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# The Exponential Form of the Fourier Series

1
4A 1
1
4A 1
V C 3 = -------------- ⋅ ------- ⋅ --- ∠– 90° = ---------------------------- ------- ⋅ --- ∠– 90°
1 + j3 π 5
10 ∠71.6° π 5

(7.86)

4A 10
4A 10
= ------- ⋅ ---------- ∠– 161.6° ⇔ ------- ⋅ ---------- cos ( 3t – 161.6° )
π 50
π 50

Thus, the capacitor voltage in the time domain is
4A 2
5
10
v C ( t ) = ------- ------- cos ( t – 135° ) + ------- cos ( 2t – 153.4° ) + ---------- cos ( 3t – 161.6° ) + …
π 2
15
50

(7.87)

7.8 The Exponential Form of the Fourier Series
The Fourier series are often expressed in exponential form. The advantage of the exponential form
is that we only need to perform one integration rather than two, one for the a n , and another for the
b n coefficients in the trigonometric form of the series. Moreover, in most cases the integration is

simpler.
The exponential form is derived from the trigonometric form by substitution of
jωt

– jωt

+e cos ωt = e--------------------------2
jωt

(7.88)

– jωt

e
–e
sin ωt = --------------------------j2

(7.89)

into f ( t ) . Thus,
jωt

– jωt

j2ωt

– j2ωt

e
+e
e
+e
1
f ( t ) = --- a 0 + a 1 ⎛ ---------------------------- ⎞ + a 2 ⎛ --------------------------------- ⎞ +

2
2
2
jωt
– jωt
j2ωt
– j2ωt
e
–e
e
–e
… + b 1 ⎛ ---------------------------⎞ + b 2 ⎛ --------------------------------⎞ + …

j2
j2

(7.90)

and grouping terms with same exponents, we get
a b jωt
a b j2ωt
a b
– j2ωt ⎛ a 1 b 1 ⎞ – jωt 1
f ( t ) = … + ⎛ -----2 – -----2 ⎞ e
+ ----- – ----- e
+ --- a 0 + ⎛ -----1 + -----1⎞ e + ⎛ -----2 + -----2⎞ e
⎝ 2 j2 ⎠
⎝ 2 j2 ⎠

2
2 j2
2 j2⎠

(7.91)

The terms of (7.91) in parentheses are usually denoted as
b
1
1
C – n = --- ⎛ a n – ----n-⎞ = --- ( a n + jb n )
2
2⎝
j⎠

(7.92)

b
1
1
C n = --- ⎛ a n + ----n-⎞ = --- ( a n – j b n )
2
2⎝
j⎠

(7.93)

Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications, Second Edition
Orchard Publications

7-31

Chapter 7 Fourier Series
1
C 0 = --- a 0
2

(7.94)

Then, (7.91) is written as
f ( t ) = … + C –2 e

– j2ωt

+ C –1 e

– jωt

+ C0 + C1 e

jωt

+ C2 e

j2ωt

+…

(7.95)

We must remember that the C i coefficients, except C 0 , are complex and occur in complex conjugate pairs, that is,
C –n = C n∗

(7.96)

We can derive a general expression for the complex coefficients C n , by multiplying both sides of
(7.95) by e

– jnωt

and integrating over one period, as we did in the derivation of the a n and b n coeffi-

cients of the trigonometric form. Then, with ω = 1 ,

∫0

f ( t )e

– jnt

dt = … +

∫0

C–2 e

+

∫0

C0 e

+

∫0

C2 e

– j2t – jnt

e

– jnt

dt +

j2t – jnt

e

dt +

∫0

∫0

– jt – jnt

C–1 e e
jt – jnt

C1 e e

dt + … +

dt

∫0

(7.97)

dt

Cn e

jnt – jnt

e

dt

We observe that all the integrals on the right side of (7.97) are zero except the last one. Therefore,

∫0

f ( t )e

– jnt

dt =

∫0

Cn e

jnt – jnt

e

dt =

∫0

C n dt = 2πC n

or
1
C n = -----2π

∫0

f ( t )e

– jnt

dt

and, in general, for ω ≠ 1 ,
1
C n = -----2π

∫0

f ( t )e

– jnωt

d( ωt )

(7.98)

or
1
C n = --T

T

∫0 f ( t )e

– jnωt

d( ωt )

(7.99)

We can derive the trigonometric Fourier series from the exponential series by addition and subtrac-

7-32

Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications, Second Edition
Orchard Publications

( a n – jb n – a n – j b n ) 2 (7. from (7. all coefficients C i are imaginary Since odd functions have no cosine terms.93).103) and (7. all coefficients C i are real We recall from (7. the a n coefficients in (7.( a n + jb n ) ⎠ 2 2⎝ j (7. both C –n and C n are imaginary. both C – n and C n are also zero for n = even .The Exponential Form of the Fourier Series tion of the exponential form coefficients C n and C –n . C n = 0 for n = even We recall from the trigonometric Fourier series that if there is half-wave symmetry. For odd functions. 4. 2. Therefore.⎛ a n – ----n-⎞ = --. 1 C n + C – n = --. and thus.100) 1 C n – C – n = --. both C –n and C n are real. For even functions. If there is no symmetry.( a n – j b n ) 2 2⎝ j⎠ (7. f ( t ) is complex.103) and (7.103) and (7. Therefore.104) and Since even functions have no sine terms.102) Similarly.104) the coefficients a n and b n are both zero for n = even .104) are zero.93) that b 1 1 C – n = --.101) b n = j ( Cn – C–n ) (7. or Symmetry in Exponential Series 1.⎛ a n + ----n-⎞ = --.92) and (7.( a n – jb n + a n + jb n ) 2 or a n = C n + C –n (7.92) and (7. If there is half-wave symmetry. all even harmonics are zero. 3. Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. Second Edition Orchard Publications 7-33 . Thus. the b n coefficients in (7.103) b 1 1 C n = --. Therefore. in (7.104) are zero.

