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The Three Great Sultans of al-Dawla al-Ismā'īliyya al-Naṣriyya Who Built the FourteenthCentury Alhambra: Ismā'īl I, Yūsuf

I, Muḥammad V (713-793/1314-1391)
Author(s): Antonio Fernández-Puertas
Source: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Third Series, Vol. 7, No. 1 (Apr., 1997), pp. 125
Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great
Britain and Ireland
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The Three Great Sultans of al-Dawla al-Isma'iliyya
al-Nasriyya who Built the Fourteenth-Century

Alhambra: Isma'il I, Yusuf I, Muhammad V


Muhammad I, the founder of the Nasrid Sultanate in 629/1232, originated the first dynasty,

al-dawla al-ghalibiyya al-nasriyya, as it has been called in modern times from his laqah, al-ghalib

bi-llah (= "the victor through Allah"). He was succeeded by his son Muhammad II al-Faqlh

and grandsons Muhammad III al-Makhlu' (= "the Dethroned'') and Abu 1-Juyush Nasr
with whom the direct masculine line of the al-Ahmares (= "the Reds") ended. Nasr was

dethroned by his nephew Isma'Tl I, the son of their paternal sister Fatima and her husban
the ra'Ts of Malaga, Abu Sa'id Faraj, who was also a member of the royal family.

I shall deal here with the sultans of the second dynasty up to the death of Muhammad V,

and will concentrate on its three main figures: Isma'Tl I, his second son Yusuf I and grandso

Muhammad V, and deal only briefly with Muhammad IV - the firstborn son of Isma'Tl I
and Muhammad VI el Bermejo (the Redhead), a relative and brother-in-law of Isma'Tl II.

However, we should first establish the identity and origins of Isma'Tl I's father, to understand
why he did not become the first sultan of the new dynasty.

Abu Sa'id Faraj: father of Isma'Tl I the founder of the second dynasty

When Muhammad I gained control of what was left of al-Andalus and established th
Nasrid Sultanate, he placed men he could trust in key cities and strongholds. He appointed

his brother Isma'Tl b. Nasr governor of the wildya of Malaga, who died in 655/1257, leaving

a son, Abu Sa'id Faraj b. Isma'Tl b. Nasr, who was only nine years old at the time, having
been born in 646/1248.1 (See Dynastic Table I). In view of the boy's youth, Muhammad I
appointed another nephew as governor for the province of Malaga, Abu Muhammad b.

Ashqllula,2 who together with his family rebelled against the monarchs and caused them
innumerable problems until that branch of the family faded out of the political scene.
Muhammad I brought his young nephew Abu Sa'id Faraj to court at Granada, where he
established a real and loyal friendship with his royal cousin, the future Muhammad II.

1 Ibn al-Khatib, al-Ihatafi ta'rikh Ghamata (Ihata), Escorial MS 1673, pp. 354-6. M.J. Rubiera Mata, "El arraez
Abu Sa'Td Faray b. Isma'il b. Nasr, gobernador de Malaga y eponimo de la segunda dinastia nasri de Granada",
Boletin de la Asociacion Espahola de Orientalistas (BAEO), XI (Madrid, 1975), pp. 127-33, esP- P- I28> notes 4, 5, 6.

2 I. S. Allouche, "La revoke des Banu Askilula contre le sultan nasrite Muhammad II d'apres le Kitab A'mal
al-a'lam d'Ibn al-Hatlb", Hesperis, XXV (Paris, 1938), p. 5.
JRAS, Series3, 7, 1 (1997), pp. 1-25

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first cousin of Muhammad I and first cousin once removed of Muhammad I I. 73. 355. al-Lamha al-badriyya fi dawla al-nasriyya. 2nd ed. was a great-nephew of Muhammad I. Isma'il I. 92. first cousin once removed of Muhammad I and second cousin of Muhammad I I. And when the royal heir ascended the throne in 671/1273 on the death of his father Muhammad I. pp. pp. 220. following the rebellion of the Banu Ashqilula. Ashquula looked on any signs of favour towards Abu Sa'id with distrust. 6 M. 219?22. L'Espagne musulmane au temps des Nasrides (1232-1492) (Paris.2 Antonio Fernandez-Puertas Table I The first dynasty The second dynasty al-dawla al-ghalibiyya al-dawla al-isma'tliyya Muhammad I-(brothers)-Isma'il b. 5 R.6 an expert in the studies ofbarnamaj. Abu Sa'Td Faraj became his loyal and intelligent adviser.4 When Muhamrnad I subdued Malaga and its territory.5 a post his father had held until his death under Muhammad I. As proof of his great esteem. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about.jstor. Beirut edn. Moreover in this same Dakhira it is said that 'Ibn al Ahmar' married his daughter to his 'cousin'. Arie. though aged only twenty-five. p. Although it is Muhammad I who is usual y cal ed 'Ibn al-Ahmar'.118. "El arraez Abu Sa'id". the cultivated Princess Fatima. esp. he named his loyal cousin Abu Sa'id Faraj governor of the city. Escorial MS 1673.24.10 on Wed. this item of information is not confirmed in any other source. Arie. Nasr (-655/ ._1 Muhammad IV Yusuf I I_ I-1 Muhammad V (ist) Ismail II I (Mufcammad VI) Muhammad V (2nd) Abu SacId was a nephew of Muhammad . and is credited with economic and military measures that he persuaded the new sultan to embark upon. 78.1257) 1 1 Muriamm 1___ 1 1 1 Muhammad III Na$r Fatima = (married 1 I_Isma'il I (son of Abu Sa'id and Fatima) 1-1 . states that "The anonymous author of al-Dakhira al Saniyya10 affirms that Abu Sa'id married a daughter of Muhammad I in the year 664/1265 and that this marriage caused the rebellion of the Banu AshqUula. on his father's side. Muhammad I also gave him his own daughter in marriage. 1st. Arie. 128-9. 4 Ihdta. Rubiera Mata. 1973. L'Espagne musulmane. R. he This content downloaded from 152. Although it is possible that Abu Muhammad b.3 On his mother's side he was a great-grandson of Muhammad I. p. Nasr and his own wife Fatima. L'Espagne musulmane. ed.J. 1990). After marrying Fatima he also became the son-in-law of Muhammad I and brother-in-law of Muhammad I I and Nasr. who would later see her 3 Ibn al-Khatib. as a possible substitution of him in the unlaya of Malaga. grandson of Muhammad I and nephew of Muhammad I I and Nasr. p. R. Nasr and his own mother Fatima.

which is documented in all the sources. 387. in.24. 'Inan edn (1955). 97. a noble Granadine. p. 8 Cairo edn (1901-2). M. 7 Ibn al-Khatlb. Lamha. Argel. The fact is that the first known child of the marriage was born much later in the year 127912". p. The direct ruling line of Muhammad VI ended when Yusuf IV was beheaded in the presence of Muhammad IX (a great-grandson of Muhammad V) in a dungeon of the Alhambra. Cairo edn (1928).jstor. in note 11 to the Ihata. In many ways the role played by Princess Fatima recalls that of her contemporary Queen Maria de Molina of Castil a-Leon. 385? 405. pp. note 14. the widow of Sancho IV (1284? 95). Tnan edn (1955). p. A daughter of Muhammad VI married Muhammad ibn al-Mawl.8 because when the vizier Ibn Mahruq was assas inated in 729/1328 under the sultanate of her grandson Muhammad IV. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. this high official happened to be in the Casa Real of Fatima. p. Arie. Although Princess Fatima did not overtly wield any power. 79-90. and their son (the grandson of Muhammad VI) reigned as Yusuf IV for a few months in 1432.1257) 1 1 Muhamm _!_ I-1 Ismail I-(brothers)-Muhammad 1 1 Yusuf 1 1 . 65-77. . 'Inan edn (1955). 387.11 although if it did take place in the year 1265 the young [princess] would not have reached a nubile age._1 1-1 1 1 Muhammad 1 1 Muhammad ibn al-Mawl (mar ied) Daughter Yusuf IV (1432) I I Muhammad VI was a second cousin of Muhammad V and his half-brother Isma'Tl I and became their brother-in-law when he married Isma'Tl U's full sister (a daughter of Yusuf I and his wife Maryam). pp. R. 66". own son Isma'Tl enthroned as sultan. in note 12 again to the Ihata. Muhammad VI dethroned his brother-in-law Isma'Tl I . We believe that the report refers to the marriage of the arraez with the daughter of Muhammad I . p. L'Espagne musulmane. as Ibn al-Khatlb indicates in the Ihdta. Fatima. but was murdered by Pedro I in Sevil e who helped to restore Muhammad V to the throne. she was well acquainted with the affairs of government. pp. Beirut edn. whom he used to inform on the sultanate's affairs of state. as wil later be explained. 1920. Nasr (-655/ .The Three Great Sultans of al-Dawla al-Ismallliyya al-Nasriyya 3 Table II The direct family line of Muhammad VI Muhammad I-(brothers)-Isma'Tl b. vol.118. The author refers us in her note 10 to: "Ed. Rubiera Mata. Ihata.7 and when he was assas inated would act as tutor of her grandsons Muhammad IV and especial y Yusuf I when his elder brother was kil ed. This content downloaded from 152. who first tutored her son Fernando IV (1295-1312) and then her grandson Alfonso XI (1312?50).10 on Wed.J. ii. p. "El arraez Abu Sa'Td". was not a cousin of Abu Sa'id but his uncle.

who deposed him and proclaimed his 9 F. 591-603. which caused him to be hated by the Granadine population. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. and then to his wife's brother Muhammad III.jstor.24. Here he was beseiged by Abu Sa'id Faraj. de la who was also grandson of Muhammad II through the maternal line.who had already been repelled by what he had seen and heard at court concerning Sultan Nasr. his first cousin once removed . on learning that Nasr had assassinated his own brother. or first dynasty. his cousin and father-in-law. "La maqama de la Fiesta de Ibn al-Murabf al-Azdi". Cairo edn (1901-2). al-Hajj as his .10 on Wed. together with his own great rnilitary and civil prestige as a high-ranking member of the royal family through his father and wife.13 whereby he offered to hand him the taxes of Malaga (which amounted to handing over his territory) in exchange for being named governor of Sale in Morocco. ii. making astronomical tables and almanacks.11 The sultan only just managed to escape as he lost his horse in a quagmire.4 Antonio Fernandez-Puertas So we have this royal cousin Abu Sa'id Faraj as governor in Malaga. 10 Ibn al-Khatlb.355 This content downloaded from 152. These blood ties would be decisive when Isma'il revolted against Sultan Nasr. He discovered that Nasr had made a pact with Fernando IV. agreed to pay tributes to Nasr and returned home empty-handed in7ii/i3ii. who surrounded himself with luxury and a literary environment. Escorial MS 1673. note 32 where he cites the Ihata. running as fast as he could. p. He was the father of the future Sultan Isma'il I. P. 12 R.9 He first remained loyal to Muhammad II. "El arraez Abu Sa'id ". Arie. with strong Christian sympathies due to the education he had received from his Christian mother.118. 93. 13 Ihata.10 Back in Malaga Abu Sa'id Faraj learnt of the abortive attempt to restore the dethroned and blind Muhammad III. Rubiera. knowing that Nasr had assassinated his own brother. Abu Sa'Td Faraj came to Granada and found the khassa (the court) begging him to depose Nasr as an inefficient monarch who spent his time studying science. p. the last sovereign of al-dawla al-ghdlibiyya. so he committed treason by making a secret pact with the Marinid sultan. 132. 11 M.12 Back in Malaga. so he signed a truce with the sultan. 131. But after Nasr had dethroned his own brother. now brother-in-law of Muhammad III as he had married the monarch's sister. L'Espagne musulmane. It was then that Abu Sa'id Faraj . rebelled against the sultan and advanced victoriously to the Vega of Granada. Eventually Abu Sa'id Faraj had to give up the attempt and return to Malaga as he had insufficient supplies of food to keep his troops besieging Granada.J. he maintained Muhammad b. building astrolabes. 99-100. p. he realised that his position was now untenable. vol. because the Granada citizens would not open their doors to the rebel. who later apparently drowned in the pool of the Casa Real he was inhabiting in the Alhambra. Moreover. ii. though victory had seemed to be sure and close. This pact became known among the indignant Malaguefios. and he made his way back to the city of Granada on foot. recognising his own vassallage and paying the Castilian king tribute money. by the direct male line from Muhammad I. Etudes d'Orientalisme dediees a la memoire de Levi-Provenpil (Paris. where he defeated Nasr at a place called al-Atsha (perhaps Lachar?). a man who dominated the sovereign and also spoke and dressed in the Castilian manner. pp. Ihata. Nasr also dressed in the manner of the Castilians and had links with Fernando IV of Castile. pp. 1962). vol. Abu Sa'id Faraj knew how to win the support of the Malaga population during his time as governor through the firmness of his orders and by introducing good economic measures.

