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You are on page 1of 11

3, 2014

Translated from Denki Gakkai Ronbunshi, Vol. 133-D, No. 1, January 2013, pp. 2936

Current Compensation and Reactive Current Suppression by a Unified Power Flow

Controller

1 Nagoya

Electric Power Co., Inc., Japan

2 Chubu

the voltage in the system will rise above the rated value,

or that the power generated by distributed sources will

fluctuate widely as a result of weather changes, making it

difficult to maintain the voltage at the rated level. One of

the methods proposed to handle these problems consists in

converting the radial system to a loop system and using a

loop controller to control the power flow in the loop [1]. By

using a loop system, it is possible to reduce the difference

between the voltages of two feeders of the radial system and

to balance currents in the two feeders if there is a difference

between them, thus making it possible to suppress overloading of the distribution system and to reduce line losses.

Originally, loop controllers were designed to use the backto-back (BTB) method [2], but because in the BTB method

the converter capacity must be equal to the power capacity

at the loop controller installation point, power converters

become bulky. Therefore, a method using a unified power

flow controller (UPFC) [3, 4] was proposed [5]. A UPFC

consists of a series power converter supplying a voltage

in series to the power distribution system and a current

absorbing shunt power converter connected in parallel to

the power distribution system to maintain the dc voltage of

the series power converter. The capacity of converters in the

UPFC method is 20% lower than the power at the point of

installation of the loop controller, thus making it possible

to reduce the size of the power converter [6].

In this paper, using a simplified model of the loop

distribution system, we provide a theoretical analysis assuming that with the smart grid concept, it is possible to

obtain information on the voltages and currents at all nodes

of the distribution system. This analysis can be applied to

actual distribution systems for the purposes of suppressing

voltage fluctuations and reducing line losses in each node

of the loop distribution system. We then propose a method

of minimizing line losses based on detected currents in

SUMMARY

This paper describes line loss minimization control

using the shunt and series converters of a UPFC (unified

power flow controller) in a loop distribution system. The

line losses in a loop distribution system are caused by

the circulating current flowing in the loop and the mesh

currents flowing to the loads. The authors have previously

proposed a compensation method for circulating current

using a series converter. In this paper, the authors propose

a suppression method for reactive currents using a shunt

converter. In the prototype model of a loop distribution system, a theoretical loss reduction ratio of 92% without line

loss caused by active currents is obtained. Similar line loss

reduction characteristics are obtained in experiments using

the prototype distribution system. C 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 189(3): 3040, 2014; Published

online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com).

DOI 10.1002/eej.22552

Key words: unified power flow controller; line loss

minimization; loop distribution system; reactive current

suppression; circulating current compensation.

1.

Introduction

in accordance with the concept of radial schemes delivering power from generating facilities to consumers with the

voltage being reduced from the substations to final users at

predetermined steps at every system node. It is important

to reduce power losses in the system while maintaining the

voltage within the limits designed for each node. However,

because of an increasing share of distributed power sources

using natural energy sources such as solar panels and wind

30

cording to the reference value I2 . The active current Icp

of the input to the shunt power converter is controlled so

that the input dc voltage Vdc of the series power converter

. The reactive

is always equal to the reference voltage Vdc

so that the input power factor is 1, but in this paper the

reactive current Icq is controlled to minimize line losses by

reducing the reactive currents in the loop system. Figure

1(b) is the equivalent circuit of the UPFC with the series

power converter represented by a voltage source and the

shunt power converter by a current source.

all lines forming the loop when a UPFC is used as the

loop controller in a model of the loop distribution system.

First, we derive the total line losses in the loop distribution system generated by the circulating current flowing

in the loop and by mesh currents flowing to the loads.

Since, among all line losses, the losses produced by the

active components of mesh currents are unavoidable for

supplying power to the loads and cannot be reduced, loss

minimization is performed by compensating the circulating

current and reducing the reactive components of the mesh

currents. We previously demonstrated that the circulating

current flowing in the loop can be controlled by the output

voltage of the series power converter of the UPFC and

that line losses caused by the circulating current can be

reduced to zero by compensating them [79]. In this paper,

we present a method of reducing the reactive components of

the mesh currents by controlling the input reactive current

of the UPFC parallel power converter so as to minimize the

line losses produced by the reactive components [10]. The

effectiveness of the proposed method for line loss reduction

in a loop distribution model is verified analytically and

experimentally.

