

Main steam temperature too


low in relation to main steam
line and valve temperature.

Do not open main steam stop


valves until temperature has
been adjusted accordingly.

Limitation by TSC turbine


monitoring channel during
warm-up and/or start-up of
the turbine.

Main steam temperature too


low in relation to turbine
temperature

Check
steam
conditions
upstream of the turbine; raise
steam temperature before
warming and/or starting up the
turbine.

Limitation by TSC turbine


monitoring channel during
unloading of the turbine.

Load change leads to a


reduction
of
throttle
temperature down stream of
main steam control valves.

Reduce load gradient and/or


hold load constant until nonsteady-state condition has
passed.
Note: Turbine shut-down by
trip actuation is permitted from
any load condition.

Limitation
by
TSC
admission and turbine
monitoring
channels
during
disturbances in
steam
generator
operation.

Rapid,
pronounced
temperature reduction due to
fault in steam generator.

Immediately adjust turbine


output to changed steam
generator conditions by means
of load setpoint limiter so as to
significantly reduce the steam
flow; if the additional influence
due to throttling prevails and/or
if there is no end to the steam
generator malfunction in sight,
the turbine must be tripped.

Limitation by TSC after


load rejection with or
without residual load, or
TSC margin becomes
negative.

Normal occurrence as a
consequence of the reduction
in throttle temperature; will
reduce turbine life only if
repeated frequently.

No
particular
measures
required in the event of
isolated load rejections.

5.2-0430-01/4

Fault
 Other symptoms
Fault in
controller


Alarm

turbine

Cause

Remedy

Electrical fault in turbine stress


controller.

In the event of a fault in the


turbine stress controller during
speed and load operation, the
TSC influence on the turbine
controller
is
immediately
cutout.

stress

Cut out TSC influence.


Continue monitoring of the
turbine generator unit for
thermal stress by comparing
recorded temperatures with the
permissible
temperatures
curves shown in Technical
Data 5.1-011..
Locate and eliminate fault in
turbine stress evaluator as
described in the TSC manual.

5.2-0430-01/5

Steam Turbine
Operation

Fault
 Other symptoms

Stop and Control Valves


Fault Tracing

Cause

Remedy

Stop valve fails to open




Stop valve system ready


for operation. Start-up
pressure < valve opening

Test valve closed

Verify opening of stop valves


locally. Open test valve.

Stop valve system is made


ready for operation by
driving the starting and
load limit device towards
0%

Pressure above piston has not


built up sufficiently when test
valve is changed over

Wait until starting and load


limit device is in 0% position
and pressure above piston of
stop valve has built up.

Stop valve closes when


internal pilot valve has
reached the end of its
travel. Drains downstream
of stop valve open

Pressure difference preventing


main valve from opening

Close drain downstream of


stop valve.

Pressure above piston


drops immediately when
pressure builds up below
piston (steam pressure
present)

Internal pilot valve jammed


inside the main valve

Overhaul stop valve and free


internal pilot valve.

Cut off valve in secondary line


closed

Open cut off


secondary line.

Gear of test valves not in


operating position

Bring gear of test valves into


operating position.

Defect in feedback system of


actuator

Check feedback system for


blockages.

Control valve fails to open




Secondary
present

oil

pressure

Control valve opens


closes erratically


Slight
changes
secondary pressure

valve

in

and
in

Control
valve
fails
to
respond to control signals


Starting and
device
not
position

load limit
in
100%

Starting and load limit device


limiting hydraulic governor

Bring starting and load limit


device into 100% position.

Reference speed setter not


in 100% position during
operation with electrohydraulic turbine controller

Reference speed setter limiting


hydraulic governor

Bring reference speed setter


into 100% position.

BHEL Haridwar

5.2-0440-01/1

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Many causes possible

Check hydraulic governor,


converter and actuators.

Change
in
relationship
between secondary pressure
and control valves


Steady-state operation

Record control characteristics:




Travel of start-up and load


limit device

Travel of converter

Secondary
pressure

Secondary pressure

Travel of control valve

auxiliary

and have control setting


corrected by manufacturer
Change
in
mutual
relationship of control valve
travels


Steady-state operation

Many causes possible

As above

Restriction in movement of
valve stem

Less clearance between valve


cone & bush

Maintain required clearance


between valve cone & bush by
machining ID of bush

Excessive tightening of glands


of the valve

5.2-0440-01/2

Slightly reduce the tightening


of the glands of the valves

Steam Turbine
Operation

Fault
 Other symptoms

Protective Devices
Fault Tracing

Cause

Remedy

Turbine trip


Manual trip-out

Main trip valve actuated locally


or from control room

Check condition that was the


reason for tripping turbine
locally or from the control desk
and find out if turbine
generator
unit
can
be
restarted.

Automatic trip-out

Protective device operated.


Many causes possible.

Find out cause of turbine trip


from
recorder
plots
or
annunciation.
If trip started due to protection
criteria within turbine, check for
damage or irregularities that
would
prevent
further
operation of the unit.
If trip started due to faults
outside the turbine, check
whether turbine trip operation
was called for in accordance
with the protection concept.
The cause of trip must be
identified and must be rectified
before the unit is started up
again.

Automatic turbine trip




Main trip valves operated

The main trip valves operate


whenever trip is started.

Check annunciation to find out


if both main trip valves
operated.
If only one main trip valve has
operated, test signaling circuit
(limit switches, wiring, lamps)
and repair any mechanical
fault affecting the defective
valve.

Overspeed trips operated

BHEL Haridwar

The overspeed trips operate


when the preset speed limit is
reached.

Operation of the overspeed trip


is normally prevented by the
turbine governor if load
rejection occurs, i.e., when the
generator breaker is opened.
Check if trip was caused by
these:

5.2-0450-01/1

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Overspeed trips operate too


early.

Perform oil pressure test on


overspeed trips.
Find out oil pressures when
trips operate and compare
with pressures
previously
set.
Perform
overspeed
test
with turbine is at operating
temperature.
Adjust overspeed trips.
Check if spring fatigued.

Turbine control malfunction.

Check free movement


hydraulic control elements:

Control valves

Converter

of

Remove blockage or other


malfunctions.
Check
electrical
controller.
Load rejection relay failed to
respond

turbine

Check solenoid valves.


Actuate contactor and note
effect on secondary pressure
of solenoid valves opening.
If secondary pressure do not
collapse, test coils of solenoid
valves for operation.
If actuation of load rejection
relay is not annunciated, check
measuring circuit.

Leak in turbine control valves.

Check for leaks in turbine


control valves:
Note operation of reverse
power protection if turbine
control valves are closed
during synchronized generator
operation.

Failure of reheat control


valves.
Extraction
check
valves fail to close or leaking.

5.2-0450-01/2

Exercise reheat control valves.


Check position of extraction
check valves.

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Check
temperature
extraction lines.

in

Rapid temperature drops after


load rejection are probably due
to extraction check valves
leaking.


Thrust
bearing
responded

trip

Excessive
bearing

play

in

thrust

Check
bearing
temperature.

metal

Check thrust bearing.


Find out cause of high thrust
bearing wear (axial thrust,
damage, lack of oil).


Electrical low vacuum trip


responded

Loss of condenser vacuum

Identify
the
cause
condenser vacuum loss.

Fault in
supply

Check
circulating
water
pumps.
Check
flow
of
circulating
water
through
condenser.

circulating

water

Fault in gland seal steam


supply

Check position
valves.

of

of

control

Check controller.
If fault in controller or if control
valves malfunction, switch of
controller and maintain gland
seal steam pressure manually
or by local operation of valves.
Fault in vacuum pumps

Check operation of vacuum


pump.

Air entry into condenser

Test for leaks.


Shutdown vacuum pumps and
measure pressure rise.
Locate and repair leaks.
Examine
cracks.

rupture

disks

for

5.2-0450-01/3

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Hydraulic low vacuum trip


responded

Loss of condenser vacuum

As stated earlier

Turbine trip started via


electrical
signal
from
additional
turbine
protection system because
casing
temperature
differential (s) high.

Temperature differentials high

Check recording instruments,


identify causes as described in
instruction 5.2-0423.

Turbine trip started via


electrical signal because
temperature of exhaust
steam from HP turbine
high.

Cooling steam flow too low

Check valve setting

Pressure of exhaust steam


from HP turbine too high

Reduce pressure by suitable


measures

Main steam temperature in HP


turbine too high

Reduce
main
temperature

Turbine trip started via


electrical signal from the
fire protection system

Trip by fire protection system

See 5.2-0410

Jammed

Turbine generator unit must


not be operated if main trip
valves are not functioning
perfectly.

steam

Faults in protective devices




Main trip valves fail to


operate

Locate
and
immediately.


Trip solenoids

repair

fault

Do
not
operate
turbine
generator unit if trip solenoids
are not functioning perfectly.

Fault in solenoids

Locate and repair fault.




Both overspeed trips fail to


operate during over speed
testing

Overspeed
fouled

trip

jammed

Attention : Normal trip speed


must not be exceeded by more
than 2%

Repeat testing by test oil


pressure several times until
turbine trip starts at normal test
oil pressure values.
If the defective overspeed trip
still
does
not
operate
satisfactorily,
operation
of
turbine generator unit must not
been continued.

Trip devices jammed.


Incorrect speed reading

5.2-0450-01/4

or

Locate
and
immediately.

repair

fault

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Check
speed
indicator
(compare frequency of excited
generator
with
system
frequency
by means
of
synchronizing device).
Adjust speed indicator.


One over speed trip fails to


operate during over speed
testing

Jammed or fouled

Perform testing by test oil


pressure.

Staggering of overspeed trip


settings

If testing by test oil pressure


reveals that the two overspeed
trips respond at slightly
staggered settings, no further
action is necessary.

Over speed trip operates


at too high a test oil
pressure when tested by
test oil pressure

Turbine generator unit speed


too low when generator not
synchronized

Check
speed
indicator.
(Compare frequency of excited
generator system frequency by
means
of
synchronizing
device).
Correct speed
Adjust speed indicator.

Movement of over speed trip


mechanism impaired

Repeat testing by test oil


pressure several times until
turbine trip operates at the test
oil pressure values previously
measured.

Leak in test-oil line inside the


bearing pedestal

Check test oil line at next


opportunity.

Over speed trip fails to


operate when tested by
test oil pressure

Cause of maloperation may be


too high a test oil pressure

Adjust test oil pressure.

Movement of overspeed trip


mechanism impaired

Increase speed with generator


unsynchronized and perform
test. If the defective over
speed trip still does not
operate
satisfactorily,
operation of the turbine
generator device must not be
continued until fault has been
corrected.

Overspeed trip operates at


too low a test oil pressure

Turbine generator unit speed


too high when generator not
synchronized

Check speed indicator (for too


high a trip speed)

5.2-0450-01/5

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Drift of trip speed


(e.g. spring fatigue)

Test overspeed trip by actual


overspeeding at the next
opportunity.
Adjust overspeed trip setting if
necessary.
Turbine generator unit my
continue to be in operation but
may be liable to premature
tripping.

One overspeed trip fails to


operate when tested by
test oil pressure. Test oil
pressure
maximum,
second
trip
responds
normally.

Movement of one overspeed


mechanism impaired

Test intact overspeed trip daily


by test oil pressure until fault
can be corrected at next
opportunity.

Thrust bearing trip fails to


operate during testing
using the automatic turbine
tester

Malfunction of test device

Check test device and control


medium pressure

Hydraulic low vacuum trip


operates too late (at too
low a condenser vacuum)

Malfunction due to jamming or


drift in setting

There is a danger of the


condenser
and
last-stage
blades in the LP turbine being
damaged. Therefore correct
malfunction as quickly as
possible or adjust trip setting.
Until this can be done, test
intact low vacuum trip at
frequent intervals.

Speed dependent release for


operation faulted by jamming
of piston

See above for consequences.


Overhaul piston for speed
dependent
release
for
operation.
See
above
for
interim
measures pending correction
of fault.

Hydraulic low vacuum trip


operates too early at too
high a condenser vacuum.

5.2-0450-01/6

Danger of outage of turbine


generator
unit
due
to
premature trip.
Drift in setting

Correct setting

Diaphragm damaged

Check diaphragm and replace.

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Protection systems operating


largely with electrical signal
formation fail to operate or
operate at too high or too low
limit levels.

Fault in signal transmitter

Check signal transmitter

In the fire protection system


test, one or more fire control
protective devices do not
operate automatically.

or
Fault in signal path

Check signal path

or
Fault in protective devices

Check protective devices

Fault in signal path

Check
signal
devices.

or
Device malfunction

path

and

Correct fault or inform and


instruct shift personnel that fire
protective device must be
manually operated if a fire
occurs.

5.2-0450-01/7

Steam Turbine
Operation
Fault
 Other symptoms
Fault after selecting
starting program


Group
alarms
turbine
panel.

Automatic Turbine Tester


Fault Tracing

Cause

Remedy

Electrical or mechanical faults.

Find out and record program


status preliminary test (PT),
test program (TP), reset
program (RP) and program
step where fault occurs.

and

and
individual
on
automatic
tester
control

Record and decode group and


individual alarms.
Locate fault and check if safety
or functioning of the turbine
generator unit is impaired (e.g.
if the device being tested fails
during testing).
Correct fault as stated in the
description section of the
turbine manual and the
Automatic
Turbine
Tester
(ATT) manual.
If reset program (RP) runs
without fault (program status
after (RP) = status as before
starting ATT), repeat the test
to get further information on
the nature of the fault.
Continue to
faulted test
normal.

perform nonprograms as

Program cannot be started




Alarm:
condition

No

starting

Operating condition of the


turbine generator unit does not
correspond to the interlock
release
criteria
for
the
Automatic Turbine Tester.

Check starting conditions from


the functional diagrams and
compare with actual operating
conditions of turbine and
restart test program.
Note:
During
turbine
shutdown,
the
starting
conditions
for
various
programs will not be fulfilled if
testing is to be performed
while the turbine is shut down,
the missing starting conditions
must be simulated.

BHEL Haridwar

5.2-0455-00/1

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Electrical or mechanical fault in


a protective or test device or
monitoring element.

Reset
program
automatically.

Fail signal during Protective


Devices Test Program


Alarm: Fail signal and


possibly also Time overrun

started

Check running of program in


the control room and, if
necessary, locally on the basis
of the program status and the
positions of the protective and
test devices.
If possible, return protective
and test devices to normal
operating
position
mechanically.
If reset program runs without
fault, repeat individual test to
obtain
further
information
about cause of fault or to stop
jamming of protective and test
devices.

Fail signal during valve test


program
 Alarm Fail signal and
possibly also Time overrun

Electrical or mechanical fault in


a protective device, valve or
monitoring element (pressure
switch, position transmitter
etc.)

Reset
program
automatically.

started

Check running of program in


the control room and, if
necessary, locally also, on the
basis of the program status
and the positions of the valves
and test devices.
Restore to normal operating
condition if possible.

Main stop valve fails to open

Close all downstream valves


by remote control (also drain
valves).
Open faulty stop valve using
test valve.
Open downstream valve by
remote control.

Turbine trip due to operating


criteria while test program is
running


Alarm Fail signal and


annunciation from general
alarm system

5.2-0455-00/2

Normal occurrence, since the


turbine generator unit will be
shut down by the protective
devices even during testing if

Reset
program
automatically.
Observe
program.

running

started
of

reset

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

the criteria for turbine trip are


fulfilled.

Check criteria that caused trip


to make trip conforms to
protection concept.
Locate and remove fault in
Automatic Turbine Tester if trip
was caused by wrong test
procedures.

Running
of
protective
devices
test
program
interrupted,
program
stopped in faulted program
step


Several annunciation show


fault in electronic circuitry
of
Automatic
Turbine
Tester

Fault in electronic circuitry of


Automatic Turbine Tester.

Test circuit remains in force.


Protection of the turbine is
ensured for the duration of this
fault
by
the
protective
equipment operative during
testing.
Call in maintenance personnel
for the electronic equipment of
the Automatic Turbine Tester
to repair faults as described in
the ATT manual.

Running of valve test


program
interrupted,
program stopped in faulted
program step


Several annunciation show


fault in electronic circuitry
of
Automatic
Turbine
Tester

Fault in electronic circuitry of


Automatic Turbine Tester

Fault in power supply to


Automatic Turbine Tester for
protective devices


Several annunciation show


fault in power supply

Fault in power supply

Return valves tested to normal


operating position.

Check control valve and


other downstream valves,
and close valves by
remote
control,
if
necessary.

Open stop valve using test


valve.

Open control valve and


downstream valves.

Redundant design of the


power supply ensures best
security against outage of the
turbine generator unit.

5.2-0455-00/3

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Circuit breaker of test motor,


solenoid valve, or other
electrical equipment tripped.

If a circuit breaker has tripped,


actuate test equipment or
valves locally to restore normal
operating condition.
Identify and remove cause of
fault in power supply as
described in the Automatic
Turbine Tester manual.

Fault during reset program


after testing of protective
devices


Program
stopped,
changeover valve in test
position

Position of protective and test


devices incorrect due to
electrical or mechanical faults.

Check position of test or


protective devices locally and
return to operating position by
hand, if necessary.

Test signal transmitter for


overspeed trip not in
operating position, e.g.
because miniature circuit
breaker tripped.

Move test signal transmitter for


overspeed trip into normal
operating position by hand.

Main trip valve or trip


device not in operating
position.

Actuate
contactor
for
approximately 10s to return
main trip valve or trip device
to normal operating position.
If normal operating position
cannot be restored, there is a
mechanical or hydraulic fault
(e.g. jamming of solenoid
valves, worn latching edges,
oil pressure too low for
latch-in)
that
must
be
corrected.

Incorrect
operation
of
protective device during
testing
 Trip solenoid valves for
protecting
the
turbine
testing are not actuated.

5.2-0455-00/4

False electrical signals due to


faults in monitoring elements
(pressure switches, position
transmitters, etc.). This type of
fault is present if devices are in
operating position but no
checkback signal is generated.

Check monitoring equipment


and signal paths.

Fault in electrical operation or


mechanical fault in solenoid
valves.

Testing of protective devices is


not permissible if this fault
occurs, the test
will be

Check valves of pressure


switches (desired status:
open).
Check circuitry of position
transmitter; correct setting if
necessary.

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Incorrect
operation
monitoring equipment

of

prevented by the electronic


circuitry.

Operating fault

Check trip signal.

Fault in solenoid valves

Check operation.
Check power supply.
Check solenoid.
Check freedom
movement.

Fault
in
equipment

monitoring

of

valve

Check valves of pressure


switches
(desired
status:
open).
Vent pressure switch.
Check
signal
checkback signal.

path

of

Check functioning of faulted


pressure switch.
Replace pressure switch.


Failure of
solenoids

remote

trip

Fault in electrical operation or


mechanical fault in solenoid
valves.

The protection of the turbine


generator unit is not fully
guaranteed.

Incorrect
operation
monitoring equipment

The turbine must be shut down


unless the fault can be cleared
during operation (e.g. by
switching on the
power
supply).

Fault in operation

Fault in solenoid valves

of

Check
signal
path
formation of trip signal.

for

Check operation.
Check power supply.

Fault
in
equipment

monitoring

Check freedom of movement


of valve.
Check valves of pressure
switches
(desired
status:
open).
Vent pressure switch.
Check
signal
checkback signal.

path

of

Check functioning of faulted


pressure switch. If necessary
replace pressure switch.

5.2-0455-00/5

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Fault in protective device

See
trouble
instructions
for
devices.

Main trip valve jammed

Turbine generator unit must


not remain in operation.

Main trip valves fails to


operate

Fault may
immediately.
Fault in monitoring equipment

be

shooting
protective

corrected

Check valves of pressure


switches
(desired
status:
open).
Check position transmitter,
reset if necessary.

Overspeed trips fail to


operate
(running
time
exceeded)

Actuation fault in test device or


incorrect
operation
of
overspeed trip.

Take
action
if
incorrect
operation of the overspeed
trips occur.
See instruction: Protective
Devices.
Troubleshooting:
5.2-0450.

Actuation fault in test signal


transmitter

Check if
transmitter
test.

the test
operates

signal
during

Fault in power supply

If the test signal transmitter


does not operate, check power
supply and motor.
Check actuation.

Overspeed trips operate at


too high a test oil pressure

Mechanical
blockage
overspeed trips

of

Repeat last several times.


Determine test oil pressures
where trips respond.
If this does not clear fault, take
action described in 5.2-0450
e.g. set overspeed trips during
overspeed tests.

Overspeed trips operate at


normal test oil pressure,
but
after
test
signal
transmitter has reached its
limit position.

Limit switch of test signal


transmitter incorrectly set.

Correct setting of limit switch.

Overspeed trips operate at


too low a test oil pressure
(annunciation only, no
interruption).

Functioning of overspeed trip


impaired

Danger of premature turbine


trip.

5.2-0455-00/6

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy
Check overspeed trip setting
by precise oil pressure testing
or actual overspeed test.
Check setting.

Overspeed trips operate at


test
oil
pressures
previously observed

Fault in functioning, circuitry or


setting of pressure switches for
monitoring response.

Check functioning of pressure


switches.
Check circuitry and setting.
Locate fault and repair.
Correct setting if necessary.

Check
auxiliary
pressure.

start-up

Trip
mechanism
of
overspeed trips fails to
latch-in.

Latch-in pressure too low


Latch-in
edges
or
mechanism worn out.

trip

Repair trip mechanism.

Low vacuum trip fails to


operate

Fault in
solenoid

test

Check operation.

Low vacuum trip operates


too late (at too low a
vacuum)

operation

of

Incorrect operation of solenoid


valve

Check solenoid.

Air inlet duct obstructed

Clear air
probe.

Primary circuit piston not in


normal operating position

Repair low vacuum trip device.

Incorrect operation
vacuum trip device

For consequences and steps


to be taken, see instruction
5.2-0450.

of

low

inlet

duct

using

Check condenser vacuum


where trip device operates.
Repair mechanical
correct setting.


Low vacuum trip operates


too early (at too high a
vacuum)
annunciation
only, no interruption

Incorrect operation
vacuum trip device

of

low

fault

or

Availability of turbine generator


unit may be reduced due to
premature tripping.
Check condenser vacuum
where trip device operates.
Repair mechanical
correct setting.

fault

or

5.2-0455-00/7

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Incorrect
operation
valves during testing


Remedy

of
Control valve not closed

Stop valve fails to close

Fault
in
valve
test
positioner or its actuation

Check power supply and motor


of valve test positioner.
Check actuation circuitry.

Checkback Control valve


closed missing

Check functioning of limit


switch, signal path and setting
of limit switch.
Repair fault in signal path.
Correct setting of limit switch
Replace limit switch.

Fault in actuation of stop


valve

Check
operation
solenoid.

of

trip

Test solenoid;
Check freedom of movement
of valve.


Stop valve
slowly

closed

too

Incorrect
mechanical
operation of stop valve

Repeat test.
Measure time taken for valve
to close.
Repair valve if no other cause.

Malfunction of monitoring
equipment
(pressure
switches, position transmitters
etc.)

Check monitoring equipment.


Check functioning and setting
of pressure switches.
Check functioning and setting
of limit switches.

Stop valve fails to open

Fault in operation of solenoid

Check
valves.

operation

solenoid

Open stop valve with test


valve.
Locate fault in operation.
Check power supply and
solenoid
as
soon
as
downstream valves are closed.

5.2-0455-00/8

Fault
 Other symptoms


Stop valve opens abruptly

Cause

Remedy

Jamming of valve positioner

Locate fault immediately and


repair valve.

Control valve or other valve


downstream of stop valve
open

Close valve downstream of


stop valve.
Identify why control valve was
open (step sequence, step
criteria).
Locate fault and repair.

5.2-0455-00/9

Steam Turbine
Operation

Fault
 Other symptoms

Oil System
Fault Tracing

Cause

Remedy

Oil contamination

Examine oil samples, remove


impurities through centrifuge,
remove water.

Water content high

Remove water

Improper sealants

Check sealants used, do not


use any sealant containing
silicon.

Oil properties inadequate




Air release property > limit


value
according
to
Specification

Oil mixed with


antifoam additive.


Foaming on oil surface of


oil tank

Water content

too

much

Consult oil supplier

Foaming during startup due to


simultaneous release of air
trapped in the oil and air
entrained in the system as a
result of temperature increase
in the oil tank.

Introduce
waiting
period
between closure of turning
gear oil valve and run-up of the
turbine.

Entry of steam vapour into oil


system

Remove water from oil system


by separation or draining.

Check oil level and correct by


topping up or draining.

Check vapour pressure


bearing pedestals.

in

Locate cause of excessive


leak-off steam from shaft seals
and repair.
Oil level in oil tank low


During
rated
operation

speed

Normal oil loss (oil level drops


slowly)

Top up with oil of the same


make and type.