El Bermejo (761?2/1360?2) al-Ghalib bi-llah (the victor through Allah) (assassinated) Muhammad V. "Salobrefia. ist. However. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. in his .10 on Wed. Sultanate Isma'il II (760-1/1359-60) (755-60/1354-9) al-Mutawaththib (the Usurper) al-Makhlu' (the Dethroned) (assassinated) Muhammad VI. Al-Andalus (AA). When Isma'Tl ascended the throne in 1314 he had his father transferred to the fortress of Salobrefia. that would probably have been the end of him. This content downloaded from 152. would rise against Nasr. though he was free to move around inside the city of Malaga. the royal family prison of the Nasrids. in 1312. Castril o. after the treason committed by Abu Sa'id Faraj became known. the figure of Abu Sa'id Faraj fades away in the chronicles after his withdrawal from Granada and return to Malaga. After besieging Nasr in the madina of the Alhambra. Due to his act of treason against the Nasrid Sultanate. 2nd. Isma'Tl I kept his father under close watch.14 where he died in 720/1320. called in modern times al-dawla al-ismd'fliyya al-nasriyya. the word spread that Abu Sa'id Faraj was escaping. After this incident he was imprisoned in a fortress. Muhammad I. so he was taken prisoner by the Malaguefios. prision real de la dinastia nasri". But in one of the father's outings to a property he owned outside Malaga. and his son then ordered him to be held in the castle of Cartama. his own uncle and second cousin. 463-72. a pact was agreed between them in 713/ 1314 which led Nasr to withdraw to Gaudix (where he died in 722/1322) and established in Granada the second dynasty. as Isma'Tl was the great-grandson of the founder. Isma'Tl advanced on Granada from Malaga with an army that increased in numbers along the way. Sultanate (762-93/1362-91) al-Ghanl bi-llah (he who is content with the help of Allah) Yusuf I I I (793-4/i39i~2) son Isma'Tl governor of Malaga ? who.24._1 I Muhammad V. pp. Ibn 14 R. On reaching Granada. XXVII (1963).118. its inhabitants opened the Bab Ilblra to him and gave him control of the city. If Isma'Tl had not arrived in time.The Three Great Sultans of al-Dawla al-Isma'iliyya al-Nasriyya 5 Table III The second dynasty al-dawla al-ismd'iliyya al-nasriyya Ismail I (713-25/1314-25) (assassinated) _!_ 1-1 Muhammad (assassinated) (assassinated) I I . Encouraged by the general discontent of the population.

XL. according to both Ibn Khaldun17 and Ibn al-KhatTb. Patronato de la Alhambra (Granada. because his son Isma'il I. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. Arie. Poetic epigraph of the arraez Faraj Abu Sa'Td . CXLVII. are recoded in inscriptions in the north-east portico of the Dar al-Mamlaka al-Sa'Tda in the Generalife. 295. the king's cousin Don Pedro and his uncle Don Juan. Isma'il I (713-25/1314-25) Abu 1-WalTd Isma'Tl ibn Faraj ibn Isma'Tl ibn Yusuf16 came to power after the internal crisis caused by Nasr. He was succeeded by his sons. CXCIV. pp. p. led Nasr to be dethroned in 713/1314 and only ended with the death of Nasr in 722/1322. extracts from Kitab al-Ibar. The emirate of Isma'Tl I saw the consolidation of the Nasrid Sultanate. Save for Muhammad II..10 on Wed. 1898). 1673).jstor. Burying his own father near his first cousin and father-in-law. Latham's article on the political history of the 'Nasrids' in the El2 (vol. which roused the people in 1312. extolled in the poems.354~~6. p. Prof. Muhammad IV and Yusuf I. partial trans. 16 Ibn al-Khatib. note 3. pp. pp. French translation by M. 78-90. both of whom also met violent deaths. 127-8: "LII. 18 Amal al-a'lam. Isma'Tl I ruled for eleven years before being assassinated by a cousin. Lamha (Cairo edn). PP. was yet another political gesture by Isma'Tl I to help legitimise the new dynasty. CLV. the sovereigns of the first Nasrid dynasty were buried in the maqbara. 1993) is largely based on her work. were both killed. notably after the crucial Battle of La Vega on 26 June 1319 in which the regents of Alfonso XI of Castile (1312-50). Lamha. pp. follows this text of Ibn al-Khatlb. had already founded the second dynasty. Rachel Arie is the leading scholar in the world on Nasrid history and her works.20 On his return from taking 15 E.. MJ. AA. The grand vizier explains all these family links in his Ihata (Escorial Ms. though later Arab authors gave more highly coloured accounts of the battle.118. 1931). His threnody and the texts on his tombstone were written by the ra'is of the Diwan al-insha'. D. p. L'Espagne musulmane. Ihata. Arie. cf.18 On Nasr's death Isma'Tl peacefully reincorporated Guadix into his area of dominion and continued a policy of conquering frontier fortresses. Eighteen verses". CXXXVI. 1956). the old cemetery that lay outside the madtna of the Alhambra. p. Poems XLV and LXXI appear inscribed on the taqas of This content downloaded from 152.19 Some of his military successes. Beirut edn (1978). 148-9. notes 53-9. L'Espagne musulmane. 20 M. Ibn al-Yayyab. J. p. 92. pp.J. p. wis de Grenade. Kitab Amal al-a'lam fimam buyi'a qabl al-ihtilam min muluk al-Islam. "The Christian army was cut to pieces within sight of Granada". R. (Beirut edn). Cairo edn (1928). who had been poisoned by his own son Muhammad III and therefore been rapidly buried in the riyad of the qasr al . Arie. 'Inan edn (1955). XLV. XXXIV. Gaudefroy-Demombynes. LXXI. CXCVIII. 65. pp. M. a lawful grandson of Muhammad II by the female line. CLXXIV. notes 1. XII (Paris. Isma'Tl had his father's body transferred and interred in the Rawda (the royal pantheon in the Alhambra)15 which Isma'Tl had built in order to bury his own dynasty round the tomb of his grandfather Muhammad II.6 Antonio Fernandez-Puertas al-Khatib gives a cautious and discreet account of the events in the Ihata. R. CLXXV. 3. L'Espagne musulmane. called al-dawla al-isma'iliyya. p. 96-7. cited here. Rubiera Mata. are fundamental to our knowledge of the Nasrid period. Index no. 2. 26. XXXV (1970). Levi-Provencal. 65-77. Index nos. Diwan. 78. on the south side of the city. Levi-Provencal (Beirut. Ibn al-Yayyab. "Los poemas epigraficos de Ibn al-Yayyab en la Alhambra". After the death of Abu Sa'Td Faraj. 19 Ibn al-Khatlb calls Isma'Tl a cousin of Nasr. Ibn al-Yayyab el otro poeta de la Alhambra. DI rhyme. 107-11. 9e serie. CXIX. Inscriptions arabes d'Espagne. 97. 1982).24. in order not to expose him as a traitor to the Nasrid Sultanate. Journal Asiatique. tawil metre. vii. Diwan. 467. 2 vols (Leiden-Paris. R. Rubiera Mata. CXCVIII. 294-5. 385-401. Rubiera Mata. 17 Ibn Khaldun. LX. pp. Ibn al-Jayyab. Histoire des Banu l-Ahmar. Muhammad II.J. pp.

Rosell (Madrid. 101. Muhammad IV had died at the age of eighteen. Arie. p.10 on Wed. Cabanelas Rodriguez and A. Fernandez-Puertas. p. Isma'Tl had an argument with his cousin Muhammad ibn Isma'Tl. and the Rawda as a dignified royal pantheon to house the remains of his grandfather Muhammad II. 22 Ibn Khaldun. L'Espagne musulmane. 5. Alfonso XI". The Palacio de Comares was initially built by Isma'Tl I. The Facade of the Palace of Comares: Vol.24. XIV (197$). completed and decorated the hammam. Ibn Khaldun states that the Banu AbT l-'Ula family "disapproved of the alliance of the king [Muhammad IV] with [the MarTnid Sultan] Abu 1-Hasan and formed a conspiracy that ended in the assassination of the sovereign". 1980). 1953). Lafachada del palacio de Comares. note 3. from whom he had inherited the title to the throne through his mother Fatima. (Beirut edn. 98. 398-400. and built and decorated the great Salon de Comares on a grand scale. Cuadernos de la Alhambra (CA). Ibn al-Khatlb."Cronica de los Reyes de Castilla desde Alfonso X hasta los Reyes Catolicos". pp. 28. Levi-Provencal. which were established by proclamation on the death of a father.jstor. ('Inan edn. 89.21 Isma'Tl I was a cultured and refined man. He was buried on the following day in Malaga. pp. the Puerta de la Armas in the Alcazaba. Funcibn. vol. (Cairo edn. Granada. pp.22 The Arabic chronicles make no special mention of successions to the Nasrid throne. On 13 dhu l-hijja 733/25 August 1333. while he was giving public audience at the gate of his palace (bi-babi qasri-hx). He built the qubba and cistern that were later incorporated into the Palacio del Riyad (Leones). apparently because Isma'Tl I had taken a slave-girl who belonged to him. Arie. 160?3. Yusuf I. 128.) pp. Biblioteca de Autores Espaholes (BAE). as can be gauged by his taste for poetry and the palaces and fortifications he had built. note 6. 258. the second son to succeed him. Ihata (Escorial MS 1. R. p. Yusuf I (733-55/1333-54) Isma'Tl I was first succeeded by his eldest son Muhammad IV. who assassinated him on 27 Rajah 725/6 June 1325. A. pp. R.118. After Isma'Tl's assassination. notes 4. 23 Lamha (Cairo edn). 83-4. known as the Sahib al-JazTra. and a large new palace complex which later developed into the Palacio de Comares. 21 Ihata (Cairo edn. "Los poemas epigrafiados". 453-73. who became a highly skilled rider and engaged in dangerous exploits with his horses. Function and Origins.387-9. I: Situacion. which was well received in Granada. Vol. I (Patronato de la Alhambra. Fernandez-Puertas. 1955). Lamha. sometimes leaving the succession to children or adolescents. pp. He remodelled the royal mansion in the Generalife and was responsible for the following buildings: the Alcazar Genii down in Granada built after the great victory of the Battle of La Vega. ed. 77. 16. Muhammad was killed with repeated lance strokes when returning to Granada from Gibraltar. 391-2. 197. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. L'Espagne musulmane. succeeded him aged only fifteen years and eight months.) 98. 1-86. LXVI: "Cronica de D. a child often. E. "Las inscripciones poeticas del Generalife". 1319/1901). Inscriptions arabes. and its surviving hammam buildings partly belong to his time. 208. D. Yusuf. Arie. pp. the rest of the palace was completed and decorated by his grandson Muhammad V. note 5. 99-100. This content downloaded from 152. Histoire des Banu l-Ahmar. Genesis. PP. born on 28 RabVII 718/29 June 1318. which the author has published together with others from the Qalahurra Nueva of Yusuf I.673). I: .The Three Great Sultans of al-Dawla al-Isma'lliyya al-Nasriyya 7 Martos. p. R. after the hasty proclamation and investiture of his younger brother Yusuf I. p.23 Having witnessed the assassinations of her son Isma'Tl I and her grandson the north portico of the Dar al-Mamlaka al-Sa'ida in the Generalife. pp. ch. L'Espagne musulmane.