and as we know.( e – 1 ) + ----. we get 1 C n = -----2π 2π ∫0 f ( t )e – jnt 1 dt = -----2π π ∫0 Ae – jnt 1 dt + -----2π 2π ∫π –A e – jnt dt and for n = 0 .1. T A π 2π ωt 0 −A Figure 7. C –n = C n∗ always This can be seen in (7.-------.104) Example 7. C n = 0 for n = even . Assume that ω = 1. and its DC component is zero. For n ≠ 0 . it is an odd function.103) and (7. Second Edition Orchard Publications .30.98) with ω = 1 .( e – 1) 2jπn 2jπn 7-34 Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. the C n coefficients will be imaginary.105) 2 A A – jn2π – jnπ – jnπ = -----------.10 Compute the exponential Fourier series for the square waveform of Figure 7.30 below.( 1 + e – 2e ) = -----------.( 1 – e +e –e ) 2π – jn jn 2jπn (7.e – jn 2π π 1 A – jnπ A –jn2π – jnπ A – jnπ – jn2π – jnπ = -----. and C 0 = 0 .( π – 2π + π ) = 0 2π as expected. 1 C n = -----2π π ∫0 Ae – jnt dt + 2π ∫π –A e – jnt 1 A – jnt dt = -----.10 Solution: This is the same waveform as in Example 7.Chapter 7 Fourier Series 5. 1 C 0 = -----2π π ∫0 –0 Ae dt + 2π ∫π A –0 ( – A )e dt = -----.-------. Using (7. Waveform for Example 7.e 2π – jn π 0 – A – jnt + -------.( e –e ) = -----------. has half-wave symmetry. Therefore.

2 A A A – jnπ 2 2 2A = -----------. 7. and this will produce the third harmonic sin 3ωt . it follows that C – 3 = C 3∗ = – 2A ⁄ j3π . Second Edition Orchard Publications 7-35 . e – jnπ = 1 .( – 1 – 1 ) = -----------. To prove that (7.( 1 – 1 ) = 0 n = even 2jπn 2jπn Cn (7. since C 3 = 2A ⁄ j3π . The line spectra of other waveforms can be easily constructed from the Fourier series. that is. f ( t ) = … + C–2 e – j2ωt + C–1 e – jωt + C0 + C1 e jωt + C2 e j2ωt +… we obtain the exponential Fourier series for the square waveform with odd symmetry as 1 – j3ωt – jωt 2A jωt 1 f ( t ) = ------. it is useful to plot the amplitudes of the harmonics on a frequency scale that shows the first (fundamental frequency) harmonic. Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications.108) and (7. Figure 7. and the higher harmonics times the amplitude of the fundamental. we group the two terms inside the parentheses of (7. this will produce the fundamental frequency sin ωt .e 3 3 jπ ⎝ j3ωt ⎞ ⎠ 2A = ------jπ ∑ n = odd 1 --.⎛ … – --.9 Line Spectra When the Fourier series are known.e –e +e + --.95). since the waveform is an odd function. * An instrument that displays the spectral lines of a waveform. then.106) as expected. Such a plot is known as line spectrum and shows the spectral lines that would be displayed by a spectrum analyzer*.e n jnωt (7.( – 2 ) = -------n = odd 2jπn 2jπn 2jπn jπn Cn (7.Line Spectra For n = even .32 shows the line spectrum for the half-wave rectifier of Example 7.6. as expected.108) for which n = 1 . For instance.108) The minus ( −) sign of the first two terms within the parentheses results from the fact that C –n = C n∗ . Figure 7.1. For n = odd .31 shows the line spectrum of the square waveform of Example 7. e – jnπ = – 1 . Therefore. Then.( e – 1 ) = -----------.( e – 1 ) = -----------. 2 A A – jnπ 2 = -----------. and so on. We observe that f ( t ) is purely imaginary.107) Using (7. we group the two terms for which n = 3 .22) are the same.

33. it is necessary to know the frequency components.11 As shown in Figure 7. Solution: This recurrent rectangular pulse is used extensively in digital communications systems. T A T/κ −2π −π −π/κ 0 π/κ π 2π ωt Figure 7.32. Waveform for Example 7. Second Edition Orchard Publications . Thus. To determine how faithfully such pulses will be transmitted. the recurrence interval (period) T.1 A/ 2 A/π DC 2 0 4 8 6 1 nωt Figure 7.6 Example 7. Line spectrum for square waveform of Example 7.33. is k times the pulse duration.11 Compute the exponential Fourier series for the waveform of Figure 7. Assume ω = 1 . and plot its line spectra. Line spectrum for half-wave rectifier of Example 7.33. For this example. k is the ratio of the pulse repetition time to the duration of each pulse.Chapter 7 Fourier Series bn 4/π 0 2 1 3 5 4 7 6 9 8 nωt Figure 7. In other words. the pulse duration is T ⁄ k .31. the components of the exponential Fourier series are found from 7-36 Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications.

for k = 2 .⋅ ------------------------------------.= -----. ∞ A sin ( nπ ⁄ k ) --. s in (n π /k )/(n π /k ) k = 2 -1 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 Figure 7.112) has the sin x ⁄ x form.⋅ -------------------------k nπ ⁄ k ∑ f(t) = (7.– jnt π ⁄ k -------------e –π ⁄ k – jn2 π nπ sin ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ k⎠ nπ A A e –e = -----. Line spectrum of (7.112) n = –∞ The relation of (7.⎞ 2π ⎝ k k ⎠ or A C 0 = --k (7.34. from (7.109) dt The value of the average ( DC component) is found by letting n = 0 .109) we get π⁄k A C 0 = -----.Line Spectra 1 C n = -----2π π ∫– π Ae – jnt A dt = -----2π π⁄k ∫– π ⁄ k e – jnt (7. k = 5 and k = 10 .⋅ -------------------------nπ ⁄ k k (7.111) and thus.109) yields Cn = A . Second Edition Orchard Publications 7-37 . and the line spectrum is shown in Figures 7.34 through 7. Then.112) for k = 2 Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications.⎛ --. integration of (7.t 2π –π ⁄ k A π π = -----.⋅ sin ⎛ ------⎞ = A -------------------⎝ k⎠ nπ nπ nπ j2 jnπ ⁄ k – jnπ ⁄ k or A sin ( nπ ⁄ k ) C n = --.+ --.36.110) For the values for n ≠ 0 .

Line spectrum of (7. the lines get closer together while the lines are further apart as k gets smaller. Second Edition Orchard Publications .⋅ -------------------------k nπ ⁄ k 7-38 (7.12 Use the result of Example 7. we should observe that the number of lines between line crossings.35.11 to compute the exponential Fourier series of the unit impulse train Aδ ( t ± 2πn ) shown in Figure 7. A sin ( nπ ⁄ k ) C n = --.113) Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. Although the space between lines seems to be the same in each case.11. Solution: From Example 7.36. as k gets larger. Line spectrum of (7.112) for k = 10 The spectral lines are separated by the distance 1 ⁄ k and thus. Example 7.112) for k = 5 sin(nπ/k)/(nπ/k) k = 10 -10 -5 0 5 10 Figure 7.37.Chapter 7 Fourier Series sin(nπ/k)/(nπ/k) k=5 -10 -5 0 5 10 Figure 7. are different.