High oil loss

Examine system for leaks. If a


large leak occurs, unload
turbine generator immediately
and/or initiate fire protection
measures. Examine oil coolers
for punctured tubes.
Plug leaky tubes.

BHEL Haridwar

5.2-0460-00/1

Fault
 Other symptoms


During
turning
operation

Cause

gear

Remedy

Measures as for oil level


changes during rated speed
operation.
On topping up make allowance
for oil level recorded during
turning gear operation.
Attention:
2-out-of-3
fire
protection ineffective during
turning gear operation.

During rated speed


turning gear operation

or

Oil builds up in return


compartment due to choked
strainer.

Open oil tank cover


Check strainer and if heavily
choked, change strainer and
clean.
Examine residues in strainer.

Oil pressure low




In pressure oil system


during
shut-down
of
turbine generator unit

Normal procedure

In pressure oil system


immediately after rated
speed has been reached

Main oil pump is not taking


over oil delivery.

See incorrect
main oil pump.

Check for leakage through


valve downstream of auxiliary
oil pump.

Check pressure downstream


of auxiliary oil pumps and
pumps for reverse rotation.

Observes start up of auxiliary


oil pump.
If subloop control fails, start
auxiliary oil pump manually
from control desk.
operation

of

Start up and shut down


auxiliary oil pumps with
defective valve once more.
Shut down turbine generator
and ensure freedom of check
valve movement by alternating
auxiliary oil pumps.
Overhaul check valve.
Turning gear oil valve still open

5.2-0460-00/2

Close turning gear oil valve


from control desk or locally by
hand.

Fault
 Other symptoms


In pressure oil
during
rated
operation

system
speed

Cause

Remedy

Oil level too low

Check oil level in oil tank.


Top up if necessary.

Main oil pump faulty

Check main oil pump.

Air content of oil too high

Examine air release capability


(ARC) (joint investigation by
operator, oil supplier and
turbine manufacturer).
Examine as for oil pressure
drops in pressure oil system.

In lubricating oil system

With heavy pressure loss


observe whether turbine trip is
initiated.


In lubricating oil system on


filter changeover

Filter not filled and vented


before changeover

Check
bearing
temperatures.

metal

Check
bearings
temperature increase.


In lubricating oil system on


oil cooler changeover

Standby oil cooler not filled


and vented before changeover

after

Measures as for pressure loss


on filter changeover.
Warning: Danger of bearing
damage
is
considerably
greater than with improper
filter changeover.

Differential
pressure
across filter high

Main oil pump does not take


over oil supply on startup

Filter choked

Changeover filter properly.


Clean filter inserts.

Oil level in tank low

See faults: Oil level low

Air content of oil too high

See faults:
inadequate

Main oil pump faulty

Check main oil pump.

Oil

properties

Turbine
sped
may
be
temporarily raised to force
main oil pump to take over.
Oil temperature high


During
rated
speed
operation after startup

No flow of cooling water


through oil cooler in service
(malfunction can also occur on
oil cooler changeovers)

Check positions of cooling


water isolating valves for oil
cooler in service. Open if
closed or throttled.

5.2-0460-00/3

Fault
 Other symptoms

During startup and power


operation

Cause

Remedy

Oil temperature not yet set

Set selector valve.

Oil cooler not vented on oil


side or cooling water side.

Check vents.

Cooling
water
temperature too high.

Look for cause of cooling


water temperature increase
and correct.

inlet

Oil cooler choked on cooling


water side.

Changeover oil cooler.


Note:
Follow
instructions

changeover

Clean choked oil cooler.


Oil temperature low


During
shut-down
turbine generator unit

During
rated
speed
operation after startup

Turning gear does


startup automatically


of

Oil temperature control valve


not closed.

Close oil temperature control


valve.

Oil
temperature
faulty.

Close oil temperature control


valve manually.

controller

not

Turning gear oil valve


open, Jacking oil pump on

Compare actual jacking oil


pressures with set pressures.
Correct pressure if necessary.
Check oil temperature, if too
high (> 45 C), reduce.
Check using manual turning
gear, whether shaft turns
easily.
Warning: Do not rotate the
shaft system forcibly.

Turning gear oil valve


open, Jacking oil pump on.
Differential temperature on
one
casing
>
limit
temperature.

Radial clearance bridged by


casing or rotor distortion.

Turbine generator unit shut


down due to high bearing
metal temperature.

Rubbing of rotor due to


damage of bearing or shaft
journal in bearing not jacked.

Let turbine cool down.


Jacking oil pump must be
operating.
Warning: Do not rotate the
shaft system forcibly.

or

5.2-0460-00/4

Check bearing and replace.

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Turning gear oil valve faulty

Close turning gear oil valve


manually.

Turning gear oil valve does


not close


During
startup
(acceleration to warm-up
or rated speed)

After initiation of
protection system

When
shutting
turning gear

fire
down

Drive

Control or

AC-power supply

Turning
gear
interlocked.

oil

valve

Closure of turning gear oil


valve interlocked via casing
temperature.

Acknowledge
measures.

fire-protection

Allow turbine generator unit to


cool down further or make
interlock ineffective.
Note: Record release and
cancel if turbine is to be
restarted.

Turning gear oil valve does


not open



On start up

Turning gear oil valve faulty

or

Drive

Control

On shut down
turbine generator

Main oil
failure


pump

of

bearing

Test oil pressure built up


during normal operation
and turning gear operation

Oil vapour coming


bearing pedestal


the

Open turning gear oil valve


manually in place.

Vapour fan running

Failure due to electro-erosion.

Replace
damaged
components.

Rotor earthing
not healthy

Attend
rotor
arrangement.

arrangement

MOP
earthing

Poor insulation at generator


rear pedestal

Improve insulation.

Vapour fan faulty

Start standby vapour fan.

Wire cloth in the oil stripper is


choked

Clean or replace the wire cloth.

Vapour suction Flap valve at


the bearing pedestal closed

Readjust the flap valve.

from

5.2-0460-00/5

Fault
 Other symptoms
Seal steam
glands


leaking

Seal
steam
normal

Cause

Remedy

Seal steam exhauster fan not


operating

Startup one seal steam


exhauster fan. Check position
of
valves
upstream
of
exhauster fan and correct
(valves of standby exhauster
fan must be closed).

Mechanical or electrical fault in


seal steam exhauster fan

Discharge seal
atmosphere.

Seal steam pressure set point


too high

Lower set point

Mechanical or electrical fault

Open bypass valve and


maintain constant pressure
manually.

Pressurizer valve faulty or set


too low

Check
pressure,
pressurizer valve.

Filter choked (annunciation)

Clean / replace filter and


change oil of the actuator as
specified.

from

pressure

Seal steam pressure high,


no fault in valve or
controller functions

steam

to

Seal steam pressure low




Both
control
valve
operating in a sequence
faulted

Mechanical fault in
steam control valve


seal

Valve fails to follow control


signals

reset

Electrical fault


Valves

Many causes possible

Determine problem on the


basis of valve and description,
and correct.

Control system

Many causes possible

Determine problem on the


basis of instrumentation and
control manual and correct.

5.2-0460-00/6

Steam Turbine
Operation

Control Fluid System


Fault Tracing

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Control
fluid
inadequate

Impure control fluid

Examine control fluid samples.

properties

Start up bypass regeneration


unit immediately.

Rise
in
neutralization
number (Observed on the
basis of constant values
measured
continuously
under
the
same
conditions).

or
Check its operational status.
Examine control fluid for water
content, (take sample from
surface).
Change over to other control
fluid cooler.

Fullers earth filter exhausted

Replace Fullers earth filter,


even if replacement not yet
scheduled.
Clean fine mesh filter.

High water content

Air
release
diminished

Water entering via cooler

Change over to other control


fluid cooler; determine cause
of water entry.
Take measures as for rise in
neutralization number.

property

Level in control fluid tank


low


Slowly sinking level in fluid


tank.

Normal fluid loss not replaced

Top up with control fluid of


same make; take sample of
topping-up fluid

Level sinking rapidly (2 out


of 3 level very low monitor
responds)

Excessive loss

Caution:
Stop
turbine
generator immediately. Stop
control fluid pumps and initiate
fire protection measures.

Pump faulty

Check control fluid pumps.


Change over to standby pump
or observe start up of standby
pump.

Control fluid pressure low

BHEL Haridwar

5.2-0470-00/1

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Control
fluid
differential
pressure
across
interchangeable filter high

Filter chocked

Change over to other filter,


clean filter element or insert
new filter element.

Control
low

fluid

temperature

Excessive cooling of system


piping or fault in closed-loop
control

Check temperature controller;


if control valve is open, switch
off temperature regulator and
close control valve. Switch on
heater when control valve is
closed.

Control
high

fluid

temperature

Inadequate cooling

Check temperature controller;


check
cooling
water
temperature, check cooling
water
adequately
vented,
change over to other control
fluid cooler.

Heater switched on
(fault in open loop control)

Switch off heater

Control fluid heater overheated

Switch off control fluid heater

Temperature
at
protective tube high

heater

Leak in hydraulic devices





Control fluid/ oil leakage


monitor responds

Check carefully which medium


is escaping: oil, control fluid or
both.

Leakage of control fluid at


the hydraulic governor

Operation of the turbine


generator may be continued
provided that the escape of
fluid is continuously monitored.


Leakage of oil or control


fluid and oil at
the
hydraulic governor

Leakage of oil at the trip


mechanisms of the over
speed governor or the
shaft position monitor.

5.2-0470-00/2

Diaphragm damaged:

Repair leak

Difficulties in regulating during


operation
using
hydraulic
governor in the event of both
media escaping.
Operation of the turbine
generator may be continued
provided that the escape of
fluid is continuously monitored.

Fault
 Other symptoms

Cause

Remedy

Leakage of oil or oil and


control fluid at the trip
mechanisms of the over
speed governor or the
shaft position monitor.

Diaphragm damaged on the


control fluid side, danger of
turbine trip. If both oils are
leaking, danger of control fluid
mixing with oil.

Repair leak

Alarm : Control fluid/water


leakage monitor responds

Leakage of control fluid


at
hydraulic
pressure
alarm

Leakage of water at
hydraulic pressure alarm

Operation of turbine generator


may be continued.
Danger of water mixing with
control fluid

Repair leak

5.2-0470-00/3

Steam Turbine
Operation

Fault
 Other symptoms
Seal steam
glands


escaping

Gland Steam System


Fault Tracing

Cause

Remedy

Seal steam exhauster fan not


operating

Start
one
seal
exhauster fan.

from

Seal steam pressure normal

steam

Check position of valves


upstream of exhauster fan
and correct (valves of
standby exhauster fan must
be closed).

Seal steam pressure high;


no fault in valve or controller
functions

Mechanical or electrical fault in


seal steam exhauster fan

Discharge seal
atmosphere.

steam

to

Seal steam pressure set point


too high

Lower set point.

Mechanical or electrical fault

Open bypass valve and


maintain constant pressure
manually.

Valve faulty or set too low

Check pressure; reset valve.

Filter chocked (annunciation)

Clean / replace filter and


change oil of the actuator as
specified.

Seal steam pressure low




Both
control
valves
operating in sequence are
faulty

Mechanical fault in seal steam


control valve


Valve fails to follow control


signals

Electrical fault


Valves

Many causes possible

Determine problem on the


basis of valve description
and correct.

Control system

Many causes possible

Determine cause on the


basis of instrumentation and
control manual and correct.

BHEL Haridwar

5.2-0480-01

Steam Turbine
Operation

Fault
Other symptoms

Bypass stop and


valves fail to open


Bypass System
Fault Tracing
Cause

Remedy

control
Check condensate pressure,
condenser
vacuum
and
bypass steam temperature.

Reheat
pressure
>
constant
or
variable
pressure setpoint.
Injection
water
pressure
downstream of injection water
control valves < interlock
pressure


Condensate
failed.

Pressure downstream of
Condensate pump(s) too
low.

Establish normal conditions.

Fault in injection water


control valves or their
actuators.

Check actuators of injection


water control valves, e.g. slide
valves for valve operation.

pump(s)

Check operating conditions of


condensate
pump
or
condensate system.

Condenser vacuum low.

See fault tracing instructions


for condenser plant.

Bypass
high.

See fault tracing instructions


for condenser plant.

steam

temperature

Reheat
pressure
<
constant pressure setpoint
but > variable pressure
setpoint.

Constant pressure setpoint too


high.

Reheat
pressure
>
constant
or
variable
pressure
setpoint.
Interlocks ineffective

Fault in control

Lower
constant
setpoint.

pressure

Check fault annunciation in


control cabinet.
Attend fault as described in
bypass control manual.
Shut down control until fault is
attended, and control the
reheat pressure manually.

Bypass stop and control


valves close during bypass
operation
 Reheat
pressure
>
constant pressure setpoint

BHEL Hardwar

Injection
effective.

water

interlock

5.2-0490-00/1

Fault
Other symptoms

Cause


Remedy

Injection water pressure <


interlock pressure.

Check operating conditions of


condensate
pumps
or
condensate system.
Establish normal
conditions.

operating

Condenser vacuum interlock


effective.

See fault tracing instructions


for condenser plant.

Bypass system temperature


interlock effective.

Injection water flow rate too


nd
stage water
low, check 2
injection if bypass steam flow
rate is high.

Steam flow
effective.

Reduce
output.

Bypass control valves close




Reheat
pressure
>
constant pressure setpoint

Bypass stop and


valves fail to open


rate

limitation

generator

control

Reheat
pressure
>
constant pressure set point

Fault in injection water control


valves or their actuators.

Check signal pressure and


pressure beneath pistons of
injection water control valves.

Signal
pressure
not
present: Fault in regulator
or hydraulic control gear.

Locate fault in regulator or


hydraulic control gear and
attend.

Signal pressure present,


Pressure beneath pistons
of one or more injection
water control valves not
present: Changeover valve
defective.

Attend fault in changeover


valve for injection water
control valves.

Signal pressure present,


Pressure beneath pistons
of injection water pilot
valve present: Injection
water
control
Valve
jammed.

Remove blockage in injection


water control valve

Condensate
pressure
upstream of injection water
control valves normal.
Condensate
pressure
downstream of injection water
control valves < interlock
pressure.

Reheat pressure > constant


pressure setpoint.
Condensate
pressure
upstream and downstream of
injection water control valve >
interlock pressure.

5.2-0490-00/2

steam

Open bypass valve until fault


is removed.

Fault in interlock elements

Check limit pressure control


gear.

Locate and attend fault in limit


pressure control gear.

Limit pressure control gear


fails to open: Fault in limit
pressure control.

Fault
Other symptoms

Cause


Remedy

Limit pressure control gear


opens: fault in pressure
switch.

Locate and attend fault in


pressure switch.
If only one of the hydraulic
condensate
pressure
monitoring channels is faulty,
the faulty channel may be
blocked and bypass operation
continued.
Attention:
No
redundant
pressure monitoring effective:
use other criteria, e.g. bypass
steam temperature, to asses
injection water flow rate.
Attend fault
possible.

Reheat
pressure
>
constant pressure setpoint.
Condensate
pressure
normal.

as

soon

as

Fault in interlock elements for


loss of condenser vacuum.


Diaphragm
of
pressure
control
damaged.

limit
gear

Replace diaphragm;

Diaphragm
of
bypass
condenser safety device
damaged.

Replace diaphragm.
Close cutoff valve upstream of
measuring element.
Insert lever and lock.
Replace diaphragm.
In this case bypass operation
may be continued for the
duration of the repair.

Reheat
pressure
>
constant pressure setpoint.
Bypass steam temperature
normal.

Fault in interlock elements for


high
bypass
steam
temperature.

Check temperature measuring


instrument circuit, actuators of
solenoid valves and attend
fault.

5.2-0490-00/3

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

The availability, reliability and economy of a


turbine generator depend on the proper
condition of all components. This goal can
only be achieved through a comprehensive
maintenance program.
This
maintenance
program
specifies
activities to be performed with the unit in
service to establish the actual condition at
regular intervals (inspection = tests and
recording of operating data) and to maintain
the desired condition (maintenance).
Inspection Schedule
The inspection schedule [1] includes all
essential testing and operating data

In-Service Maintenance
Introduction

recording activities as well as procedures to


identify the condition of components.
The inspection schedule is supplemented by
tables specifying the testing intervals,
instructions and test records for comparison
of the desired and actual conditions.
Maintenance Schedule
The maintenance schedule [2] contains all
maintenance activities to be performed
during turbine operation or outages at
specified intervals.
The maintenance work to be performed
during prolonged outages, e.g. overhauls,
have been elaborated separately [3].

Also refer to the following sections:


[1] 5.3-0010 : Inspection Schedule
[2] 5.3-002.. : Maintenance Schedule
[3] 5.3-0200 : Instructions for Overhaul

BHEL Haridwar

5.3-0001-01

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Activity
No.

Work to be performed

1.0
1.1

Testing of
Controllers

1.2

Automatic Turbine Tester

1.3

Protective devices

1.4

Safety devices

1.5

Valves

1.6

Monitoring devices

2.0

Recording
and
documentation
of
operational
parameters
and conditions
Steady state operation
Non-steady state operation
Faults
Analysis of steam
Measurement of internal
efficiency

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

Inspection of LP turbine
free standing blades
Visual inspection
Blade profile and root
crack examination
Cleanliness of blade root
and groove
Blade natural frequency
test

BHEL Haridwar

Inspection Schedule

Parameter
measured
or tested

Functioning
& setting
Functioning
Functioning
& setting
Functioning
& setting
Functioning
free movement
leak tightness
Functioning
setting and
accuracy
Comparison
of specified and
actual data

Purity
Internal
condition of
turbine

Erosion,
looseness
Crack
Cleanliness

h
d
w
m
y

Frequency
= hourly
= daily
= weekly
= monthly
= yearly

Ref. 5.2-0021
Ref. 5.2-0022
& 5.2-0023
Ref. 5.2-0024
Ref. 5.2-0025

Remarks

Tests according to:


5.3-0030
5.3-0035
5.3-0060
5.3-0061
during start up,
power
operation,
shut down & stand
still

Ref. 5.2-0026

Ref. 5.2-0027

Ref. 5.2-0028
for long term
monitoring

Also ref. 5.3-0037

h
every start-up
every occurrence
Ref. 5.3-0050
d
3m

During
intermediate
and major
inspections,
every 50,000
hrs. of
operation

Ref Tech. Circular


No. X-68

Natural freq.

5.3-0010-04/1

Activity
No.

Work to be performed

4.0

Inspection of accessible
expansion joints in cross
around and extraction lines
Visual inspection
Surface crack examination

4.1
4.2
5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

6.0

Inspection
of
casing
guides and supports
Seating of casing on
support elements
Cleanliness
Integrity of keys & packers
Thermal clearances as per
drawing

Parameter
measured
or tested

Damages
Crack

Frequency
h = hourly
d = daily
w = weekly
m = monthly
y = yearly
During minor,
intermediate
and major
inspections

during shut down

w
w
During
intermediate
and major
inspections

Damage
Clearances

Leakage
noise

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5

Visual
inspection
for
steam-tightness
Casing joints
Flanges
Shaft seals
Valve stems
Instrument connections

7.0
7.1
7.2

Inspection of drains
Internal leak-tightness
External leak-tightness

w
w

8.0

8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5

Inspection
of
pumps,
motors and other drives in
continuous operation
Vibration behaviour
Head
Bearing temperatures
Thrust
Leak-tightness

d
d
d
d
d

9.0
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5

Visual inspection of piping


Leak-tightness
Vibration
Hangers
Expansion
Vibration dampers

d
d
w
w
3m

5.3-0010-04/2

Remarks

During shut down

Activity
No.

Work to be performed

10.0

Inspection of hydraulic
accumulator
Check charge pressure

10.1
11.0
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
12.0
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
13.0
13.1
13.2
14.0
14.1
14.2
14.3

Inspection of Main oil tank


Level check
Foaming characteristics
Water collection on bottom
of oil tank
Level check in bucket filter
to assess filter chocking
Water content of oil
Solid particle content of oil
Analysis of properties
Inspection of FRF tank
Level check
Level check in bucket filter
to access filter chocking
Foaming characteristics of
FRF
Analysis of fluid properties
Oil / FRF filter
Check differential pressure
reading
Check venting
Inspection of TG-deck
springs
Reference spring heights
Alignment check
Catenary check

Parameter
measured
or tested

Frequency
h = hourly
d = daily
w = weekly
m = monthly
y = yearly

Remarks

2w

d
w
2w
w

Ref. 5.1-0130

d
d
Ref. 5.3-0080
d
w
w

Ref. 5.1-0140

Ref. 5.3-0082
d
d

Ref. Technical
After first year
circular No. X-85 of operation

5.3-0010-04/3

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Activity
No.

Work to be performed

Maintenance Schedule
Turbine

Parameter
measured
or tested

Frequency
= hourly
= daily
= weekly
= monthly
= yearly

Remarks

1.

Cleaning
of
sliding
surfaces
 casing supports
 spacer bolts and discs
for bearing pedestals and
turbine casings

2.

Cleaning of turbine blading


by flushing through with
saturated
steam
as
prescribed in 5.3-0070

measurement
of i

as indicated by
criteria

The
criteria
indicating
stage
pressure
when
saturated
steam
flushing
is
necessary are the
internal efficiency
i and the stage
pressures

3.

Preservation of turbine
using air drying equipment
as prescribed in 5.2-0360

relative
humidity
in
turbine < 50%

continuous

During shutdowns
lasting longer than
1 week

4.

Lubrication of components
of the turbine control and
turbine protection systems

as prescribed in
5.1-0690

5.

Tightening
of
turbine
control valve packings

1m

6.

Tightening of valve stem


seals

3m or in the
event
of
leakages

7.

Lubrication of valve stems

as prescribed
5.1-0690

BHEL Haridwar

Visual
inspection

h
d
w
m
y

1m

5.3-0021-02

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Maintenance Schedule
Oil system, Seal Steam system, Drains

Oil System

Activity
No.

1.

Work to be performed

Cleaning of filters and


strainers
 Switch over duplex filters
and clean fouled filter
cartridges as prescribed
in 5.1-1130
 Turn plate-type filters
through
two
three
revolutions
as
prescribed in 5.1-1 120
 Clean plate-type filters

 Replace filter papers in


fine mesh filter
 Change
oil
tank
strainers, clean chocked
strainers as prescribed
in 5. 1-1 010
 Clean wire mesh of oil
stripper
2.

Cleaning of
centrifuge

3.

using

p across
filter

Frequency
= hourly
= daily
= weekly
= monthly
= yearly

Remarks

as indicated by
criteria, max 6m

6m -1y

p across
filter
oil level in
bucket
strainers

as indicated by
criteria, max 6 m
as indicated by
criteria,
max. 6m - 1y

during
appropriate
shut-downs and
overhauls

during
appropriate
shut-downs and
overhauls

6m
solid or liquid
foreign matter
in oil

continuous, as
indicated by
criteria

Cleaning of centrifuge as
specified
by
the
manufacturer

deposits in
centrifuge

1m
indicated by
criteria

4.

Cleaning of oil tank after


draining oil

deposits in oil
tank

3 -4 y

5.

Maintain oil tank level at


service level; top up with
oil of same make and
properties

level in oil tank

1 d (check),
topping up as
indicated by
criteria

6.

Draining of water from the


oil tank

water collecting
on oil tank
bottom

as indicated by
criteria

BHEL Haridwar

oil

Parameter
measured
or tested

h
d
w
m
y

as

during overhauls

establish cause
of water
accumulation

5.3-0022-01/1

Activity
No.

Work to be performed

Parameter
measured
or tested

Frequency
h = hourly
d = daily
w = weekly
m = monthly
y = yearly

7.

Oil or grease change in


valve actuators
 Motive oil valve
 Oil temperature control
valve

as specified by
actuator
manufacturer

8.

Lubrication of pump and


fan motors
 Auxiliary oil pumps
 Emergency oil pump
 Jacking oil pumps
 Oil vapour exhauster
fans

as specified by
motor
manufacturer

9.

Lubrication of oil vapour


exhauster fan bearings

as prescribed by
fan manufacturer

10.

lubrication of valve stem at


the
lubrication
points
provided

as prescribed in
5.3-0081

11.

Tightening of valve, steam


seals

3m or in the
event of leakages

12.

Elimination of oil leakages


by tightening of flanges
and bolted joints

13.

Check vibration dampers


as prescribed in 5.3-0100

14.

Charging
of
accumulators

5.3-0022-01/2

hydraulic

oil leakages

continuous

1y
charge
pressure

1m

Remarks

Seal steam system

Activity
No.

Work to be performed

Parameter
measured
or tested

Frequency
h = hourly
d = daily
w = weekly
m = monthly
y = yearly

1.