28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about.000 dinars to Alfonso XI. good judgement and sound opinions. ed. p. God endowed him with an extraordinary intelligence. a thick beard. Arie. He was ingenious and thoughtful and could foresee the . Al-Umar! (Ibn Fadl Allah). 36. pp. 228?31. pp. Las grandes batallas de la Reconquista durante las invasiones africanas. had a fine figure and an even finer character. Masalik al-absar fi mamalik al-amsar: VAfrique moins This content downloaded from 152. M. 26 Lamha (Cairo edn). 92. 89. 28 Lamha. 1968). Princess Fatima (the daughter of Muhammad II) took over the tutelage of her surviving grandson Yusuf I. 1982). p. 93. Yusuf I himself fought valiantly at the head of his troops. 1956). Barcelona. he had large eyes and dark straight hair. 96. as the Christians called it because it took place on the bank of that river) on 7 Jumddd I 741/30 October 1340 resulted in a crushing Muslim defeat that ended all North African hopes of invading the Iberian peninsula. Historia de los sultanes de Granada (Leon.28 At the Battle of 24 Amal al-a'lam. 27. Yusuf returned hastily to Granada. and the subsequent Battle of Tarifa (or del Salado.24 The greatness which the Nasrid Sultanate was to achieve under the rule of the youthful Yusuf I can be glimpsed through Ibn al-Khatlb's detailed portrait of him: [The sultan] was dark skinned. 195. (Cairo edn. 103. ed. L'Espagne musulmane.27 Following this terrible defeat. p. Ihsan 'Abbas. 96. Al-Andalus. 1956). 455. Ibn Khaldun. Al-Maqqari al-Tilimsam. A. 140 and Lamha (Cairo edn). XIX (1954). Historia de Espaha.8 Antonio Fernandez-Puertas Muhammad IV. He allied himself with his father-in-law Alfonso IV of Portugal. this was a remarkable achievement. Alfonso XI.J.jstor. note 13. which fell to him a year and a half later on 12 Dhu l-qa'da 744/27 March 1344. Yusuf was obliged to make a pact with the ambitious Marinid Sultan Abu 1-Hasan. 302-3. L. pp. R. p. he tried to maintain friendship with all the other monarchs of his day. pp. 215. the Castilian king. Rubiera Mata. He loved art and was especially fascinated by architecture. L.24. note 1. pp. Nafh al-tib min ghusn al-Andalus al-ratib. directed by Manuel Tufion de Lara (Labor. who hoped to maintain a foothold in the Iberian peninsula in order to control the Straits of Gibraltar. "Los poemas epigraficos". (Madrid. was limited to choosing the food he wished to eat from the dishes that were placed before him.) p. and laid siege to Algeciras.d. 29.118. decided to take Tarifa and follow it up by a programme of reconquest that would give him command of the Straits. and according to both an Egyptian author and Ibn al-Khatlb. 251. 342?77.). He liked to dress with elegance. 8 vols. (Beirut. iv.10 on Wed. who was considered a minor and whose authority. Cronica de D. see Ihata ('Inan edn). naturally strong. 25 Lamha (Cairo edn). p. Seco de Lucena Paredes. By nature pacific. His teeth sparkled. 27 Ihata (Cairo edn 1901). Priego and Benameji. n. Seco de Lucena. pp. 129. His noble figure and extreme beauty made him stand out among other people. ii. p. ch. iii. Alfonso XI. p. "Espafia musulmana (siglos VIII-XV)". p.26 and the young Ibn al-Khatlb's father and elder brother were both killed in the battle. according to Ibn al-Khatlb. "La fecha de la batalla del Salado". The only benefit that Yusuf I derived from this military disaster was that he managed to avoid paying his annual tribute of 40. Huici Miranda. a handsome face and a clear voice that was a pleasure to hear. 102. while the Marinid Abu 1-Hasan took refuge in Algeciras before crossing back to Morocco. Alfonso XI then took Alcala la Real. was a collector of arms and adornments and had some mechanical ability. Levi-Provencal (Beirut. wishing to erase the humiliating memory of the Christian defeat at the Battle of La Vega in 1319. On the physiognomy of the Granadines. Histoire des Banu l-Ahmar. note 1.25 Yusuf Fs African Policy At the age of twenty-two. 325-8. p.

"Espana musulmana". R. fought on the side of Alfonso XI.118. a position superior to that of vizier. Seco de Lucena. p. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. A. Yusuf avoided any type of belligerent confrontation and evolved a foreign policy based on diplomacy and defence. Even Ibn al-Mawl. and then declined. 'Uthman b. Under the Nasrids the title and post of hajib reappears. Ridwan's home in the Alhambra was assaulted and he was assassinated. Huici Miranda. 167. 17. . ii. As the Nasrid sovereign's chief collaborator. Ridwan. notes 4-7. 390. Yusuf also sought some military backing and alliance with Mamluk Egypt. Ibn Khaldun. Yusuf sent Ibn al-KhatTb as ambassador to offer his condolences to the new sovereign. note 1. pp. The Facade. iv. note 11. 12. Lafachada . 367. but this went no further than an exchange of diplomatic letters.29 After this military disaster. M. 73. 40. L'Espagne musulmane. "El hayib PJdwan. p. This content downloaded from 152. but refused to hand over the sultan's brothers. 105. 545. p.32 The position of vizier caused great jealousy and intrigue among the Granadine aristocracy. pp. He held them instead as hostages. pp. and this led to several viziers being dismissed. notes 119. when he declined the position was given to Ibn al-Jayyab. who had caused the death of Muhammad IV and then taken refuge in Tunis. . ('Inan edn). p. L'Espagne musulmane. the vizier Abu 1-Nu'aym Pddwan. who had risen against Abu 'Inan and taken refuge in Granada. 65. i.jstor. p. a converted Christian slave who had enjoyed the patronage of Isma'Tl I and had been taken into his service. Arie. pp. la madraza de Granada y las murallas del Albaycin". Kitab al-Ibar. But under Yusuf I he was dismissed and imprisoned after the Battle of Tarifa. Al-Andalus.31 Ridwan held the post again during the first sultanate of Muhammad V (755-760/1354-8). R. 32 Ihata (Cairo edn). pp. It was granted to the old tutor of Muhammad IV. Fddwan was freed in 1341 and Yusuf I offered him the wizara. Ibn al-Yayyab. 129-30. 63. Pddwan was given the title of hajib with full powers on 17 Rajab 729/17 May 1329 (like his predecessors under the Umayyads of Cordoba in the tenth century). 103. R.The Three Great Sultans of al-Dawla al-Isma'lliyya al-Nasriyya 9 Tarifa. 31 L. But when the usurper Isma'Tl II rose against his paternal half-brother. 26. L'Espagne musulmane. Arie. p. Arie. he stood in for the sultan as commander of the army. scientific. Fernandez-Puertas. unaffected by his ethnic or Christian origins. by Gaudefroy-Demombynes (Paris. who fought ferociously against the Nasrids. the Princes Abu 1-Fadl and Abu Salim. especially when the holder was of humble or middle-class origin. 27. 90. pp. "Espana musulmana". note 2. Lamha (Cairo edn). 120. "Espana musulmana". p. 29 A. rising to the highest posts. p. as did Sulayman (one of the sons of the celebrated ghuzat. 1927). literary and artistic flowering that lasted through the sultanate of Yusuf I and that of his son Muhammad V.J. 185. AbT l-'Ula). When the Marinid Sultan Abu 1 Hasan died.24. to sow dissent in Morocco if the Marinid sultan threatened to oppose Granada. Arie.10 on Wed. then the most powerful Muslim state in the Mediterranean.30 The first viziers Under Yusuf I. note 7. 214-15. ii. 104. 81. Ibn al-Jayyab and Ibn al-KhatTb led a cultural. Rubiera Mata. XXI (1956). "Espana musulmana". a constellation of major cultural figures adorned the Nasrid court. and replaced by the qcTid Abu 1-Hasan ibn al-Mawl who was himself dismissed a few months later. pp. 108. the Banu AbT l-'Ula family. p. Lasgrandes batalles de la Reconquista. and became the intermediary between the sovereign and the other viziers .a position akin to that of prime minister with rights of precedence. 164. Partial trans. Abu 'Inan Faris. . who came from a noble Cordoban I'Egypte. 201. 532. 30 R. 209.

Alarcon y Santon and R. 204-6. who became the dhu l-wizdratayn (vizier of the pen and the sword). ch. Yusuf s policy towards the Christian kingdoms In order to maintain good relations with the Christian sovereigns of the Iberian peninsula. who. who was besieging Gibraltar.33 However. 95. Spanisch-Islamische Urkunden aus der Zeit der Nasriden und Moriscos (Berkeley/Los Angeles. CCCXXXIX. M. 82 and 84. 35 Lamha (Cairo edn). a compilation of letters written by order of the Nasrid sultans to the monarchs of North Africa. though the siege continued. p. 71 36 Archivo de la Corona de Aragbn (ACA). 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. p. had to take refuge in Morocco when dismissed as vizier. Hoenerbach. cAbd al-Barr was dismissed at the request of Yusuf I's courtiers. was struck down by the Black Death. 68. according to Ibn al-Khatlb. 91. This content downloaded from 152. p. Arie. p. p. complained to the sultan about his management of public affairs. XXVIII. 1940).jstor. R.36 Another example of Yusuf I's gracious behaviour and wish to maintain peaceful relations with the Kingdom of Castile occurred when Alfonso XI. 34 Lamha (Cairo edn). note 1. he directed a cautious policy for Yusuf I after the defeat of Tarifa. With his enormous experience of forty years in the offices of the sultanate. notably to the Marinid sultans at Fez. R. pp. Los Documentos arabes diplomatics del Archivo de la Corona de Aragbn (Madrid/Granada. note 2. 90. 91.34 At his death he was succeeded in both posts by Ibn al-Khatlb. where he compares the function of the Nasrid katib with that of the scribes in the Christian Kingdoms. (Cairo edn. 1965). Arie. L'Espagne musulmane. the highest political post was held by Ibn al Jayyab. pp. though the Aragonese king considered Yusuf a vassal of the Kingdom of Castile. Hasan b. Yusuf confided not only the govern ment administration to him. Documents have also survived transcribed and translated by the qddi Ahmad b. L'Espagne Antonio Fernandez-Puertas family. L'Espagne musulmane. Alfonso XI. W. XXVII. His body was taken to Seville by his knights and Yusuf I gave orders to his own troops and the mayors of the frontier towns not to attack the cortege. This opened a new chapter in the relations between Castile and Granada. 103. After Ridwan refused the wizara in 1341. 411? 15. Arie. but also the management of the waqfs (the funds of the public pious foundations). Garcia de Linares.118. 201.) p. "Espana musulmana". p. R. Cronica de D. R. Arie. the poet Ibn al-Jayyab served under six sovereigns without suffering any reverse in his career and died of natural causes in 749/1349. R. IbrahTm b. Arab documents nos. 211. 392. though we do not know if he was given absolute authority here or worked under the supervision of the sovereign. Sha'sa in 745/1344. who also acquired others. Bilingual letters have survived addressed to Pedro IV of Aragon (1336-87). p. such as the Rayhanat al-Kuttah.35 Ibn al-Khatlb's easy access to the archives of the Nasrid chancery gives great documentary value to his own works.37 Home affairs Yusuf I was careful to foster religious sentiment within the sultanate to help consolidate his power.10 on Wed. Arie. p. He allowed the influence of the mufti to increase in Granada society through the 33 Lamha (Cairo edn). p. 37 Lamha. such as superintendent of . leading later to a personal friendship between Pedro I (1350 69) and Muhammad V. L'Espagne musulmane. Yusuf I made frequent use of his office of translators. and proved "a head of administration such as is rarely to be had". "Espana musulmana".24. he died in his camp in 751/March 1350.