2.

Figure 2 shows the model of the loop distribution system. It consists of a voltage substation source V s and four

lines forming the loop distribution system. At each node,

the user loads (Z L1 to Z L3 ) are connected and a UPFC is

installed in line 2 as the loop controller. The impedance of

each line can be represented in terms of line resistance Ri

and the line reactance X i as follows:

Z i = Ri + j X i

(i 1 4) .

(1)

the counterclockwise direction in the loop.

The control by the UPFC is based on the voltage

of node 1, where the UPFC is mounted. The three-phase

voltages at node 1 (v u , v v , v w ) are given by the following

equation, using the effective value of the fundamental V1 f

and the phase angle of the line voltage:

Losses

u

2

V

=

3 1f

w

Figure 1 shows the configuration and equivalent circuit of the UPFC used as the loop controller. In Fig. 1(a),

the UPFC is connected to line 2 between nodes 1 and 2. The

UPFC consists of a series converter and a shunt converter.

The series converter inserts a voltage V c into the system

through a transformer and controls the line current I2 ac-

cos

cos ( 23) .

cos ( + 23)

(2)

coordinates by using the phase angle of the node 1 voltage

V 1 . For example, the input currents of the shunt power

converter (i cu , i cv , i cw ) are converted to the complex current

31

Z loop = Z 1 + Z 2 + Z 3 + Z 4 .

(5)

( Im1 Im4 ), we can express the circulating current flowing

in the loop ( Iloop ) and the currents in each line (Il ) by the

following equation:

Ii = Imi + Iloop

i=1

into Eq. (6), the mesh currents can be obtained from the

following equations:

Im1 = 2 3 4 L1 Rc

Ic = Icp + j Icq

2

2 )

2(

=

i cu e j + i cv e j( 3 ) + i cw e j(+ 3 ) . (3)

3

loop

power converter is the effective current and the imaginary

part Icq is the reactive current. All line currents and load

currents of the loop distribution system are converted to

complex coordinates based on the phase angle of the

voltage V 1 . Since at that time, due to the line impedances,

there is a small error between the phase angle of node 1

and the phase angles of other nodes, the real and imaginary

parts of all complex currents do not exactly correspond to

the respective active and reactive currents. Therefore, in this

paper, the real and imaginary parts of the complex currents

are called active and reactive currents, respectively.

Im2 =

Rloop

Im3 =

R1 ( I L1 + Ic )( R1 +R2 ) I L2 +R4 I L3

Rloop

Im4 = 1 L1 c

R

loop

Rloop = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 .

, (8)

(9)

current by means of Eqs. (6) and (8), the following equation

is obtained:

( 4

)

1

(10)

j X i Ii V c .

Iloop =

Rloop i=1

Figures 4(a) and 4(b) show the circuits formed by

separation of the distribution system shown in Fig. 2 into

the mesh current circuit and the circulating current circuit in

accordance with the superposition principle. Figure 4(a) is

the mesh current circuit derived from Eqs. (8), showing that

the mesh currents can be expressed only by load currents

and line resistances and by the current of the shunt power

converter. The circuit in Fig. 4(a) can be considered as the

distribution system model shown in Fig. 2 in a steady state

with all line currents at fixed values and with the reactance

voltages j X i Ii of all lines treated as voltage sources, excluding the voltage sources of the line reactances and the

output voltage V c of the series power converter. Figure 4(b)

shows the circuit of the circulating current obtained from

Eq. (10) with the circulating current expressed by voltage

sources consisting of the reactance voltages of the lines and

the output voltage of the series power converter.

Using Eqs. (6) and (8), the total line loss P1 can

be separated into the line loss due to the mesh current

(corresponding to the first term on the right side of Eq.