Change of control fluid for


seal steam control valve
actuators as prescribed in
5.1-0690

1y

2.

Filter change for seat


steam
control
valve
actuators as prescribed in
its manual

1y

3.

Lubrication
of
vapour
exhaust fan motors

as specified by
motor
manufacturer

4.

Lubrication
of
vapour
exhaust fan bearings

as prescribed by
fan manufacturer

5.

Lubrication of valve stems


at the lubrication points as
prescribed in 5.3-0081

3m

6.

Tightening of valve stem


seals

3m or in the
event of leakages

Remarks

Drains

Activity
No.

Work to be performed

Parameter
measured
or tested

Frequency
h = hourly
d = daily
w = weekly
m = monthly
y = yearly

1.

Oil or grease change in


drain valve actuators

as specified by
actuator
manufacturer

2.

Lubrication of drain valve


stems at the lubrication
points
provided
as
prescribed in 5.3-0081

3m

3.

Tightening of drain valve


stem seals

3m or in the
event of leakages

4.

Check on drain line sludge


traps

1 -2y

Remarks

5.3-0022-01/3

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Activity
No.

Work to be performed

Maintenance Schedule
FRF system

Parameter
measured
or tested

h
d
w
m
y

Frequency
= hourly
= daily
= weekly
= monthly
= yearly

Cleaning of filters
and strainers
 Switch
over
duplex
filters; and clean fouled
filter cartridges
as
prescribed in 5.1-1130
 Turn plate-type filters
through
two
three
revolutions
 Clean plate-type filters

p across filter

 Replace filter papers in


fine mesh filter as
prescribed in 5.1-1140
 Replace fullers earth
filling in regenerating
filter as prescribed in
5.3-0082
 Change
FRF
tank
strainers; clean chocked
strainers
 Regenerate air filters or
exchange filter filling

p across filter

as indicated by
criteria, max 6 m

Neutralization
number

6m or as
indicated by
criterion

FRF level in
strainers

as indicated by
criteria

Discoloration of
filter filling

3m, or as
indicated by
criterion

2.

Cleaning of FRF tank after


draining FRF

deposits in FRF
tank

3-4y

3.

Keeping the FRF in FRF


tank at operating level.
 Top up using FRF of the
same brand and with the
same properties

Level in FRF
tank

1 d check; Top
up as indicated
by criterion

1.

4.

Lubrication of motors of
pumps and fans
 FRF pumps
 FRF circulating pump
 FRF vapour extraction
fan

BHEL Haridwar

Remarks

6m -1y

during appropriate
shut-downs and
overhauls

during appropriate
shut-downs and
overhauls

during overhauls

as specified by
the motor
manufacturer

5.3-0023-01/1

Activity
No.

Work to be performed

Parameter
measured
or tested

Frequency
h = hourly
d = daily
w = weekly
m = monthly
y = yearly

5.

Lubrication of the bearings


of
the
FRF
vapour
extraction fan

as specified by
fan manufacturer

6.

Lubrication of the valve


stems at the lubricating
points provided

3m

7.

Retightening of the valve


stem packing

3m of if leakage
detected

8.

Elimination of leaks by
retightening flanges and
unions

9.

Checking of damping fluid


in
vibration dampers
as prescribed in 5.3-0100

10.

Charging
of
accumulators

5.3-0023-01/2

hydraulic

leakage

regularly, as
indicated by
criterion
1 -2 Y

Filling
pressure

1m

Remarks

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Testing during Start-up

Introduction
Tests demonstrate the readiness for
operation and the proper functioning of
important components. They must be
performed before and during start-up of the
turbine generator unit, irrespective of the
time of the preceding shutdown.

main trip valves in operating position, stop


valve closed etc.)

If all prerequisites for performance of the


complete test program are not fulfilled,
reduced testing to ensure the readiness of
the auxiliary, emergency and jacking oil
pumps for operation must be performed.

Test Performance
Take care to avoid any risks to people or
machines while performing tests.

The scope of the test program for start-up of


the turbine is to make sure that all tests
required to be performed before start-up
after a shutdown period of approx. 4 weeks
[1, 2] have completed.
Test procedures
Tests, prerequisites, test activities and
criteria in table form is intended to simplify
testing. The symbols at the head of the
columns in the tables are an aid to
understanding the concise test instructions.
The tables are also suited to use as
checklists. Whenever no specific test
instructions are prescribed for any test, the
sequences shown in the table must be
followed.
A number of tests require that certain
components be in a definite position (e.g.

BHEL Haridwar

The operation sequence establishing certain


operating conditions is given in the form of
general instructions to avoid constant
repetition in the table of test sequences.

Any simulated conditions necessary for the


tests must be cancelled after completion of
tests.
Steam inlet valve may only be operated for
test purposes if the piping systems upstream
of the valves are not under pressure and the
systems concerned have been expressly
cleared for testing.
Test performance must be recorded.
If incorrect operation of the equipment being
tested occurs, take action establishing full
operational reliability of the turbine generator
unit immediately. Pay attention to fault
tracing instructions.

Also refer to the following sections:


[1] 5.3-0061: Testing During Standstill
[2] 5.2-002..: Testing of turbine Component

5.3-0030-02/1

Equipment tested
Type of test

Preconditions
Test Step
Result

Starting and load limit device not in 0% position

Test valves of stop valves in left-hand end


position (=stop valves open)

o
()

Main trip valves in


operating Position
o

Stop valves closed

(1)

Move test valve pilot into right-hand end position


using handwheel (= stop valves closed)

(2)

Bring starting and load limit device into 0%


position

(3)

Main trip valves in


operating Position
o

Stop valves open

Bring starting and load limit device into 40%


position

Main trip valve in operating position and ready to


trip

Stop valves closed

Starting and load limit devices not in 0% position

Test valve of stop valve in left-hand end position

(1)

Bring starting and load limit device into 0%


position

(2)

Auxiliary oil pumps


o Pressure-dependent
on command
from
subloop control before
starting turning gear
operation

Main trip valve in operation position


Bring starting and load limit device into 40%
position

Main trip valve in operating position and ready to


trip

Stop valves open

o Shaft at standstill
o Oil system depressurised
o Auxiliaries and emergency oil pumps off
o Subloop controls on Manual
(1)

(2)

5.3-0030-02/2

Main trip valve in operating position

Switch auxiliary oil pump 1 subloop control to


Auto

Auxiliary oil pump 1 on

System oil pressure present


Switch auxiliary oil pump 2 subloop control to
Auto

Date
Result
Tested by

Equipment tested
Type of test

o
()

Preconditions
Test Step
Result

Date
Result
Tested by

(3)

Switch auxiliary oil pump 1 subloop 1control to


Manual

(4)

Switch auxiliary oil pump 1 off

Auxiliary oil pump 2 on

System oil pressure present

D.C. Emergency oil


pump
o

Pressure-dependent
on command from
subloop control before
starting turning gear
operation

(1)

Switch D.C. emergency oil pump subloop control


on

(2)

Switch auxiliary oil pump 2 subloop control to


Manual

(3)

Switch auxiliary oil pump 2 off

DC emergency oil pump on

Lubricating oil pressure present

(4)

Switch DC emergency oil pump subloop control


to Manual

(5)

Switch DC emergency oil pump off

Oil system depressurised

Auxiliary and emergency oil pumps off

Shaft at stand still

Oil system depressurised

Auxiliary and emergency oil pumps off

Subloop controls on Manual

Auxiliary and
Emergency oil pumps
o

Operational readiness
before starting turning
gear
operation
(testing not required if
sobloop
controls
have already been
successfully tested)

(1)

Auxiliary and
Emergency oil pumps
o

Operational readiness
after starting turning
gear operational

Switch auxiliary and emergency oil pumps in turn


to Manual on

System oil pressure present

Turning gear in operation

One auxiliary oil pump operating

(1)

Switch stand-by auxiliary oil pump to Manual on

Pressure buildup in system

(2)

Switch stand-by auxiliary oil pump to Manual off

(3)

Switch emergency oil pump to Manual on

(4)

Pressure buildup in system


Switch emergency oil pump to Manual off

5.3-0030-02/3

Equipment tested
Type of test

Preconditions
Test Step
Result

Turbine generator unit speed = rated speed

o
()

Auxiliary Oil pumps


o

Speed-dependent
cutout when rated
speed is reached

(1)

Verify cut out of auxiliary oil pump

Jacking oil pumps


o

Speed-dependent on
command
of
AC
jacking oil pump from
subloop control before
starting
turning
gear operation

Shaft at standstill

Jacking oil pumps off

Subloop controls on Manual

(1)

Switch AC jacking oil pump subloop control to


Auto

AC jacking oil pump on

Jacking oil pressure present

(2)

Switch AC jacking oil pump subloop control to


Manual

(3)

Switch AC jacking oil pump off

AC jacking oil pump off

Jacking oil system depressurised

Shaft at stand still

Jacking oil pumps


o

Manual on of AC
jacking
oil
pump
before starting turning
gear operation

(1)

Switch AC jacking oil pump to Manual on

AC jacking oil pump on

System oil pressure present

(2)

Switch AC jacking oil pump to Manual off

AC jacking oil pump off

System depressurised

Shaft at stand still

Jacking oil pumps off

Subloop control on Manual

Jacking oil pumps


o

Speed-dependent on
command
of
DC
Jacking oil pump from
subloop control before
turning gear operation

5.3-0030-02/4

(1)

Switch DC jacking oil pump subloop control to


Auto

DC jacking oil pump on

Jacking oil pressure present

Date
Result
Tested by

Equipment tested
Type of test

o
()

Preconditions
Test Step
Result

Date
Result
Tested by

(2)

Switch DC jacking oil pump subloop control to


Manual

(3)

Switch DC jacking oil pump off

DC jacking oil pump off

Jacking oil system depressurised

Shaft at stand still

Jacking oil pumps off

Subloop controls on Manual

Jacking oil pumps


o

Operational readiness
of
Jacking oil
pumps
(1)

Switch jacking oil pumps in turn to Manual on

Jacking oil pressure present

Control fluid system depressurised

Control fluid pumps off

Subloop control on Manual

Control fluid pumps


o

Pressure-dependent
on command from
subloop control
(1)

Select one control fluid pump (e.g. pump 1)

(2)

Switch subloop control to Auto

Control fluid pump 1 on

Control fluid system pressure present

(3)

Select control fluid pump 2

(4)

Switch control fluid pump 1 off

Control fluid pump 2 on

Control fluid system pressure present

(5)

Switch subloop control to Manual

(6)

Switch control fluid pump 2 off

Control fluid system depressurised

Control fluid pumps off

Control fluid system depressurised

Control fluid pumps off

Subloop control on Manual

Control fluid pumps


o

Operational readiness
(Testing not required
if subloop controls
have already been
successfully tested)

(1)

Switch control fluid pumps in turn to Manual on

Control fluid system pressure present

5.3-0030-02/5

Equipment tested
Type of test

Preconditions
Test Step
Result

Main trip valve in operating position

Stop valves closed

o
()

Remote trip initiation


o

Push button operation

(1)

Press trip push button

Trip annunciated

Main steam pressure present upstream of stop


valves

Stop valves closed using test valves

Stop valves
o

Leak test

(1)

Open control valves

(2)

No speed increase
Bring back test valves to operating position

Control valves
o

Leak test

Control valves closed using motorised actuator

Main steam pressure present upstream of turbine

(1)

Open stop valves

(2)

No abnormal speed increase


Bring back motorised actuator to open position

Overspeed trip
o

Oil injection test

Turbine speed < 2970rpm or

Unit in low-load operation

(1)

Release testing device for operation

(2)

Press and hold down test valve for inhibiting trip


(left-hand valve)

(3)

Turn handwheel of hydraulic test signal


transmitter to right until test oil circuit is
pressurised

(4)

Observe oil pressures where overspeed trip


device operates
Auxiliary trip circuit depressurised

5.3-0030-02/6

Date
Result
Tested by

Equipment tested
Type of test

o
()

Date
Result
Tested by

Preconditions
Test Step
Result

(5)

Turn handwheel of hydraulic test signal


transmitter to left until test oil circuit is
depressurised

(6)

Bring trip device of overspeed trip into operating


position using right-hand valve

(7)

Auxiliary trip pressure built up


Repeat test until overspeed trip operates at the
same test oil pressure in successive tests

5.3-0030-02/7

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Testing during Power Operation

Test that demonstrate the readiness for


operation and the proper functioning of
important components, must be performed
during power operation of the turbine
generator unit. The time intervals between
tests are given in a separate instruction [1].
Test Procedures
The table containing tests, prerequisites,
test activities and criteria is intended to
simplify testing. The tables can be used as
checklists. When no specific instructions are
prescribed for any test, the test sequences
shown in the table must be followed.

Equipment tested
Type of test

Test performance
Test performance must be recorded. If
incorrect operation of the equipment tested
occurs, take action establishing full
operational reliability of the turbine generator
unit immediately.
Pay attention to fault tracing instructions. [2]

Also refer to the following sections:


[1] 5.2-002.. : Testing of turbine components
[2] 5.2-0400 : Fault tracing

Preconditions
Test Step
Result

Control valve opening < 100%

o
()

Date
Result
Tested by

Turbine controllers
o

Functional test
(1)

Change setpoint of effective controller

Change in control valve-opening corresponding


to setpoint change

Load approx. 50%

Bypass control
o

Functional test
(1)

Open HP bypass station slowly by operating


pushbutton on control panel

Reheat pressure increases

Injection water pressure present

Bypass stop valves open

Bypass control valves begin to open

(2)

BHEL Haridwar

Close HP bypass station

Reheat pressure drops

Bypass control valves close

Bypass stop valves close

Injection water pressure reduced

5.3-0035-02/1

Equipment tested
Type of test

Preconditions
Test Step
Result

Seal steam controller on

o
()

Seal steam controller


o

Functional test
(1)

Seal steam controller off

(2)

Induce control deviation by operating control


valves (Pushbutton on control panel)

(3)

Seal steam controller on

(4)

Verify correction of seal steam pressure

Oil temperature
controller
o

Functional test

Oil temperature controller on

(1)

Oil temperature controller off

(2)

Induce control deviation by operating temperature


control valve (Pushbutton on control panel)

(3)

Oil temperature controller on

(4)

Verify correction of oil temperature

Auxiliary and
emergency oil pumps
o

Operational readiness
test

Auxiliary and emergency oil pumps off

(1)

Auxiliary pumps subloop control off

(2)

Auxiliary oil pump 1 Manual on

Pressure buildup downstream of pump

(3)

Auxiliary oil pump 1 Manual off

(4)

Auxiliary oil pump 2 Manual on

Pressure buildup downstream of pump

(5)

Auxiliary oil pumps 2 Manual off

(6)

Auxiliary oil pumps subloop control on

(7)

Emergency oil pump Manual on

(8)

Pressure buildup downstream of pump


Emergency oil pump Manual off

Control fluid pumps


o

Operational readiness
test

o
(1)

Stand-by control fluid pump Manual on

(2)

5.3-0035-02/2

Service control fluid pump on

Pressure buildup downstream of tested pump


One control fluid Manual off

Date
Result
Tested by

Equipment tested
Type of test

Preconditions
Test Step
Result

Automatic turbine tester available

o
()

Date
Result
Tested by

Main trip valves


o

Ease
test

of

movement
(1)

Select and start test program for one protective


device

Main trip valves respond

No fault annunciations on automatic turbine tester

Automatic turbine tester available

Remote trip solenoids


o

Functional test
(1)

Select and start Remote trip solenoids test


program

Main trip solenoid respond

No fault annunciations on automatic turbine tester

Automatic turbine tester available

Overspeed trips
o

Functional test
testing of setting

and
(1)

Select and start Remote trip test program

Overspeed trips
o

Manual functional test


and testing of setting

Overspeed trips respond

(2)

If ATT annunciates fault repeat overspeed trip


test

(1)

Release hydraulic test signal transmitter

(2)

Depress left-hand piston of hydraulic test signal


transmitter to limit and hold down

(3)

Increase test pressure using handwheel of


hydraulic test signal transmitter
o

Overspeed trip(s) respond(s)

(4)

Ascertain pressure at which trip(s)


and record

(5)

Reduce test pressure using


hydraulic test signal transmitter

(6)

Depress right-hand piston of hydraulic test signal


transmitter to limit

respond(s)

handwheel

of

Auxiliary trip pressure builds up

(7)

Release right-hand piston of hydraulic test signal


transmitter

(8)

Release left-hand piston of hydraulic test signal


transmitter

5.3-0035-02/3

Equipment tested
Type of test

o
()

(9)

Preconditions
Test Step
Result

Repeat test as often necessary until trip operates


at the same test pressure as set during
commissioning

Hydraulic low-vacuum
trip
o

Functional test
testing of setting

and

o
(1)

Automatic turbine tester available


Select and start Low-vacuum trip test program

low vacuum trip operates

No fault annunciations on automatic turbine tester

Extraction system in operation

Extraction swing check valve open

Hydraulic release present

Differential pressure
switch in extraction
lines
o

Functional test

(1)

Reduce differential pressure across differential


pressure switch

Extraction swing check valve closes slightly

Automatic turbine tester available

Stop and control valves


o

Exercising
(1)

Apply test load

(2)

Select and start test program for stop and control


valve unit to be tested

Control valve closes

Stop valve closes

Stop valve opens

Control valve opens

No fault annunciation on automatic turbine tester

Extraction swing check


valves
o

Exercising

o Extraction system in operation


(1)

Change load or extraction flow


Extraction swing check units perform movements

5.3-0035-02/4

Date
Result
Tested by

Equipment tested
Type of test

o
()

Preconditions
Test Step
Result

Date
Result
Tested by

Alarms
o

Functional test

Speed indicator

o Alarms generated
(1)

Record alarms generated

(1)

Compare with grid frequency

(1)

Record important operating values in accordance


with 5.3-0036 & 5.3-0037

(1)

Test temperature condition of drain values

Important operating
values
o

Recording

Drains
o

Leak test

5.3-0035-02/5

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Introduction
It is in the interest of both the plant operator
and the supplier that the causes of faults,
severe damage and unfavourable inspection
findings be determined, and actions taken to
prevent a recurrence of such incidents.
In order to determine the cause of such
faults, it is essential that information be
available, in the form of operating
documentation, on the operating history of
the turbine generator unit both in the past
and immediately before and during the fault
or damage.
This instruction contains recommendations
on the acquisition and archiving of operating
data.
Scope
of
measurement
and
instrumentation
The scope of measurements and also,
therefore, the instrumentation of the turbine
generator unit are dictated by the
agreements between plant operators and
suppliers.
The data are of importance for operations
management.
The
scope
of
data
recommended in Table-1 should therefore
be available to permit post-event analysis.
Scope of operating documentation
Operating documentation comprises the
following documents:
 Printouts from continuous-line printer
 Operating data logs or curves based on
the data archived in the electronic data
acquisition system
 Alarm and switching logs ; such logs
document the histories of faults or
damage and should be archived
 Logs with handwritten entries are
required in cases where certain data are
not recorded or archived
 Logs used to document the long-term
behavior of the turbine generator unit

BHEL Haridwar

Acquisition and Archiving


of operating data
Procedural Instruction
 Documents
statistics

showing

the

availability

Documents from the electronic data


acquisition system
 Processing of analog measured values
All the data specified in Table-1 should be
archived in MAXSTORIAN of electronic data
acquisition system. It should be possible to
retrieve data in the form of logs or time
curves at any time over the course of the
intended archiving period. Long-term data
archiving is to be done on magnetic tape /
disc.
Only those values for an operating
parameter should be electronically archived
which, after the scanning interval has
elapsed, lie outside the scatter band given in
Table-1, when compared to the last
recorded value.
 Processing of binary signals
Normally, binary signals resulting from
annunciations and switching operations are
continuously printed out with high time
resolution by the electronic data acquisition
system, alarm and switching logs are thus
generated which form an important source
of information for operations management.
For troubleshooting purposes, the alarm and
switching logs printed immediately before,
during and after the fault should be retained
and archived.
Documents for long-term monitoring of
the turbine-generator unit
Certain operating data should be recorded
at long intervals in order to document the
long-term behaviour of the turbine generator
unit, as well as any data relevant in terms of
life expectancy considerations.
The associated logs may be of use in
analysing faults or damages if the cause can
be traced back to or is indicative of a
gradually developing adverse change.

5.3-0037-03/1

Documents on availability statistics


For the purpose of providing information on
the operating behaviour and the status of
the plant, it is recommended that availability
statistics is compiled which show, among
other things, the causes and duration of
periods of non-availability.
If the statistics show a frequent recurrence
of an event which leads to plant nonavailability, in-depth investigations should be
performed.
Processing of operating documents
 Fault report
The control room personnel should prepare
reports on fault or damage, showing all
relevant data on the evolution of the event
leading to the fault or damage, as well as
the countermeasures implemented. Copies
of the printouts from the continuous-line
recorder or dotted-line recorder, operating
data tables and curves generated by the
electronic data acquisition system, and the
fault and damage logs should be appended
to the fault or damage reports.
 Evaluation of the fault report and the
operating documentation
Faults and damage usually occur when
several adverse influences are present
simultaneously. Because of the multiplicity
of conceivable faults and their possible
influencing factors, it is not possible in this
procedural instruction to present a reliable
and complete picture of all the correlations
involved.
It is the duty of the operators or suppliers
own experts to define the correlation
between the event and the adverse
influencing factors and to evaluate them and

decide
on
implemented.

countermeasures

to

be

Retention period for documentation


The documents described above must be
archived in a magnetic tape for consultation
for a long time after the operating data have
been logged in order, among other things, to
analyse
any
correlations
between
component status and operating conditions.
 Documents containing operating data
which are relevant in terms of life
expectancy considerations must be
archived until the turbine generator unit is
taken out of service.
 It is recommended that all other
documents be archived until the next
inspection and overhaul has been
completed.
Importance of documents for settling
guarantee claims
Without the data contained in the documents
described above, the supplier of the turbine
generator unit is not always able to check
the legal validity of guarantee claims in the
event of damage or a complaint regarding
component defects and may therefore
reserve the right to reject any claims for
which the requisite documents are not
available.

Table-1 lists the required operating data for


acquisition and archiving in accordance with
the operating instruction, in order to permit
evaluation of turbine performance. The
requirements will have to be adapted on the
basis of the actual measuring point list.

Also refer to the following:


[1] BHEL-EDN document on MAX control system

5.3-0037-03/2

Table 1
Data acquisition recommended for post event analysis
ID Code

Measuring point

Measuring Scatter band


cycle

Retention
Period

Power/Speed
MKA
CE Active Power
MKA
CE Reactive Power
MYA
FS Turbine generator speed
Steam pressure

30 s
30 s
5s

0.002 Pnom
0.002 Pnom
0.05 to 0.1 s-1

service life
service life
inspection cycle

LBA
CP Upstream MS stop valves
MAA
CP Upstream HP blading
LBC/MAA CP Downstream HP blading
LBB
CP Upstream reheat stop valves
MAB
CP Upstream IP blading
LBQ
CP HP extractions
LBS
CP LP extractions
MAG
CP Condenser
Steam temperatures

30 s
30 s
30 s
30 s
30 s
30 s
30 s
30 s

0.01 Pnom
0.01 Pnom
1 bar
0.01 Pnom
0.01 Pnom
0.005 to 0.01 Pnom
0.02 Pnom
0.01 bar

service life
service life
inspection cycle
service life
service life
inspection cycle
inspection cycle
inspection cycle

LBA
CT Upstream MS-stop valves
LBC/MAA CT Downstream HP turbine
LBB
CT Upstream reheat stop valves
MAB
CT Downstream IP turbine
LBO
CT HP extractions
LBS
CT LP extractions
MAW
CT Seal steam header
Casing temperatures

30 s
30 s
30 s
30 s
30 s
30 s
30 s

2K
2K
2K
2K
2K
1K
1K

service life
inspection cycle
service life
inspection cycle
inspection cycle
inspection cycle
inspection cycle

MAA
CT MS-SV/CV 100/50%
MAA/MAB CT Turbine casing 100/90/50%
MAA/MAB CT Turbine casing top/bottom
MAC
CT Turbine casing front/rear
Bearing temperatures

30 s
30 s
30 s
30 s

2K
2K
2K
1K

service life
service life
inspection cycle
inspection cycle

MAD
CT
MKD
CT
Vibrations

Turbine radial/axial bearings


Generator/exciter bearings

5s
5s

1K
1K

inspection cycle
inspection cycle

MAD/MKD CY Turbine / generator bearing


casing
MAD
CY Turbine shaft abs. or relative
MKD
CY Generator / exciter shaft
absolute or relative

5s

1 m

inspection cycle

5s
5s

5 m

inspection cycle
inspection cycle

5 m

5.3-0037-03/3

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Remedial Actions for


off-normal operating conditions

Turbine
Off-Normal Condition

Action

Classification of action

Main steam pressure > Pmax


(Long-term)

Increase turbine load or reduce


steam generator output

In-service correction

Main/reheat
steam
temperature > max (longterm)

Reduce main / reheat


temperature

steam

In-service correction

Main
/
reheat
temperature < design

Raise main
temperature

steam

In-service correction

Steam pressure ahead of


turbine blading > Pmax (longterm)

Reduce turbine load until pressure


ahead of turbine blading < Pmax

In-service correction

HP turbine exhaust steam


temperature or extraction
temperatures > normal under
otherwise
comparable
operating conditions

Take i measurements

In-service check

If internal efficiency i degraded


flush through with saturated steam

Maintenance (saturated
steam washing) during
short shut-down

steam

reheat

(long-term)

Clean blading

Maintenance
(cleaning)
during overhaul
Seal
steam
pressure
deviates from setpoint or
fluctuates

Seal steam pressure > pnormal


Seal steam leak-off valve
100%

Temperature differential , top


and bottom casing > normal

Check
control
system;
if
necessary
correct
setpoint
adjuster

In-service
correction

check

and

If necessary repair control valves

Repair during service or


overhaul

Replace filters
control valves

Maintenance during short


shut-down

at seal

steam

Measure temperature in leak-off


steam lines of casings, valves etc.