In 755/1354 Yusuf received such a warm reception in Guadix that the women. "Espana musulmana". a doctor of Malaga. "Espana musulmana". R. where he lived until 771/1369. J. Al-Shaquri was to become the doctor of the royal household (tabib dar al-imdra) under Yusuf I and Muhammad V. XXXIII (1946). Arie.42 The literary flowering of the Nasrid court reached its apogee under Yusuf I. 130. He was also received with such enthusiasm in Almeria that on one of his visits he was shaded under a brocaded palanquin upheld on the trunks of banana trees. taught not only the young Ibn al-Khatlb. because he knew the ingredients and the rules for concocting one . L'Espagne musulmane.10 on Wed. pp. 'Ayyash al-KhazrajT.118. his head covered with an enormous white cimama.41 In Granada. A. 1948). 859 60.39 Yusuf I was greatly beloved of his subjects. 148. 309. who was held in the highest esteem by his fellow citizens for having made the pilgrimage to Mecca. pp.38 Yusuf I also encouraged respect for the law by investing as supreme judge in Granada one of the most illustrious men of the sultanate. P. Arie. L'Espagne musulmane. 10 vols. Bosch-Vila. with several 38 Al-Maqqari. Ibn Khaldun. iii. note 4. 261. al-Ta'rifbi Ibn Khaldun wa rihlatuh1*gharban wa sharqn. L'Espagne musulmane. once went out to receive the sovereign dressed in a white taylasan. 251-2. ed. Tawit al-Tanji (Cairo. This type of institution originated in the East and reached the Maghrib and the Nasrid Sultanate via North Africa where madrasas abounded. R. According to Ibn al-Khatib. a madrasa. E.J. Hasan al-QaysT. note 2. Levi-Provencal (Cairo. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. but also in those of other Muslim sovereigns. Yahya ibn Hudhayl al-Tujlbl. medicine was studied and practised with great brilliance. 50.24. Khalid al-BalawT. Hesperis. 1949). 376. the Malaga-born Muhammad b. In Purchena. notes 2. as various small scenes reported by Ibn al Khatlb indicate. ed. 44. p. a doctor and man of letters. al-Khatib fi bilad al-Maghrib wa-l-Andalus.40 Culture The cultural flowering of the Nasrid Sultanate reached its peak during this period. Kitab al-Marqaba al-ulyaflman yastahiqqu al-qada .org/terms . 20-1. but also Muhammad al-Shaquri (born in Segura in 727/1327). 295.673). 354. 1370/1951). "Un medecin du royaume de Grenade: Muhammad al-Shaquri". "Ibn al-Khatib". tried to prepare an antidote against poison in the court of Yusuf I. p. pp. p. EI2. or Hmma. 431. 42 Ihata (Escorial MS 1. in the manner of a parasol (much as is seen in ancient Pharaonic and Assyrian representations as a symbol of royal majesty). p. This foundation consolidated the prestige of the Nasrid sultan not only in the eyes of his own subjects. Later. R. 1958 and 1984). i. 39 Ibn al-Hasan al-Nubahi. he set himself up in Tremecen. faced with political troubles. 3. This content downloaded from 152. Muhammad b. al-'Abbadl (Alexandria. 318. 31-64. H.M. whose faces were normally partially covered.The Three Great Sultans of al-Dawla al-Isma'iliyya al-Nasriyya n founding of a religious school. p. M. 40 Ibn al-Khatib. the qddi of the city. pp. Histoire des juges d'Andalousie. Mushahadat Lisan al-Din b. 272. vii.jstor. note 3. ix. In 725/13 51-2 al-Hasan b. Arie. p. Renaud. uncovered them and jostled with the men to see the royal procession pass. p. There is evidence of an early madrasa set up in Malaga prior to the Madrasa Yusufiyya founded by Yusuf I in Granada in 750/1349. a custom that survived into the Muslim period. Ibn al-Khatlb also relates that some tujjar al-rum (Christian commercial travellers) received Yusuf I with great deference and respect in 755/1354. 367. Nafh al-ttb (Cairo edn. folios 146. the grandson of Ghalib. 41 Ihata (cInan edn).Ibn al-Khatlb calls him dkhir al-sahhdrxn hi-l-Andalus (the last great magician-sage of al-Andalus). p. pp. pp. 475-6. 421. 433.

E. jamuga) that had incrustation {al-tarsV. The task was continued by Muhammad V. palaces and dwellings.24. p. pp. who in turn taught Ibn Zamrak.. These last two also served in the court of Muhammad V and the poems they composed were engraved in the royal houses. Never have poems had such beautiful "pages" on which to exhibit their script as the decorated. Al-'UmarT. 113.47 In the poem inscribed in the Salon de Comares round the walls of the throne qubba. Fernandez-Puertas. p. such as the reception of ambassadors and commemorative ceremonies. 33-8.. Petitions were presented to the vizier and he handed them to the sultan. Inscripciones arabes de Granada. which was the kursi (seat of the throne): a wooden folding armchair (Spanish. transformed this Nasrid period into one of the high points of Muslim civilization ? it reached its climax with Yusuf I and continued under his son Muhammad V. i860). I would date it to the time of Muhammad V. who had it rebuilt in time for the 764/1362 mawlid festivity. pp. Spanish. The Facade. Yusuf I also enlarged the palace of his father Isma'Tl I. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. entry in the catalogue. Masalik al-absar. Cabanelas Rodriguez. delicately coloured walls of the Nasrid qalahurras and palaces. 194. 43 Lamha (Cairo edn).118. Great artistic and visual refinement. pp. Fernandez-Puertas. The jamuga preserved in the Museum of the Alhambra bears the Nasrid coat of arms across its leather back. 46 Lamha (Cairo edn). Arie. 31. . 63. p. 292. 91. the throne is called kursi mulk48 (the seat of the kingdom).jstor.43 The Mexuar was mosdy demolished by his son Muhammad V. An and Culture around 1492 (Seville. 74.10 on Wed. notes 2. L'Espagne musulmane. 234. precedidas de una reseha historica y de la genealogia detallada de los reyes Alahmares (Madrid. Lafachada . D. Yusuf I received his subjects publicly every week in the Mexuar on Mondays and Thursdays to attend to their complaints. p. note 6. The new dynasty carried out the public functions of the sultanate in this part of the palace. 3.46 On solemn state occasions. following the tradition of the Cordoba Umayyads. plan 3. 45 Lamha (Cairo edn). who rebuilt the Mexuar area between 1362 and 1365. on sepulchral stones and on objects of art and textiles. 48 Another word for throne is sarir (possibly a divan throne): see Lamha (Cairo edn). combined with the use of water and gardens in the Alhambra architecture and incorporated into the landscape. to whom he dictated decisions and instructions that were handed to his higher state officials . "Mulk-chair". Following a tradition inherited from antiquity. p. figs. 197-200. 1992). and at his death it was handed to Ibn al-KhatTb. 218-20. though he had only managed to complete its monumental Torre and Salon de Comares when he was assassinated. This seal was kept and used by Ibn al-Jayyab. 48. Al 'Umari relates that during the audience "a tenth part of the Qur'an and a fragment of the hadith" were read aloud. 47 A.a task initially carried out for him by Ibn al-KhatTb. Discurso de apertura del curso academico 1984?83 This content downloaded from 152. 91. ataracea) or was inlaid (murassac). p. after his return to the throne. or DTwan al-Insha'. 14. Yusuf and his successors presided from the central throne qubba set in the north wall of the Salon de Comares. 57.44 The sovereign had a royal seal (khatim or khatam) as the insignia of the Nasrid house.12 Antonio Fernandez-Puertas brilliant figures who served in high posts: the poet Ibn Al-Jayyab and his pupil. 1-2. Laruente Alcantara. the great polygraph Ibn al-KhatTb. with long-legged birds on either side of it and floral decoration. 44 A. who was assisted by the principal members of his family and other courtiers.45 Yusuf I also had his own katib al-sirr (personal secretary) who was trained in the chancery. R. "Espana musulmana".

Qays. 1978).. 1927?1928). and the population was not mistaken. Fatima. p. when he was making his last prostration during public prayers in the Aljama Mosque. when Yusuf I was twenty years old.10 on Wed.was suddenly cut off when he was in his political and intellectual prime. who killed him in a field and burnt his body. p. KhadTja. Castrillo Marquez as El Africa del Norte en el Amal al-allam de Ibn al-Jatib (Madrid. pp. 333. This was to have dire consequences. the day Yusuf I was assassinated. 307.52 In this unexpected manner. p. iv. 100. born nine months after the rightful heir. towers. 107-8. (Beirut edn 1978). 1985). p. as Isma'Tl dethroned his half-brother Muhammad V five years after he came to the throne. Instituto Egipcio de Estudios Islamicos in Madrid ( .50 Maryam's influence over the sultan was greater than that of Buthayna and her children. section trans. el Bermejo (the Redhead).49 In all. 275. and so on.. Mu'mina. With his slave Maryam he had several children: Isma'Tl (the future usurper of the throne). p. to protect the emirate's maritime frontier. the son of a first cousin of Yusuf I.Arie. Edited and translated into verse. 1958). the life of this great sovereign . 50 Al-Nubahi. Architecture Yusuf I practised a consistendy defensive policy for the sultanate. barbicans. 41-2.The Three Great Sultans of al-Dawla al-Isma'iliyya al-Nasriyya 13 Family In 1338. as his hajib. 51 A'mal al-a'lam. Muhammad: she also bore him a daughter.notable both in the history of art and in Muslim architecture . 28. pp. E. 59. p. "Espana musulmana". The wounded monarch was immediately carried to his palace in the Alhambra. This content downloaded from 152.653). This military catastrophe led him to fortify his coastal defences. He was stabbed to death by a demented black slave of his own royal stables.24. the nobility and the population. Discurso de entrada en la Real Academia de Bellas/Artes Nuestra Senora de las Angustias (Granada. Yusuf had three sons and six daughters: 'A'isha. According to Ibn al (Universidad de Granada. "Espana musulmana". 52 Lamha (Cairo edn. Garcia Gomez. castles and city walls. by R.jstor. where he died. 1 Shawwal 755/19 October 1354. cA'isha. The murderer was handed over to the people. p. raising magnificent and monumental edifices: gates. Muhammad VI. and Yusuf showed a predilection for his son Isma'Tl. embarked on the construction of forty tali1 as along the coast. and he embarked on great defensive building projects. note 2. R. A'mal al-a'lam. entire or partial precincts. The fine judgement of this sixteen-year-old prince promised good government. Ridwan. Ihata ('Inan/edn.R. However. folio 46. save when he allied himself with the Marinids and suffered the crushing defeat of Tarifa. and a daughter who married a prince of the royal blood Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad. 1984). with Introduction and notes. A third word for throne is arika1 49 Ibn al-Khatib. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. only to die himself a few months later together with his mother at the hands of the real instigator of the uprising. who pierced his body with a dagger (khanjar). 'Trono . 306. where he translates it as trono del imperio (throne of the empire). 97. Muhammad V was accepted as the rightful heir by the court. his slave Buthayna bore him an heir. 1984).51 Yusuf I was assassinated at the age of thirty-six on the day of the feast of the Breaking of the Fast.118. Nuzhat al-basaHr wa-l-absar (Escorial MS 1. another son. p. del reino". in order to keep the movements of the Christian and North African fleets under constant surveillance. from Vera to the western limits of the province of Cadiz. Arie. Poemas arabes en los muros yfuentes de la Alhambra. Shams and Zaynab.