= ------------. ..-------------------------2π nπ ⁄ k nπ ⁄ k k (7. Impulse train for Example 7.= ------ k (7. that each recurrent pulse becomes a unit impulse. Second Edition Orchard Publications 7-39 .117) n = –∞ Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications.113).37. 1 f ( t ) = -----2π ∞ ∑ e jnωt (7. we get 1 sin ( nπ ⁄ k ) k ⁄ 2π sin ( nπ ⁄ k ) C n = ------------. we observe from Figure 7. that is. T 2π --.. 1 A = -----------2π ⁄ k T A 2π/κ −2π −π −π/κ 0 π/κ π ωt 2π 1 Figure 7. all coefficients of the exponential lim --------n 2π x→0 x Fourier series have the same amplitude and thus.12 and the pulse width was defined as T ⁄ k .37.= -----.38.38..115) as shown in Figure 7. as a recurrent pulse with amplitude k 1 1 A = ---------. that is. recalling that 1 sin x = 1 . Recurrent pulse with amplitude A = ------------ 2π ⁄ k By substitution of (7.116) reduces to C = ----.⋅ -------------------------..115) into (7.38. Moreover. let us represent the impulse train of Figure 7.116) and as π ⁄ k → 0 .Line Spectra A . and the total number of the pulses reduce to a unit impulse train.. we see that (7.114) k Next. −8π −6π −4π −2π 4π 2π 0 6π 8π ωt Figure 7.= -----2π T⁄k 2π ⁄ k (7.

As T → ∞ .40.118) where I 0 represents a constant current. Recurrent pulse with T → ∞ Now. 1/ 2π . Thus. I 2. and the line spectrum becomes a continuous spectrum..40. and are equally spaced harmonics as shown in Figure 7. T A T/κ −2π −π −π/κ 0 π/κ π 2π ωt Figure 7. This forms the basis of the Fourier transform that we will study in the next chapter. ω → 0 as T approaches infinity. if i = I 0 + I 1 cos ( ω 1 t ± θ 1 ) + I 2 cos ( ω 2 t ± θ 2 ) + … + I N cos ( ω N t ± θ N ) (7. that is. consists of a train of equal amplitude.39.39. . Since these spectral lines extend from – ∞ to + ∞ .. Line spectrum for Example 7... I N represent the amplitudes of the sinusoids. the RMS value of i is found from 7-40 Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. Accordingly. the lines in the line spectrum come closer together.38. In this case. 7. −4 −2 −3 −1 0 2 1 3 4 n Figure 7.10 Computation of RMS Values from Fourier Series The RMS value of a waveform consisting of sinusoids of different frequencies. the bandwidth approaches infinity. or in other words. there is only one pulse left (the one centered around zero). the fundamental frequency approaches zero. the period T approaches infinity.Chapter 7 Fourier Series The series of (7. ….12 Let us reconsider the train of recurrent pulses shown in Figure 7. the frequency difference between consecutive harmonics becomes smaller. In this case. is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the RMS values of each sinusoid. and I 1. Second Edition Orchard Publications . let us suppose that the pulses to the left and right of the pulse centered around zero. become less and less frequent.117) reveals that the line spectrum of the impulse train of Figure 7.

will produce all zero terms except the cosine squared terms which.120).121) b.41. I 1m similar terms representing higher order harmonics.I m 2 T (7.I + … + --. such as current i ( t ) . But as we know. will be 2T I m --1 2 2 --------.I 2 1m 2 2m 2 Nm (7. and other Substitution of (7.119) is based on Parseval’s theorem. We recall that the RMS (effective) value of a function. will produce the terms I 02 .121). we will discuss this theorem on the next chapter.120) 2 2 2 2 or I RMS = The proof of (7.13 Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. the integration of (7.13 Find the I RMS value of the square waveform shown in Figure 7. A brief description of the proof follows.120) 1 ωt −1 Figure 7.121).121) 2 2 [ cos ( ω 1 t – θ 1 ) ] . Second Edition Orchard Publications 7-41 .122) as in (7. for each harmonic. relation (7. is defined as I RMS = --1T T ∫0 i d t 2 (7. Example 7. relation (7. from the orthogonality principle.= --.118) into (7.119) 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 I 0 + --.I + --.Computation of RMS Values from Fourier Series I RMS = I 0 + I 1 RMS + I 2 RMS + … + I N RMS (7. or other cosine terms of different harmonic frequencies. Waveform for Example 7.41 by application of a. The result will also contain products of cosine functions multiplied by a constant.

42. and it is equal to 0.124) This is a good approximation to unity.13 showing period T = 2π Then. 1 2 I RMS = --T T ∫0 1 2 i dt = -----2π 1 π = -----. 7. from (7.sin 5ωt + …⎞ ⎠ 5 3 π⎝ (7.97 2 π 2⎝3⎠ 2⎝5⎠ (7.1.( 1 ) + --.. I RMS = 0. i.⎛ --.[ 2π ] = 1 2π or I RMS = 1 b.⎞ + --.Chapter 7 Fourier Series Solution: a. 1 π ωt 2π −1 Figure 7. In Example 7. the period is T = 2π as shown in Figure 7.707 times its maximum value. By inspection.42.e.123).0 + --. 1 4 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 I RMS = --.123) and as we know.⎛ --.120) and (7. Second Edition Orchard Publications . we found that the given waveform may be written as 1 1 4 i ( t ) = --. the RMS value of a sinusoid is a real number independent of the frequency and the phase angle.707I max . that is. 7-42 Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications.11 Computation of Average Power from Fourier Series We can compute the average power of a Fourier series from the relation P ave = P dc + P 1ave + P 2ave + … = V dc I dc + V 1RMS I 1RMS cos θ 1 + V 2RMS I 2RMS cos θ 2 + … (7.125) The proof is obtained from the definition of average power.⎞ + … = 0.[ ωt 0 + ωt 2π ∫0 2π 2π ] π 1 2 i d( ωt ) = -----2π π ∫0 1 d( ωt ) + 2 2π ∫π ( – 1 ) d( ωt ) 2 1 = -----. Then. Waveform of Example 7.sin 3ωt + --. considering that higher harmonics have been neglected.⎛ sin ωt + --.