(11)) and the line loss caused by the circulating current

illustrated in Fig. 2, whose loads are approximated by constant current sources. The currents of the lines shown in Fig.

3, ( I1 I4 ), can be expressed by using the line impedances

Z L1 Z L4 , the load currents IL1 IL3 , the output voltage

V c of the series power converter of the UPFC, and the input

current Ic of the shunt power converter as follows:

( Z + Z + Z )( I + I )+( Z + Z ) I + Z I +V

I1 = 2 3 4 L1 c Z 3 4 L2 4 L3 c

loop

Z 1 ( I L1 + Ic )+( Z 3 + Z 4 ) I L2 + Z 4 I L3 +V c

I2 =

Z loop

I3 = Z 1 ( I L1 + Ic )( Z 1 + Z 2 ) I L2 +( Z 1 + Z 2 + Z 3 ) I L3 +Vc

Z loop

Z ( I + I )( Z 1 + Z 2 ) I L2 + Z 4 I L3 +V c

I3 = 1 L1 c

Z

(6)

voltage equation as follows:

( 4

)

1

(7)

Z i Imi V c .

Iloop =

Z loop

approximated into current sources.

2.3

(i 1 4) .

(4)

loop

32

mesh currents before control. [Color figure can be viewed

in the online issue, which is available at

wileyonlinelibrary.com.]

converter. Reduction of the reactive components of the

mesh currents is performed by the input reactive current Icq

of the UPFC shunt power converter, thus minimizing the

line losses caused by the reactive components of the mesh

currents.

theorem.

3.

(corresponding to the second term on the right side of Eq.

(11)):

Pl =

Ri | Ii |2 =

i=1

i=1

means of series power converter

Ri | Imi + Iloop |2

current can be reduced to zero by compensation of the circulating current. As can be seen in Fig. 4(b), the circulating

current Iloop can be controlled by the output voltage. As

follows from Eq. (10), to coerce the circulating current to

Iloop = 0, the output voltage of the series power controller

must have the following value in terms of the detected

currents Ii and reactances X i of all lines [8]:

i=1

Ri | Imi |2 + 2

i=1

(11)

i=1

Ri Imi = 0.

V c =

i=1

j X i Ii .

(12)

i=1

losses due to the mesh currents and the circulating current;

since these losses can be dealt with separately, the line

losses can be minimized by minimizing these separate

line losses. Since the mesh currents flow to the loads, their

active components cannot be reduced, and the line losses

are minimized by reducing the reactive components of the

line currents. Figure 5 shows the circulating current Iloop

(yellow) and the reactive components of the mesh currents

Imiq (orange) in the model of the distribution system.

The line losses due to the circulating current are reduced

to zero by compensating the circulating current Iloop by

system is increased, the output voltage of the series power

converter in Eq. (12) can be calculated by detecting the

currents in all lines and summing the reactance voltages in

all lines.

Figure 6 shows the circulating current and the reactive components of the mesh currents in the distribution system model after application of control by the series power

converter according to Eq. (12) to reduce the circulating

current to zero. It can be seen that the circulating current

Iloop becomes zero and only the reactive component of the

mesh current Imiq remains.

33

of each line Iciq due to the reactive current Icq of the shunt

power converter can be obtained as follows:

Ic1q =

Iciq =

Plq =

We now explain the suppression of the reactive components of the mesh currents and the control of the reactive

currents by the shunt power converter for the purpose of

minimizing line losses.

First, in the absence of reduction of reactive currents

by the shunt power converter, the mesh current Imi0 can be

given by the following equation:

2

Ri Imiq

=

Im2q0 =

Im3q0 =

Rloop

R1 I L1q +( R3 +R4 ) I L2q +R4 I L3q

Rloop

R1 I L1q ( R1 +R2 ) I L2q +R4 I L3q

Im4q0 =

Rloop

R1 I L1q +( R1 +R2 ) I L2q +( R1 +R2 +R3 ) I L3q

Rloop

i=1

2

Ri Imiq0

.