jstor. Madrid. Supplement aux dictionnaires arabes. p.54 Yusuf I's main buildings in the Alhambra are: the Bab al-Shari'a (= Gate of the Esplanade) of 749/1348. He was born on 22 Jumada II 739/Sunday 4 January 1338. "Nasrids". 57 Ibn al-Khatlb. a Christian convert. p. and his final work. Fernandez-Puertas. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. He also restructured the precincts of Almeria. 1028-9. El reino de Granada en la epoca de Muhammad K(Instituto de Estudios Islamicos en Madrid. a Christian slave. the Madraza Yusufiyya. 161.24.53 though his assertion may not be entirely correct. 55 M. he built the precinct of the Albaycin and the Bab Fahs al-Lawz (Puerta de Fajalauza). p. A. and a princess56 who married the red-haired ra'is Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad (son of a first cousin of Yusuf I). Ahmad Mukhtar al Abbadi. 341. his Qalahurra Nueva (Torre de la Cautiva) built before the death of his vizier Ibn al-Jayyab in 750/1349. 96. 354 This content downloaded from 152. where he gives the biography of Ridwan.55 nine months before his half-brother Isma'Tl who was born to Yusuf by another concubine. 58. i. p. R. 676. Yusuf I also built the extended north madina wall that was needed for his enlarged Torre de Comares and which stretches from the Cuarto Dorado to the Patio de la Reja. Ronda. Ibn al-KhatTb uses the Andalusian word suluqiyya instead of the more usual word sitara. the grandest building in Nasrid architecture and in many respects a unique surviving construction in the Muslim world.14 Antonio Fernandez-Puertas KhatTb. 1967). Maryam was an extremely ambitious and intrigue-loving woman who also bore Yusuf the prince Qays. 1362-91) Muhammad V was the eldest son of Yusuf I by his Christian slave. handed over enormous sums of money for the work. 56 Ibn al-Khatib. Inscripciones. Lafuente Alcantara. L'Espagne musulmane. and. towers and some stretches of wall. p. pp. became the princes' tutor. Ridwan also constructed at this period the enclosing. p. Mushahadat. The sultan strengthened and enlarged the precinct of Jabal Faru (Gibralfaro) linked to the east end of the Alcazaba of Malaga. p. who was also the mother of Princess 'A'isha. 63. p. and al-Funduq al-JadTda (el Corral del Carbon). pp. on 28 RabV I. the precinct of Jabal Faru (Gibralfaro). p. . the Salon de Comares. He also built the Torre del Cadi. Dozy. Isma'Tl was his father's favourite. Ibn al-Yayyab. 740/2 October 1338. 2 vols (Leiden/Paris. according to Ibn al-KhatTb. Buthayna. 1973). CXCVI of the Diwan consists of eleven verses which are part of a qasida sultaniyya celebrating the birth of the first-born son of Yusuf I. E. Guadix. 136. he remodelled the Bab IlbTra. Arie. R. 62. Rubiera Mata.J. 'Abd Allah. who later usurped the throne as Muhammad VI.10 on Wed. concrete city wall round the Albaycin. 54 Lamha (Cairo edn). stepped.118. Muhammad V (755-<So. A'mai al-a'lam. etc. In Malaga he built the gate to the inner precinct of the Alcazaba. largely due to the efforts of his intriguing concubine 53 Ihata ('Inan edn). note 5. 3rd. the Torre Quebrada in the Alcazaba. 517. i. In Granada he built the Bab al-Ramla and the line of city wall along the west side. Tarifa. ed. When mentioning its outer defensive barbican. as he describes its decoration in the four poems that adorn its walls. EI2. and he decorated and may have built the Torre de Machuca (or bahw al-nasr). The sultan's reform of the Comares hammam is confirmed by the poetic text that names Yusuf I on the taq al-ma' of al-bayt al sakhiin. 762-93)7(1354-9. namely Muhammad V. A'mal al-a'lam.57 The faithful vizier Abu 1-Nu'aym Ridwan b. his great throne room. vii (1993). 307. no.

the nobility of Granada and finally by the principal cities of the emirate . Muhammad supported the Castilian side. 1 Shawwdl 755/19 October 1354. vii. composed by the vizier Ibn al-Khatib. folios 35. El reino de Granada. 357. When the embassy was received in audience by the Marinid sultan. Ihata (Cairo edn).with a general declaration of obedience from the people as a whole. then in hierarchical order by the nobles. 206-7. court dignitaries and kinsmen. but he died in 759/December 1358. Ridwan appointed the cultured Ibn al-KhatTb to help him with his duties. Mukhtar al 'Abbadi. pp. 304. 4. 22. Los Documentos arabes. who was four years his senior (born 3-VIII-1334) and with whom he developed a personal friendship. and marrying Isma'Tl's daughter. p. 65 Ibn al-Khatib. note 2. with all the attendant comforts. Ibn Khaldun. 3 vols (Cairo. A. Amal al-a'lam.58 After his accession to the throne. when the sultan was assassinated at the age of thirty-six. 55 61 Ibn Khaldun. A. p. ii. 162. Al-MaqqarT. 63 Ibn al-Khatib. p.65 58 Ibn al-Khatib. According to Ibn al-KhatTb. vi.118. 59 Ibn al-Khatib.59 Muhammad succeeded to the throne at the age of sixteen. by liberating his uncle Isma'Tl who had been imprisoned by his father. vii. 6. 37.63 According to Ibn Khaldiin.The Three Great Sultans of al-Dawla al-Isma'iliyya al-Nasriyya 15 wife Maryam. 36. vii. pp. Al-Maqqari al Tilimsani. However. 306. notes 4-7. 374. Kitab al-Ibar. Kitab al-Ibar. Lamha (Cairo edn). p. Ihata (Cairo edn). on the day of the Ending of the Fast. the Marinid sultan tried to create enmity between Muhammad V and Pedro I by encouraging Muhammad not to pay tribute to Castile. 25. and he ensured that they were honourably and generously treated. Al-Maqqari. p. PP. Alarcon y Santon and R. L'Espagne musulmane. his mother Maryam and his other half-brothers to live in a royal house that Yusuf I had assigned to them near the palace. he also ensured peace among members of his own family. and power was left in the hands of his father's hajib the Christian convert Ridwan. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. his own first cousin. pp. 7. 304. Nufadat al-jirabfi 'ulalat al-ightirab (Escorial MS 1. Nafh al-tib. R. i.24.61 On the eastern frontier of the emirate.jstor. 65. pp.64 When war broke out that year between Castile and Aragon. and Yusuf even thought of making him his heir. 64 Ibn Khaldun. Arie. 206. p. p.60 Muhammad V was by nature inclined to peace. A. El reino de . 5. 306. note 1. 26.10 on Wed. 108. Ibn al-KhatTb immediately proclaimed the youthful Muhammad V as the successor on account of his personal qualities and legitimate rights.54. p. A. ii. hoping they would come to blows and he could then intervene and take over the Nasrid emirate. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. so Muhammad asked Aragon for a truce. Azhar al-riyadfi akhbar al-qadi lIyadh. Kitab al-Ibar. 106. Garcia de Linares. Ibn al-KhatTb stepped in front of the other members. 135-6. p. Ibn Khaldun. When he dethroned his half-brother. i. asked the sovereign's permission to read him some verses. p. note 1. 64. and sworn first by those who had witnessed the assassination of Yusuf I. Muhammad V generously allowed Isma'Tl. pp. The Marinid sultan even formed an alliance with the King of Aragon to this end.755 of the unpublished Nufada II). who also had authority over the army and guardianship of the royal princes. El reino de Granada. p. Pedro IV of Aragon was fighting his rebellious brother Fernando who had the help of Castilian troops and Nasrid nobles. This content downloaded from 152. and he began his reign by signing a truce with Pedro I of Castile. Kitab al-Ibar. In retaliation the Majorcan fleet attacked the Nasrid coast. Azhar al-riyad. 60 Ibn al-Khatib. p.62 He sent Ibn al-KhatTb to the Marinid Sultan Abu 'Inan at Fez to confirm the friendly relations established by his father. "Espana musulmana". His investiture involved an oath of fealty (bafa) to him. 62 M. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. and recited a poem to the sultan and courtiers which greatly pleased the monarch and assisted the success of his mission. vii. notes 1-6. 1358-1361/1939-1942).

26?7. pp. folios 30-8. so the Escorial MS may be the correct one. i. 17. Around a hundred conspirators scaled the walls of the Alhambra on that summer night at a point where the wall was structurally defective. 36-7. p. vii. In the first Isma'il II had Muhammad V's marriage with his cousin annulled by means of a divorce. Fernandez-Puertas. and when the Sultan Abu Salim received news of his arrival. Mukhtar al 'Abbadi. notes 4-6. pi. Within the Marinid palace Abu Salim placed Muhammad V on another throne facing his own. who also negotiated with the new court at Granada the release of Ibn al-KhatTb. p. mamalik). A'mal al-a'lam. and when he heard the drums and realised what was happening. They were given from the time of the Reyes Catolicos.24. 35. Ihata (Cairo edn). (ed. his own half-brother Isma'Tl and Isma'Tl's relative and brother-in-law. The present names given to the Alhambra streets (Calle Real and Calle Real Baja) are not the Nasrid names. 1975). It was a day of great festivities. note 1. lIbar. They then proclaimed Isma'Tl II sultan and accompanied him on horseback to the royal alcazar of the Alhambra. pp. and transferred them there with great pomp in the presence of the new sultan's mother Maryam. note 3. p. Muhammad crossed over the Straits of Gibraltar from Marbella to Ceuta. pp. who financed the conspiracy with large sums of money. He reached Fez on 28 October 1359. The Facade. so he was obliged to flee on horseback to Guadix to save his own life. his secretary Ibn Zamrak and his personal retinue of Christian renegades (mamluk. Nufada II. He installed his uncle and father-in-law in what had been the house known as the "casa de los marmoles" of Ibn al-Khatib. Ibn al-KhatTb was imprisoned by the rioters. he at first tried to re-enter the Alhambra. pp.. 12. Azhar al-riyad. 68 Ibn al-Khatib.largely inspired by Isma'Tl's ambitious mother. 1955). ii. Maryam. R. 208. 407. (Escorial MS 1. installed him in a magnificent palace and generously met the various needs of all those who formed Muhammad's retinue and following. ('Inan edn. p. as can be inferred from this example. Al-Maqqari. Abu Salim. Mukhtar al-'Abbadl. and married the cousin himself. Muhammad V's faithful personal guard was composed of captive Christians. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi).jstor. When Almeria sided with Isma'Tl.. the text published by A. pp. 209 note 11. Ibn al-KhatTb then recited a poem where he begged the Moroccan monarch to lend aid to his lord.67 In 762/1360 Muhammad's family were allowed to join him: his son. and her friends. Muhammad himself was dethroned on 28 Ramadan 760/21 August 1359. the boy's mother and her slaves arrived bringing only the barest necessities with them.68 A small child would not have travelled without his mother. This content downloaded from 152. fol. However. ('Inan edn. El reino de Granada. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. killed him in his bed and stole his riches.10 on Wed. 66 Ibn al-Khatib.755).16 Antonio Fernandez-Puertas Muhammad V dethroned (760/1359) In the midst of these . Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad . 310-11. p. 30. in the Alhambra's Calle de Arraeces. 67 Ibn Khaldun. Where the Escorial MS says 'umm al-sultdn (= mother of the sultan). p.118. Nufada II. The sultan arranged help for his guest. where the citizens recognised him as their lawful ruler. A.66 Accompanied by his vizier Ibn al-KhatTb. 108-9. ii. by a conspiracy between the Nasrid princes. he set out with a magnificent cortege to receive him with due dignity. the manuscripts of the Nufdda //give varying versions of this. Muhammad V happened to be at the time near the Generalife. A. A. pp. notes 4-7. Taking the guard by surprise. El reino de Granada. But the arrows hurled by the usurpers from the walls blocked his way. A. 118.755). they proceeded with torches and shouting to the house of the vizier Ridwan. Mukhtar al-'AbbadT says 'walad al-sultdn (= the sultan's son and heir). 31. (Escorial MS 1. broke down his doors. Lafachada . i. Arie. L'Espagne musulmane. Lamha (Cairo edn). 306-9. Muhammad was granted asylum by the Sultan of Morocco. 368. 108.