In-service check

Check functioning of Gland Steam


condenser

In-service check

Check shaft
if necessary

Inspection and
during overhaul

seal

and

repair

repair

Check temperature sensors

In-service check

Establish cause of temperature


differential as per 5.2-0423

Actions during service or


overhaul depending on
findings

Check TSC and/or temperature


sensors;
check
and
repair
TSC or temperature sensors

In-service
repair

Discrepancies at TSC
- TSC test
correct

function

not

- High
wall
temperature
differentials during steadystate operation

BHEL Haridwar

check

and

5.3-0040-01/1

Off-Normal Condition
Spacer plates at casing
supports not free to move

Bearing or shaft vibration


> normal under otherwise
comparable
operating
conditions

Action

Classification of action

Check for casing lift

In-service check

Clean spacer plates and other


fixture
elements;
establish
freedom of movement

In-service
check
and
maintenance
(cleaning)
only if casing does
not lift when fixture
elements are removed;
inspection
and
maintenance (cleaning) or
repair during overhaul

Check forces exerted by piping,


check adjustment of piping
hangers

In-service
correction
down

Perform checks as prescribed in


5.2-0420
provided
vibrations
< trip limits

In-service check

Actions
as
finding e.g.

appropriate

during

check;
shut-

to

Rebalance rotor system

In-service check

Check alignment,
shaft seals

In
service
correction
Check during overhaul
or after turbine shut-down

bearings,

Perform examinations and checks


as prescribed in 5.2-0421

In-service check

If temperature changes wide with


rapid rates of change, shut down
turbine and inspect bearing

Immediate inspection and


repair during forced shutdown

If temperature changes small and


slow, inspect and repair at earliest
opportunity

Inspection and
during overhaul

Drain valves leaking

Open drain, blow through and


close again

In-service correction

Loss of integrity of stem


packing
of drain valves

Tighten stem seals

In-service maintenance

LP turbine outlet temperature


> normal under otherwise
comparable
operating
conditions
(especially
condenser vacuum)

Leak in internal expansion joint


suspected if high temperature
localised

In-service check

Perform
inspection
necessary repair

Visual inspection and


repairs
during overhaul
or after shut-down

Bearing metal temperatures


> normal under otherwise
comparable
operating
conditions

5.3-0040-01/2

and

if

repair

Oil system
Off-Normal Condition

Action

Classification of action

Oil system pressures < pnormal

Perform examinations and checks


as prescribed in 5.2-0460 and take
appropriate action

Check
and
remedial
actions may
in many
cases
be
performed
during
operation;
otherwise
shut down
plant and perform repairs

Lubricating
oil
pressure
downstream of filter < Pnormal

Change over filter and clean

In-service maintenance

Control
< Pnormal

pressure

Change over filter and clean or


replace, or clean filter by rotating
filter plates

In-service maintenance

Oil temperature downstream


of oil cooler > normal

Perform examinations and checks


as prescribed in 5.2-0460 check
control system, if necessary
correct setpoint
or repair

In-service checks
maintenance

and

Top up with oil of same make and


type

In-service
check
maintenance

and

Locate leak and take appropriate


actions, e.g. initiate fire protection
measures

In-service
check
remedial action

and

Oil level in tank strainer high

Change and clean strainer

Maintenance
during
service or shut-down

Water collecting on oil tank


bottom

Drain off water; separate water


from oil

In-service maintenance

Establish causes and eliminate

Check and repair during


overhaul

Check if oil vapour exhauster


fan is in operation

In-service
correction

fluid

Check
oil
cooler
vents;
check
that
no
water
is
being admitted to standby oil
cooler; check oil cooler for
chocking,
where
necessary
change over and clean
Oil level in oil tank < normal
- Slow change

- Rapid change

Oil escaping at oil guard


rings of bearing pedestals

check

and

Adjust throttle valves on bearing


pedestals
Check leak-tightness of oil tank
covers and if necessary reseal
Oil properties, e.g. air
separation capability and
antifoaming, changed

Perform
additional
oil
examinations;
consult
on
appropriate actions with
oil
supplier and turbine manufacturer

In-service maintenance

5.3-0040-01/3

Control Fluid System


Off-Normal Condition

Action

Classification of action

Control fluid level in control


fluid tank < normal
- Slow change

Top up with control fluid of same


make and type

In-service
check
maintenance

and

- Rapid change

Locate leak and take appropriate


actions; e.g. initiate fire protection measures

In-service
check
remedial actions

and

Control fluid level in tank


strainer high

Change and clean strainer

Maintenance
during
service or shut-down

Control fluid properties, e.g.


air separation capability or
neutralisation value, changed

Operate
regeneration
plant
continuously; shorten sampling
intervals;
replace
Fullers
earth in filter

In-service maintenance

Control fluid temperature


downstream of control fluid
cooler > normal

Check control system, where


necessary adjust setpoint or
repair

In-service checks
maintenance

and

Check control fluid vents


Check that no water is being
admitted to the standby cooler;
check control fluid coolers for
chocking, if necessary change
over and clean
Charge
pressures
accumulators < Pnormal

5.3-0040-01/4

of

Recharge accumulators

In-service maintenance

Control System, Protective Devices


Off-Normal Condition

Action

Change in control system


setting
-

Control valve lift sequence

Control
synchronisation

valve

Control
changed

travel

as function
pressures

valve
of

Classification of action

Check
control
system,
if
necessary reset or correct,
establish cause of discrepancy
and eliminate

Correction during short


shut-downs or overhauls

Examine antifoaming performance


of turbine oil

In-service check

Check oil supply to hydraulic


speed transducer

Check during short shutdowns or overhauls

Open main oil pump and check


hydraulic speed transducer

Check and repair during


overhauls

Replace back seat

Repair during overhaul or


short shut-downs

secondary

Primary
oil
pressure
fluctuates or < Pnormal

Control valve streams not


leak-tight
- Control
100%

valve

opening

- Control valve opening <


100%

Replace steam packing rings

Control
valve
leaking
(internal steam leak)

Replace valve stem; rework seat

Repair during overhaul

Load
shedding
defective

Repair load shedding relay

In-service repair

- Running time exceeded


during testing of stop and
control valves

Adjust limit switch

In-service repair

Extraction swing check valve


position indicators defective

Repair position indicators

In-service repair

relay

Faults in valves detected by


automatic turbine tester

5.3-0040-01/5

Pumps and Piping


Off-Normal Condition

Action

Classification of action

Pump and motor bearing


temperatures > normal

Inspect
bearing,
renew
replenish grease or oil charge

Pump shaft seals not leaktight

Tighten
and
if
repack shaft seals

Performance degraded

Switch in standby unit

In-service correction

If necessary perform overhaul

Repair during overhaul

Discharge head < normal


under otherwise comparable
operating conditions

Switch in standby unit

In-service correction

Perform
system
check,
if
necessary
correct
system
operation

In-service correction

Pipes vibrating

Inspect dampers

In-service maintenance

Check and repair piping hangers


and supports

In-service repair

Piping
and/or
connections leaky

or

In-service maintenance

necessary

In-service maintenance

piping

- Large-scale escape
flammable media

of

Immediately shut down turbine


(initiate
fire
protection
measures); eliminate leak

Repair during stoppage

- Small-scale escape
flammable media

of

Establish
eliminate

Repair during stoppages


or overhauls

Valve stem seals not leaktight

5.3-0040-01/6

cause

of

leak

Tighten or replace stem seals

and

In-service maintenance,
repair during stoppages
and overhauls

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Measurement of
internal Efficiency
Test Instructions
recommendations given in Table-1 or as
specified by the operator on the basis of
practical experience with the particular plant,
which also includes the trend of any
changes in efficiency.

Introduction
This test instruction describes the procedure
used for measuring the internal efficiency of
turbines whose expansion line lies within the
superheated steam region.

Principle of measurement
 Prerequisites and limitations
The steam conditions in the reference plane
at the inlet and exhaust of the turbine,
whose internal efficiency is to be measured,
must lie within the superheated steam
region.

Recommendation for measurement


The economic performance of any power
plant unit depends, among other factors, on
the overall efficiency of the steam turbine
and thus, on the internal efficiency of each
cylinder.

The internal efficiency of turbines whose


expansion line lies totally or partially within
the wet steam region cannot be measured,
since there is no simple way of measuring
the actual steam content of a flow of wet
steam with sufficient accuracy. This means
that the method described here cannot be
used for measuring the internal efficiency of
LP turbines, operating under wet steam
condition.

Changes in the internal condition of a


turbine (e.g. due to buildup of deposits on
blades, increased seal clearances, or
mechanical damage) cause a marked
deterioration in internal efficiency.
Consequently, the internal efficiency of a
turbine cylinder is an important parameter
with which the effect of the changes in
internal condition on its performance can be
assessed.

Measuring the steam conditions at the


turbine inlet and exhaust
The steam pressures and temperatures in
the reference plane at the inlet and exhaust
of a turbine as indicated in Figure-1 are
measured, recorded and calculated during
normal
steady-state
operation
under
comparable
rated
design
conditions.
Carrying out test at identical load and steam
parameters makes the comparison / trend
more realistic.

Measurement of the internal efficiency of


each turbine at regular intervals and
comparison with values recorded previously
or when the unit was new, are
recommended. This will provide useful
additional information for planning the type,
scope and timing of maintenance work (e.g.
restoring original gaps and clearances,
blade repairs etc.).
The intervals between measurements
should be either in accordance with the

Table-1: Test intervals


Type of test

Boundary conditions

Test interval

Measuring
the internal
efficiency

Steady state operation under


rated
design
conditions
comparable with those of
previous measurements.

6-months

before and after inspections and overhauls

before and after wet steam washing

BHEL Haridwar

5.3-0050-02/1

P1

h1

hs

T1

S1

h2

P2
T2

hs

Figure-1 : Steam conditions and enthalpies for calculating the internal efficiency of a
turbine cylinder

Notations:
h
h1 - h2
Internal Efficiency in % = -------- x 100 = ----------- x 100
hs

h1 - hs

Where,
P1 : Pressure of inlet steam before group stage section
T1 : Temperature of inlet steam before group stage section
P 2 : Pressure of exit steam after group stage section
T2 : Temperature of exit steam after group stage section
h1 : Enthalpy of inlet steam corresponding to P1 & T1
S1 : Entropy of inlet steam corresponding to P1 & T 1
h2 : Enthalpy of exit steam corresponding to P2 & T2
hs : Adiabatic steam Enthalpy corresponding to P2 & S1
Note: Values of h1, S1, h2 and hs are to be worked out from steam table.

5.3-0050-02/2

 Determining the enthalpy


The enthalpies for the steam conditions
measured in the reference plane at the
turbine inlet and outlet are taken from steam
table.
 Calculating the internal efficiency
The internal efficiency of a turbine cylinder is
calculated with the ratio of the actual
decrease in enthalpy to the isentropic
decrease in enthalpy.
 Trend of change in internal efficiency
Trend of changes in internal efficiency can
be seen when the measurements are plotted
versus time in a graph.
Measuring points and instruments
When taking measurements for calculating
the internal efficiency of a turbine, the
measuring points should be in the same
reference plane at the turbine inlet and
outlet as for the acceptance tests.
The turbine is also provided with test
measuring points for installing precision
instruments to measure pressures and
temperatures.
Appropriate instruments can be installed in
addition to the operational instrumentation
and
used
for
taking
necessary
measurements.
If the measurements are to be taken by
means of operational instrumentation
installed in the reference planes, the
instruments must be tested and calibrated
regularly in order to eliminate any
inaccuracies due to problems such as drift.
Measuring procedure
The procedure for measuring the steam
pressures and temperatures and calculating
the internal efficiency of a turbine is as
follows:
 Install precision pressure gauges or
recalibrate the operational instrument

 Install precision thermocouples or use the


operational instruments for temperature
measurement
 Adjust the inlet steam conditions and the
control valve lift to the same values used
for previous measurements
 Wait until turbine temperatures have
stabilized under steady-state operating
conditions
 Measure and record the steam pressures
and temperatures
 Use steam tables to determine the
enthalpies of the steam condition at the
turbine inlet and outlet
 Calculate the efficiency
 Compare
the
measured
internal
efficiencies with the values recorded
previously or when the unit was new, and
evaluate
Duration of testing
For reliable measurement, arithmetic
averages of pressure & temperature
measurements should be taken for at least
half an hour duration at stable load condition
and rated steam parameters.
Reasons for actual conditions deviating
from reference condition
Changes in internal efficiency can be due to
one or more of the following reasons:
 Increased roughness of the blade
surfaces due to a build-up of deposits,
corrosion, or solid particle erosion
 Increase in clearances in the blading flow
path
 Increased tip clearance losses due to
seal strip wear
 Bypass flow due to internal leaks
 Increase of losses in valve seats
 Deposits on heat transfer surfaces

 Vent the pressure-sensing lines

5.3-0050-02/3

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Testing during Shut-down

Introduction
Tests that demonstrate the proper
functioning of important components, must
be performed during shut down of the
turbine generator unit.
The scope of the tests performed is listed in
the Test interval instruction [1].
Test Procedures
Test prerequisites, test activities and criteria
in tabular form are intended to simplify
testing.

Test performance
Take care to avoid any risks to people or
machines while performing tests.
Any simulated condition necessary for the
tests must be cancelled after completion of
tests.
Steam inlet valves may only be opened for
test purposes if the piping system upstream
of those valves is not under pressure and
the system concerned have been cleared for
testing.
Test performance must be recorded.

The tables can also be used as checklists.


When no specific instructions are given for
any test, the test sequences shown in the
table must be followed.

If incorrect operation of the equipment being


tested occurs, take action establishing full
operational reliability of the turbine generator
unit immediately.

A number of tests require certain


components be in a definite position (e.g.
main trip valves in operating position, stop
valves closed, etc.).

Pay attention to fault tracing instructions.

The operating sequence establishing certain


operating conditions is given in the form of
general instructions to avoid constant
repetition in the tables of test sequences.

Equipment tested
o Type of test

o
()

Also refer to the following sections:


[1] 5.2-002.. : Testing of turbine components
[2] 5.3-0061 : Testing during standstill

Preconditions
Test Step
Result

Date
Result
Tested by

Main trip valves in operating


position


Stop valves closed

Starting and load limit device not in 0%


position

Test valves of stop valves in left-hand


end position ( = stop valves open)

(1)

Move test valve pilot into right-hand


end position ( = stop valves closed)
using hand wheel

(2)

Bring starting and load limit device


into 0 % position

(3)

BHEL Haridwar

Main trip valves in operating position


Bring starting and load limit device
into 40 % position

5.3-0060-01/1

Equipment tested
o Type of test

()

o Preconditions
Test Step
Result
Main trip valves in operating position
and ready to trip
Stop valves closed

Stop valves open

o Starting and load limit device not in 0%


position
o Test valves of stop valves in left-hand
end position
(1)

Bring starting and load limit device


into 0 % position
Main trip valves in operating position

(2)

Bring starting and load limit device


into 40 % position
Main trip valves in operating position
and ready to trip
Stop valves open

Overspeed trip
o

o Generator not synchronised

Overspeed test after test interval


or after inspections and repairs
(See also instruction 5.3-0030)

o Turbine generator unit at rated speed


o Turbine at operating temperature
(1)

Raise speed reference to maximum


Speed approx. 107%

(2)

Switch off Electro-hydraulic controller

(3)

Run up to trip speed by pressing


mechanical push button on hydraulic
speed governor

(4)

Verify operation of overspeed trip


Trip speed
Stop and control valves closed

Control valves and reverse power


protection relay
o

Leak test valves

o Generator synchronised

and

o Load > 0 %

Functional test (reverse power


relay)

o Speed governor effective

5.3-0060-01/2

(1)

Lower speed set point

Date
Result
Tested by

Equipment tested
o Type of test

o
()

Preconditions
Test Step
Result

Date
Result
Tested by

Secondary pressures <


pressure for control valves

opening

Control valves 0%
(2)

Verify operation of reverse power


protection relay
Reverse
operated

power

protection

relay

Generator breaker tripped


or
Reverse power protection relay not
operating (see serious faults 5.2-0410)
Auxiliary oil pump
o

o Stop and control valves closed

Pressure dependent on
command

o Turbine speed dropping


(1)

Verify startup of auxiliary oil pump on


pressure-dependent command
Auxiliary oil pump on

Jacking oil pump


o

Speed dependent on command

o Stop and control valves closed


o Turbine speed dropping
(1)

Verify startup of jacking oil pump on


speed-dependent command
Jacking oil pump on

Turning gear oil valve


o

o Stop and control valves closed

Speed-dependent open
command

o Turbine speed dropping


(1)

Verify opening of turning gear oil


valve on speed-dependent command
Turning gear oil valve open

Condenser Safety devices


o

Response of electrical
condenser safety device

o Turbine generator unit not operating


o Condenser plant operating

5.3-0060-01/3

Equipment tested
o Type of test

o
()

Preconditions
Test Step
Result

Date
Result
Tested by

o Criteria for shut down of condenser


plant fulfilled
o Main trip valves in operating position
o Stop valves closed
(1)

Reduce condenser vacuum

(2)

Verify operation of electrical condenser


safety device
Trip initiated

(3)

Response of hydraulic low


vacuum trip

Restore main trip valves to normal


operating position
o Condenser
safety
(electrical) performed

device

test

o Condenser vacuum > trip vacuum


(hydraulic)
o Main trip valves in operating position
o Stop valves closed
(1)

Simulated turbine speed by screwing


in locking bolt on low-vacuum trip

(2)

Reduce condenser vacuum

(3)

Verify operation of electrical condenser


safety device
Trip initiated

(4)

Restore main trip valves to normal


Operating position

(5)

Cancel hydraulic speed simulation


(Unscrew locking bolt on low-vacuum
trip)

(6)

Move test valve into operating position

Condenser Safety devices for


bypass operation
o

Response of hydraulic low


vacuum trip

o Condensate
operating

extraction

pumps

o Condenser pressure Pabs < 0.5 bar


o Criteria for shut down of condenser
plant fulfilled

5.3-0060-01/4

Equipment tested
o Type of test

o
()

Preconditions
Test Step
Result

Date
Result
Tested by

o Bypass operation ended


(1)

Press push-button
governor

of

LP

bypass

Signal pressure for bypass control


valves > 1.7 bar < 2.06 bar
Bypass stop valves
(2)

Operate push-button of LP Bypass limit


controller to inhibit response due to
reduction of condenser vacuum

(3)

Reduce condenser vacuum

(4)

Verify operation of low vacuum trip


Signal pressure upstream of
control valves reduced

bypass

5.3-0060-01/5

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Testing during Standstill

Introduction
Tests that demonstrate the proper
functioning of important components, must
be performed during stand still of the turbine
generator unit.

Test performance
Take care to avoid any risks to people or
machines while performing tests.

The time intervals between tests are given in


a separate instruction [1].

Any simulated conditions necessary for the


tests must be cancelled after completion of
tests.

Test Procedures
Test prerequisites, test activities and criteria
in tabular form are intended to simplify
testing.

Steam inlet valves may only be opened for


test purposes if the piping systems upstream
of those valves are not under pressure and
the system concerned have been cleared for
testing.

The tables are also suited to use as


checklists. Wherever no specific instructions
are prescribed for a test, the test sequences
shown in the table are to be followed.
A number of tests require certain
components be in a definite position (e.g.
main trip valves in operating position, stop
valves closed, etc.)
The operating sequence establishing certain
operating conditions is given in the form of
general instructions to avoid constant
repetition in the tables of test sequences.

Equipment tested
o Type of test

()

Test performance must be recorded.


If incorrect operation of the equipment being
tested occurs, take action establishing full
operational reliability of the turbine generator
unit immediately. Pay attention to fault
tracing instructions.

Also refer to the following sections:


[1] 3-001x : Testing of turbine components

o Preconditions
Test Step
Result

Date
Result
Tested by

Main trip valves in operating


position
o Stop valves closed

o Starting and load limit device not in 0%


position
o Test valves of stop valves in left-hand end
position ( = stop valves open)
(1)

Move test valve pilot into right-hand end


position ( = stop valves closed) using hand
wheel

(2)

Bring starting and load limit device into 0%


position
Main trip valves in operating position

(3)

BHEL Haridwar

Bring starting and load limit device into 40%


position

5.3-0061-02/1

Equipment tested
o Type of test

()

o Preconditions
Test Step
Result
Main trip valves in operating position and
ready to trip
Stop valves closed
o Starting and load limit device not in 0%
position

o Stop valves open

o Test valves of stop valves in left-hand


end position
(1)

Bring starting and load limit device into 0%


position
Main trip valves in operating position

(2)

Bring starting and load limit device into 40%


position
Main trip valves in operating position and
ready to trip
Stop valves open

Turbine control
o Testing of setting
Hydraulic amplifier

o Main trip valves in operating position


o Control medium temperature approx. 50 C
(1)

5.3-0061-02/2

Read and record setting data of control


system as a function of travel of starting
and load limit device (use starting and load
limit device to change auxiliary secondary
oil pressure by 0.1 0.2 bar per reading).