Ri (Imiq0 + Iciq )2

i=1

Im1q0

Icp + Im1q0

R=

)2

R2 + R3 + R4

R2 + R3 + R4

(

)

R1 R2 + R3 + R4

Rloop

)2

, (18)

(19)

minimized by reducing the third term on the right side of

this equation to zero by expressing the reactive current Icq

of the shunt power converter in the form of Eq. (20). The

loss reduction compared to the losses before control was

applied is given by the second term on the right side of Eq.

(18).

R2 Im2q0 + R3 Im3q0 + R4 Im4q0

Icp = Im1q0 +

R2 + R3 + R4

(14)

= I L1q

R3 + R4

R4

I L2q

I .

R2 + R3 + R4

R2 + R3 + R4 L3q

(20)

reactive currents by means of reactive current Icq of the

shunt power converter can be explained using Eq. (20) as

follows. The reactive current I L1q of load 1 where the power

converter is installed is 100% compensated. The reactive

current I L2q of load 2 installed at a different location is

compensated in proportion to the ratio of the line resistance

R3 + R4 between load 2 and substation 0 to the line resistance R2 + R3 + R4 between the power converter and node

2 of load 2. The degree of compensation of the reactive

current I L3q of load 3 is determined similarly to the degree

of compensation of load 2. In Eq. (20), the reactive current

The total line losses Plq0 due to the reactive components of the mesh currents Imiq0 can be obtained as follows:

Plq0 =

(

+ R

(13)

= Plq0 R

reactive components of the mesh currents Imiq0 can be

obtained as follows by substituting Ic = 0 into Eq. (8):

Im1q0 =

(17)

shunt power converter, the total line losses Plq caused by

the reactive currents can be obtained from Eqs. (14) to (17)

as follows:

i=1

(i 1 4) .

(16)

power converter

R1

I

Rloop cp

is performed, the reactive components Imiq of the mesh

currents Imi can be expressed as follows:

mesh currents after control by series converter. [Color

figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available

at wileyonlinelibrary.com.]

3.2

.

(i 2 4)

R2 + R3 + R4

Icp

Rloop

(15)

components of the mesh currents are reduced by the shunt

power converter. According to the mesh current circuit

shown in Fig. 4(a), the change in the reactive component

34

mesh currents under line loss minimization control. [Color

figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available

at wileyonlinelibrary.com.]

figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available

at wileyonlinelibrary.com.]

the currents of the loads. The currents of the loads can

also be determined by detecting the currents of each line of

the loop as the difference from the currents of the adjacent

lines. For example, the load current in node 2 is found as

IL2 = I2 I3 . In actual distribution systems, even with a

greater number of lines constituting the loop, it is possible

to detect the currents in all lines and to obtain the current

flowing out of the loop from the node under consideration

formed by the load and the branch. Then, control can be

implemented by having the shunt power converter deliver

the reactive current of the node under consideration, whose

value is proportional to the ratio of the resistance between

the shunt power converter and the node in question via the

substation to the resistance between the node in question

and the substation.

Using Eq. (20) for the reactive current Icq and Eqs.

(14) and (16), the reactive currents Imiq in all lines after

minimization of the line losses by reduction of the reactive

currents in accordance with Eq. (17) can be expressed as

follows:

R2 + R3 + R4

Icp = 0

Rloop

(

)

R3 + R4 I L2q + R4 I L3q

R1

= Im2q0

I =

Rloop cp

R2 + R3 + R4

Im1q = Im1q0 +

Im2q

R2 I L2q + R4 I L3q

R1

Icp =

Rloop

R2 + R3 + R4

(

)

R2 I L2q + R2 + R3 I L3q

R1

I =

Rloop cp

R2 + R3 + R4

Im3q = Im2q0

Im4q = Im4q

power converter can reduce it to zero and that all reactive

components Imiq are also reduced from the state before the

implementation of the suppression control shown in Fig. 6.

According to Fig. 7, all reactive currents at load 1 located

at the installation point of the shunt power converter are

compensated, and since there is no load in line 1 in the

clockwise rotation from the substation, the reactive current

Imiq in line 1 according to Eq. (21) becomes zero. In the

state of line loss minimization by reduction of the reactive

currents shown in Fig. 7, the reactive current of each load

is supplied from the power source nearest to this load. That

is, load 1 is supplied from shunt power converter Ic , load 2

from shunt power converter Ic and the source, and load 3

from the source.