according to al . 160 note 2. as al-AsmacT had done with 69 Nufada II. El reino de Granada. a renegade European in the service of a Muslim prince. Spanish elche. the sovereign increased the number of this accompanying guard as a consequence of their iron-strong loyalty. A'mal al-a'lam. 72 Lamha. Mukhtar al-AbbadT. 343.l I7V. pp. Ibn Khaldun calls them mdlujin. He answered me in public: "And the hashish. together with their genealogies. fat. and mistakenly publishing the adjective "al-amzam" instead of"a'zam" quoted in note 9 of the Ihata. p.jstor. and the second. says the sahib al-shurta (chief of police) of Granada. (Escorial MS 1. Nafh al-tib.24. 71 A. notes 7-10. He added: "I would that were so! But go to the house of So-and-so and So-and-so . whose root is '-/-j. 129. Ibn Khaldun. 127 is a printing error for "md' liijin". lacking in oratory and slovenly in his dress. Ayyubids. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. But the practice continued down the centuries ? with the Fatimids. pp. what about that?" I told him that I had found no trace of any. in the fifth verse. Foco de antigua luz sobre la Alhambra desde un texto de Ibn al-Jatib en 1362. which reached down to below his waist. M. Isma'il II and Muhammad VI (760-2/1359/62) Isma'Tl II. I praised the sovereign telling him that his inhabitants had abandoned wine and the capital city was free of all vices. p.Garcia Gomez.10 on Wed. note 3. Azhar al-riyad. Ibn al Jayyab mentions mamalik min al-'laji (= captive Christians). plaited with silk thread his long hair. trans. was then made prisoner and finally assassinated in "a large tower overlooking the city" (burj "azim mutill 'aid l-balad). Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad. Al-Maqqari. p. p. 309. 1988). He left his head uncovered and his sleeves turned up. Gomez-Moreno Martinez in his work "Granada en el siglo XIII". trans. p. Kitab al-Ibar. 159. p. nicknamed "el Bermejo" (the Red-haired). Supplement." and he proceeded to give me the names of persons of high and low rank.70 This type of personal guard for the sovereign was of very ancient origin. etc. 274. p. Publicaciones del Instituto Egipcio de Estudios Islamicos (Madrid. (Beirut edn). 44. re-ed. Spanish mameluco. Nufada II. A.71 The real ruler was his tyrannical relative and brother-in-law. 128. Paris 1938). effeminate. Al-Muqaddima: Prolegomenes. and they were also known by the name of ma'lujd. (Escorial MS 1. Cuadernos de la Alhambra. p.3?. Mamluks. and was furthermore addicted to hashish. Ibn al-KhatTb gives the name of mamalik to the two hundred members of the personal guard who accompanied Muhammad V into exile and returned with him to al-Andalus when he regained his throne. 73 Ibn al-Khatib. 9 calls it the "torre mayor" by using the superlative of the Arabic text. Slane.118. ..755). and who a few months later ordered the assassination of the young twenty-year-old Isma'Tl II ? who first took refuge.until the Ottoman Sultanate and its system of Janissaries. (Paris. pp. II (1966). 1862? 1868. i.72 Isma'Tl was assassinated with his brother Qays and his viziers on 8 Shdban 761/24 June 1360. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. Muhammad VI suffered nervous twitches. R.755). i. x.69 Following his return. 203. 127. as Ibn al-KhatTb learnt through the chief of police: Once.73 His ambitious brother-in-law ascended the throne with the title of Muhammad VI. It was introduced into Islam by the 'Abbasid caliphs and contributed to the disintegration of that caliphate. ii. f?l. 70 Ibn Khaldiin. which was probably either the Torre de la Vela or Torre del Homenaje in the Alcazaba. 32 and 35 note 1. who had supported the coup d'etat. fol. 151. 53. His reading of "md{ lugin" on p.. a name derived from the second word. Arabic text p. was of bad character. gross in manners. p. The first word has given us mamluk. since both have a prison in their basement and overlook the city. vii. (Cairo edn). meaning.The Three Great Sultans of al-Dawla al-Isma'iliyya al-Nasriyya 17 poem that adorns the main room of the Qalahurra of Yusuf I. 353.E. This content downloaded from 152. indolent and lacking in personal qualities. Dozy. p. El reino de Granada.

R. p. "Espana musulmana". p.18 Antonio Fernandez-Puertas his Arab genealogies. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. exhausting several horses.24. A. p. 23. Abu Salim gave way and allowed Muhammad V to return. 76 Ibn al-Khatib. 517?19. 183.78 74 Nufada II (Escorial MS 1. 355. Nufada II (Escorial MS 1.2. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. Seeing the enemy troops approaching. In the Mudejar palace in the Reales Alcazares of Seville. 45. and asked Abu Salim to allow Muhammad V to return to the Iberian peninsula. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. Then Muhammad V mounted a beige-coloured mare richly adorned with pure gold. p. p. p. L'Espagne musulmane. 359. arriving without any prior permit or the safe-conduct that etiquette required. But in that same year Pedro I of Castile defeated the Aragonese and rebellious Castilians at Najera. Gaspar Remiro. presided over by the monarch himself. In fumada 1763/24 February 1362 Muhammad V and Pedro I joined their forces at Casares. may God assist him!" Sometimes the invocation to God is omitted. 157 note 1. A. Thus. 15. Muhammad V galloped towards the coast at full speed. lent him a thousand golden dinars to cover his expenses. R. I then visited all the places he had mentioned. note 2. 346. El reino de Granada. 64r. the cartouches above the alicatado dados are arranged as rectangles separated by squares.755).10 on Wed. 33 note 4. Gaspar Remiro. Pedro then sent the traitor's head to Muhammad V in Granada. Thereupon. and organised a military march-past in his honour on the field of Fez. pp. And this because he himself had been a client at those places and used to attend their gatherings. Abu Salim accompanied him to the outskirts of the city where they parted.118. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. (Escorial MS 1673). and embarked rapidly at Ceuta. all that he had told me was true. From Gibraltar he went with his family and mamluks to meet Pedro . pp. or has been restored with a repeat of the first or second part of the phrase since the restorers have not understood the meaning of what they were recomposing. This inscription is also found on occasions written upside down. pp. Muhammad V established his court in exile at Ronda. Arie. 1916). A. 56. who received him with all the honours and dignities of his rank. proclaimed himself a defender of the dethroned Muhammad V. 326. and set out surrounded by his al-Andalus emigrants and the Marinid troops. and advanced on Muhammad VI.jstor. on the morning of 17 Shawwdl 762/20 August 1361 Abu Salim took leave of Muhammad V with great pomp. and assured him that he had no wish to conquer the Nasrid Emirate himself. Correspondencia. v (Granada. and the laudatory inscription is written in Kufic. A.755). This content downloaded from 152. 53 note 2. aho 1362. A. Ihata. 112 notes 1. 78 Ibn al-Khatib. p. So Pedro I75 countered by threatening to conquer the last possessions which the Marinids still held in al-Andalus. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi.74 Muhammad VI "el Bermejo" allied himself with Aragon. al-sultan dun Badr al-rumi (the Sultan Don Pedro the Christian) in his Nufada II (Escorial MS 1. tied to a stake and killed with a lance by Pedro himself in the Campo de la Tablada near the Sevillian Alcazar on 2 Rajab 763/25 April 1362. El reino de Granada. folio 65V. El reino de Granada. folios 66v and 67.755).77 He was taken prisoner. pp. Lamha (Cairo edn). ii. So he was my instructor in my own profession. Correspondencia diplomatica. 345. thus: lizz li-mawla-na al-sultan dun Badr ayyada-hu Allah. "Glory to our lord the Sultan Don Pedro I. 77 M. p. folio 429. p. A. El reino de Granada.76 On finding himself free. Crbnica del Rey Don Pedro I. (Cairo edn). 355. Almdl al-a'lam. Muhammad VI fled and sought asylum with Pedro I in Seville on 17 fumada II763/13 March 1362. and I swear to God. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi). 117. 75 He is now called by Ibn al-Khatib. Arie. (ed. The Moroccan sultan wavered as he had already agreed with Muhammad VI that he would retain the dethroned monarch in Fez if Muhammad VI arrested the dissident Marinid princes in Granada.

p. A. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. pp.84 He had intelligent viziers: first the venerable convert Ridwan. note 4. pp. by sending out experienced and reliable men to report back to him on any anomalies. 246-7. L'Espagne musulmane. with a magnificent feast that displayed his splendour. 2. p. El reino de Granada. Tanji. To celebrate the event he immediately set out to rebuild the palace of his grandfather Isma'Tl I. and x. his grand vizier. L'Espagne musulmane.83 He also celebrated festivities with grand military processions to show his power and frighten his enemies. al-Ta'rif ed. Arie. The Nasrids were well aware of the fragility of their state. note 2. 80 W. note 8. 90. p.10 on Wed. This content downloaded from 152. Subh al-a'shafisina'at al-insha*.80 Ibn al-KhatTb describes Muhammad V as a plain man. He rode without ceremony through the streets of Granada and wore elegant but not luxurious clothes. has left a detailed account of the occasion. Ibn Khaldun. 211-72. Ibn al-KhatTb. al-Ta'rif ed. 120.825). Hoenerbach. pp. He invited to these events the nobility and ambassadors of Christian and Muslim countries. 390-3. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. (Warrior of the Holy War).79 but his authority was absolute and of a religious nature. and held it until his death. vii. the geographical limitations of their small area of dominance and the danger of its extinction sooner or later in the Iberian peninsula. "Correspondencia". His virtues were appreciated by his subjects. 84 M. His father Yusuf had been working on it and had completed the hammam and the Torre and Salon de Comares when he was assassinated. However. with the clear political aim of impressing not only his subjects but also visiting foreigners with a display of security and strength in his newly recovered power. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. of which perhaps the most prestigious were al-mujahid. and lodged his more distinguished guests in the palace known as the Diyar al-Diyafa (Royal House of Hospitality). 81 Amal al-allam (Beirut edn). note 2. p. Muhammad undertook an immediate reconstruction of the Mexuar. folio 36. Gaspar Remiro. I interpret the plural diyar here as having the value of a collective singular.jstor. R. A. they tried to forget this and conferred upon the sultan laudatory titles. 14 vols (Cairo. Mukhtar al-'AbbadT. pp.The Three Great Sultans of al-Dawla al-Isma'iliyya al-Nasriyya 19 Second Emirate of Muhammad V (1362-91) On 20 Jumada II763/16 March 1362 Muhammad V recovered the throne in the Alhambra. 140. 186. The name appears in a letter of the time of Muhammad VI addressed to the Aragonese sovereign Pedro IV. El reino de Granada. and he was respected by the . Muhammad was nicknamed al-makhlu1 (the Dethroned).82 Muhammad V sometimes led his troops when attacking enemy positions. Seco de Lucena. Rayhanat al-kuttab wa-nufat al-muntab (Escorial MS 1. 195. pp. Lamha (Beirut edn). 302-8. 35. A. p. El reino de Granada. L'Espagne musulmane. After his return to the throne. pp. Spanisch Islamische Urkunden. R. 412. the public area of the palace. Arie. magnanimity and might. 82 M. 121. Al-Maqqari. TanjT. al-ghani bi-llah and others that are inscribed on the walls of the Alhambra. ix. The chapter on Spain (in vol. El reino de Granada. is called Subh al A'sa (Valencia.118. p. 108-10. M. Al-Qalqashandi. 22. He celebrated the mawlid (Nativity of the Prophet) on the night of 12 RabV I 764/30-31 December 1362. as he was the imam of the Islamic community in al-Andalus. (Cairo edn). and then Ibn al-KhatTb who jealously guarded his own influence over the sultan. Garcia de Linares. and even kept Muhammad V 79 Ibn Khaldun. p. 83 Ibn al-Khatib. p. "Correspondencia". p. Gaspar Remiro. 249. A. Nafh al-tib. Arie. who felt trust and affection for him. note 3. 356-70. 100-1. 79. Los Documentos arabes diplomatics. 1975). vol. note 1. R. 1331? 1338/1913-1919). p. pp. v) translated by L. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. Alarcon y Santon and R. p.81 He kept himself well-informed on the performance of his provincial governors and the needs and preoccupations of the inhabitants. p.24.