Travel of starting and load limit device

Travel of governor bellows

Auxiliary secondary pressure

Travel of converter (mm or %)

Secondary pressures

Travel of control valves

(2)

Prepare curves from readings and compare


with curves of last adjustment by
manufacturer

(3)

If comparison reveals major changes, have


them
inspected
and
corrected
by
manufacturer

Date
Result
Tested by

Equipment tested
o Type of test

()

o Testing of setting
Electro hydraulic converter

o Preconditions
Test Step
Result

Date
Result
Tested by

o Main trip valves in operating position


o Control medium temperature approx. 50 C
(1)

Read and record setting data of control


system as a function of input voltage of
turbine valve controller

Input voltage of turbine valve controller

Travel of converter

Secondary pressures

Travel of control valves

(2)

Prepare curves from readings and compare


with curves of last adjustment by
manufacturer

(3)

If comparison reveals major changes, have


them
inspected
and
corrected
by
manufacturer

Load rejection relay


o Main trip valves in operating position

o Functional test

o Control valves open


(1)

Use contactor to energize solenoid valves


operated by load rejection relay

Control valves close for as long as solenoid


valve is energized

Bypass control
o As per vendors recommendation

o Testing of setting
Main trip valves

o Main trip valves in operating position

o Ease of movement and trip


pressure

o Stop valves closed


(1)

Reduce control medium pressure


governor linkage by closing cutoff valve

(2)

of

Main trip valves close


Measure pressure where main trip valves
close

5.3-0061-02/3

Equipment tested
o Type of test

()

o Preconditions
Test Step
Result

Date
Result
Tested by

Remote trip solenoids


o Functional test

o Main trip valves in operating position


o Test valves of stop valves in closed
position
(1)

Press pushbutton to start remote turbine


trip

Trip initiated

Low vacuum trip


o Functional test and testing of
setting

o Condenser vacuum > response level


or
o Test pump operating and simulated
condenser vacuum > response level
(1)

Reduce condenser vacuum or increase


pump pressure
Low vacuum trip responds

(2)

Determine vacuum where trip started

Fire protection system


o Shaft at standstill

o Functional test

o Normal operating conditions of oil system


established (exception : jacking oil pump
subloop control off)
o Main trip valves in operating position
(1)

(2)

5.3-0061-02/4

Operate fire protection switches 1 and 2 in


succession in the control room and at the
local control stations in the power plant

Start of fire protection measures


accordance with functional diagram

No annunciation Fire protection measures


not performed

in

Acknowledge fire protection measures and


re-establish normal operating conditions for
further testing

Equipment tested
o Type of test

()

o Preconditions
Test Step
Result

Date
Result
Tested by

Low lub oil pressure trip


o Oil system operating

o Functional test

o Main trip valves in operating position


o Stop valves closed
(1)

Simulate pressure Transmitters (2 out of 3)


for lubricating oil trip

Trip started

Stop valve
o Exercising

o Oil system operating


o Main trip valves in operating position
o Stop valves open
(1)

Actuate main trip valves (manual trip-out


from control system rack or remote trip
Stop valves closed

o Cut-off pressure

o Oil system operating


o Main trip valves in operating position
o Stop valves to be tested open
(1)

Reduce trip oil pressure by means of cut-off


valve upstream of control system cabinet
Stop valve closes

(2)

Turbine control valves


o Exercising

Measure and record trip oil pressure where


valve starts to close

o Main trip valves in operating position


o Stop valves closed
o No limitation by parallel acting controllers
(1)

Bypass Stop & Control valves


o Exercising

Open and close control valves by starting


and load limit device

o Bypass interlock criteria not present


or
o Release criteria simulated
(1)

Open and close bypass stop and control


valves

5.3-0061-02/5

Equipment tested
o Type of test

Vacuum breakers
o Functional test

o Preconditions
()
Test Step
Result

(1)

Operate vacuum breakers

Alarms
o Functional test 4-1190
Binary signal transmitters
o Functional testing of
pressure switches
General measuring
instrumentation
o Functional and annunciation
test

5.3-0061-02/6

o Remove pressure switches


(1)

Test pressure switches with test pump

(1)

Test and calibrate in accordance with


manufacturers instructions

Date
Result
Tested by

Steam Turbine
Maintenance
Introduction
The set pressure of the safety valves of
turbine integral system (e.g. oil or other
control media) are checked during
commissioning.
The scope of instruction in the turbine
manual is, apart from certain exceptions,
strictly limited to the scope of supply of the
turbine factory. Safety valves of the steam
and water systems are not normally a part of
the turbine factorys scope of supply. Thus
the following instructions may only be
regarded as recommendations.
If the pressure in a system increases
impermissibly from the operating pressure, it
is the function of the safety valve to reduce
this pressure to the normal value thus
protecting the system concerned from
damage.
Therefore,
the
turbine
manufacturer must approve the valve
settings to be used [1].

Setting of the Safety Valves


The set values recommended by the turbine
manufacturer are contained in the Technical
Data [1] of the turbine manual and must be
observed.
Setting and testing must be carried out in
accordance with the technical requirements
and the instructions of the valve
manufacturer.
When the initial setting is performed during
commissioning of the turbine generator unit,
a representative of the turbine manufacturer
is to witness the test or be informed of the
set values.

Testing of Safety Valves

The set values must be entered in the


commissioning protocol.
Bypass valves, which open in the event of
excessive pressure upstream of turbine
components may form part of the over
pressure steam removal system and must
be likewise set and tested.

Testing of Safety Valves


Regular testing of the safety valves is the
responsibility of the turbine generator unit
operator. The testing intervals must comply
with the technical requirements and the
recommendations of the valve and turbine
generator unit manufacturer [2] and must be
observed.

Performance of Testing
Shut-down can be avoided if the testing is
carried out during operation of the turbine.
From the point of view of the turbine
manufacturer, however, they can only be
performed if the turbine generator unit is not
endangered.
Operation of the turbine with elevated
reheater pressure may lead to impermissible
temperatures or the control and thrust
characteristics of the turbine being
disturbed.
Furthermore, faults in the safety valves may
cause impermissible load changes or
instability of the steam generator. In this
case, it is best to carry out testing when the
turbine is not operating.

Also refer to the following sections:


[1] 5.1-0100 : Technical data
[2] 5.2-002... : Testing of turbine
components

BHEL Haridwar

5.3-0062-01

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Testing of Signaling Devices

Introduction
Signaling devices in their various forms are
important aids to operational supervision.
However, they are of value only if they are
completely reliable in operation.
Therefore, the signaling devices must be
tested at regular intervals.
These
instructions
deal
with
the
fundamentals of testing and maintenance of
signaling devices.

Types of signaling devices


Alarm signaling devices give a visual and
audible indication of operating values
reaching predetermined limits. If this results
in automatic intervention in the plant
process. e.g. triggering of the turbine trip,
then this is also signaled.
Condition signaling indicates the state of
control devices, e.g. whether a stop valve is
open or closed.
Finally, signaling can provide a reminder
that certain action needs to be taken.

Basis of signaling device testing


Whenever possible, testing of the signaling
devices should be carried out under a close
approximation to operating conditions. The
test should also enclose all components of
the device.
In addition to functional testing, the device
settings should also be checked at longer
intervals, especially after inspections.

Example: A water level can be raised to its


signaling limit by closing the appropriate
drain valve.
Care must be exercised with this method to
ensure that the maximum point reached is
not sufficient to cause an unintentional shutdown.
 Testing during operation by varying the
operating condition. When shutting down
and starting up the turbine and its
auxiliaries. and when testing control and
protection equipment, all alarms and
condition signals must be carefully
observed and a record made of their
response. It is also important to check
that the signaling actually reflects the
operating condition accurately.
Examples: When shutting down the turbine
the low oil pressure alarm must come
before the auxiliary oil pump starts
automatically. When testing the overspeed
trips, the Overspeed trip operated alarm
must come.
 Triggering of the sensor. In this method
the sensor is operated without there
being any change in operating value or
condition.
Examples: The travel-controlled limit switch
which signals response of the thrust bearing
trip is operated by hand. The pressure
switch for the condenser vacuum low
alarm is isolated and then vented to
atmosphere.

the

 The response limit value is adjusted so


that signaling response occurs. (With this
method it is possible for mistakes to be
made when returning the settings to their
original values. Therefore the method
should only be used in exceptional
cases.)

 Testing during operation by varying the


operating values. This type of testing is
most appropriate when operating values
can be varied by intervention in the plant
process.

 Signaling response is produced by an


electrical pulse. If, for some reason, none
of the previous methods can be used, a
partial test of the signaling device must
be performed by means of an electrical
pulse.

Test procedures
There are various ways to
functioning of signaling devices.

BHEL Haridwar

test

5.3-0063-00/1

Examples: If the level in the oil tank does


not normally fall to its minimum value during
operation, the level monitor is disconnected
and the alarm initiated by the application of
an electrical pulse. This method of testing
presupposes that the level sensor itself is
not suffering any malfunction.

condition displays, ensure that the correct


colour lamp is used.

Other tests
The lamps of visual signaling devices have
only a limited life. Therefore, they must be
tested regularly by means of the lamp test
facility to ensure that they are operative and
be replaced if they are blown. When
replacing coloured lamps in operating

If necessary, the monitored operating values


or sensor settings must be subjected to
critical examination. This is particularly true
when there is a continuous alarm although
there is no dangerous operating condition in
the plant.

5.3-0063-00/2

Malfunctions
Any malfunctioning of signaling devices
must be rectified Immediately upon
discovery.

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Testing of
Turbine Stress Controller (TSC)

Introduction
This test instruction describes the plausibility
checks to be carried out on the measured
values acquired by the temperature sensors
for turbine stress monitoring, as well as the
recording of measured and calculated
values
for
long-term
evaluation
of
temperature acquisition and of calculation
circuitry.
Using the stress monitoring function of the
turbine stress controller (TSC), the nonsteady-state thermal stresses to which the
steam turbine is exposed during startup and
shut-down and as a result of changes in
heat input to components during power
operation are acquired and compared with
the permitted limits.
The margins obtained from this comparison
define the stress and set the limits for
permitted temperature load.
Evaluation of measured temperatures
recording and action of the calculated
margins on the setpoint control for the
turbine controller allow an optimum
operating mode as regards both degree of
component
fatigue
and
economical
operation.

Test recommendations
A pre-requisite for the proper functioning of
turbine stress monitoring as described in the
introduction is fault-free operation of the

measured value acquisition and evaluation


functions.
All steam and component temperatures as
well as the calculated margins are either
recorded on dotted-line printers or stored by
the computer.
The plausibility of the measured data can be
checked at a later date using the printed or
stored measured and calculated values. It is
however possible that, by that time, faulty
turbine stress monitoring will result in
selection of either too fast an operating
mode, which will have an adverse effect in
terms of the degree of component fatigue, or
of too slow an operating mode, which will
have an adverse effect in terms of
economical operation.
For this reason, plausibility checks should
be carried out on the measured values at
the intervals specified in Table-1, in order to
detect and correct any functional defects or
faulty circuits within the temperature
acquisition equipment.
As part of the long-term monitoring of
operating parameters, all measured and
calculated TS values should be registered
during steady-state operation under the
same boundary conditions. These values
should then be recorded and archived to
allow comparison at a later date.
Measurement should be performed at the
intervals specified in Table-1.

Table-1 : Test Intervals


Type of check or measurement

Boundary conditions

Test interval

Plausibility
checks
measured values

Non-steady-state and
steady-state operation

After inspections and overhauls or


after work on the TS sensor

Steady-state operation

3 months or after work on the TS


sensor
or
TS
monitoring
equipment

on

Recording of measured and


calculated values for long-term
monitoring purposes

BHEL Haridwar

5.3-0064-01/1

Plausibility checks on measured values


When performing plausibility checks on the
measured TS values, the steam and
component temperatures must be compared
with each other, taking certain criteria into
consideration.
During
non-steady-state
operation, it is also important to evaluate the
trend of the measured values over time.
If the actual values do not conform to
expected values, this may be due to
incorrect assignment of measuring points or
to a polarity fault, e.g. at the transducers.
As regards the criteria to be considered, a
distinction must be made between
plausibility checks performed during nonsteady-state and steady-state steam turbine
operation.

The steam temperatures upstream of


the turbine must be higher than the
component temperatures.

The differences that exist between the


main steam temperature and the
temperature at the heated surface in
the main steam valve bodies or the
steam admission area are only very
slight
(< 5 K).

During
steady-state
operation,
temperature
differences
of
approximately 15 K maximum develop
between the measuring points on the
heated surfaces and at the mid-wall of
valve bodies or the steam admission
area.

The closer the turbine operating mode


comes to the conditions for purely
constant-pressure
operation,
the
stronger will be the Influence of turbine
output on the differences between main
steam
temperatures
and
the
temperatures at the heated surfaces of
the turbine casing and the shaft.

Criteria for plausibility checks during


non-steady-state operation
The temperature at the heated surface of a
component must respond faster than that at
the mid-wall of the component.


The temperature at the heated surface


of a component is higher during warmup and lower during cooling-down, as
compared to the temperature at the
mid-wall of the component.

The temperatures at the heated


surfaces of the casing and the shaft
cannot be higher than those at the
heated surface of the valve body or the
steam admission area.

During linear changes, the temperature


difference (in K) arising in the
component is directly proportional to
the rate of change d/dt (in K/min)

During a cold start or startup after an


extended shut-down, the HP turbine
warms up rapidly, even while still
operating below rated speed. In the
case of the IP turbine however, warmup of the shaft takes place to a certain
extent as a sudden step change and
occurs only just before rated speed is
reached, and then to a greater extent
during subsequent loading.

For the shafts, the differences between


the temperatures at the heated
surfaces and the mean integral shaft
temperatures are always approximately
0.

For the barrel-type casing of the HP


turbine,
differences
of
upto
approximately
10
K
between
temperatures at the heated surfaces
and those at the mid-wall are normal
during steady state operation.

For the IP turbine, the surface


temperature of the IP turbine shaft is
not measured directly but only at the
heated surface of the inner casing.
Depending on the design-related
location of the measuring point,
differences of 10 to 40 K between the
reheat steam temperature and the
surface temperatures of the shaft can
occur during steady-state operation.

Criteria for plausibility checks during


steady-state operation


The same absolute temperatures and


temperature margins must exist for the
same steady-state operating conditions.

5.3-0064-01/2

Long-term monitoring through recording


of all measured and calculated values
By registering and recording all measured
and calculated values at the intervals
specified in Table-1 during steady-state
turbine operation, the thermal behavior of
the turbine and the function of the turbine
stress monitoring equipment can be
monitored on a long-term basis.
Long-term monitoring can be used to detect
and rectify any gradually developing
changes.
If the check on the measured values reveals
that the margins have changed due to the
measured absolute temperatures and the
differences arising between them, this can
probably be traced to a fault in the
calculation circuitry. The cause of the fault
must be determined, e.g. by checking the
specified limit curves in accordance with the
procedure described in the manual for the
TS monitoring equipment.
Table-2 contains all measured and
calculated values which may be required for

the turbine stress monitoring equipment.


These must be adapted to plant-specific
requirements.

Actions to be taken when actual


conditions
deviate
from
reference
conditions
If actual conditions deviate from reference
conditions, the measured value acquisition
function must be carefully checked and any
faults corrected.
If the deviations in measured and calculated
values are particularly large, it must be
assumed that the behavior of the turbine
plant will be adversely affected. In this case,
action of the TS monitoring equipment on
the setpoint control for the turbine controller
must be temporarily deactivated.
As long as action of the TS monitoring
equipment on the set point control for the
turbine controller is deactivated, the TS limit
curves must be used for evaluation of the
thermal stresses imposed on the turbine
components.

5.3-0064-01/3

Table-2 : Measured and calculated values for long-term monitoring


Measured and calculated values
Effective power and reactive power
 effective power
 reactive power
Main steam upstream of HP turbine
 mass flow
 pressure
 temperature
Exhaust steam downstream of HP turbine
 pressure
 temperature
HP expansion section
 differential temperature ms - exh
Reheat steam upstream of IP turbine
 pressure
 temperature
Exhaust steam downstream of IP turbine
 pressure
 temperature
Wall temperatures, MS admission area
 surface
 mid metal
Wall temperatures, HP casing
 surface
 mid metal
Temperatures, HP shaft
 surface
 simulated, shaft center
Temperatures, IP shaft
 surface
 simulated, shaft center
Upper TS margins
 steam admission area
 HP casing
 HP shaft
 IP shaft
Lower TS margins
 Steam admission area
 HP casing
 HP shaft
 IP shaft

5.3-0064-01/4

Terms

Unit

peff
preact

MW
MVA

mms
pms
ms

kg/s
bar
C

pHPexh

HPexh

bar
C

pRS
RS

bar
C

pIPexh

bar

IPexh

i-adm
m-adm

C
C

i-HPC
m-HPC

C
C

i-HPS
m-HPS

C
C

i-IPS
m-IPS

C
C

adm-u

K
K
K
K

HPC-u

HPS-u
IPS-u

adm-l

HPC-l

HPS-l
IPS-l

K
K
K
K

Steam Turbine
Maintenance
Introduction
During operation, deposits occur on the
turbine blading to a greater or lesser degree
depending on the steam purity [1] and the
pressures and temperatures of the operating
steam. These deposits cause a reduction of
the turbine generator units efficiency due to:


Changes in the flow profiles

Thicker boundary layers in the steam


flow as a result of rough surfaces.

In extreme cases the flow area of turbine


may get reduced with consequent reduction
in the maximum possible steam flow through
the turbine, and corresponding output.
Choking of blade flow path can be detected
on the basis of internal efficiency (i)
measurements [2].
If deposit leads to an increase in stage
pressures, the maximum stage pressures
shown in the Technical Data should not be
exceeded. If necessary, the output must be
reduced.
Complex, i.e. water-insoluble, silicate
deposits occur in a temperature range
between 500C and 350C. Alkali silicates
and silicic acid are deposited between
350C and 60C. Salt deposits occur at
temperatures ranging from 480C to the
blading stages where condensation begins.
Salt deposits are water-soluble and can be
removed by steam washing with saturated
steam. Depending on their composition,
silicate deposits are either water-soluble
(e.g. alkali silicates) or occur as a hard
Water-insoluble coating. In latter case the
deposits can only be removed mechanically
during overhauls.
General Instructions
The effort required for saturated steam
washing is considerably lesser than that
required for opening the turbine. If efficiency
reduction occurs, saturated steam washing
should be performed first. In that case, the
major part of the turbine generator unit
downtime is accounted for by the cooling

BHEL Haridwar

Steam Washing of Turbine

own time of the turbine. Special measures


should be taken to accelerate cooling [3].
For maximum success, steam washing
should not be started until the casing
temperatures have dropped to < 100C.
When Steam Washing the turbine stages,
the initial saturated steam temperatures
must be as low as possible. Steam Washing
with a constant steam condition is not very
effective. After a certain time the turbine
blading reaches the temperature of the
washing steam and the condensation that
brings about the effect is lost. To get
maximum success in the shortest possible
time, it is necessary to increase the steam
temperature in stages by increasing the
pressure. As the temperature is raised the
turbine speed will generally increase (take
care to avoid critical speed ranges).
Increased speed will also promote cleaning.
The steam entering the condenser must be
condensed during the entire process i.e. one
circulating water pump must be in operation.
If possible, the turbine generator unit should
be started up and loaded after steam
washing. Any dissolved salt residue
remaining on the blading will be blown out
due to the high velocity of the steam under
load conditions.
Steam washing with saturated steam will
only have the desired success if the steam
has adequate moisture content upstream of
the blading.
The saturated steam is introduced into the
HP turbine via the connection flanges
provided between the stop and control
valves.
The steam is introduced into the IP turbine
between the control valves and the turbine.
Appropriate blind flanges are provided.
The steam line must be blown-out before
saturated steam washing commences.
It may be ensured that no external
condensate can enter the condenser during
steam washing.

5.3-0070-02/1

Fig. 1 : Flow diagram for saturated steam washing

Steam Washing of IP Turbine


All stop and control valves and all valves in
the extraction lines remain closed during
steam washing of the IP turbine. Any
isolating valves present upstream of the
feedwater heaters must also be closed.
The drains from the IP turbine between the
reheat control valves and the IP outlet, the
extraction valves or the swing check valves
in the extraction lines must be vented during
steam washing only to the extent required to
allow the condensate arising to drain off
whilst preventing excessive loss of steam.
All other drains from the turbine generator
must be full open.

5.3-0070-02/2

After the saturated steam line (Fig.1, item 2)


has been joined up at the connection points
(3), the washing steam can be routed into
the IP turbine, from there via the crossaround lines to the IP turbine and then to the
condenser.
There are two possible ways of discharging
the condensate
condensing
in
the
condenser to the atmosphere. These are:


By opening the blind flanges (4) on the


condenser. The condenser must be
under atmospheric pressure. With this
method of steam washing samples for
finding out the saIt content may also be
taken at this point.

With the vacuum pump \ ejector


switched on and the blind flange (4)
closed, i.e. with the condenser at sub
atmospheric
pressure,
via
the
condensate discharge line of an
operation condensate pump. In this
case, make sure that the condensate is
discharged
to
the
atmosphere
downstream of the pump. Samples for
finding out the salt content are also
taken at this point.

The first method of steam washing with the


condenser under atmospheric pressure
guarantees a slight overpressure at the
drains so that it is possible to perform
additional sampling at these points. For this
purpose, the appropriate drains may be cut
off at the sludge traps, or the steam inserts
of the drain valves may be removed.
It is suggested to record the salt content at
the sampling point continuously throughout
the washing Process. Also, water samples
should be taken every half an hour for
deposit analysis.
Steam washing may be stopped when the
purity of steam entering the turbine (as
determined by sampling) is approximately
the same as that of the condensate or steam
extracted at the discharge sampling point.
The steam washing may be stopped when
the salt content in condensate remains
constant at a very low level.

Steam Washing of HP Turbine


The main control valves must be open
during steam washing of the HP turbine.
All drains (7, 8) from the HP turbine situated
between the main stop valves and the HP
outlet may be vented during steam washing
only to the extent required to allow the
condensate arising to drain off while
preventing excessive loss of steam.
All other drains particularly those in the cold
reheat line, must be fully open. Local
drainage may also be provided so that no
steam can enter the Reheater of the Boiler,
if at all possible.
After the steam line (6) has been joined up
at the connection points (3), the stream can
be routed into the HP turbine. The steam
leaving the HP turbine is exhausted to the
condenser via the drains (9).
The condensate is discharged and samples
are taken to determine the salt content as
described in steam washing of IP turbine,
the completion criteria remaining same.
Restoring the Turbine to Operating
Condition
On completion of steam washing, all
temporary fittings must be dismantled and
the flanges closed off. Any drain lines cut off
must be rewelded. Controllers and control
valves must be returned to normal position.
The temporary lines are to be preserved for
future use.

Also refer to the following sections:


[1] 5.1-0120 : Steam purity
[2] 5.3-0050 : Measurement of internal
efficiency
[3] 5.2-0350 : Fast cooling down of the
turbine

5.3-0070-02/3

Steam Turbine
Maintenance
Introduction
Function of the turbine oil is to lubricate and
cool the bearings of the turbine generator
and
to
actuate
governing
system
components. Turbine oil is subjected to high
physical loads, should have a long service
life and must not have any adverse effect on
the proper functioning of the bearings and
other turbine oil consumers
The physical and chemical properties of new
turbine oil must comply with the
requirements of the Turbine Oil Specification
[1]. The aim of turbine oil care is to maintain
the properties and the useful service life of
the turbine oil for as long as possible.
This general maintenance instruction
discusses the necessity for, and the
procedures involved in turbine oil care.
The program for the care of turbine oil
includes regular inspection and analysis of
turbine oil samples. In this way changes in
turbine oil properties can be determined and
the necessary actions can be taken to
remedy the situation.
The filters and strainers in the operating oil
systems retain solid contaminants which can
cause damage and/or impair functioning if
they ingress into turbine oil consumers.
By centrifuge (i.e. oil conditioning station)
which is independent of the oil operating
systems, contaminants and aging and
corrosion products which are not soluble in
oil are removed from the turbine oil.
Thorough cleaning of the oil system during
initial startup and after inspections and
overhauls is one of the prerequisites for
successful turbine oil care. In addition, the
ingress of contaminants into the oil system
must be prevented.
Turbine oil properties
As a rule, turbine oils are paraffin-based
mineral oils which contain additives to
improve their resistance to corrosion and
their oxidation stability.

BHEL Haridwar

Turbine Oil Care


Maintenance Instructions
The Turbine Oil Specification [1] contains
standards and selection criteria for turbine
oil as well as the requirements in terms of
physical and chemical properties.
The following oil properties are particularly
important for turbine oil care:


Total-acid number

Water contents and water separability


efficiency

Solid contaminant quantities, purity

Air release properties

Foaming characteristics

Turbine oil properties and the values which


can change those properties are discussed
briefly below.
Further information can be found in the
standards cited in the Turbine Oil
Specification [1] as well as technical
literature, including those issued by turbine
oil manufacturers.
Actions to be taken to rectify typical changes
in turbine oil properties are listed in Table-1.
Total-acid number of the turbine oil
The total-acid number is an easily
determined reference value for turbine oil
aging.
Catalysts and thermal loading of the turbine
oil can trigger an oxidation process in which
oleic acids are formed, raising the total-acid
number of the turbine oil. The oil ages.
The oleic acids attack oil system component
materials and corrosion products are formed
which can, in turn, catalytically accelerate
the oxidation process.
Under certain circumstances, contaminants
which ingress into the oil system from
outside can promote the oxidation process.
New turbine oil contains additives which,
provided that oil is properly cared for, give
sufficient
protection
against
agin

5.3-0080-03/1

The additives become depleted over time.


Under unfavorable conditions, e.g. where
there is improper or negligent oil care, this
depletion process can result in premature
aging of the turbine oil.

High water contents of the turbine oil can


also be the result of low water separability of
the turbine oil. In this case, it is particularly
important that the ingress of water in to the
oil system be prevented.

In this case, the turbine manufacturer and


the turbine oil supplier should be consulted
in order that measures for restoring the
turbine oil can be implemented.

Solid-contaminant quantities and purity


of turbine oil
Whereas the material property value for
solid-contaminant quantity defines the
overall content by weight of solidcontaminant quantities in a turbine oil
sample, when defining turbine oil purity only
the proportion of solid-contaminants of a
specified size is determined. Turbine oil
purity is the more reliable criterion.