14 For the circuit of Figure 7. by substitution of these series for v and i into (7. We will use the subscripts 1 and 3 to represent the quantities due to the fundamental and third harmonic frequencies respectively.= – j3 3 –3 ω1 C 10 × 10 ⁄ 3 Z 1 = 1 – j3 = 10 ∠– 71. compute: a. we will find that the products of v and i that have different frequencies.6° Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. v in1 ( t ) = 6 cos ωt ⇔ V in1 = 6 ∠0° V –j –j ---------. R 1Ω + − v in ( t ) C + iC ( t ) –3 − 10 ----------F 3 Figure 7. we can use phasor quantities. The average power P ave delivered by the voltage source.Computation of Average Power from Fourier Series 1 P ave = --T T ∫0 1 p dt = --T T ∫0 vi dt (7. The current i c ( t ) given that v in ( t ) = 6 ⎛⎝ cos ωt – --.127) n=1 where f ( t ) can represent voltages and currents.14 Then. Then. The non-zero values will represent the average power for each harmonic in (7.125). Example 7. and we will denote them with capital letters.43. Second Edition Orchard Publications 7-43 . Circuit for Example 7. will be zero.cos 3ωt⎞⎠ V where ω = 1000 r ⁄ s . 3 1 b. that is.a 0 + 2 ∞ ∑ cn cos ( nωt – θn ) (7. 1 f ( t ) = --.43.= -------------------------------. Solution: a. and only the products of the same frequency terms will have non-zero values. Since the excitation consists of two sinusoids of different frequencies.126) and the expression for the alternate trigonometric Fourier series.126).

130) b.12 Numerical Evaluation of Fourier Coefficients The use of Fourier series is not restricted to electric circuit analysis.8 w 2 2 2 7.cos ( 71.⋅ ---------. Quite often. It is also applied in the analysis of the behavior of physical systems subjected to periodic disturbances. v in3 ( t ) = – 2 cos 3ωt = 2 cos ( 3ωt + 180° ) ⇔ V in3 = 2 ∠180° V –j –j ---------.cos ( – 135 ° ) 2 2 2 2 or P ave = 0.90 cos ( ωt + 71. Examples are meteorological or economic quantities whose 7-44 Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications.132) Check: The average power absorbed by the capacitor is zero.41 ∠( 225 – 135 )° Z3 2 ∠– 45° (7.= ------------------------------.= -----------------------.6° ) A Z1 10 ∠– 71.= 1.90 – 1.6° (7.= – j1 3 –3 ω3 C 3 × 10 × 10 ⁄ 3 Z 3 = 1 – j1 = 2 ∠– 45° V in3 2 ∠180° I C3 = --------.129) ⇔ i C3 ( t ) = 1. The average power delivered by the voltage source is P ave = V 1RMS I 1RMS cos θ 1 + V 3RMS I 3RMS cos θ 3 (7.I max R = --.8 w (7. must be equal to the average power delivered by the source.90 cos ( ωt + 71.6° ⇔ i C1 ( t ) = 1.Chapter 7 Fourier Series V in1 6 ∠0° I C1 = --------.90 = ------.( 1. The average power absorbed by the resistor is 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 P ave = --.= 1. Second Edition Orchard Publications .41 ∠225° = 1.41 ) = 0. Examples include cable stress analysis in suspension bridges. and mechanical vibrations.129). it is necessary to construct the Fourier expansion of a function based on observed values instead of an analytic expression.= ----------------------------------------.128) Next. i c ( t ) = i c1 ( t ) + i c3 ( t ) = 1.⋅ ---------.6° ) + 1.41 cos ( 3ωt – 135 ° ) (7. the average power absorbed by the resistor.128) and (7.90 ∠71.41 6 1. and therefore.6° ) + ------.( I 1max – I 3max ) = --.131) 2 1.41 cos ( 3ωt – 135 ° ) A From (7.

46 is a partial table showing the computation of the coefficients of a clipped sine waveform.44. we enter the values of sin x and y sin x in Columns F and G respectively. and enter these values in Column A of the spreadsheet. the better the approximation. In these situations. Even though we may already know the Fourier series from analytical methods. we can use this procedure to check our results. we form the sums of y cos x and y sin x . Similarly. and we enter these in subsequent columns of the spreadsheet. were we have divided it into small pulses of width ∆x . The procedure presented here. Figure 7. using a spreadsheet.Numerical Evaluation of Fourier Coefficients period may be a day.5° and it is convenient to start at the zero point of the waveform. Second Edition Orchard Publications 7-45 . a month or even a year.. Obviously.) and divide by 180 to perform the conversion. To compute the coefficients of the higher order harmonics. The complete tables extend to the seventh harmonic to the right and to 360° down.45 is a partial table showing the computation of the coefficients of the square waveform. we can choose ∆x to be 2. we multiply these by ∆x . Next. the more pulses we use.. f(x) x Figure 7. we multiply degrees by π (3. a week. we need to evaluate the integral(s) using numerical integration. and so on. Then. such as Microsoft Excel. In Columns D and E we enter the values of cos x and the product y cos x respectively.5° intervals. We enter these in Column B and we denote them as x . If the time axis is in degrees. we form the products y cos 2x .1459. Waveform whose analytical expression is unknown Since the arguments of the sine and the cosine are in radians. In Column C we enter the corresponding values of y = f ( x ) as measured from the waveform. Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. will work for both the waveforms that have an analytical solution and those that do not. we can divide the period 0° to 360° in 2. y sin 3x . and Figure 7. y cos 3x . Consider the waveform of f ( x ) shown in Figure 7. and we divide by π to obtain the coefficients a 1 and b 1 .44. y sin 2x .