Figure 8 shows the changes of the reactive components Imi p of the mesh currents before and after reactive

current reduction by the shunt power converter. Since the

positive direction of the current in the loop is the counterclockwise direction and all loads are assumed to have

a lagging power factor, the reactive components Imi p of

the mesh currents before control is the applied flow in

the negative direction in lines 1 and 2 and in the positive

direction in lines 3 and 4. In accordance with Eq. (20), the

reactive components of the mesh currents can be reduced

by controlling the reactive current Icq of the shunt power

converter. The reactive current Icq is divided between line

1 and lines 2, 3, and 4 in the same ratio as the ratio of

resistance R1 to resistances R2 + R3 + R4 , with the current

in line 1 flowing in the positive direction and the currents

in lines 2, 3, and 4 flowing in the negative direction. Thus

the absolute value of the reactive current Im2q of line 2

becomes greater, that of the reactive current Im1q of line

1 becomes zero, and the reactive currents of lines 2 and

3 (Im2q , Im3q ) are reduced. Hence, the total line losses

caused by the reactive components of the mesh currents are

minimized.

(21)

Figure 7 shows the distribution of the circulating current and the reactive components of the mesh currents under

line loss minimization control by the shunt power converter

in accordance with Eq. (21). It can be seen that control by

35

control of both the compensation of the circulating current

and the reduction of the reactive components of the mesh

currents. For practical reasons, it had to be designed so that

if a time delay occurred in the current detection, the time

constant of the current control could be increased according

to the time delay.

4.2

Fig. 9. Experimental system configuration.

and line losses as well as the loop controller output voltage

and input current before implementation of UPFC control,

during compensation control of the circulating current by

the series power converter, and during suppression control

of the reactive currents by the shunt power controller. All

current and voltage values have been converted to complex

coordinates based on the receiving voltage at node 1 at the

point of UPFC installation; the values in parentheses are in

pu form.

Assuming that before the implementation of UPFC

control, the input current and output voltage of the UPFC

are equal to zero, let us determine the line currents ILi

and also the line currents Ii in the steady state. Under

these conditions, both the circulating current and the mesh

currents cause line losses; the total line losses are Pl = 93.9

W (0.031 pu).

Next, when the circulating current is reduced to zero

during compensation of the circulating current by the series

power converter, the line currents Il are determined as mesh

currents Imi from Eq. (8), assuming that the load current is

approximated as a current source and has the same value

as before control, and also that the input current of the

shunt power converter Ic is zero. At that time, the output

voltage of the series power converter given by Eq. (12)

is reduced to a value 10% lower than the voltage of the

distribution system to compensate the circulating current.

By implementing circulating current compensation, the total losses due to the active and reactive components can

be reduced to Plp0 = 61.1 W and Plq0 = 13.4 W, respectively. The combined line losses are improved to Pl0 = 74.5

W (0.025 pu) and the loss reduction due to circulating

current compensation is Pl0 = Pl Pl0 = 19.4 W (0.006

pu). The total line losses due to active currents Plp0 are unavoidable losses, and the loss reduction ratio excluding the

losses due to active currents is Pl0 (Pl Plp0 ) 100 =

59%.

In addition, in accordance with Eq. (20), the reduction of the reactive current by the shunt power converter

results in a reactive current Icq = 3.94 A (0.455 pu). Balanced reduction of the reactive currents in all lines can

reduce all line losses due to reactive components to Plqc =

2.6 W (0.001 pu). Control by reduction of the reactive

Loop distribution system

Power supply Vs

Load1 R L1 , X L1

Load2 R L2 , X L2

Load3 R L3 , X L2

DG Pout

Line1 R1

X1

Line2 R2

X2

Line3 R3

X3

Line4 R4

X4

UPFC

DC link voltage Vdc

Capacitors C

Trans. of series conv.

Trans. of shunt conv.

Input inductor L

Control period Ts

4.