The turbine oil cannot be used if the function


of sensitive turbine generator components is
impaired through corrosion and/or aging
products and if the aging process, i.e., the
change in the total-acid number, cannot be
reversed by treating the turbine oil.
From this highly simplified description of the
turbine oil aging process, it can be seen that
aging is affected not only by physical loading
of the turbine oil but also by catalysts and
aging products, e.g., oleic acids. Treatment
of the turbine oil in the oil conditioning
station removes products of aging and
corrosion which are not soluble in oil,
thereby slowing down the aging process.
Water content and water separability of
the turbine oil
With healthy gland sealing & oil vapor
extraction system during normal operation
the moisture content in turbine oil is not
expected to be more then 100 ppm as in the
turbine oil specification (1). In case the
moisture content found more then 300 ppm
during sample testing, the reason is to be
investigated. With moisture content value
more then 1000 ppm machine should be
tripped and source of water entry is to be
eliminated.
Water which ingresses into the oil system
from an oil cooler, in the form of shaft seal
steam or leakage water, results in the
corrosion in ferrous materials and can
adversely affect the aging process and
foaming characteristics of the turbine oil.
Corrosion causes changes in the surfaces
and shape of the sensitive turbine generator
components. The corrosion products behave
in the same as solid contaminants, and lead
to impaired component functioning.
The cause of any increase in turbine-oil
water contents must be determined and
remedied.

5.3-0080-03/2

Solid-contaminants can ingress into the


turbine oil from outside, or as a result of the
aging process or corrosion. They contribute,
along with other factors, to the turbine-oil
aging process and impair the condition and
function of the turbine components.
Among the principal areas which can be
affected are turbine and generator bearings.
Their load capacity can be reduced due to
scoring caused by solid-contaminants in the
turbine oil. In addition, changes of state and
impaired functioning in control and
protection equipment can be expected.
The oil system is thoroughly cleaned during
initial startup of the turbine generator set.
Flushing of the entire system is included in
the cleaning process.
The filters and strainers of the operating oil
systems are used to retain contaminants
with a particle size larger than the filter mesh
size, before the turbine oil reaches the oil
consumers. The dwell time of the oil in the
filters and strainers will depend on the purity
of the turbine oil.
Purity in accordance with the Turbine Oil
Specification [1] is achieved through
continuous filtration or separation of turbine
oil in the oil centrifuge.
During inspections and overhauls the turbine
must be drained and the main oil tank, the
oil coolers and the bearing pedestals must
be thoroughly cleaned. It is recommended
that the turbine oil be either filtered or
treated in a separator during drainage an
refilling.
The ingress of solid contaminants into the
turbine oil must be prevented.

Air release properties of the turbine oil


The air release property represents the time
taken for a specific volume of air to be
released from the turbine oil sample under
the boundary conditions stipulated in the
testing standard of the Turbine Oil
Specification [1].
The turbine oil circulates inside the oil
system and becomes aerated. This air is
-1
released during the dwell time tv = 60n (in
min) of the turbine oil in the main oil tank, n
corresponds to the number of passes per
hour made by the turbine oil.
If the time required for air release by the
turbine oil is longer than the dwell time in the
main oil tank, an oil-and-air mixture will
develop, which will not have as favourable a
density and compressibility as non aerated
turbine oil. This can lead to faults in the
operating oil pumps, fluctuations in oil
pressure and impaired functioning of any
control and protection equipment which is
supplied with turbine oil.
Only in rare cases it is possible to improve
the Air release properties of turbine oil with
economically viable treatment methods. For
this reason, any factors which might lead to
deterioration of the air release properties of
the turbine oil, must be avoided.
It has been proven that the air release
properties of turbine oil are adversely
affected by materials containing silicone,
e.g., seal materials or foam inhibiting
additives.
Foaming characteristics of the turbine oil
The material property values for foaming
tendency and foam stability of turbine oil
should comply with Turbine Oil Specification
[1].
A certain amount of foaming on the surface
of the oil in the main oil tank can be
expected as a result of air release. If the
turbine oil shows an increased foaming
tendency and high foam stability, the space
above the oil level in the main oil tank
becomes partially or completely filled with
foam
which
can,
under
certain
circumstances, result in foam being released
from the oil system. Turbine oil is entrained

with the foam, resulting in a drop in the oil


level in the main oil tank. This change in the
level can cause activation of the level
monitoring equipment for the main oil tank.
Increased turbine oil foaming tendency
occasionally occurs due to high water
content or increased dust contamination of
the turbine oil.
Silicone-based foam inhibiting additives
have an adverse effect on air release
properties. There is no generally binding
evidence regarding any further correlation
between foaming tendency and air release
properties, although such a correlation may
exist in individual cases and should be
investigated.

Turbine oil care program


Owing to correlation between the turbine oil
properties and the factors influencing turbine
oil during operation, the following care
program for turbine oil must be implemented
during and after initial startup of the turbine
generator set:


Regular inspection of turbine oil samples

Continuous treatment of the turbine oil

Protection of the turbine oil system from


the effects of contaminants

Drainage of the turbine oil and cleaning


of the oil system and the turbine oil
during inspections and overhauls.

Inspection of turbine oil samples


By regularly sampling and inspecting turbine
oil and by evaluating the results, it is
possible to adapt oil care measures
optimally to the particular properties of the
turbine oil being used.
Turbine
oil
samples
are
taken
simultaneously upstream and downstream
of the oil centrifuge and the inspection
results thus permit an evaluation of the
efficiency of the relevant oil care measures.
The scope and the intervals for turbine oil
inspections are listed in the turbine oil
maintenance instruction.

5.3-0080-03/3

If the turbine oil inspections reveal that


alarm levels for certain properties have been
reached or exceeded, it is advisable to
request inspection and evaluation of the
turbine oil by the turbine oil supplier. All data
relevant to turbine oil inspection should be
sent in together with the turbine oil sample
When taking turbine oil samples, care must
be taken to ensure that sampling bottles are
clean.
In case of deviation in properties, actions to
be taken as per table 1.
Treatment of the turbine oil in the oil
filters or strainers of the operating oil
systems


Switchable oil filters


The switchable oil filters of the operating
oil systems are used to protect
downstream consumers. Contaminants
which, because of their size or
consistency, can cause damage and/or
impair functioning are retained in the oil
filters. Because of their relatively large
mesh size, the operating oil filters are
not suitable for complete removal of
contaminants from the turbine oil. The
differential pressure across the oil filters
is monitored.

or wear to parts such as oil pump seal


ring, etc.
Treatment of the turbine oil in the oil
centrifuge
The oil centrifuge can be continuously
operated independent of the operating oil
systems. A small volume of turbine oil is fed
through oil centrifuge with a high separation
efficiency. This achieves a high degree of
purity for the treated turbine oil.
As regards the treatment of turbine oil in the
centrifuge, oil filter, dynamic or static
separators, and multipurpose oil purification
units can be used either independently or in
combination. In addition, many power plants
have centralised oil purification equipment,
either permanently installed or mobile.
The function of the most commonly used oil
purification equipment is described below:


If the differential pressure across an oil


filter increases, this filter should be
isolated from the system and cleaned.


Fine-mesh filters with cloth or paper


elements can also retain small amounts
of water. If the turbine oil has a high
water content, a dynamic or static
separator must be used to reduce the
water content in the turbine oil to the
value stipulated in the Turbine Oil
Specification [1].

Oil Strainers of the main oil tank


The oil strainers of the main oil tank
have a relatively large mesh size and
are used to retain contaminants in the
returning turbine oil and to protect the oil
pumps from contaminant damage.
If the strainer mesh becomes clogged
during the course of operation, this can
lead to a drop in the level in the suction
space of the main oil tank as a result of
an increase in the level in the riser
space.
For this reason, the oil strainers of the
main oil tank must be regularly cleaned,
if possible while the oil pumps are shut
down. Metal particles in the oil strainers
can be an indication of bearing damage

5.3-0080-03/4

Fine-mesh filter
The turbine oil can be conditioned in an
oil filter with filter elements made of finepored cloth or filter paper. Since the finemesh filter has a high separation
efficiency, a high degree of turbine oil
purity can be achieved. Contaminants
insoluble in oil which ingress into the oil
system from outside, as well as products
of system-internal aging and corrosion
mechanisms are almost completely
removed from turbine oil.

Dynamic separator
The dynamic separator uses centrifugal
force to remove either solid or liquid
contaminants as required from the
turbine oil. The dynamic separator must
be set to operate in either solid
contaminant or water separation mode
in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions.

Static separator
A static separator is used to remove
water from the turbine oil. Since the
efficiency of the filter elements
deteriorates due to deposits of solid
contaminants, and in view of the
expense of filter elements, it is
recommended that the static separator
be used in conjunction with an upstream
fine mesh filter.
Multipurpose oil purification unit
The multipurpose oil purification unit is
used to remove solid and liquid
contaminants from the turbine oil.

different additive packages. For this


reason, when topping up, turbine oil
which has the same product designation
and which is supplied by the same
manufacturer as was originally filled,
should be used.


Hydraulic oil
Hydraulic oil or control fluid containing
phosphoric esters, if in use, must not be
allowed to ingress into the oil system.

Main oil tank


Openings in the main oil tank must
always be closed and sealed in such a
way that there can be no ingress of
contaminants into the main oil tank. The
cover plates of the main oil tank must be
tightly bolted. There must be no bolts
missing from the plates.

Oil coolers
If the water content of the turbine oil
increases, the leak tightness of the
operating oil cooler must be checked.

Oil return lines


Inspection holes in oil return lines must
be sealed to prevent the ingress of
contaminants into the oil system.

Oil vapor extraction system


The throttle check valves in the oil vapor
extraction system must be set so that
the pressure in the bearing pedestals
and the main oil tank is slightly sub
atmospheric. This ensures that no
leakage steam, or airborne water and/or
dust is drawn into the oil system in the
event of turbine oil or oil vapor being
released to the atmosphere.

Dirty fluid
Fluid from the dirty-fluid tank must not
be refilled into the main oil tank without
thorough inspection and treatment.
Small amounts of turbine oil which
accumulate in the dirty-fluid tank are to
be disposed properly.

Operation and maintenance instructions of


the oil purification unit manufacturer must be
complied with.
The maintenance interval for oil filters
depends on the differential pressure across
the oil filters. For this reason, the differential
pressure instrumentation must be regularly
checked and corresponding annunciations
noted.
Cleaning of the oil system during
inspections and overhauls
Over the course of time, solid contaminants
settle in areas of the oil system not
subjected to high flow velocities, e.g. the
main oil tank. For this reason, the turbine oil
must be drained via filters during inspections
and overhauls, and the main oil tank, the oil
coolers and the bearing pedestals must be
thoroughly cleaned. The drained turbine oil
must either be refilled into the main oil tank
via fine-mesh filters or treated in a
centralised oil purification unit before
refilling.
Measures to protect the oil system from
contaminant ingress
Just as important as turbine oil care are
measures designed to protect the oil system
from contaminant ingress:


Turbine oil
Problems can arise as a result of the
incompatibility of turbine oils from
different manufacturers and containing

5.3-0080-03/5

Material
The compatibility of materials with the
turbine oil has been taken into account
by the turbine manufacturer during
materials selection. During inspections
and overhauls, care must be taken to
ensure that no incompatible materials
are used. This applies particularly to
gaskets
and
silicone-based
seal
materials.

Leakage steam system


The butterfly valves of the leakage
steam system must be set to prevent
leakage steam from escaping via the
turbine shaft seals since this could result
in water ingress into the oil system.

Disposal of Turbine Oil


For disposal Turbine oil may be send
back to oil company (OEM) for its
recycle.

Also refer to the following sections:


[1] 2-0400 : Oil Specification

5.3-0080-03/6

Table1 :

Actions to be taken when actual conditions deviate from reference conditions

Fault


Cause

Actions

Boundary conditions

The Turbine oil properties


do not comply with the
Turbine Oil Specification


Total-acid number
> mg KOH/g

Turbine oil aging

Inspect turbine oil samples for:


-

Solid contaminant content

Purity

Water content

Air release properties

Foaming

Other physical and chemical


properties

Send further oil samples to


turbine oil supplier for inspection
and evaluation. Check operating
performance and condition of
components
supplied
with
turbine oil, in order to determine
the effect of the change in totalacid
number.
Check
oil
purification system and intensify
turbine oil maintenance in
accordance
with
the
recommendations of the turbine
oil supplier and the turbine
manufacturer:
-

Keep oil centrifuge


continuous operation

Adjust operation of oil


centrifuge to contaminant
content of turbine oil (solid
contaminants or water)

If necessary install additional


oil purification equipment
Take turbine oil samples
upstream and downstream
of oil centrifuge and check
separation efficiency (solid
contaminants and/or water)

5.3-0080-03/7

in

Fault


Cause

Actions

Boundary conditions
-

Reduce intervals for turbine


oil inspections and monitor
evaluation
of
total-acid
number

Investigate
the
origin
of
contaminants
and
prevent
contaminant ingress into oil
system.


The solid contaminant


content or the purity of the
turbine oil does not comply
with the Specification

The oil centrifuge is not in


operation

Put oil centrifuge into operation.

The contaminant separation


efficiency of the oil centrifuge
does not comply with the
requirements

Take
turbine
oil
samples
upstream and downstream of
the oil centrifuge and determine
the
separation
efficiency.
Implement
measures
in
accordance with the operating
unit manufacturer, in order to
improve contaminant separation
efficiency.
Check oil filter cartridges or
elements, replace damaged oil
filter cartridges or elements.
If necessary, vent the oil filters.

Solid contaminants
into the oil system

ingress

Check whether and at what


point it is possible for air borne
contaminants to ingress into the
oil system.
Check atmospheric pressure in
the main oil tank, the bearing
pedestals and the oil return lines
and, if necessary, correct using
the check valves in the oil vapor
extraction lines.
If necessary, close or reseal the
maintenance covers of the main
oil tank.

High air borne dust content in


area around turbine generator
set

5.3-0080-03/8

Reduce airborne dust content in


area around turbine generator
set

Fault


Boundary conditions

The water content of the


turbine oil does not comply
with the specification

Cause

Actions

There is no permanently
installed dynamic or static
separator for removing water
from the turbine oil

Install a dynamic or static


separator for removing water
form the turbine oil. Take turbine
oil samples upstream and
downstream of the separator
and check water separation
efficiency.
If
necessary,
implement
measures in accordance with
the operating instructions of the
separator manufacturer, in order
to improve water separation
efficiency.

The permanently installed


dynamic separator of the oil
conditioning system is not in
operation

Put dynamic separator of the


centrifuge into the operation.
Note
that
the
required
separation temperature must be
complied with in accordance
with the operating instructions of
the separator manufacturer, and
that the separator must be
protected from the effects of
solid contaminants.
Take
turbine
oil
samples
upstream and downstream of
the separator and check water
separation efficiency.
If
necessary,
implement
measures in accordance with
the operating instructions of the
separator manufacturer, in order
to improve water separation
efficiency.

Water is ingressing into the oil


system

Check whether leakage steam is


ingressing into the oil system.
If necessary, prevent the escape
of leakage steam from the
steam seals by the correcting
the seal steam pressure or by
adjusting the butterfly valves in
the seal steam lines.
Check the leak tightness of the
operating oil cooler.

5.3-0080-03/9

Fault


Boundary conditions

The air release properties


of the oil do not comply
with the Specification

Cause

Actions

In many cases, there is no


specific
cause
for
a
deterioration in air release
properties

Check whether the deterioration


in air release properties has an
adverse affect on the operating
performance of the systems of
components
supplied
with
turbine oil.
Involve oil supplier and turbine
manufacturer
in
inspection
program.
If
effects
are
particularly
unfavorable,
consider replacing the turbine
oil.
As a precautionary measure,
care should always be taken to
prevent the ingress into the
turbine oil of materials which
could adversely affect the air
release properties (e.g. siliconebased materials)

Turbine
oil
foaming
characteristics
do
not
comply
with
the
Specification

The foam inhibiting additives in


the turbine oil have been
depleted over time

As a rule, foam inhibiting


additives have an adverse effect
on the air release properties and
for this reason, the air release
properties must be closely
monitored when topping up with
such additives.

The turbine oil contains


materials which adversely
affect
the
foaming
characteristics

5.3-0080-03/10

Consult oil supplier and top up


turbine oil with foam inhibiting
additives.

Determine the water content of


the turbine oil and, if necessary,
take appropriate measures to
reduce
this.
In
certain
circumstances
it
may
be
advisable to skim off the foam
from the surface of the turbine
oil.

Fault


Cause

Actions

The
differential
pressure
across one oil filter is high

Isolate duplex oil filter and clean


filter cartridge

Boundary conditions

The
oil
centrifuge
is
defective or the operating
conditions for the oil do not
comply
with
the
requirements


Oil filters

Take oil centrifuge filters out of


operation and replace filter
elements
One oil filter is not sufficiently
vented

Open valve in oil filter venting


line and adjust

Unit-specific or additional
dynamic separator

The mode of operation of the


dynamic separator does not
correspond to the content of
solid or liquid contaminants in
the turbine oil

Adapt the mode of operation of


the separator (solid-contaminant
separation or water separation)
according to the content of solid
contaminants or water in the
turbine oil

Unit-specific or additional
static separator

The efficiency of the static


separator is reduced due to
clogged filter elements

Replace filter elements.

Turbine
oil
temperature
upstream of static separator
too low

If necessary, put heating system


of oil centrifuge into operation

The oil circulating pump of the


oil centrifuge is not in
operation

If necessary, put oil circulating


pump into operation

Oil circulating pump (if


installed)

Implement measures to prevent


filter element clogging. e.g.
install an upstream fine-mesh
filter.

5.3-0080-03/11

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Grease and Oil Lubrication

Introduction
To ensure satisfactory functioning and to
limit wear, a small number of components
on the turbine must be lubricated at regular
intervals.

from the manufacturers specification in the


maintenance instructions, it must be clarified
beforehand whether this will be universally
suitable.
Application of Lubricants

The following are the individual components,


which require regular lubrication.

Before re-lubricating components which are


exposed to the collection of dirt {e.g. shut-off
valve stems) they must first be carefully
cleaned.

 Control device in accordance with the


lubrication Chart [1]

Over-greasing
avoided.

 Actuators
for
remote-controlled
governing, control and similar devices

Grease guns, which cause no damage to


greasing nipples, etc. should only be used.

 Spindles
devices

Lubrication Intervals

Scope

of

hand-operated

or

overfilling

must

be

shut-off

 Pumps and similar machines


 Drive motors
Lubricants
Only the lubricants stated by the respective
manufacturers
in
the
maintenance
instructions may be used.
If for reasons of stocking or for simplifying
regular maintenance, it is desired to use
only one particular type of lubricant deviating

The lubrication intervals are stated by the


manufacturers
in
the
maintenance
instructions. It is essential for them to be
maintained, especially in the case of motors,
pumps and similar equipment.
It is advisable to prepare lists of items
requiring lubrication, noting when the
various items are to be re-lubricated. This
will ensure that lubrication is carried out at
the regular, prescribed intervals.

Also refer to the following sections:


[1] 5.1- 0690 : Lubrication Chart

BHEL Haridwar

5.3-0081-00

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Introduction
The use of fire resistant control fluid for
turbine control and protection systems
reduces the risk of fire. This is due to the
higher ignition temperature (compared to
mineral oil) in case of leaks.
Phosphoric esters with a low water and
chlorine content (HS-D series) are used and
must be carefully maintained to preserve
their properties.

Care of Control Fluid

control fluid for flushing or service. Check for


dust and dirt by first wiping with white filter
paper. All traces of detergent must be
removed.
Although the control fluid manufacturer must
ensure that there are no solid or liquid
impurities in the control fluid supplied for the
initial filling, the tank must be filled through
the Fullers earth and fine-mesh filter
equipment.

Guidelines for handling control fluid and


for treatment of control fluid systems.

Baseline reference samples for later


comparison must be taken before filling with
control fluid for flushing the system and after
regeneration of the fluid used for flushing.

Data on the compatibility of the control


fluid with other materials.

Refilling with Control Fluid

Procedures to preserve the control fluid


properties.

Data on sampling points in the cycle.

Sampling and analysis programs.

Maintenance procedures to be followed


if the property characteristics of the fluid
reach the permissible limits.

This instruction contains the following:

Guidelines for Handling Control fluid and


for the Treatment of Control Fluid System
Initial filling of system
The control fluid system must be cleaned
after assembly. The same control fluid may
be used as service filling as well as for
flushing the system. However, when the
control fluid has been regenerated by the
manufacturer, especially after filtering
through 5 m fine mesh filters, the property
characteristics of the control fluid must
comply with the requirements of the
specification [1].
All moisture must be carefully eliminated
from the system (e.g. by drying and/or
evacuation) otherwise the control fluid forms
acid components when in contact with
water. The control fluid tank must be
thoroughly cleaned before it is filled with

BHEL Haridwar

The system must be refilled from leadsealed barrels; precautions must be taken to
prevent filling with a control fluid that is not
identical to the one specified for use or with
mineral oil from similar casks.
Changing Control Fluid
The entire system must be drained when
changing the fluid. New filter elements must
be installed or those present thoroughly
cleaned.
If unavoidable, old control fluid residue (up
to 3%) may be tolerated.
The system must be refilled and samples
taken for comparison with the initial filling.
The amount of residue of control fluid within
the system and the neutralisation number
must be checked by analysing and
comparing the samples taken before filling
and after the system has been put into
operation. If this shows an increase in the
neutralisation number, it must be reduced by
passing the control fluid through the bypass
regenerating system.
Treatment of waste control fluid
Biological decomposition of control fluid is
difficult; control fluid is heavier than water
and affects it adversely and therefore must

5.3-0082-02/1

not be passed into the sewage system. The


competent Regional Water Authority is
responsible for determining the maximum
concentration limit in ppm for sewage water.
All containers for storing new or used control
fluid must be clearly and permanently
marked. A record of the quantity of used
control fluid and of fluid lost due to
maintenance, leakage and damage must be
kept.
For disposal, control fluid may be send back
to oil company (OEM) for its recycle.
When control fluid is burned, carbon dioxide
(CO2) and phosphorus pentaoxide (P4O10)
are produced, the latter in such small
quantities, making it harmless.
Disposal must be done by companies
authorized and licensed by legislation for the
collection, storage and disposal of waste
materials.
Control fluid leaks must be absorbed by
using sawdust or oil binding granules and
removed immediately.
Control fluid has the same effect on
concrete as mineral oil. Floors or
foundations made of asphalt are not
compatible with control fluid.
Preservative Agents in Control Fluid
System
Spare parts are maintained in serviceable
condition by using anti-corrosion agents
and/or suitable packing (enclosing in plastic
foil and use of desiccants); storage in dry
area is recommended.
When removing anti-corrosion agents, or
cleaning spare parts, take care to ensure the
parts are dry and, above all, that all traces of
solvents containing chlorine have been
removed. Then apply an intermediate
protective coating immediately to protect the
freshly cleaned surface against corrosive
attacks by the control fluid used.
Note: Chlorine presence in the control fluid
causes erosion-corrosion at the control
edges of the control components.
Only the following may be used for cleaning:
Nonfelting textile and paper clothes,

5.3-0082-02/2

benzene, white spirit and hydrochloric acid


based cleaning agents approved for general
use.
Caution: Observe all safety regulations
when using cleaning agents to clean the
tanks interior.
Precautions to Ensure Compatibility of
the Control Fluid with other Materials
All components of the control fluid system
are selected by the turbine manufacturer in
regards to their material to ensure they are
compatible with control fluid and that no
interactions are to be anticipated between
the control fluid and materials used.
To avoid confusion, all spare parts and
materials used in the control fluid system
must be stored separate from other
materials and clearly marked.
Caution: Not all components that are
compatible with control fluid are also
compatible with oil.
Where possible, components and materials
for use in the control fluid system should be
obtained from the turbine manufacturer. This
will make sure compatibility with control fluid
by prescribing specifications to be used by
subcontractors and by using suitable
materials. If parts must be obtained from
other sources, the chapter referring to the
compatibility of the control fluid must be
observed.
Whenever an order is placed with theturbine manufacturer or with third parties for
parts or materials, it must be expressly
stated that these will be used for the control
fluid system.
Health care measures
No special safeguards are required to
protect against toxic properties of the control
fluid. Follow manufacturers instructions
and/or other legal provisions. Here are some
recommendations:
 All containers for control fluid must be
kept tightly sealed and permanently
marked with the Health Hazard danger
sign.