423 0.0 Average= 0.259 0.000 1.000 0.500 ysin3x Chapter 7 Fourier Series Figure 7.259 -0.131 0.174 0.887 0.707 0.044 0.843 0.985 0.819 0.906 0.924 0.793 -0.000 1.707 0.087 0.574 0.991 0.301 0.383 0.0 0.940 0.000 1.0 17.000 0.000 1.044 0.574 0.000 1.643 0.985 0.216 0.707 0.087 -0.866 0.000 1.000 0.423 0.087 0.985 0.999 0.423 0.0 12.500 0.643 0.966 0.0 42.906 0.000 0.985 0.131 0.5 25.707 -0.996 0.000 1.349 0.000 0.174 cos2x DC= a1= a2= a3= a4= a5= a6= a7= 0.940 0.991 0.000 0.707 0.383 0. Numerical computation of the coefficients of the square waveform (partial listing) Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications.991 0.0 22.0 -0.654 0.262 0.000 0.991 1.996 0.000 1.707 0.793 0.044 0.000 0.906 0.887 0.866 0.383 -0.131 0.866 0.000 0.5 0.843 0.500 0.000 0.000 1.819 0.000 1.259 0.000 0.793 0.259 0.996 0.044 0.000 -0.500 0.985 0.609 0.676 0.000 0.611 0.991 1.609 0.383 0.259 0.000 1.906 0.000 0.044 0.462 0.000 -0.0 1.218 0.924 0.609 0.793 0.500 0.000 1.000 0.643 0.500 0.000 0.259 0.643 0.5 15.087 0.383 0.0 0.643 ycosx 6.500 0.906 0.044 0.793 0.383 0.793 0.342 0.044 0.574 0.000 1.500 sin3x 0.5 20.174 ycox2x 0.393 0.954 0.707 0.966 0.999 0.609 0.273 0.966 0.737 0.500 0.423 0.259 0.996 0.966 0.976 0.676 0.609 0.609 -0.996 0.707 0.954 0.044 y=f(x) 0.766 ysinx 8.000 Numerical: 0.924 0.609 -0.131 -0.966 0.609 0.866 0.383 0.707 0.0 27.766 0.940 0.866 0.966 0.0 37.305 0.500 0.000 -0.000 0.131 0.044 0.819 0.000 0.044 0.676 0.5 35.676 0.000 0.7-46 0.737 0.044 0.873 x(deg) x(rad) -1.866 0.567 0.643 0.000 1.966 0.707 0.000 0.087 0.044 0.000 0.423 0.866 0.301 0.742 0.924 0.609 0.819 0.000 0.966 0.985 0.924 0.976 0.0 47.940 0.087 0.737 0.766 0.000 0.423 0.000 1.000 1.000 1.342 0.259 0.0 1.087 0.044 0.0 2.985 sin2x b1= b2= b3= b4= b5= b6= b7= 0.819 0.793 0.5*a0 2.737 0.000 0.866 0.174 0.044 0.906 0.574 0.044 0.0 7.436 0.643 0.698 0.707 0.131 -0.087 0.342 0.044 0.342 0.866 cos3x ycos3x f(t)=4(sinwt/p+sin3wt/3p+sin5wt/5p+ ….000 0.259 0.996 1.259 -0.500 0.524 0.500 -0.766 sinx Square waveform 0.342 0.966 0.707 0.966 0.000 1.044 0.175 0.0 0.131 0.5 45.383 -0.996 0.866 0.087 -0.000 0.966 0.044 0.866 0.174 0.000 0.216 0.940 0.5 40.866 0.45.5 1.574 0.609 0.462 0.707 0.707 0.500 0.5 30.793 0.991 0.174 0.866 0.259 0.5 50.174 0.924 0.424 0.0 0.000 0.643 cosx 4.924 0.766 0.707 -0.829 0.5 10.991 0.5 0.785 0.254 0.) Analytical: 0.480 0.537 0.000 1.259 0.044 0.180 1.766 0.766 0.000 0.0 32.044 0.131 0.537 0.044 0.966 0.766 0.793 -0.044 0.924 0.866 0.000 1.991 0.131 0.5 5.940 0.996 1.500 -0.0 1.574 0.044 0.174 0.707 0.000 0.819 0.793 0.985 ysin2x 1. Second Edition Orchard Publications .5 -1.342 0.000 -0.

470 0.924 0.0 0.129 -0.433 0.643 0.010 1.087 0.000 b5= 0.0 47.044 -0.121 0.0 17.737 0.5 15.906 0.259 0.338 0.087 0.924 0.866 0.5 10.132 0.819 0.966 0.000 0.174 cos2x DC= a1= a2= a3= a4= a5= a6= a7= 0.129 0.146 0.423 0.000 0.991 1.183 0.500 0.131 -0.985 0.175 0.0 42.5 45.433 cos3x ycos3x 0.000 0.423 0.044 0.250 0.609 0.654 0.250 ysin3x Numerical Evaluation of Fourier Coefficients Figure 7.171 0.996 0.000 b3= 0.5 35.383 0.5 0.383 0.174 0.500 0.129 0.259 -0.940 0.006 0.047 0.224 0.342 0.131 0.146 0.0 2.000 0.211 0.500 sin3x 0.966 0.008 0.262 0.304 -0.000 b7= -0.966 0.023 0.887 0.966 0.707 0.866 0.5 30.000 0.287 0.000 0.966 0.172 0.000 0.0 32.567 0.138 b4= 0.131 0.383 0.766 0.171 0.000 0.087 0. 5π/6 etc.737 0.991 0.017 0.742 0. Numerical computation of the coefficients of a clipped sine waveform (partial listing) Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications.676 0.305 0.498 0.022 0.766 sinx Sine wave clipped at π/6.866 0.5*a0 2.196 0.5 20.269 0.866 0.000 0.698 0.707 0.087 0.707 0.354 0.498 0.296 0.250 -0.433 0.707 0.0 0.067 0.819 0.213 0.0 7.500 0.131 0.383 0.022 0.643 cosx 4.044 0.996 0.0 1.000 0.259 0.500 0.524 0.246 0.022 0.496 0.304 0.174 0.087 0.179 0.086 0.131 0.065 -0.084 0.0 0.5 0.383 0.018 0.004 0.462 0.480 0.383 0.354 -0.050 0. Second Edition Orchard Publications 7-47 .011 0.342 0.262 0.126 0.265 0.453 0.287 0.966 0.172 0.000 -0.0.171 0.354 0.087 0.500 0.174 0.183 0.342 0.500 0.5 -1.000 0.000 0.906 0.5 25.873 x(deg) x(rad) -1.030 0.46.015 0.991 0.829 0.574 0.492 ysin2x b1= 0.609 0.000 0.091 0.410 0.383 -0.321 0.5 5.059 0.009 0.0 0.015 0.785 0.131 0.707 -0.002 0.259 0.004 0.220 0.000 0.060 0.707 0.500 -0.017 0.0 0.013 0.117 0.574 0.022 0.354 0.022 0.423 0.793 -0.609 -0.436 0.271 0.383 ysinx 8.954 0.034 0.996 0.218 0.006 0.999 0.707 0.924 0.996 1.090 0.216 0.000 -0.087 0.0 22.272 0.044 0.000 0.022 0.000 0. 0.433 0.643 0.985 0.250 0.537 0.109 0.423 0.397 -0.0 -0.500 0.500 y=f(x) 0.000 -0.000 0.028 b6= 0.609 0.000 0.183 0.000 0.342 0.378 0.5 50.022 0.0 1.271 0.163 0.338 0.397 0.044 0.940 0.000 0.259 0.793 0.609 0.259 0.500 0.609 b2= 0.087 0.369 0.483 0.500 0.643 0.819 0.866 0.000 0.324 0.5 1.0 37.766 0.0 1.087 -0.000 0.924 0.000 0.410 0.000 -0.500 0.354 0.020 0.5 40.976 0.985 sin2x 0.211 0.0 12.301 0.349 0.500 0.250 0.301 0.321 ycosx 6.397 0.500 0.000 0.259 0.044 0.462 0.500 0.940 0.707 0.022 0.793 0.191 -0.043 0.500 0.906 0.087 ycox2x Numerical: f(t)=unknown Analytical: 0.462 0.991 0.174 0.492 0.002 0.354 0.866 0.483 0.000 0.369 0.008 0.422 0.843 0.043 0.574 0.129 0.0 27.216 0.022 0.676 0.611 0.793 0.239 0.500 0.866 0.321 0.408 0.793 0.458 0.766 0.985 0.304 0.393 0.150 0.