vii. and during his lifetime succeeded. 'Umar b. and was appointed chief of the Maghribid militia in Muhammad V's court at Ronda. Arie. a Christian converted to Islam. horses of pure breed. his own father and elder brother had died in the disastrous Battle of Tarifa where the MarTnids and Nasrids had fought as allies.89 On other occasions Muhammad imposed extra taxes (alqab al-jibdya. according to the great qddi Ibn al-Hasan al NubahT. moreover. 375. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. Ibn al-KhatTb also managed the appointments of the administrative personnel in the service of Muhammad V. the governor of Guadix who had supported Muhammad when he had been dethroned in 1359. When Ibn al-KhatTb noticed their growing intimacy. 30.86 . 84-5. in the sultan's name. L'Espagne musulmane. 216 note 1. he was handed magnificent presents by the Nasrid monarch for the Castilian king: silk stuffs. doctors and astrologers. Muhammad V had had Ridwan as his tutor.88 Foreign policy Muhammad V's external policy. Ihata (Cairo edn). 215. and after completing his mission he discreetly abandoned the Nasrid court. 334. Arie. Kitab al-Ibar. asking for extra money to help those who were living in border territories and had suffered more than their more fortunate compatriots in the interior. "Correspondencia". vol. He also tried to avoid alliances with the MarTnids in order not to give them a foothold in the peninsula. Arie. no. He was equally tolerant of Jews though they had to wear a yellow badge. pp. and took over the strongholds they still held in the emirate. very pro-Marinid in the external policy of the emirate. These Jewish refugees were able to continue practising their professions in the Nasrid Sultanate. with saddles and bridles richly embroidered in gold.118. no. as Ibn Khaldun calls them) 85 Ibn Khaldun. He was. p. though he tried to prevent the slow advance of the Christian Reconquista. L'Espagne musulmane. This content downloaded from 152. and allowed Christian renegades to form part of his personal guard. when Ibn al-KhatTb read a proclamation of amnesty in the great Mosque of Granada. al-Tacrif pp. R. Ibn Khaldun was also a victim of Ibn al-KhatTb's envy. 137. he made false accusations and succeeded in removing his rival from the emir's immediate circle. 86 Ibn Khaldun.20 Antonio Fernandez-Puertas withdrawn from anyone likely to rival or overshadow him. 137.87 After an incursion into Jaen in 1367 Muhammad protected three hundred Jewish families and welcomed them into his emirate to prevent them from being slaughtered like those who had fallen into the hands of the usurper Enrique II of Trastamara (1369-79) ? because in their fratricidal war Pedro I had surrounded himself with Jewish wise men. 3.24. notably towards Aragon. His Muslim subjects paid their taxes regularly and on occasion an appeal was made to their religious feelings. p. 31 and following pages. Moreover.10 on Wed.85 When Ibn Khaldun was sent as ambassador to the court of Pedro I of Castile to ratify the agreed treaty of peace between the Castilian king and the Nasrids. as he had been trained by the great vizier-poet Ibn al-Jayyab. as in 1365. 88 R. Gaspar Remiro. This happened with the shaykh Yahya b. 330. ii. This money was in fact to prepare a campaign to help Pedro I against his brother Enrique of Trastamara. and he was very tolerant of other religions.but he noticed Ibn al-KhatTb's envy. remained loyal to him. pp. 87 R. p. 330-4. . By contrast.jstor. the dhu l-wizdratayn (minister of the pen and the sword). Rahhu. 89 Ibn al-Khatib. L'Espagne musulmane. both Christian and Jewish. 5. was always subordinate to his friendship with Pedro of Castile.

R. 120. ii. El reino de Granada. p.jstor. L'Espagne musulmane. 1975). . 113. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. note 9. Muhammad V's generally good relations with the Marinids at this period even enabled him to sign pacts with Castile and Aragon on their behalf. 1903-1913). Tanji. p. however. Nafh al-tib. p. 114. 319. The Facade. 40. 215. 56-8. al-Talrif ed. pp. notes 2. 28.96 Pedro I. pp. Ahmad b. 92 Ibn Khaldun. A. Arabic text. (Cairo edn). M. 384-5. A. trans. 37. ii. Lafachada . 141. p. 67. p. Tanji. "He who is content with the help of God". 3 vols. ii. 95 Cronica del Rey Don Pedro I. p. . This content downloaded from 152. explaining that the normal taxes were being used to maintain the army and the ghuzat (Volunteer Warriors of the Faith). even though the Marinid sultan threatened not to hand back to him his family and eldest son. Arie. pp. note 5. 131. Ihata. Bughyat al-ruwwad fi dhikr al-muluk min Bani 'Abd al-Wad. 6. 219. 545. 47. yet when he recovered Granada he did not restore Ronda to the Sultan of Morocco. El reino de Granada. Abu Hammu Musa II of Tremecen sent gold.24. A. i. Gaspar Remiro.93 In August 1366 there was a revolt in Almeria in favour of a Nasrid prince. but it was suppressed and the pretender was imprisoned. Arie. Muhammad V took the opportunity of declaring the jihad against the Kingdom of Castile. p. pp. R. Ihata. 103. Arabic text and French trans. ix.10 on Wed. Arie. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. 83-4. pp. note 3. 186. pp. It was as a result of these military expeditions that Muhammad V took the honorific title of laqab of al-ghani bi-llah. Nafh al-tib. (Cairo edn). p. pp. iii. 65. Muhammad V also promised to take care of the maintenance and repair of the walls. 'AlT b. and for once he forgot his fidelity to Pedro I and sent messengers to pay homage to Enrique of Trastamara at Seville. L'Espagne musulmane. Ihata (Cairo edn). 91 Ibn al-Khatib. Ibn al-Khatib. . 66. p. El reino de Granada.Bel. ii.91 However. The exact date is known from a letter dated 2 fumdda I. and. ii. took Toledo and re-established his authority in Castile. A. when the fratricidal war between them increased in 1366. i. L'Espagne musulmane. notes 1 and 4. to which the Marinid Sultan Abu Faris subscribed. This pact allowed Catalan merchants free movement within Nasrid and Marinid territory and a right to residence during the duration of the treaty if they paid the usual taxes. 93 Ibn Khaldun. So Muhammad broke with Enrique.90 The Marinids gave him Ronda as the site for his exiled court. 97 Ibn al-Khatlb.. defeated his brother at Najera. Prolegomenes. L'Espagne musulmane. 109?10. note 4. pp.94 This new attempt to dethrone him frightened Muhammad. 39. pp. p. with the support of the Marinid and 'Abd al-Wadid sultans. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. 94 Ibn al-Khatib.92 Although he supported his friend Pedro I against Enrique of Trastamara. embarked on his campaigns against Jaen and Ubeda. Ibn Khaldun. R. p. 769/25 90 Ibn Khaldun. 96 R. 26. with the help of the Black Prince. 216.97 This laqab was inscribed on the Alhambra walls. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. and it is thanks to this new title that we can date various constructions and decorations in the Palacio de Comares to before or after those events. 80-93. 39. p.95 On 8 Rajah 768/10 March 1367 he also signed a three-year pact with Pedro IV of Aragon. ix. Al-Maqqari. "Correspondencia". (Algiers. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. pp. ('Inan edn. Ihata. and Sultan 'Abd al-'AzTz called on the Marinid tribes to join in the jihad against the Christian kingdoms. note 3. 45?7. 15. Fernandez-Puertas. 74?7. ships laden with wheat and troops that played an important role in this Nasrid campaign. Ta'rif ed. Al-Maqqari. 174. Nasr. R. (Cairo edn). pp. silver. horses. L'Espagne musulmane. of A. 83.118. appearing to be acting on Pedro's behalf. vii.The Three Great Sultans of al-Dawla al-Isma'iliyya al-Nasriyya 21 through written letters asking poor and rich alike to give towards the jihad (holy war). p. Arie. 3. El reino de Granada. p. pp. Arie. which resulted in the siege of Baeza and the spoiling of Jaen between September and November 1367. A.

after these events adopted the title of al-ghani bi-llah and sent offletters describing his victories. where they were received by 98 Ibn Khaldun.\98 Pedro I was killed at Montiel at the age of thirty-five on 22 March 1369 by his half brother Enrique. 100 Ibn al-Khatib.22 Antonio Fernandez-Puertas December 1367 which Ibn al-KhatTb addressed to Ibn Khaldun after the campaigns. 1588) ? Muhammad V used to go hunting. feeling that his own end might be near. L'Espagne musulmane. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. R. 101 A. note 2. entered Quesada and took a large number of prisoners. El reino de Granada. He signed another five-year truce with Pedro IV of Aragon on 26 May 1376 which established commercial relations between the two countries and committed him. Ihata. 120. Ruta and Jaen. were sent to the Castilian parliament in Guadalajara. 86. In 1390. 54-5. The truce with Castile was also renewed. note 4. led by the governor of Malaga. This author also notes that . ii. L'Espagne musulmane. 104 R. ii. and according to Castilian chronicles Muhammad V destroyed its fortifications. with the completion of the Palacio de Comares in 1370. Lafachada . and his son Juan I (1387-96) maintained these friendly relations with Granada. In 1369 he also signed five-year truces with Aragon and the Marinids. pp. (Cairo edn). returning with rich booty. may God assist him. informing him that "the sultan. 359. The Facade. pp. 113 note 5. 327. pp. On their way back they defeated the regional governors of Quesada and Ubeda. Muhammad V abandoned the cause of the legitimate heirs and on 31 May 1369 signed an eight-year truce with Enrique II of Trastamara (who reigned 1369?79). 216. Arie. 115. 59. A. Arie. Fernandez-Puertas. 116. Arie. Gimenez Soler. Garcia de Linares.118. 7. 102 J. 414.. in exchange for the promise of four or five Catalan ships. This content downloaded from 152. p. Zurita. and with the loot he had taken. "La Corona de Aragon y Granada". 116. Histoire des Berberes. A. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. 27. 99 Ibn al-Khatib. pp. pp. Marchena and the country round Seville. a period of peace began in the sultanate. 82.103 Pedro IV died in 1387. 342?8. El reino de Granada.24. L'Espagne musulmane. vol. pp. he sought to renew friendly relations with Castile. Boletin de la Real Academia de Buenos Letras (Barcelona). who by way of reprisal raided Nasrid territory.100 To celebrate this resounding victory. cattle and booty. Ta'rif p. pp. (Cairo edn). Muhammad took advantage of the resulting confusion in Castile by seizing Cambil. A.102 So. A. ii. p. . Anales de la Corona de Aragon (Zaragoza. p.10 on Wed. Los Documentos arabes diplomatics. and Nasrid ambassadors. if war should break out. 83 note 2. Muhammad was thirty-two years old. R. Muhammad V went on to sack Osuna. However. to sending four or five hundred horsemen to the aid of Aragon. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. he was able to continue work on the Patio de Comares and complete the palace with the triumphal inauguration of its great facade on 4 October 1370.. and the Muslims living in the frontier region broke the truce. Ihata. but Enrique II died in 1379.104 So Muhammad strengthened his defences in the neighbourhood of Jaen. The city fell after three days' siege. 103 M.jstor. 90. Nobleza de Andalucia (Seville. 381. notes 4-10. Ibn Khaldun says that a governor was first named for the fortified town. Alarcon y Santon and R. 115. pp. 328.101 Policy of Muhammad V after the death of Pedro I After Pedro's assassination. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. iv. iv. After taking Algeciras. notes 6. El reino de Granada. p. 1610).according to the work of Argote de Molina. notes 2-4.99 On 23 Dhu l-hijja 770/28 July 1369 he attacked Algeciras with the financial help of the Marinid sultan and the aid of the Moroccan fleet. p. and its fortifications were only destroyed several years later "between 780 and 790".