 Do not eat, smoke or drink when working


with control fluid or parts in contact with
control fluid.
 Keep control fluid away from foodstuffs.
 Keep control fluid away from skin, eyes
and clothes.
 If control fluid gets into eyes, sponge
carefully and rinse with water. Obtain
medical attention if irritation persists.
 After handing control fluid, wash hands
immediately.
 Wear protective clothes, gloves and
goggles.
 Change any article of clothing that comes
into contact with control fluid. If skin
contact occurs, flush areas with water.
Obtain medical attention if irritation
persists.
 If control fluid is swallowed, give large
amounts of warm salty water to cause
vomiting; if unsuccessful tickle inside the
patients throat with a finger. Obtain
medical attention if stomach discomfort
persists.
 Avoid inhaling spray clouds (aerosols) or
decomposition products (e.g. use clothes
to protect respiratory tract).
 Wear gas mask if thick clouds of control
fluid are present.
Compatibility with other materials
Control fluids foaming, air release capability
and its resistance to aging are impaired by
contact with materials incompatible with
control fluid. Also materials, which are
incompatible with control fluid, can be
attacked.

copper does not apply since the surface


area exposed to control fluid is small.
Only austenitic steel may be used for filter
meshes; brass is unsuitable.
Materials for pumps and electric motors
Bearing and shaft seals and the nonmetallic
parts of couplings on pumps and their drive
motors most be compatible with control fluid.
Since aerosols of the fluid may reach the
motors windings through the motor
ventilation system, the windings must be
designed to be compatible with control fluid.
Materials for tools
Nonmetallic parts of tools (handles) must be
made of material compatible with control
fluid or covered with suitable surface
protection (See plastics). Remember this
when ordering new tools.
Plastics
Plastic materials are susceptible to swelling,
shrinking and surface deterioration.
Plastic incompatible with control fluid may
impair the control fluid properties. Following
plastics are compatible with control fluid:
Fluorcarbon elastomers
Butyl rubber
Polytetrafluorethylene
Polyethylene
Polyamide

FKM
IIR
PTFE
PE
PA

Viton
Butyl IIR-40
Teflon
Hostalene
Nylon

Following Plastics are incompatible with


control fluid: PVC plastic, PolycarbonateMakrolon, normal plexiglass.
Only glass or Plexidur T may be used for
sight glasses. Protective caps on switches,
plungers and valves must be of metal or
plastic material compatible with control fluid.

Metallic materials
Phosphoric esters have a negligible effect
on steel, copper alloys, zinc, tin and
aluminum alloys provided the neutralisation
number is within the admissible limits. The
solid outer oxide layer of aluminum alloys
must not be destroyed due to friction.
Pure copper cannot be used due to its
catalytic effect on the decomposition of the
phosphoric ester. Sealing material made of

Sealing material, hose, cable insulation


and accumulator bladders
Following sealing materials are compatible
with phosphoric esters:
 For o-rings, packing rings, collars and
diaphragms: viton, teflon, butyl rubber
and composite material such as cottonviton,
teflon-white
asbestos,
viton
asbestos.

5.3-0082-02/3

For flat gaskets: viton, teflon, butyl


rubber and compressed asbestos.

For hoses and cable insulation: viton,


teflon and nylon coatings.

For accumulator bladders: butyl IIR-40


(up to 80 C), viton

Liquid sealing materials: Hylomar


SQ32L, Loctite 270, ciba-geigy CY246.

- Stability
Acid and aging products may cause a loss
of stability; the speed of aging increase in
the manner of a chain reaction, drastically
reducing the service life of the control fluid
(resulting from chemical reactions of the
control fluid with water, air and other
impurities).
+ Removal of acids and aging products

Caution: Butyl rubber IIR is not compatible


with oil. Silicon rubber must not be used
since it severely impairs the properties of the
control fluid (reduces its air release
capability).
Paints
Only
two-component,
desmodur
/
desmophene (DD) base and epoxy resin
base lacquers may be used. When painting
the inner surface of containers, make sure
the coating is applied properly. If the paint
flakes off, it may cause considerable
damage.
Caution: Paints compatible with control fluid
(epoxy resin and desmodur /desmophene
base) give off toxic vapour when exposed to
heat. (e.g. during welding or grinding).
Repair procedures must specify the
presence of such paints. Signs on parts,
containers with these paints must not be
removed.
Control Fluid properties
Requirements
Requirements for control fluid are listed in
the specifications for control fluid (1).
Special care must be taken during
commissioning and operation to preserve
control fluid properties.
Keeping
a
daily
service
log
is
recommended; all values from analysis and
details of important events (filter changes
and exchange of filter mass, refilling) must
be entered. All changes and their cause
should be readily detectable on the basis of
these records.
Preservation of Properties

5.3-0082-02/4

The presence of acids and aging products


raises the neutralisation number; the
permissible limit is 0.5 mg KOH/g.
Acid and aging product must be eliminated
from the control fluid by continuous bypass
filtration through a Fullers earth filter.
Regeneration through a Fullers earth filter is
based on an ion exchange reaction.
The Fullers earth used must be dry (1 % by
weight expellable water at 105 C). We
recommended drying the Fullers earth
before filling. The design of the Fullers earth
and filter regenerating equipment conforms
to
the
control
fluid
manufacturers
requirements.
Design and functioning of the filters are
explained in the Description Section. The
flow diagram of the regenerating plant is
also given in the relevant chapter.
The grain size of the fullers earth should be
US screen number 16/30 to 30/60 mesh.
The dust portion must not be used.
When filling the filter, ram down and/or
shake the earth into the filter elements to
prevent formation of gaps or channels that
would reduce the efficiency of the Fullers
earth.
Unnoticed exhaustion of the Fullers earth is
prevented by changing the earth filling at
six- month periods, unless this interval does
not have to be reduced for other reasons.
Since the control edges of electrohydraulic
servo valves are subjected to erosioncorrosion if the control fluid is not suitably
treated, regular regeneration of the Fullers
earth is always necessary, even if there is
no increase in neutralisation number.

Regeneration should be started about 48


hours before commissioning of the servo
valves.
The control element of control circuits
actuated by servo valves must be filled with
new control fluid through the regeneration
equipment even when the fluid supplied by
the manufacturer has the specified
neutralisation number. This applied both for
initial and refills.
A fine-mesh mechanical filter (polishing
filter) downstream of the Fullers earth filter
traps Fullers earth particles and other
foreign matter that would act as a catalyst in
the control fluid. The fine-mesh filter has the
added function of establishing the required
purity of the control fluid in the overall
system.
The fine-mesh filter must be cleaned in the
same way as other fitters in the system.
When changing the filter elements, do not
remove the protective covers from the new
elements until just before they are installed.
Strainers must be cleaned using the
cleaning agents recommended by the filter
and control fluid manufacturer; make sure
that dirt does not get onto the clean side.
Immerse filters in the cleansing fluid only up
to their upper edge. Filters must always be
blown-out from the clean side towards the
dirty side. Use only dry air for blowing-out
(relative humidity 60% at 20 C).

element being cut out as soon as the limit is


reached.
Temperatures above 75C are admissible
for a short period only during flushing
procedures.

Note: If the temperature rises from 60C to


70C, the speed of oxidation doubles.

+ Prevention of influence due to foreign


matter
Measures must be taken to stop the entry of
solid or liquid foreign matter or other
impurities with a view to maintaining the
stability of the system. All possible
measures must be taken to protect the
system from rust.
The system is vented and deaerated via a
defined opening to stop degeneration of the
control fluid due to moisture and
contamination. The opening is sealed by
absorbers or filters to prevent the entry of
moisture and contamination when venting
and to ensure adequate deaeration.
Silica gel absorbers are used to indicate the
buildup of absorbed moisture by changing
colour. Evaporating moisture is necessary in
the absorbers during deaeration. Refill Silica
gel if a permanent change in colour is
noticed.

Use a magnifying glass to check the


completeness of the cleansing process.

A large absorber or filter is used when the


system is vented or deaerated via exhaust
fans to ensure that the control fluid is
separated from the air downstream of the
fan.

+ Prevention of thermal influences

When deaerating using fans, the system


must not be under a substantial vacuum.

The control system requires a service


medium viscosity that complies with the
specification at a control fluid service
temperature of 555 C.

If deaerating valves are used that open


when a slight internal over pressure has built
up, make sure the moist air is unable to
enter into the system.

Confirm absence of oil and dust by using


filter paper test.

No adverse effects on the stability of the


control fluid due to thermal influences are to
be expected at this service temperature.
A maximum temperature of 90C is
admissible locally, for example, at heating
element / protective pipes with heat
conducting oil fillings. Compliance with this
limit temperature is monitored the heating

Accumulated water is annunciated by using


electrodes.
The
cause
of
water
accumulation must be located immediately
and corrected. Water accumulating on the
surface of the control fluid tank due to its low
density, must be removed by siphoning or
pumped off. Condensate occurring in small
amounts evaporates at service temperature.
Increase monitoring the neutralisation

5.3-0082-02/5

About 3-4 % mineral oil will dissolve in,


control fluid between room temperature and
50C. If oil enters the control fluid circuit, the
control fluid manufacturer must examine the
effect this has on the fluids fire resistance
properties. It is impossible to separate oil
from the control fluid since the mixture is a
genuine solution. Only when the oil content
exceeds 3-4% does a two-phase liquid
result.

number if and after the accumulation of the


water is detected.
- Fire resistance
Following are the causes of impairing the
fire resistance properties of the control fluid:
 Mixing of mineral oil by mistake; this can
be prevented if filling guidelines are
followed.
 Penetration of mineral oil from the
lubricating oil circuit.

- Air release capability

Design measures have been taken to


prevent oil and control fluid from intermixing.

The air release capability of the fluid


depends on the presence of foreign matter.
The chapters on the subject of stability and
prevention of the influences of foreign matter
must be observed to ensure the air release
capability complies with the requirements.

Contact points between the lubrication oil


control systems are separated by interface
made of metal bellows between which there
is a drain line to the leakage tanks; the tank
has a device to annunciate the accumulation
of control fluid due to leaks.

- Purity

The bellows are arranged if one ruptures,


the second takes over its shielding function.
Penetration of one media into the other is
only possible if both dividing elements have
leak.

SAE guidelines (Table-1) govern the purity


requirements for media used in hydraulic
systems.

Particles / 100 ml

Magnitude
5 10 m
10 25 m
25 50 m
50 100 m
> 100 m

2700
670
93
16
1

4600
1340
210
28
3

9700
2680
380
56
5

24000
5360
780
110
11

32000
10700
2510
225
21

87000
21400
3130
430
41

128000
42000
6500
1000
92

Table-1: SAE permissible degrees of contamination for hydraulic systems


SAE Class classification applicable for
maintaining the service reliability for
protection and control systems are as
follows:
Class-6:

Protection and Control systems


without servo valves

Class-3:

Protection and Control systems


with servo valves

Sampling and analysis


Samples must be taken and examined to be
able to ensure the control fluid meets the
purity requirements.

5.3-0082-02/6

Samples must be taken at sampling points


from the flowing liquid into clean laboratory
bottles. Take care to avoid any secondary
contamination. The sampling bottles must
be permanently marked with these data:
facility, sampling point, fluid manufacturer
and type, date, sampler.
They must then be sent to a laboratory
(turbine manufacturer, control fluid supplier
or operator) for examination.
It is possible to filter the samples at the site
by using the field monitoring method so only
the diaphragm filter has to be sent for
analysis to a laboratory outside the power
plant.

Performing routine analysis of the same fluid


filling involves relating the degree of colour
change of the test filter (relative measuring
method) to the quantitative degree of
contamination as determined by counting
the contamination particles.

mesh filter, before it enters control system


sections susceptible to contamination, and
at the same time to check the function of the
fine-mesh filters.

The precondition for application of the field


monitoring method using diaphragm filters or
of the relative measuring method is the
availability of reliable sampling and analysis
equipment at the plant site.

The PNR is provided in the return line.


Analysis of the samples from this point
makes it possible to determine the degree of
purity of the fluid in the overall system
without the direct influence of the service
filters.

Sampling point - Return (PNR)

Sampling and analysis programme


The sampling and analysis program
according to Table-2 makes it possible to
perform the essential assessment of the
control fluid properties and purity at all
stages of commissioning and during
continuous service.
Besides, it allows assessing the flushing
procedures and the condition, efficiency and
regeneration of the filter equipment.
When required,
results of the
analysis of the
taken before
commissioning.

it is possible to compare the


routine analysis with the
baseline reference samples
filling and completion of

The samples taken before filling the control


fluid system must be representative of each
consignment delivered; the samples must be
taken from a collecting container where a
certain amount of control fluid mixture from
each individual container has been retained.
The first control fluid container opened is to
be used as the collecting container to
prevent contamination due to use of a
vessel that was not a part of the control fluid
consignment.
Table-2 gives the sampling program for SAE
purity grade class-6, which is applicable for
this turbine.
Sampling points are marked as follows:
Sampling point - Supply (PNV)
The PNV is provided within the supply unit.
Analysis of the samples from this point
makes it possible to ensure the degree of
purity of the fluid downstream of the fine

Sampling point - Fluid Tank (PNB)


The PNB is provided at the tank.
Sampling points downstream of the
circulation pump (PNU), downstream of
Fullers earth filter (PNFB) and downstream
of the fine-mesh mechanical filter (PNMF)
are provided.
Samples from the sampling points (PNU,
PNBF and PNMF are used to determine the
efficiency of the regeneration and filtration
processes.
The sampling program applies both to the
initial filling and to all fillings thereafter.
Maintenance measures to be carried out
to ensure Fluid property characteristics
Table-3 contains maintenance measures to
be taken if analysis values obtained for the
samples approach the limits prescribed in
the specification [1].
Examination of system components
During inspections and major overhauls,
carefully examine the system components
for formation of deposits or scale and for
erosion-corrosion at the control edges of
sensitivity control equipment.
If any deposits are found, they must be
analysed in consultation with the control fluid
manufacturer.
Then checks must be carried out to find out
if rust or other forms of corrosion have
developed within the system.

5.3-0082-02/7

Time of Sampling

Degree of purity

Discol
oration
test

Particle
count

NZ
KOH
mg/g

ASC
min

Water
content
%
by
vol.

Before filling FRF


 Lab sample
 Control sample

x
x

x
x

Two weeks after filling


FRF, if flushing not yet
started

24h after
commencing hot
operation

One month after


commencing of
operation: weekly

Before commencing
flushing for record of
as-delivered condition

PNB

Continuous sampling
during flushing

PNR

Towards end of refilling


via superfine filter
Continuous monitoring
during superfine
filtering

Kinem.
Visco

Anticorro.
2
Props.
V mm /s
(2)
x
x

(3)

PNB
PNU
PNBF
PNMF

Before commencing
hot operation (Last
sample taken more
than 2 weeks earlier)

One month after


commencing hot
(1)
operation : monthly
Before handing over
with final log

Density
3
g/cm

PNR

Table-2: Sampling program for SAE purity grade class 6


Entire program applies for refills also.
(1)
(2)
(3)

Continuous monitoring programme after handing over


Anti-corrosion properties to DIN 51585, ASTM D 665-60
Test intervals according to filter capacity
PNB = Tank
PNV = supply line
PNR = return line

5.3-0082-02/8

PNU
PNBF
PNMF

= downstream of recirculating pump


= downstream of fullers earth filter
= downstream of mechanical filter

Parameter and
dimensions

Inspection
method

Water content
% by vol.

Permissible
limit

Inspection
interval

Measures to be taken if
limits exceeded

No free water
visible to
naked eye
0.5

weekly

Evaporate, suction-extract,
ladle-off, centrifuge using
special device
Check regeneration plant,
Replace fullers earth, Check
effects
by
frequent
measurement of NZ
Replace filling

Neutralisation
number
NZ (mg KOH/g)

DIN 51 558-1
ASTM D974

Monthly,
weekly if
negative
trend
monthly

Kinematic
viscosity at
2
40C (mm /s)
Solid impurities

DIN 51562-1
ASTM D445

26-50

Particle count
and
discolouration
test

SAE purity
grade class 6

monthly

Air separation
capability
(min. at 50C)

DIN 51381

Proper
functioning of
system must
be assured

every 4
month

Density at 15C
3
(g/cm )

DIN 51757
ASTM D1298

Fire resistance
test

DIN/ISO 14935

5 sec

Anti-corrosion
properties

DIN 51585
ASTM D665-60

no corrosion
permissible

after
determining
oil content
th
every 4
month

Oil content
% by vol.

nuclear
resonance test,
density

3% max.

see note

th

th

every 4
month

Check filters for proper


functioning. If necessary,
replace
filter
elements.
Examine deposits on filter
elements
Check fluid for contamination
(chemical and mechanical,
entrained oil)
Check points in system
where oil can enter FRF
system. Examine fluid for
entrained oil, air or water
Replace FRF filling

Have anti-corrosion additive


analysed
by
fluid
manufacturer. Replace FRF
filling if necessary.
Replace FRF filling. Perform
fire resistance test.

Table-3: Maintenance Measures


Note : If examination of the points in the system where the oil and FRF loops are structurally
separated reveal that oil has entered the FRF system as a result of structural failure, the
oil content in the FRF must be determined.

Also refer to the following sections:


[1] 5.1-0140 Fire Resistant Fluid
[21 5.1-1110 Control Fluid Pump
[3] 5.1-1120 Plate Type Filter
[4] 5.1-1130 Duplex Filter
[5] 5.1-1140 Regenerating Plant
[6] 5.3-0083 Analysis of Fire Resistant Fluid

5.3-0082-02/9

Steam Turbine
Maintenance
Introduction
A fire-resistant control fluid (FRF) is used in
control and governing systems. The purity of
the fire-resistant fluid is of vital importance to
the reliable operation of the plant and must
be monitored continuously.

Fire Resistant Fluid


Determination of Fluid Purity
For this reason, the ground glass flasks and
Erlenmeyer flasks must be flushed three
times with extra-purified n-heptane.

Sampling
 Always perform sampling at the same
location directly from the system.

Brief Description of the Procedure


To determine its purity, a defined quantity of
the fire-resistant fluid is dissolved in
n-heptane and filtered through a diaphragm
of pore size 0.45 m. Size and quantity of
the separable foreign matter particles are
then determined. A comparison shows
whether the fire-resistant fluid lies within the
purity requirements established in the
specification [1].

Equipment and Chemicals Required


 Membrane filters, 50 mm dia., 0.1m and
0.45 m pore size
 Filtering device and aspirator
 n-heptane, p.a., purified by filtration
 Filter the quantity of n-heptane p.a. that
is required for dissolving and washing of
the fire-resistant-fluid specimen through
a membrane filter of pore size 0.1 m
four times to exclude even the most
minute impurities.
 100 ml ground glass flasks
 100 ml Erlenmeyer flasks with ground
glass stoppers
 Vacuum pump, e.g. water jet pump
 Microscope slides
 Adhesive tape
Preparation of Sampling Vessels
Note: Flasks cleaned by a normal cleaning
procedure still contain far too many minute
impurities which can give a false impression
of purity.

BHEL Haridwar

 Recirculate the fire-resistant fluid long


enough prior to sampling to avoid settling
and give a homogeneous sample.
 Always perform sampling while the FRF
system is in operation.
 Flush the sampling point prior to
sampling by draining about 10 litres of
fire-resistant fluid into a clean receptacle;
return this into the system after sampling.
 Allow about 10 litres of fire-resistant fluid
to pass through the sampling point
before performing sampling by filling the
fire-resistant fluid directly into the
cleaned ground-glass flask.
 Do not use aids such as syringes or
beakers.
 Always identification-mark the specimens
uniquely and durably.
 Complete the sampling records and send
to the analysing laboratory together with
the FRF sample.

Determination Procedure
 Measure 20 ml (about 23 g) of fireresistant fluid into an Erlenmeyer flask
previously
cleaned
with
purified
n-heptane, p.a., and dissolve in 80 ml of
purified n-heptane, p.a.
 Use a clean hair brush to remove any
dust from the membrane filter and clamp
the filter into the filtering device.
 Connect up the water jet pump to the
aspirator and filter the fire-resistant fluid /
n-heptane
mixture
through
the
membrane filter.

5.3-0083-01/1

 Then flush the Erlenmeyer flask five


times with about 50 ml each purified
n-heptane. p.a. and also pass the
n-heptane used for flushing through the
filter.

 After drying the filter, place it between


two cleaned microscope slides and seal
the edges with adhesive tape.
 Determine the sizes and quantities of the
separable foreign matter particles.

Also refer to the following sections:


[1] 5.1-0140 : Fire Resistant Fluid
[2] 5.3-0082 : Care of Control Fluid

5.3-0083-01/2

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Introduction
If the piping of the lubricating and control
fluid system is excited to vibration, the
deflections
involved
could
cause
inadmissible stressing of the piping material.
Dampers are used to attenuate piping
vibration. These consist essentially of a
cylindrical casing enclosing a plunger
embedded in a viscous bitumen mass that
performs the actual damping function. The
upper part of the damper is sealed by a
fabric-base plastic guard sleeve.
This damper design is not subject to wear,
but the damping medium properties may be
impaired by temperature influences or, if the
guard sleeve is damaged, by contamination

Vibration Dampers

with foreign matter. Another point to watch


are the attachments of the dampers to the
piping and to any thermal installation plates
installed
between
them,
as
these
connections may work loose. For these
reasons, regular inspections are necessary
to ensure that the vibration dampers are in
good condition and functioning properly.

Inspection Intervals, scope of Inspection


Table-1 gives all important criteria to be
reviewed
during
vibration
damper
inspections.
The
intervals
between
inspections are given in y (years).
The inspections may also be performed
during plant operation.

Table-1 : Inspection Intervals, Scope of inspections and Criteria


Inspection
Intervals

Scope of Inspection
- Criteria

1y

Damper Attachment
- firm seating of damper components on pipe and support sides (and at
thermal insulation plates, if applicable)
Motion reserve
- cold condition: position of plunger as in support drawing
Guard sleeve
- correct and firm seating
- tension of the clamps
- damage (cracking or perforations)*
External influences
- effects of water, oil or similar *

5y

As for 1 y
Condition of the damper medium
- surface appearance
- elasticity
* If found, perform 5-year inspection immediately

BHEL Haridwar

5.3-0100-00/1

Points to Note
If welding work is to be performed close to
the piping dampers, take care to protect the
dampers (and particularly the guard sleeves)
from weld spatter and other potential
damage.
To preclude any deterioration due to ingress
of foreign matter such as water, oil, etc.,
replace guard sleeves as soon as any
damage is discovered. In that event, also
check the condition of the damper medium
immediately.

5.3-0100-00/2

If cracking, crumbling or loss of elasticity is


discovered on the surface of the damper
medium, or if the plunger has worked itself
out of the medium, this indicates that
ambient temperatures in excess of design
have caused deterioration in the damper
medium properties.
Consult the damper manufacturer if the
damper medium is unserviceable and has to
be replaced. Damper medium can be
removed from the casings without leaving
residue if heated to about 80C.

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Instructions for Overhaul

In this chapter scope and schedule of


overhaul has been described.

Detailed knowledge of the next major


overhaul can be gained from the medium
overhaul.

Types of Overhaul

The following criteria form the basis for


deciding whether or not to open a casing:
conclusions
drawn
from
long-term
observation, operating experience and
manufacturers recommendations.

 Minor Overhaul (inspection, servicing)


A minor overhaul should be carried out as
required simultaneously with shutdowns of
other plant components or during standstill
of the turbine-generator unit due to faults.
The purpose of the minor inspection is to
avoid reduction in availability due to forced
outages by inspection and servicing and, if
necessary, by preventive maintenance,
The casings are not opened.
Detailed knowledge of importance for
intermediate overhaul or major overhaul is
gained during minor overhaul.
Scheduled interval: after about
equivalent hours of operation.

17,000

 Medium
Overhaul
(Inspection,
servicing, repair)
A Medium Overhaul is a planned shutdown,
if possible, simultaneously with other plant
components during which a casing may be
opened. It covers all work which has a
bearing on the availability of the turbinegenerator unit.

BHEL Haridwar

 Major Overhaul (inspection, servicing,


repair)
A major overhaul is a planned shutdown. It
permits detailed inspection and the
determination of the condition of all
components. All casings are opened.
Schedule inspection interval: after 50,000
equivalent operating hours.
The term equivalent operation hours is
defined by the following equation:
Te = To + ns x 25
Where,
Te =

equivalent operating hours

To =

actual operating hours

ns = the number of starts, without


differentiation between cold, warm and hot
starts.

5.3-0200-05/1

TURBINE OVERHAUL

02
25800

LP turbine

IP turbine

HP turbine

Turbine valves

Turbine bearings

Coupling check

LP turbine

IP turbine

Coupling check

Turbine valves

Turbine bearings

Coupling check

*  

*  

  

  

 

05
06

60200

Medium Overhaul

03
04

43000

Major Overhaul

HP turbine

01

Variant-2

Turbine valves

Operating years

8600

Minor
Overhaul

Turbine bearings

Equivalent Operating hours

Variant-1

     

   

07
08

77400

09

  

  

 

10
94600

11
12

111800

     

   

13
14

129000

15

  

  

 

16
146200

17
18

-Mandatory,

5.3-0200-05/2

     
-Optional,

   

*Mandatory for turbines with spring mounted TG deck

*

*

Major Overhaul

Medium Overhaul

 For units with spring mounted TG deck, check reference readings of deck
spring units, carryout alignment and catenary check and readjust spring
units after first year of operation.