4.1

200 V

40

40

40

288 W

1.17

1.51

0.573

1.13

0.773

2.26

0.410

2.26

60 Hz 3 kVA

24.5 (0.28 pu)

7.54 (0.33 pu)

7.54 (0.33 pu)

(0.10 pu)

(0.088 pu)

(0.113 pu)

(0.043 pu)

(0.085 pu)

(0.055 pu)

(0.170 pu)

(0.031 pu)

(0.170 pu)

120 V

3,000 F

1:5 (system:series)

4:1 (system:shunt)

7.0 mH

204 s

Experimental Results

and experimental conditions

system corresponding to the distribution system model in

Fig. 2. The parameters of the experimental distribution system are given in Table 1. The power source was a 200 V, 60

Hz symmetrical three-phase power supply rated at 3 kVA

with the impedances of the loads and lines expressed in the

per unit (pu) system. At node 2, a 288-W distributed generation unit (DG) installed parallel to the load was modeled. It

had a power factor of 1 and its current flowed in the opposite

direction to the system current. A digital signal processor

(TMS320C6713, TI) was used as the UPFC controller. The

controller detected voltages and line currents at all nodes in

36

the values of all line currents, the circulating current Iloop ,

the input current of the shunt power converter Ic , and the

output voltage of the series power converter, detected by

the controller and converted to complex coordinates in

accordance with the phase of the voltage at the point of

connection of the shunt power converter. The period before

T1 is the state before control by the loop controller is applied. In this state, the output voltage of the series power

converter is coerced to zero, the reactive components Icq of

the input current of the shunt power converter are coerced

to zero, and the dc capacitor voltage Vdc is maintained at a

constant value by the active current Icp . The values of the

line currents agree well with the theoretical values before

control given in Table 2.

At time T1 , the series power converter initiates

compensation of the circulating current to Iloop = 0, thus

reducing the line losses due to the circulating current to

zero. Compensation of the circulating current results in a

state in which the active currents in all lines are reduced

to 2.6 A, similar to the theoretical values given in Table

2, and the reactive currents remain almost unchanged. At

that time, the output voltage of the series power converter

is the same as its theoretical value and the voltages Vcp

and Vcq are controlled to values of 8 V and 18 V,

respectively.

viewed in the online issue, which is available at

wileyonlinelibrary.com.]

currents reduces the line losses by Plc = Plq0 Plqc =

10.8 W (0.0036 pu). The loss reduction compared to the

losses before implementation of UPFC control is then equal

to (Pl0 + Plc )(Pl Plp0 ) 100 = 92%, that is, the

lowest possible limit.

Before control

Load 1 I1 p , I1q

Load 2 inc. DG I2 p , I1q

Load 3 I3 p , I1q

Load 1 I1 p , I1q

Load 2 I2 p , I1q

Load 3 I3 p , I1q

Load 4 I4 p , I1q

Total line Loss Pl

Control of circulating current compensation

Line 1 I1 p , I1q

Line 2 I2 p , I1q

Line 3 I3 p , I1q

Line 4 I4 p , I1q

Output voltage Vcp , Vcp

Line loss Plp0 , Plq0

Total line loss Pl0

Control of reactive current suppression

Line 1 I1 p , I1q

Line 2 I2 p , I1q

Line 3 I3 p , I1q

Line 4 I4 p , I1q

Input current Icq

Output voltage Vcp , Vcq

Line loss Plpc , Plqc

Total line loss Plc

3.59 A

4.48 A

4.63 A

7.16 A

3.57 A

0.91 A

5.55 A

93.9

2.32 A

2.02 A

1.14 A

2.43 A

0.10 A

1.92 A

3.06 A

(0.518 pu 0.233 pu)

(0.535 pu 0.132 pu)

(0.826 pu 0.280 pu)

(0.412 pu 0.012 pu)

(0.105 pu 0.222 pu)

(0.640 pu 0.354 pu)

(0.031 pu)

4.57 A

0.98 A

3.50 A

8.14 A

8.08 V

61.1 W

74.5 W

2.34 A

0.02 A

2.00 A

3.14 A

18.33 V

13.4 W

(0.113 pu 0.002 pu)