Kitab al-Ibar. pp. 106 Ibn Khaldun. Creative and artistic work of Muhammad V Coinciding as his life did with the great third period of Nasrid art. presided over by the poet-vizier Ibn Zamrak (Ibn al-KhatTb's own pupil). 300?5. 158. pp. vii.118.107 In the interests of maintaining peace in his own emirate. note 3. Kitab al-Ibar. A. Nafh al-tib. Nafh al-tib. The mission returned with two thousand Egyptian dinars and various drugs. jewels. and kept it until 1386. Subh al-a'sha. Brunschvig. p. p. pp. though ever since the time of Muhammad II in the last third of the thirteenth century it had been traditionally held by a member of the Marinid royal family. 74V and I3ir. 118. and his extradition was sought from the court at Fez. p. notes 1-3. Gaspar Remiro. notes 3. pp. The king undertook to sign a treaty joindy with his own heir. i. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. the future Enrique III (1390 1406). p.109 Muhammad V died on 10 Safar 793/16 January 1391 at the age of fifty-two. La Berberie orientale sous les Hafsides.10 on Wed.825). until the political scene changed in Morocco with the accession of a new Marinid sultan. 5. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. even informing Sultan al Mansiir b. p. vii. Correspondencia.The Three Great Sultans of al-Dawla al-Isma'lliyya al-Nasriyya 23 Juan I (1379-90) of Castile. as did Muhammad with his son the future Yusuf II (793-4/1391-2). vii. A. i. 107 Ibn Khaldun. L'Espagne musulmane. (Escorial. Muhammad V was able to build and re-structure a number of important palaces. 105. vii. 91. note 4. A. the Banu cAbd al-Haqq. And in fumada 1765/5 February 1364 he sent a mission to the Mamluk Sultan al-Ashraf Nasir al-dTn Sha'ban to congratulate him for having driven off a Christian attack on Alexandria. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. 335. Al-Maqqari. fols. During the last twenty years of his sultanate his policies were successful. but the Mamluks never gave the Nasrids any military help against the Christians. The major flowering of Nasrid art 105 Crbnica del Rey Don Pedro I. 88-9. . L'Espagne musulmane. des origines a la fin du XVe siecle. L'Espagne musulmane. became seriously disturbed when Ibn al KhatTb persuaded Muhammad in 773/1371 to give him the job of inspecting the fortresses on the western frontier of the emirate ? and then deserted to Morocco. Arie. MS 1.24. 415?17. An embassy was then sent across from Granada. 47-52. pp. 108 R. cloth of gold and silk. followed by his sons Yusuf and Sa' d. El reino de Granada. Rayhanat. on the other hand. notes 2-4. Al Maqqari. 225. p. Muhammad V then occupied Gibraltar. Al-Qalqashandi. They presented him with horses. 352. 18. 182-4. El reino de Granada. R. El reino de Granada. A. El reino de Granada. This content downloaded from 152. Al-Maqqari. This was refused. Muhammad maintained diplomatic relations throughout his reign with the Hafsids of Tunisia108 and kept on cordial terms with the Mamluks of Cairo. Azhar al-riyad. pp. ix. Arie. 2 vols (Paris. 379. Ahmad of Cairo when he recovered power in Granada. 104. 1940 1947). 118 notes 4. personally assumed the office of leader of the ghuzat (Volunteers of the Faith). Nafh al-tib.106 Ibn al-KhatTb was consequently tried in Granada in his absence and accused of heresy. 4. 338. and these emissaries strangled Ibn al-KhatTb in a prison at Fez. pp. R. 109 M. 338. After this incident Muhammad V. ensuring favourable and sound financial conditions. p. the last stronghold of the Moroccan sultanate in the Iberian peninsula. p. 142.105 Relations with the MarTnids. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. i. 117. In 1382 he captured Ceuta with the help of the sovereigns of Tremecen. R.jstor. p. he also fomented party strife across the seas in Morocco by supporting different members of the Marinid family in their claims to the throne. pp. 38.

Fernandez-Puertas. 262. notably its south spandrels which are uncharacteristic of Nasrid art. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. 4. Around this period alterations were also made to the Torre de Abu 1-Juyush Nasr (Peinador de la Reina). 121. . Other buildings of the period are his reconstruction of the tripartite portico of the north room of the Dar al-Mamlaka al-Sa'Tda in the Generalife.110 After his victories of 1367. "El trazado de dos porticos ". p. This new palace incorporated some former buildings of Isma'Tl I. p. 131-40. 161. p. 117. sixteen days in each month. the third period of Nasrid art under Muhammad V was to be characterized by a new outburst of imagination and creative invention in both architecture and decoration. pp.. 2. though it has been known in Christian times as the Palacio de los Leones. Miscelanea de Estudios Arabes y Hebraicos (MEAH). figs. remains of its stucco and ceramic decoration have survived which are similar to those in the Torre de Abu 1-Juyush (Peinador). the foundational marble slab of the Maristan states that this hospital was built between the middle of Muharram 767 (26 September-9 October 1365) and the middle of Shawwal 768 (9-18 June 1367). 263.118. work was completed on the Patio de Comares. Francisco. p. 113 A. and reached its classical apogee under his father Yusuf I. Fernandez-Puertas. 115 A. which is called by Ibn Zamrak in his Diwdn the Palacio del "Riyad" (Garden Palace). "El trazado de dos porticos proto nazaries: el del exconvento de San Francisco y el del Patio de la Acequia del Generalife". yet the inscription bears the honorific title al-ghani bi-llah. Lafachada . In Granada. XXXI (Universidad de Granada. However. and although it was subsequently levelled. in the Review. 127-9. which Muhammad V 110 Al-'Umari.24 Antonio Fernandez-Puertas had begun in the second period under his grandfather Isma'Tl I (1314-25).114 and built the Palacio de los Alijares. published by Hasan Husni 'Abd al Wahhab. Around the beginning of the 1370s Muhammad undertook the construction of an entirely new palace. notably the Sala de la Barca. The Facade. were temporarily buried there. Fernandez-Puertas. The Facade. which was contemporary with the Palacio del Riyad. 1982). and the small mocarabes vaults in the north gallery of its Patio de la Acequia.jstor. he completed the east fagade of the Puerta el Vino111 and built the monumental extension of the private apartments in the Palacio de Comares around the inner patio. notes 1. Al-Badr. The building itself must have been virtually completed by June 1367. 114. 1. when traditional forms attained their final monumental and classical grandeur. El reino de Granada. p. note 1.115 The texts mention Alijares as having two qubbas. 129. .112 A mirador was also added (perhaps during the last period of Muhammad V's life) to a palace of Muhammad II113 which later became the Convento de S. pp. The Reyes Catolicos. note 137. A. 30. pp. Masalik al-Absar (the parts referring to Africa and al-Andalus). 2. After the taking of Algeciras in July . note 130. Isabel and Fernando. His first task in the Alhambra was to rebuild the Mexuar area of his grandfather and father's palace. 17-26.. This explains why the entry arch of this mirador shows some later Morisco remodelling. 114 Ibn al-Khatib. Other works of Muhammad V were these: On the SabTka hill. and the great Fachada de Comares was triumphally inaugurated in 1370. This content downloaded from 152. which was known as the qasr al-sultan. Work in this area was completed between 1362 and 1365. Muhammad V gave audience and attended to complaints presented to him. 112 A. note 1. ii. Ihata. Lafachada . El reino de Granada. when he adopted the laqab of al-ghani bi-llah. (Cairo edn).10 on Wed. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. 42. Granada. until the Capilla Real in Granada Cathedral was ready to receive their bodies in 1521.24. note 13. 111 A. he consolidated the fortifications that had been damaged in 1361-2.

He also remodelled the Alcazaba of Guadix. ed. it is of unique importance to our understanding of the Alhambra. Arabic text. 215. 294. in The Legacy of Muslim Spain. building its defensive moats. (Cairo edn). ii. E. ii. in the Sierra de Cazorla and in the province of Jaen. Mukhtar al-'Abbadi. ii. pp. pp. 30. pp. 28 Sep 2016 16:45:12 UTC All use subject to http://about. His account is so precise that it enables us to reconstruct this area of the palace.118. Ihata. So I deduce that the sovereign probably inaugurated the hospital officially after returning with war booty from his victories over Jaen.jstor.10 on Wed. Garcia Gomez.117 he restructured the hisn of Moclin. notes 6 and 1. 227-90. ibn Khaldun. 120 Nufada III. viii. and so on. Muhammad V had as good an eye for politics as for his building programmes. Muhammad V rebuilt the arsenal Dar al-sinaca (= darsena. Indirectly. Ibn al KhatTb has left in Nufada III a detailed description of this festivity and the palace where it was celebrated. This event led his subjects and foreign guests to understand that his main function as emir was to attend to the government of the sultanate and foster the happiness of his people. on the vaulted ceilings of the Sala de los Reyes. In other fortresses and cities: Muhammad V spent 20. 1989). which has a pointed horseshoe arch and dynastic shield. the Marinid sovereigns of Fez. arsenal). Throughout the fourteenth century. Nafh al-tib. A. (Cairo edn). Only his grandson Muhammad VII al-MustacTn bi-llah built another Qalahurra (Torre de las Infantas) around 795-6/1393-4. and watch-towers (taWa) on the frontiers with the See of Toledo. i. p. in the figures drawn on the floors of the Torre de Abu 1-Juyush and those of the Palacio de Alijares. 1992). 123?41. 158-9. This content downloaded from 152. p. 118 Ibn al-Khatib. 665 note 73. 142?69. 243-5.000 dinars of gold on renewing the Alcazaba of Arjona. the cAbd al-Wadids at Tremecen and the Nasrids of Granada used to celebrate the night of the mawlid with great pomp in the public area of mashwar of their palaces. was re located when the rest of the structure was demolished. p. the public area of his father's palace. p. x. Handbook of Oriental Studies. in figurative painting. Ihata. and inaugurated it while still quite unfinished with the religious mawlid festivity of 764/1362. Brill (Leiden.120 At the death of Muhammad V in 1391 all the main Nasrid edifices of the Alhambra had been built.24. 119 Y. Bughyat al-ruwwad. MS pp. 117 Ibn al-Khatib. al-Sa'adiyya Faghiya (Casablanca. atarazana. The magnificent ceramic vase in the Alhambra known as the Jarron de las Gacelas also belongs to the time of Muhammad V. pp. Spanish.The Three Great Sultans of al-Dawla al-Isma'iliyya al-Nasriyya 25 only took at the end of that year. p. trans. 46.116 In Malaga. ed. 213-27.119 On recovering his throne in 1362 Muhammad rapidly rebuilt the Mexuar. 40. in the Fuente de los Leones. Al-Maqqari. yet by the end of the year he was celebrating the mawlid in grand style in his new Mexuar to impress his subjects. by Salma Khadra Jayyusi.. Ubeda and Baeza .118 and he ordered works within the walls of Salobrefia and Almufiecar. Its ashlar gateway. ii. In subsequent years he continued celebrating this festivity in the completed Mexuar. the celebration of this religious feast also reaffirmed his function as religious imam of the Hispano-Muslim community. Azhar al-riyad. El reino de Granada.J. The influence of Christian Gothic art became apparent during his reign: in . 116 "Calligraphy in al-Andalus". and as no other known contemporary document gives such detailed information. p. and also in architectural ceramics. Foco. pp. the hospital could claim to have been properly funded with booty from the "holy war". E. Muhammad V recovered the throne on 16 March 1362. 275-327. 217.