Minor Overhaul

List of Activities to be performed during Minor, Medium and Major Overhaul

 Check guides of inner casing for freedom of movement and wear. Overhaul.

 Measure permanent elongation of bolts in high temperature zone and check


them for embrittlement, check all bolts for cracks.

 Check shaft seals and labyrinth glands for abrasion and scaling. Check
springs of spring-mounted ring segments. Replace springs of high
temperature zone.

 Check shaft for cracks. Perform run out check, eliminate score-marks in
shaft journals. Inspect coupling.

 Clean rotors and casings and examine for damage. Pay particular attention
to blades and seal strips.

 After every 50,000 equivalent hours of operation, remove LP free standing


blades from fir-tree grooves, clean root & groove, check complete blade
with specific attention to blade root for crack by MPI and carry out NFT.

 Visually examine last stage blades of LP turbine (check for cracks if


necessary).

 Check earthling brush contact surface of shaft.

 Open main oil pump, check bearings, seal rings, shaft, impeller etc.

 Open auxiliary, emergency and jacking oil pumps.

 Check control and protective devices. Pay particular attention to parts


subject to wear or deposits, replace these if necessary.

 Perform mechanical, electrical and/or hydraulic functional tests on


monitoring instrumentation; if necessary, overhaul and re-calibrate.

 Disconnect couplings, measure elongation of coupling bolts, check axial


and radial alignment, perform run out check, clearance check.

*

 Disassemble bearings, check babbitt surface, measure clearances, check


seating of bearing in bearing pedestal.

 Check, overhaul and, if necessary, replace seal rings of bearing pedestals.

 Check casing guides for deposit, if guides are jammed, remove, clean and
overhaul keys. Ensure design key clearances.

 Check stop valves, control valves, bypass valves; if necessary, replace


worn parts on the hydraulic and steam sides.

 - If necessary, if applicable,

 - Mandatory,

for turbines with spring mounted TG deck

5.3-0200-05/3

Minor Overhaul

Medium Overhaul

Major Overhaul

 Check drains for foreign material, open and clean sludge traps.

 Measure casing distortion, check casing joints for erosion, check for cracks.

 Replace springs of sealing segments in high temperature zone

 Drain main oil / control fluid tank, separate impurities, change oil / control
fluid if necessary. Inspect tank. Clean strainers.

List of Activities to be performed during Minor, Medium and Major Overhaul

 Remove and check steam strainers for deposits and damage, clean/replace
if necessary.

 Check oil / control fluid filters for leaks, remove and clean the inserts, pay
attention to damage.

 Examine oil / control fluid lines for damage, eliminate leaks. Retighten
flange joints. Change gaskets, if applicable.

 Examine steam turbine integral piping for cracks, deformation and


ballooning. Special attention is to be given to balance piston leak-off line of
HPT.

 Check pipe supports and hangers and readjust if necessary. Check casing
horn drop and eliminate pipe pull by adjusting hangers & supports

 Replace TSE/TSC thermocouples fitted in IP inner casing whenever IP


turbine is overhauled.

 = If necessary, if applicable,

5.3-0200-05/4

= Mandatory,

* for turbines with spring mounted TG deck

MINOR OVERHAUL
Casings are not opened. Bearing check,
coupling check if necessary, mandatory for
spring mounted TG deck after first year of
operation, checks of controls, safety and
protective equipment on steam and oil sides.
Components to be inspected
st
TG deck springs (if applicable) after 1
year of operation, alignment & catenary
Casing roll check (if rotors realigned)
Bearings
Oil guard rings of bearing pedestals
Sliding pieces in casing guides and
supports
Control valves, bypass valves
Emergency stop valves and extraction
non-return valves
Control and safety equipment
Piping supports and hangers
Steam strainers
Drains
Oil lines
Pumps (main oil pump, jacking-oil pump,
auxiliary oil pumps and emergency oil
pumps, if necessary)
Oil / control fluid tanks
Oil / control fluid filters
Last stage of LP Turbine
Monitoring equipment
Scope of activities
 TG deck springs (where applicable)
For units with spring mounted TG deck, the
deck springs are to be inspected and
reference dimensions compared and
adjusted after first year of operation. This
will also call for alignment, catenary and roll
check.
 Couplings
If couplings are to be opened, carry out
swing check & coupled runout measurement
before loosening the coupling bolts,
measure the pretension of the coupling bolts
while loosing and tightening. Check the
alignment radially and axially. If deviations
exceed
the
permissible
tolerance,
realignment is required.

If couplings are disengaged it is advisable to


perform a roll check, especially if the
couplings need to be realigned. At the same
time measure the axial displacement of the
rotors
relative
to
the
casing.
If
disengagement of the couplings is not
performed, coupled run out checks are to be
performed in the vicinity of the bearing as a
minimum requirement. For accurate runout
measurement, rotor system temperature
should be close to ambient.
 Bearings
Dismantle bearings. It is necessary to check
the babbitt metal lining for damage and
looseness by UT. Check seating of bearing
in bearing pedestal. Measure clearances of
bearings.
 Oil guard rings of bearing pedestals
Remove
contaminants
and
abraded
particles on the seal edges to prevent oil
leakage. Replace oil guard ring in case of
excessive clearance.


Sliding pieces in casing guides and


supports
Inspect keys and sliding pieces for any
abnormality. If there are indications of
jamming, dismantle and overhaul. Check
and ensure thermal clearances as per
design.
 Control valves, bypass valves
Activities should generally be concerned
with checking of parts subject to wear.
Decisions on further activities and valves to
be covered are to be taken according to the
circumstances on the basis of performance
in the preceding period of operation. Spindle
seals consisting of packing material are to
be replaced in all cases. Clearances
between moving and stationary parts should
be checked and corrected.
 Emergency stop valves
Emergency stop valves should always be
inspected completely (steam and oil side).
This includes spindle, cone, seat, bush,
actuator. With mechanical drives (lever
linkage) in particular, attention is to be give
to compliance with plays and travel
reserves.

5.3-0200-05/5

 Piping supports and hangers


Check and measure alignment dimensions
in the cold conditions and adjust, if
necessary. Verify adjustment by casing horn
drop test. Check pipes for visible changes.
 Steam strainers
Dismantle and check for foreign bodies and
damage. Replace gasket.
 Drains
The scope of activities depends on
performance during the preceding period of
operation and susceptibility to malfunctions.
The sludge traps should be opened in all
cases.
 Oil lines
Remove leaked oil, inspect pipes and
mounting for fretting point and strengthen
accordingly.
 Pumps
The main oil pump is to be opened in order
to inspect bearings, sealing rings, shaft,
impeller and coupling. Check other pumps in
redundancy configuration only as necessary.
 Oil / Control fluid tanks
Clean strainers
 Oil / Control fluid filters
Remove elements and clean. Check for
damage.
 Last stages of LP turbine
Visual inspection of condition.
examination where necessary.

Crack

 Monitoring equipment
Check that mechanical, electrical and
hydraulic monitoring equipment function
properly and repair or recalibrate as
necessary.
MEDIUM OVERHAUL
At least one casing is to be opened and the
rotor lifted out. Otherwise as for minor
overhaul.
Components to be inspected
As for minor overhaul but augmented by the
following:

Inlet and outlet connections


Casings
Inner casing guides
Blading
Glands
Rotors
Fasteners

Scope of activities
 Inlet and outlet connections
Inspect for scale and freedom of movement
at I-and L-seal rings. Inspect U-seal rings
and measure precompression.
 Casing
Measure for deformation, crack examination.
Rework according to findings. Inspect casing
joint plane for erosion
 Inner casing guides
Check for freedom of movement and wear.
 Blading
Clean entire blading with casing open and
inspect for damage and incipient cracks,
Check shrouds for scale according to
temperature. Check for blade looseness and
lock blade lift.
The fir-tree root free standing blades of LP
rotor need special attention. After every
50,000 hours of operation, take out the
blades from groove, clean root and groove,
carry out crack detection of the entire blade
including root, check natural frequency in
position with technological pieces.
 Glands and labyrinths
Check for abrasion and scale (dependent on
temperature). Check condition of springs.
 Rotor
Check for cracks in fillets. Perform run out
check. Eliminate scoring on the journals.
Check coupling.
 TSC thermocouples
Replace TSC thermocouples fitted in IP
inner casing, whenever IP Turbine in
opened for overhaul. Take advance action
for procurement of the TSC thermocouples
and associated fittings.

5.3-0200-05/6
5.3-0200-05/7

 Fasteners in high temperature zone


Replace all fasteners of size upto M64 in
high temperature zone after 100,000
equivalent hours of operation. Carry out
destructive test on sample fastener of higher
sizes to determine usability of the lot.

Depending on the results of the inspection


the examined components are to be:


Left in the as-inspected condition,


because no faults have been found.

Left in the as-inspected conditions


although damage (e.g. crack formation)
has been found. Continued operation,
either in an unaltered or altered mode, is
to be justified. The propagation of the
damage is to be kept under observation;
spare parts, often requiring lengthy
delivery periods, are to be ordered.

Replaced with spare parts (in general


small parts subject to wear are normally
kept in stock e.g. spindles, fasteners)

Repaired by reworking at site or in the


works of the supplier

MAJOR OVERHAUL
All casings are to be opened and the rotors
lifted out. Otherwise as for medium
overhaul, but instruction if necessary is
inapplicable.
Components to be inspected
As for medium overhaul but instruction if
necessary is inapplicable, and augmented
by the following:
Oil / Control fluid tanks
Steam lines
Casing center guides
Scope of Activities
 Oil / Control fluid tanks
Drain and clean tank. Purify oil / Control
fluid, change if necessary.
 Steam lines
Check steam lines exposed to main or
reheat steam for expansion, deformation
and crack.
 Casing centre guide
Disassemble and overhaul. Ensure design
clearances
SUGGESTED INSPECTION & TESTING
PROCEDURES
During inspection of steam turbine generator
units, certain components are required to be
inspected in-depth to achieve more accurate
evaluation of their condition. The findings
are to be documented (descriptions, check
calculations, drawings and photographs).


It is necessary to increase the scope of the


inspection as soon as the units have clocked
more than 100,000 equivalent hours of
operation. Component integrity assessment
and/or residual life assessment studies are
to be initiated at this stage. Inspection
planning must allow for the additional time
and costs consumed by the inspections.
Apart from this, the intervals between major
overhauls necessitate the coverage of
considerably more components by the
inspection as has been customary hitherto.
When stipulating the scope of the
inspection, the experience gained from
comparable units should be taken into
account
in
the
plans
and/or
the
manufacturer is to state at which highly
stressed points the various components are
to be inspected. It is advisable to get the
special checks and tests conducted by the
specialists from turbine plant.

INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT
During integrity assessment, following
examination / inspection / testing of steam
turbine parts may be done.

Visual Inspection

With the naked eye and good


illumination
e.g.
500
Watt
photographic lamp, mirror
Magnifying glass
Borescope

Surface crack examination

Dye penetration test (DPT)

Magnetic particle inspection (cannot


be used on austenitic materials)

5.3-0200-05/7




Eddy-current examination

Crack depth determination as far as


possible with capacitance probe or
ultrasound

Ultrasonic examination

Hardness test

Material verification test

Manual spectroscope

X-Ray examination


Contact print (Replica) procedure


after etching material surface

Detection of permanent deformations

Out-of-roundness (ovality), angle of


bend (in pipe elbows), warp

Wall thickness measurement

Expansion
measurements
(measurement of diameter, length,
circumference).

Surface micro-structure examination

Microscopic examination at site

5.3-0200-05/8

Material testing

Tensile test to determine yield


strength, tensile strength, elongation
after fracture and necking down.

Notched bar impact test

Chemical composition

Metallographic microstructure
evaluation

Testing of electrical insulation


against shaft currents

Steam Turbine
Maintenance
Introduction
Following extensive boiler repairs, measures
must be taken to protect the turbine against
erosion by solid particles.
Bypass Operation
When extensive repairs have been carried
out on the boiler, it is not possible to prevent
solid particles remaining in the system in
spite of chemical cleaning. For this reason,
provision must be made for a lengthy period
of bypass operation with the highest
possible bypass steam mass flow rate at the
time of unit restart. During this bypass

BHEL Haridwar

Turbine Restart
After Boiler Repairs
operation, all solid particles remaining in the
system are blown down into the condenser,
which prevents them from causing particle
erosion on the turbine blades Particles
blown down into the condenser must be
removed from the hot well before
commencement of process operation. The
bypass steam mass flow rate must comply
with the limits (mass flow rate and duration
of operation) defined in the specifications.
The bypass stop and control valves may
suffer slight damage to their seats and discs
as a result of steam dumping and must,
where necessary, be checked by sampling.

5.3-0210-00

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Turbine Restart after Major


Inspections or Repairs

Introduction

Pre-service Inspections

The operational reliability and availability of


a steam turbine unit are determined by,
among other factors, the care with which the
unit was initially started up. The same rule
also applies to restarts after large scale
maintenance and repair work, e.g. in the
course of major inspections.

The functioning and the setting of all of the


major equipment of the turbine must be
checked. This applies both to mechanical /
hydraulic
components
and
to
instrumentation and control devices. The
scope of inspection and testing of defined in
instruction 5.2-002x, and covers:


All closed-loop controls

Information Required for Restart

All protective devices

In restarting a turbine it is useful to possess


the following data:

All sub loop controls and automatic


changeover controls

 The performance of the turbine unit and


its components prior to inspection

The characteristics of all electro-hydraulic


controllers must be recorded. The test
programs
appear
in
maintenance
instructions 5.3-0030 and 5.3-0061.

 The scope of the inspection


 Findings and checks made during the
inspection
 Repairs carried out on the basis of the
findings
 Retrofitting
taken

and

upgrading

measures

 Checks planned for the restart period

 Reports on turbine performance prior to


inspection
 Operating parameters and setting
records for the unit when new or at the
last restart
 Reports on inspections, findings and
repairs
on

retrofitting

and

The following are also required:


 Diagrams showing current control system
setting (in the case of special settings the
most recent records are binding)
 Documents from the turbine manual,
such as controller circuit diagrams and
descriptions.

BHEL Haridwar

If the result of operating parameters and


setting checks reveal changes from earlier
results, new records must be prepared.

In-Service Inspections

The information required may be found in


the following documents:

 Documents
modifications

Alarm system and monitoring equipment


must like wise be overhauled and tested.

The tests, which could not be carried out in


the pre-service phase because the boundary
conditions had not been fulfilled, must be
performed during the service phase
subsequent to the pre-service inspections.
The essential step-by-step test schedules
appear in maintenance instruction 5.3-0060.

 Protective devices
Service phase testing applies mainly to
those devices which protect the turbine
against over speed. The test programs of
the automatic turbine tester may also be
executed if required.
 Controllers
The performance of the controllers must
be observed throughout the restart
phase.

5.3-0220-00/1

The control range of the hydraulic


controller must be checked and, if
necessary, corrected during no-load
operation.
 Automatic functional group controls
The turbine systems and the turbine
generator unit should be started up with
the aid of the automatic functional group
controls, and checks carried out to
establish whether all criteria for the
execution of the step programs are
fulfilled.
 Operating parameters
The values of all operating parameters
must be recorded during steady-state
operation when they have remained
constant for an adequate length of time,
and then compared either with the set
point or with previous recorded values.
-

Output

Control system characteristics

Steam mass flow rates

Feed water / condensate mass flow rates

Steam pressure and temperatures


+ Main steam

which are subjected to large-scale changes


in this phase must be recorded.
The operating parameters of the turbine
stress controller must be subjected to critical
analysis, because the start-up time, and
hence the cost-efficient operation of the
turbine unit, is largely determined by the
limits set by the TSC.

Evaluation of Tests
Parameter Records

and

Operating

The test results and the operating parameter


records provide vital information on the
compliance of the turbine and its
components
with
the
performance
specifications.
Malfunctions and other major discrepancies
must be eliminated as far as possible,
especially when they constitute a hazard to
the operational reliability of the turbine unit.
Where necessary, spare parts must be
ordered and/or measures to facilitate future
elimination of the off-norn1al conditions
detected must be defined.
These measures may include further
measurement of off-normal conditions,
rebalancing and other similar actions.

+ Extraction steam
+ Exhaust steam

Re-Commissioning of the set

Casing temperatures

Expansions

Vibrations

Oil pressure and temperatures

Bearing metal temperatures

Most of the activities which have to be


performed in the course of turbine restarts
go beyond the scope of normal maintenance
work. They call for special knowledge which
is too detailed to be described in full in the
turbine manual, especially where fault
elimination is involved.

Control fluid pressures and temperatures

Circulating water temperatures


+ Condenser
+ Coolers

Condensate temperatures

Condenser leak tightness (leak test)

During non-steady-state operation, e.g.


during a cold start, all operating parameters

5.3-0220-00/2

It is therefore expedient to assign


commissioning personnel to assist in
restarting the turbine.
The following is one conceivable allocation
of functions:
 Pre-service inspection and in-service
testing of the unit by one specialist
engineer each for turbine and generator
from the supplier company.

 Pre-service inspection and testing of


major C&I hardware

 Report on the findings and checks made

Controllers and protective devices

Turbine stress controller

 Report on the replacement and spare


parts used or required

Automatic testers

Automatic functional group controls

If these special reports are not available,


brief details must be given on these subjects
under the above headings.

 Pre-service inspection and testing of


controls, interlocks and alarms by owner
/ operators personnel.

Summary
of
results
inspections and repairs

from

 Report on repairs and other actions

major

Full documentation of the history of a turbine


unit includes, among other elements,
reporting on turbine restart following major
inspections or repairs.
The report on restart should make reference
to certain preceding reports, namely:
 Report on the performance of the turbine
unit prior to the major inspection

The main section of the reports must cover:


 The scope and nature of pre-service
inspections
 Findings from the pre-service inspections
 The scope and nature of in-service
testing
 Evaluation of turbine performance
 Findings from in-service testing
 Matters
remaining
replacement
parts,
deadline, etc.)

open
(actions,
implementation

 Report on the scope of the inspection

5.3-0220-00/3

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

It is the social and moral obligation of all


concerned to ensure adequate protection of
the environment in every wake of operation.
During maintenance inspection and capital
overhauls, it is of paramount importance to
ensure safety of work force by adhering to
the applicable safety codes. In addition,
while handling and disposing hazardous
materials, necessary precautions, as
published from time to time, are to be
adhered.
Some material, through harmless in normal
regime, may become quite hazardous under
different circumstances. Gaskets made of
Fluorelastomers (viz. Viton), when exposed
0
to temperatures in the region of 400 C or
higher due to fire or any other reason, get
decomposed. One of the products of such
decomposition is Hydrofluoric acid, which is
highly corrosive and any skin contact with it
must be prevented.
To protect the natural environment and to
control pollution from disposed hazardous or
non-bio-degradable material, a proper
system of disposal is to be evolved and
compliance ensured.

Environmental protection

Oil leakage does not only pollute the


environment but is also a potential fire
hazard. Oil leakage from any source is to be
quickly attended. In the viscinity of high
temperature equipment & pipes, any oil
leakage has to be immediately attended,
even if it calls for unit shutdown.
Steam leakage from any source is
associated with thermal & noise pollution of
the environment. Depending on the source
& parameters of the leakage steam, it can
be injurious to the associated equipment
and also to any individual coming in contact.
Any such leakage is to be quickly attended.
Proper upkeep & periodic lubrication of all
rotating
equipment
as
per
the
manufacturers instructions goes a long way
in ensuring their smooth and noise-free
operation.
To promote environment friendly aesthetic
appearance, the external surface of all the
equipment should be painted once in two
years. General upkeep and cleanliness
standard should be maintained all around,
especially around the turbine floor to
promote a pleasing look.

Also refer to the following sections:


[1] 5.3-0251 : Fluorelastomer products
safety notice
[2] 5.3-0252 : Safe disposal of Turbine Oil

BHEL Haridwar

5.3-0250-00

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Precautions to be taken during handling


of Viton synthetic rubber and other
Fluorelastomer products after they have
been exposed to very high temperatures
Fluorelastomers are synthetic rubber like
materials commonly used for making
gaskets and seals of various kinds.
Viton is used extensively in control fluid
(FRF) system due to its compatibility with
phosphate ester fluids. It is also compatible
with mineral oil and can appear in O ring
form in the lubricating oil, jacking oil and
power oil systems. In normal use, fluid
temperature excursions beyond 100 C are
rare and therefore the use of Viton seals
does not constitute a hazard to safety.
However, extreme care should be taken
when dismantling equipment which may
have been subject to fire damage.
When exposed to temperatures in the region
of 400 C or higher, fluorelastomers do not
burn but decompose into a number of
materials, one of which is hydrofluoric acid.
This is corrosive and almost impossible to
remove once it contaminates the skin.
Personnel who could come into contact with
degraded
Viton
(or
any
other
fluorelastomer) should be made aware of its
hazardous nature. Equipment which has
been exposed to a very high temperature
(e.g. equipment which has been involved in
a
fire),
and
which
may
contain
fluorelastomer components, should not,
under any circumstances, be touched until it
has been visually inspected for gaskets or
seals which have suffered decomposition. If
decomposition has occurred, the component
will appear as a charred or black sticky
mass.
Supervisory staff should be informed
immediately and inquires made to confirm
whether fluorelastomer components are
involved. Meanwhile, access to the

BHEL Haridwar

Fluorelastomer Products
Safety Notice

equipment should be denied to unauthorised


or unprotected personnel and warning
notices posted.
The affected areas must be decontaminated
before either inspection or maintenance is
resumed. Do not touch anything in the
vicinity of the decomposed material until it
has been decontaminated.

Decontamination
procedures
for
decomposed Fluorelastomer products
Decontamination of equipment exposed
to decomposed Fluorelastomer products
If decomposed fluorelastomer products are
suspected, great care must be taken when
removing the residues from equipment.
Protective equipment and clothing must be
used and worn, including heavy duty rubber
gloves and full face protection, to prevent
accidental skin contact with the Hydrofluoric
acid (H-F).
The residues should be disposed of with
great care, such as very high temperature
incineration. All containers or bags used to
transport the residues must be clearly
marked to ensure careful handling to the
point of disposal.
H-F residues may be washed away using
sufficient quantities of water to dilute them to
harmless concentrations.

Decontamination of personnel exposed


to decomposed Fluorelastomer products
H-F residues should not be handled without
adequate protection. If accidental exposure
occurs, wash well with water and apply an
H-F Antidote Gel as directed. Medical
attention should be obtained immediately. A
Calcium Gluconate injection is the normal
treatment for Hydrofluoric Acid Burn.

5.3-0251-00

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Oil of viscosity class ISO VG 46, commonly


known as turbine oil, is used for lubrication
of turbine bearings as well as for hydraulic
turning gear.
The oil should comply with the requirements
given in Operation and Maintenance Manual
[1]. It is recommended that the condition of
oil in use, be periodically monitored to
ascertain the quality and properties of
turbine oil [2]. All major oil manufacturers
have facility for complete checking of oil
properties.
Turbine oil has to be changed if its
properties have crossed discard limits. The

Safe disposal of
Turbine Oil

procedure for safe disposal of used turbine


oil is as follows:
 To send the discarded oil to
registered refiners who have facilities to
reclaim the oil by physico-chemical
treatment for further use in non-critical
applications.
 To send the used oil to the parties
who are licensed to handle and dispose
used lubricating oil.
 To burn-off the discarded oil in
boiler furnace by mixing with fuel oil.

Also refer to the following sections:


[1] 5.1-0130 : Oil specification
[2] 5.3-0080 : Turbine Oil care

BHEL Haridwar

5.3-0252-00

Steam Turbine
Maintenance

Ordering of Spares

While ordering for spares, complete


identification details of the required
component should be furnished. The details
of components described in various chapters
of this manual are given only to understand

the functioning. For ordering spares, only the


project specific drawings supplied separately
should be referred and following details may
be furnished:

Enquiry for Steam Turbine O&M Spares


Name of the project :
Capacity :
Unit No. :
Previous enquiry / offer / order reference :
A] BHEL Supplied Spares
Sl.No.

Assembly
Drawing
No.

Item No.

Qty.

Description

Part Drg.No. /
Code No. /
KKS tag No.

Application

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

B] Purchase resold items


1. Name of the supplier :
2. Model :
3. Year of manufacturing / supply :
4. Equipment Serial / Fabrication No. :
5. KKS Tag No. :
6. Other details noted from name plate :
7. Suppliers catalogue reference No.
8. Suppliers Sketch / Drg. No.
9. Application / location where installed :
10. Details of spares
Sl.No.

Description as above

Installed Quantity

Required Quantity

1.
2.
3.

BHEL Haridwar

5.3-0300-00