(0.404 pu

0.231 pu)

(0.940 pu

0.363 pu)

(0.040 pu

0.092 pu)

(0.020 pu

0.004 pu)

(0.028 pu)

4.57 A

0.98 A

3.50 A

8.14 A

0.00 A

1.62 A

0.40 A

1.55 A

3.94 A

18.33 V

2.6 W

(0.527 pu

0.000 pu)

(0.113 pu 0.187 pu)

(0.940 pu

0.179 pu)

(0.940 pu

0.179 pu)

(0.455 pu)

(0.013 pu

0.092 pu)

(0.020 pu

0.001 pu)

(0.021 pu)

2.57 V

61.1 W

63.8 W

37

power measurements at different points in the system with

digital power meters (4 WT1600 units manufactured by

Yokogawa Electric Co., Ltd.). The losses of the UPFC

power converters and the total line losses are shown in green

and blue, respectively. The measured value of the total line

losses before the application of UPFC control was Pl =

95.8 W and the theoretical value is 93.9 W. The measured

total line losses under compensation of the circulating current (Pl0 ) were 72.2 W and the theoretical value is 74.5 W.

The measured total line losses under reduction of reactive

currents (Plc ) was 62.4 W and the theoretical value is 63.8

W. Thus, all experimental and theoretical values are in good

agreement. During the experiments, losses in power converters were observed. The converter losses before control,

during compensation of the circulating current, and during

suppression of the reactive currents, were 2.9 W, 6.8 W, and

11.9 W, respectively. It is impossible to measure accurately

the total line loss Plpc caused by the active components of

the mesh currents, which corresponds to the theoretically

determined loss reduction ratio of 92% compared to the

losses before UPFC control, but considering that the experimental and theoretical values of the total line losses are

in good agreement, we may assume that the experimental

loss reduction ratio is also consistent with its theoretical

value.

theoretical and experimental results. [Color figure can be

viewed in the online issue, which is available at

wileyonlinelibrary.com.]

shunt power converter begins to reduce the line losses due

to the reactive currents. The reactive input current of the

shunt power converter is controlled to almost the same

value as the theoretical value given in Table 2 (Icq = 3.9 A),

and although the absolute value of the reactive current in

line 2 is increased, the reactive current in line 1 becomes

I1q = 0 A and the absolute values of the reactive currents

in lines 3 and 4 also become lower. Since all line currents

become lower due to the reduction of the reactive currents,

the output voltage of the series power converter Vcp is

reduced from 8 V to 2.5 V, similar to the theoretical

figure. The output voltage Vcq of the series power converter

is increased from 18 V to 21 V. This happens because as

the input reactive current Icq of the shunt power converter

is increased, the input active current Icp of the shunt power

converter rises from 0 A to 0.5 A.

Figure 11 shows a comparison of the theoretical and

experimental line losses before the application of UPFC

control and after compensation of the circulating current

by the series power converter and reduction of reactive

currents by the shunt power converter.

The theoretical figures are based on the values given

in Table 2, and the line loss unavoidably generated by the

active components of the mesh currents is Plp0 = Plqc =

61.1 W (red) in all cases. The line losses due to the reactive

components of the mesh currents (green) are Plq0 = 13.4

W before the application of UPFC control and during compensation of the circulating current, but when reduction of

the reactive currents is applied, the losses are reduced to

Plqc = 2.6 W. The increase in the line losses due to the

circulating current before the application of UPFC control,

namely, Pl0 (blue), is 19.4 W, as shown earlier.

5.

Conclusions

In this paper we propose a method of line loss minimization control in a loop distribution system and present

a theoretical analysis and experimental verification of line

loss minimization control using a UPFC as the loop controller. First, we point out that there are two types of line

losses in a loop distribution system: losses due to the current

circulating in the loop and losses due to mesh currents flowing only into loads. We also demonstrate that by compensating the circulating current by means of the UPFC, line

losses caused by the circulating current can be reduced to

zero. We have also shown that among the line losses caused

by mesh currents, the line losses due to active currents

cannot be reduced due to the fact that these currents supply

power to the loads, and that in order to minimize the line

losses due to the reactive components of mesh currents, the

input reactive current of the UPFC shunt power converter

can be used. The results of theoretical calculations and

experiments on the minimization of line losses in a model

distribution system are in good agreement, thus attesting to

the effectiveness of the proposed method.