sin 5ωt + …⎞ = ------⎠ π 5 3 π⎝ 7-48 ∑ n = odd 1 --.a 0 + 2 ∞ ∑ ( a cos nωt + b sin nωt ) n n n=1 where the first term a 0 ⁄ 2 is a constant.Chapter 7 Fourier Series 7. the series will consist of sine terms only. The terms with the coefficients a 1 and b 1 together. If a waveform has half-wave symmetry only odd (odd cosine and odd sine) harmonics will be present. • If a waveform has even symmetry. We recall that odd functions are those for which – f ( – t ) = f ( t ) . the shape of the negative half-cycle of the waveform is the same as that of the positive half-cycle. Second Edition Orchard Publications . • The trigonometric Fourier series for the square waveform with odd symmetry is 4A 1 1 4A f ( t ) = ------. if it is an odd function. and a 0 may or may not be zero. all even (even cosine and even sine) harmonics will be zero. and represents the DC (average) component of f ( t ) .⎛ sin ωt + --. We recall that even functions are those for which f( –t ) = f ( t ) • A periodic waveform with period T . Likewise. but inverted. represent the fundamental frequency component ω . has half-wave symmetry if –f ( t + T ⁄ 2 ) = f ( t ) that is. The coefficients a 0 .a 0 = -----2 2π 1 a n = --π ∫0 1 b n = --π 2π ∫0 2π ∫0 2π f ( t ) dt f ( t ) cos nt dt f ( t ) sin nt dt • If a waveform has odd symmetry. if it is an even function. In other words. a n . that is. and so on. the series will consist of cosine terms only. the terms with the coefficients a 2 and b 2 together.sin 3ωt + --. represent the second harmonic component 2ω .13 Summary • Any periodic waveform f ( t ) can be expressed as 1 f ( t ) = --. that is. and b n are found from the following relations: 1 1 --.sin nωt n Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications.

and appear as complex conjugate pairs.Summary • The trigonometric Fourier series for the square waveform with even symmetry is 4A 1 4A 1 f ( t ) = ------.– ------π π ∞ 1 -----------------.cos n ωt n n = odd • The trigonometric Fourier series for the sawtooth waveform with odd symmetry is 2A 1 1 1 2A f ( t ) = ------.sin t – --.⎛ sin ωt – --.sin 2ωt + --.⎛ a n + ----n-⎞ = --.⎛ a n – ----n-⎞ = --.sin 3ωt + -----. 6. 4.+ --.⎛ cos ω t – --.( a n – j b n ) ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 j 1 C 0 = --.sin nωt n • The trigonometric Fourier series for the triangular waveform with odd symmetry is 8A 1 1 8A 1 ( –1 ) f ( t ) = ------2.cos 3ωt + --.cos 5ωt – …⎞ = ------⎠ π 5 π⎝ 3 ∑ ( –1 ) (n – 1) ---------------2 1 --.⎛ sin ω t – --. Second Edition Orchard Publications 7-49 .sin n ωt 2 n • The trigonometric Fourier series for the half-wave rectifier with no symmetry is A cos 2t cos 4t cos 6t cos 8t A + ------------.( a n + jb n ) ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 j b 1 1 C n = --.sin 7ωt + …⎞ = ------2⎝ ⎠ 49 25 9 π n = odd π ∑ (n – 1) ---------------2 1 ----.sin 4ωt + …⎞ = ------⎝ ⎠ π 4 3 2 π ∑ ( –1 ) n–1 1 --. C – n = C n∗ Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. except C 0 .+ … --. that is. are complex.sin 3ωt – --.------------f( t) = A π 63 35 15 3 π 2 • The trigonometric form of the Fourier series for the full-wave rectifier with even symmetry is 2A 4A f ( t ) = ------.+ ------------.sin 5ωt – -----.a 0 2 • The C i coefficients. … ∑ • The Fourier series are often expressed in exponential form as f ( t ) = … + C –2 e – j2 ω t + C –1 e –j ω t + C0 + C1 e jωt + C2 e j2 ω t +… where the C i coefficients are related to the trigonometric form coefficients as b 1 1 C –n = --.+ ------------.cos nωt 2 n ( – 1 ) n = 2.