In the future, we plan to investigate the relationship

between the capacity of UPFC power converters and their

locations. We also plan to develop a method of voltage

control in all nodes of loop distribution systems in the loss

reduction state.

38

REFERENCES

7.

new distribution network technology. IEEJ Trans PE

2004;124(4):517520. (in Japanese)

2. Okada N, Kurokawa K. Control tests of 6.6 kV-100

kVA BTB type loop power flow controller. IEEJ Trans

PE 2004;125(4):390398. (in Japanese)

3. Gyugyi L. Unified power-flow control concept

for flexible AC transmission systems. IEE Proc-C

1992;139(4).

4. Watanabe Y, Fujita H, Akagi H. Control schemes and

transient characteristics of a high speed phase shifter

for power flow control in power transmission systems.

IEEJ Trans IA 1997;117(11):13271333. (in Japanese)

5. Ueda F, Tsukahara K, Ishibashi C, Yamada Y. Distribution network operation using a 6.6 kV loop controller. Annual Meeting Record IEEJ 2005;7-128:191.

(in Japanese)

6. Kuroda T, Takeshita T, Fujita H. Transmission power

control using small-capacity UPFC under output volt-

8.

9.

10.

(in Japanese)

Inayoshi N, Sayed MA, Takeshita T, Izohara N, Ueda

F. Construction of a loop distribution system for line

loss minimization. IEEJ Trans PE 2008;128(6):893

894. (in Japanese)

Sayed MA, Inayoshi N, Takeshita T, Ueda F. Line

loss minimization of loop distribution systems using UPFC. IEEJ Trans IA 2008;128(4):508515. (in

Japanese)

Sayed MA, Takeshita T. Voltage regulation and line

loss minimization of loop distribution systems using

UPFC. IEEJ Trans IA 2009;129(11):11181125. (in

Japanese)

Yamada K, Takeshita T, Kunii Y, Ueda F. Line

loss minimization control using shunt and series converters of UPFC on loop distribution system. Papers of the Joint Technical Meeting on Power Engineering and Semiconductor Power Converters, IEE

Japan, PE-12-025, PSE-12-041, SPC-12-067, (2012).

(in Japanese)

Kazuhei Yamada (student member) received a bachelors degree in electrical and electronic engineering from Nagoya

Institute of Technology in 2010. He completed the M.E. in computer science and engineering at the same institution in 2012

and joined Daikin Kogyo Co., Ltd. His student research dealt with control of power distribution systems.

Takaharu Takeshita (senior member) received a doctoral degree from the Graduate School of Nagoya Institute of

Technology in 1984. In the same year, he became a research associate at Gifu National College of Technology. In 1991, he

moved to Nagoya Institute of Technology, first as an instructor in the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science,

and then as an associate professor; in 2003 he became a professor (D.Eng.). He is engaged in research on power electronics.

Recognitions: IEEJ Promotion Award (Best Publication) 2002. Member of SICE, the Society of Signal Processing Applications

and Technology of Japan, IEEE.

Yasuyuki Kunii (member) received a bachelors degree in electrical and electronic engineering from Meijo University in

1994 and joined Chubu Electric Power Co., Ltd. He is engaged in research on power quality in power distribution systems.

39

AUTHOR (continued)

Fukashi Ueda (member) completed the M.E. program in electrical engineering at the Graduate School of Chubu University

in 1985 and joined Chubu Electric Power Co., Ltd. In 1993, he entered the doctoral program in electrical engineering at the

Graduate School of Chubu University, completing the course of studies in 1996. He is now affiliated with the Division of

Technology Research and Development of the Institute for Energy Application Technologies, Ltd. He is engaged primarily in

research on power quality in power distribution systems (D.Eng.).

40

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