I + --. Thus. 1 C n = --T T ∫0 f ( t )e – jn ω t 1 d( ωt ) = -----2π 2π ∫0 f ( t )e – jn ω t d( ωt ) • We can derive the trigonometric Fourier series from the exponential series from the relations an = Cn + C–n and bn = j ( Cn – C–n ) • For even functions. I RMS = I 0 + I 1 RMS + I 2 RMS + … + I N RMS 2 2 2 2 or I RMS = 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 I 0 + --. is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the RMS values of each sinusoid. all coefficients C i are imaginary • If there is half-wave symmetry.I + … + --. • Τhe RMS value of a waveform consisting of sinusoids of different frequencies.I 2 Nm 2 1m 2 2m • We can compute the average power of a Fourier series from the relation P ave = P dc + P 1ave + P 2ave + … = V dc I dc + V 1RMS I 1RMS cos θ 1 + V 2RMS I 2RMS cos θ 2 + … • We can evaluate the Fourier coefficients of a function based on observed values instead of an analytic expression using numerical evaluations with the aid of a spreadsheet. 7-50 Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. Second Edition Orchard Publications . • Τhe line spectrum of an impulse train consists of a train of equal amplitude. for ω ≠ 1 . and are equally spaced harmonics. • The frequency components of a recurrent rectangular pulse follow a sin x ⁄ x form.Chapter 7 Fourier Series • In general. C n = 0 for n = even • C –n = C n∗ always • A line spectrum is a plot that shows the amplitudes of the harmonics on a frequency scale. all coefficients C i are real • For odd functions.

Assume ω = 1 . Waveform for Exercise 1 2. Assume ω = 1 . f( t) A⁄2 ωt 0 –A ⁄ 2 Figure 7. Second Edition Orchard Publications 7-51 . Waveform for Exercise 2 3. f(t) A ωt 0 Figure 7.48.49.Exercises 7.47. Compute the first 5 components of the trigonometric Fourier series for the waveform of Figure 7.48.50. Waveform for Exercise 3 4.49. Compute the first 5 components of the exponential Fourier series for the waveform of Figure 7.14 Exercises 1. f(t) A ωt 0 Figure 7.47. Compute the first 5 components of the trigonometric Fourier series for the waveform of Figure 7. Compute the first 5 components of the exponential Fourier series for the waveform of Figure 7. Assume ω = 1 .50. Waveform for Exercise 4 Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. Assume ω = 1 . f(t) A ωt 0 Figure 7.

51.52. f(t) A 0 ωt −A Figure 7. Second Edition Orchard Publications . f( t) A 0 ωt Figure 7. Waveform for Exercise 5 6. Compute the first 5 components of the exponential Fourier series for the waveform of Figure 7. Assume ω = 1 .52. Compute the first 5 components of the exponential Fourier series for the waveform of Figure 7. Assume ω = 1 . Waveform for Exercise 6 7-52 Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications.51.Chapter 7 Fourier Series 5.

for n = 5. f(t) A --.Solutions to Exercises 7.15 Solutions to Exercises 1.⎛ ----2. for n = 7. for n = 0 . therefore.sin ntπ – ----. There is no half-wave symmetry and the average ( DC component) is not zero. a 1 = – 4A -------. we must use (1). a 5 = – ---------3 2 2 2 2 2 2 π 3 π 5 π 7 π Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. ∫ x cos ax dx x 1 = ----2.a 0 = --------2 2 2π π ∫0 2 π A t t dt = ----2.⋅ ---π 2 0 2 A π = ----2.cos ax + --.⎛ ----2. for n = 3. 2 a n = --π π ∫0 A 2A --.cos nt + --.– 0 ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 2 n π n n and since sin ntπ = 0 for all integer n . the series consists of cosine terms only.⎞ = ----------2. Then. We will integrate from 0 to π and multiply by 2 . – 4A 4A -. 2A 1 2A 1 a n = ------2. 1 2A --.( cos nπ – 1 ) (2) ⎝ 2⎠ 2 π n n n π We cannot evaluate the average ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ⁄ a 0 from (2). a = ---------– 4Afor n = 1.cos nπ + --. a 3 = ----------2-.sin a x a a and thus (1) becomes t 2A 1 a n = ------2.⋅ ----π 2 or ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ⁄ a0 = A ⁄ 2 We observe from (2) that for n = even . a n = even = 0 .sin nt ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ n π n π 0 t 2A 1 1 = ------2. Then. Second Edition Orchard Publications 7-53 .cos nπ – ----.⎛ ----2. Then.t cos nt dt = ------2 π π π ∫0 t cos nt dt (1) From tables of integrals.t π A –π – 2π π 0 2π ωt This is an even function.

cos 5t + -----.( cos nt + nt sin nt ) π n π⁄2 2A + ------.⎛ cos t + --.cos 7t + …⎞ = A ⎝ ⎠ 2 9 25 49 2 π π ∞ ∑ n = odd 1 ----. f( t) 2A ------.= --------------------------------------------------------------.+ ------.sin nπ ⎝ ⎠ 2 nπ ⎝ 2 2⎠ 2 2 n π and since sin ntπ = 0 for all integer n . Second Edition Orchard Publications . 4A 4A 1 1 1 1 --.( cos ax + ax sin ax ) a a a (1) simplifies to 4A 1 a n = ------2.sin -----.( 1 – 1 ) = 0 2 2 9π 9π 7 π 7-54 Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications.= ----------2.----2. a 3 = --------2. for n = 2. 4A 2A nπ 4A 2A nπ 4A nπ a n = ----------2. for n = 4. a 4 = ----------2.( 0 – 1 ) = – -----2 2 2 2 π 4π π π 4A – 4A 4A for n = 3.+ -----.– ----------.cos ax + --.– 1 – 0⎞ + ------.a 0 = -----------------.sin -----.⎛⎝ cos -----.= ------2 Period 2π 2π 4 2 a n = --π π⁄2 ∫0 2A ------.cos nt 2 n 2. the series consists of cosine terms only.– 1⎞⎠ 2 2 nπ 2 2 nπ 2 2 2 2 n π n π n π 4A 4A 4A-. therefore.sin nt nπ π π⁄2 0 2A nπ 4A = ----------2.t π A 0 π⁄2 π 3π ⁄ 2 ωt π This is an even function.( 0 – 1 ) = – ---------. There is no half-wave symmetry and the average ( DC component) is not zero. 1 Area 2 × [ ( A ⁄ 2 ) ⋅ ( π ⁄ 2 ) ] + Aπ 3A ⋅ ( π ⁄ 2 ) 3A Average = --. a 1 = ------2.cos 3t + -----.cos nπ -----.– ------f ( t ) = --.t cos nt dt + --2π π π ∫π ⁄ 2 A cos nt dt (1) and with ∫ x cos ax dx 1 x 1 = ----2.sin a x = ----2. a = -------2A.( – 1 – 1 ) = – -----for n = 1.– ------.⎛ cos nπ ------⎞ -----.= -------------------------.⎛ sin nπ – sin nπ -----. Therefore.a 0 – ------2.Chapter 7 Fourier Series and so on.

( 1 – 1 ) = 0 j2nπ and A AC n = odd = -----------.[ 1 – ( – 1 ) ] = ------j2nπ jnπ By substitution into Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications.( 1 – e ) j2nπ Recalling that e for n = even . Then. The average ( DC component) is not zero. Second Edition Orchard Publications 7-55 . 1 4A 1 ------.cos 2t + --.Solutions to Exercises We observe that the fourth harmonic and all its multiples are zero. A C n = even = -----------.⎛ cos t + --.t 2π π 0 A = --2 For n ≠ 0 A C n = -----2π π ∫0 e – jnt A – jnt dt = --------------.cos 3t + …⎞ f ( t ) = 3A ⎝ ⎠ 9 2 4 π 3. Then. f(t) A π 0 2π ωt This is neither an even nor an odd function and has no half-wave symmetry. 1 C n = -----2π 2π ∫0 f ( t )e – jn ω t d( ωt ) and with ω = 1 1 C n = -----2π 2π ∫0 f ( t )e – jnt 1 dt = -----2π π ∫0 Ae – jnt 2π ∫π dt + 0e – jnt A dt = -----2π π ∫0 e – jnt dt The DC value is A C 0 = -----2π π ∫0 A 0 e dt = -----. therefore. Therefore. e – jn π = – 1 .e – j2 nπ π 0 A – jn π = -----------.– ------2. the series consists of both cosine and sine terms. e – jn π – jn π = cos nπ – j sin nπ = 1 and for n = odd .

e –e + e + --. 1 C n = -----2π π ∫– π f ( t )e – jnt A dt = -----2π π⁄2 ∫– π ⁄ 2 e – jnt dt The DC value is 7-56 Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. f( t) A –π –π ⁄ 2 π 0 ωt π⁄2 This is the same waveform as in Exercise 3 where the vertical axis has been shifted to make the waveform an even function.⎛ … – --.e + …⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 3 3 2 jπ The minus (−) sign of the first two terms within the parentheses results from the fact that C – n = C n∗ .+ ----. This waveform is an odd function and thus the expression for f ( t ) is imaginary.Chapter 7 Fourier Series f ( t ) = … + C –2 e – j2 ω t + C –1 e –j ω t + C0 + C1 e jωt + C2 e j2 ω t +… we find that 1 – j3 ω t – j ω t A j ω t 1 j3 ω t --. We observe that f ( t ) is complex. Then. for this waveform C n is real.10 except that the amplitude is halved. For instance. Second Edition Orchard Publications .⎛ … – --.e + …⎞ ⎠ 3 3 jπ ⎝ It is also the same waveform as in Example 7. Then.e f( t) = A –e + e + --. Therefore. f(t) A⁄2 ωt 0 –A ⁄ 2 This is the same waveform as in Exercise 3 where the DC component has been removed. 5. since C 1 = 2A ⁄ jπ . since there is no symmetry. as expected. 4. it follows that C – 1 = C 1∗ = – 2A ⁄ jπ . 1 – j3 ω t – j ω t A j ω t 1 j3 ω t f ( t ) = ----.

jn ω t ----e nπ 6. … nπ A C n = – -----. 9. 7. C n alternates in plus (+) and minus (−) signs. 11.⎛ --.+ f( t) = A 2 ∑ ( –1 ) (n – 1) ⁄ 2 n = odd A.if n = 3.t – 1 π A π⁄2 π 0 ωt −A We will find the exponential form coefficients C n from 1 C n = -----2π π ∫–π f ( t )e – jnt dt From tables of integrals Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications.t 2π π⁄2 A π π A = -----.+ ---⎞ = --2π ⎝ 2 2⎠ 2 –π ⁄ 2 For n ≠ 0 A C n = -----2π π⁄2 ∫– π ⁄ 2 e – jnt A – jnt dt = --------------.if n = 1. 5. … nπ Thus. 11. f(t) –π ⁄ 2 –π 2A ------.e – j2 nπ π⁄2 –π ⁄ 2 A – jn π ⁄ 2 jn π ⁄ 2 = --------------.⎛ --------------------------------------⎞ = -----.Solutions to Exercises A C 0 = -----. --. … and the minus (−) sign is used with n = 3.+ f(t) = A 2 ∑ n = odd A.sin nπ -----⎝ ⎠ nπ j2 j2nπ nπ 2 and we observe that for n = even . 9. We can express f ( t ) in a more compact form as --.( e –e ) – j2 nπ jn π ⁄ 2 – jn π ⁄ 2 A e –e A A jn π ⁄ 2 – jn π ⁄ 2 = -----------. … . 5. Second Edition Orchard Publications 7-57 .( e –e ) = -----. 7. A C n = -----. C n = 0 For n = odd .jn ω t⎞ ⎛ ± ----e ⎝ nπ ⎠ where the plus (+) sign is used with n = 1. that is.

Chapter 7 Fourier Series ∫ ax e ax xe dx = ------2.⎞ – ------.+ -------2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 n 2π n π n π j2 j2 2 4A ⎛ nπ = -------------– 1 + nπ sin nπ + cos nπ – -----. 7-58 Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. 1 C n = -----2π ∫ 0 – jnt ⎛ – 2A ------.⎛ e +e ---------------------------. cos nπ = – 1 .⎛ … + --. and C n = ---------2 2 n π Also. the DC component C 0 = 0 .t – 1⎞ e ∫0 ⎛⎝ -----⎠ π 2A – jnt dt Integrating and rearranging terms we get jn π – jn π jn π – jn π jn π – jn π e 2A e 1 –e –e 4A 4A.e + …⎞ ⎠ 2⎝ 9 9 π The coefficients of the terms e – j3 ω t and e –j ω t are positive because all coefficients of C n are real.sin nπ⎞ 2 2⎝ ⎠ 2 2n π and since sin nπ = 0 for all integer n . This is to be expected since f ( t ) is an even function. C n = 0 and for n = odd . Second Edition Orchard Publications . by inspection. 2A ( cos nπ – 1 ) C n = ---------2 2 n π –4 A For n = even .e +e + e + --.– --------.t – 1⎞ e dt + ⎝ ⎠ π –π π . Then.( ax – 1 ) a Then.+ --------------------------⋅ nπ . 1 – j3 ω t –j ω t j ω t 1 j3 ω t 4A f ( t ) = – ------. It also has half-wave symmetry and thus C n = 0 for n = even as we’ve found.⋅ ---------------------------C n = -----.