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Prepared By;

Mdm. Junaida HJ.Ismail

CHAPTER THREE:
PERSONALITY
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Learning Objectives;

After Learning this chapter, you should be able to;
• Understand the concept of Personality
• Identify the Factors that determine an individuals personality
• Understand the personality Dimensions
• Identify the key traits in the BIG FIVE Personality Model.
• Understand the Personality Attributes

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Personality Personality Determinants. Determinants. measurable traits a person exhibits. •• Environment Environment •• Situation Situation Mdmjunaida@2007 3 . Personality Traits •• Heredity Heredity Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior.What is Personality? Personality The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others.

PERSONALITY DETERMINANTS • There are 3 factors that influence personality.  Latest studies of young children lend strong support o power of heredity which suggested that some traits may be built into the same genetic code that affect factors such as height & hair color. Heredity  Refers to factors that we determined at conception. gender. 1. energy level or biological rhythms.  Include physical stature. which include parents’ complete or partially genetically inherited. Mdmjunaida@2007 4 . facial attractiveness.

norms among family & friends & other influences that we experiences which influence partially in our personality.  E.g.  Culture establishes the norms. independence and as a result the people tend to be ambitious & aggressive & put priority on family over work & career. Mdmjunaida@2007 5 .: north Americans had the themes of industriousness. Environment  Include culture. attitudes & values that are passed along from one generation to another & create consistencies over time. competition.PERSONALITY DETERMINANTS 2. success.

 Thus. personality does not change in different situation as it is stable & consistent.  In generally. Situation  This factor influences the effect of heredity & environment on personality. Mdmjunaida@2007 6 .PERSONALITY DETERMINANTS 3. situation factor is more towards influence and call upon one’s different aspects of personality.

• Include: • Conscientiousness • Emotional stability • Openness to experience • Agreeableness • Extroversion Mdmjunaida@2007 7 .most personality traits are represented.PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS • It is known as Big Five personality dimensions. • It is about the five abstract personality dimensions in which .

• People with emotional instability tend to be depressed. anxious. dependable & self-disciplined. • Also include the will to achieve (not the need for achievement). • People with low conscientiousness tend to be careless. cure & calm. indecisive & subject to mood swings. Mdmjunaida@2007 8 . less thorough.PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS • Conscientiousness • Refers to people who are careful. • Emotional stability • Refers to people with high emotional stability are poised. more disorganized & irresponsible.

• People with low agreeableness tend to be uncooperative. • Agreeableness • Include traits of being courteous. short-tempered & irritable. Mdmjunaida@2007 9 . creative & curious. less to open to new ideas & more fixed in their own ways.PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS • Openness to experience • Refers to the extent that people are sensitive. empathic & caring. • Those with low in this dimension tend to be more resistant to change. flexible. good-natured. • Thus people with this traits are labeled as friendly compliance.

sociable & assertive. talkative. they are tend to be more inclined in expressing their interest or ideas and prefer to be alone.PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS • Extroversion • This characterized people who are outgoing. • Yet introversion people does not mean they are lack of social skills. shy & cautious. • The opposite dimension is introversion which refers to those are quiet. Mdmjunaida@2007 10 .

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and sensitive Mdmjunaida@2007 12 . and organized. depressed. versus nervous.. Openness to Experience Curious. Extroversion Sociable. Emotional Stability Calm. and trusting. persistent. dependable. secure under stress (positive). imaginative. self-confident. gregarious. Conscientiousness Responsible.The Big Five Model of Personality Dimensions Cont. cooperative. artistic. and assertive Agreeableness Good-natured. and insecure under stress (negative).

Type B personality • Proactive Personality Mdmjunaida@2007 13 .Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB • Core Self-evaluation • Self-esteem • Locus of Control • Machiavellianism • Narcissism • Self-monitoring • Risk taking • Type A vs.

Mdmjunaida@2007 14 . •Internals (Internal locus of control) Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them. •Locus of Control The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate. •Externals (External locus of control) Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.Core Self-Evaluation: Two Main Components •Self Esteem Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves.

Machiavellianism Machiavellianism (Mach) Degree to which an individual is pragmatic. maintains emotional distance. Conditions Favoring High Machs • Direct interaction with others • Minimal rules and regulations • Emotions distract for others Mdmjunaida@2007 15 . and believes that ends can justify means.

Narcissism A Narcissistic Person •Has grandiose sense of self-importance •Requires excessive admiration •Has a sense of entitlement •Is arrogant •Tends to be rated as less effective Mdmjunaida@2007 16 .

situational factors. High Self-Monitors • Receive better performance ratings • Likely to emerge as leaders • Show less commitment to their organizations Mdmjunaida@2007 17 .Self-Monitoring Self-Monitoring A personality trait that measures an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external.

Risk-Taking • • • High Risk-taking Managers • Make quicker decisions • Use less information to make decisions • Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations Low Risk-taking Managers • Are slower to make decisions • Require more information before making decisions • Exist in larger organizations with stable environments Risk Propensity • Aligning managers’ risk-taking propensity to job requirements should be beneficial to organizations. Mdmjunaida@2007 18 .

• Bureaucratic  Prefer having rule & regulation.PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES • Autocratic  It is a rigid personality at workplace & the people with this personality tend to be less respective to lower level employees & like to take opportunity on other people.  This people believe & acknowledge obedience towards powerfulness because the this people concern on power. Mdmjunaida@2007 19 .  Place high values in hierarchy order & prefer formal relationship. they could be a good follower if placed under a leader observation. procedures within organization.  Always believe that organization needs are important than personal needs.  Yet. laws.

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Personality Types Type A’s 1. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments. Type B’s 1. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place. 3. and eating rapidly. rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost. are obsessed with numbers. walking. Mdmjunaida@2007 21 . 4. 3. can relax without guilt. measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. 5. never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience. 4. 2. are always moving. cannot cope with leisure time. play for fun and relaxation. 2. strive to think or do two or more things at once.

Creates positive change in the environment. shows initiative. and perseveres until meaningful change occurs. Mdmjunaida@2007 22 . takes action. regardless or even in spite of constraints or obstacles.Personality Types Proactive Personality Identifies opportunities.

Measuring Personality Personality is Measured By • Self-report surveys • Observer-rating surveys • Projective measures • Rorschach Inkblot Test • Thematic Apperception Test Mdmjunaida@2007 23 .

and where you think your teacher falls with respect to each of them.Chapter Closure: Personality Which of the following is not a typical personality trait considered to be organizationally relevant? Locus of control Self-monitoring Self-enhancing Self esteem Machiavellianism Discuss with your neighbor how each of the three traits above would influence a college instructor’s behavior. Mdmjunaida@2007 24 .

Alison Alison has has aa high high external external locus locus of of control. it’s just not my lucky day today. happens. Alison Alison believes believes that that things things outside outside of of her her control control determine determine what what happens. She says “Oh man. control.” Alison has ______________. and and you you have have aa very very high high internal internal locus locus of of control. If If Alison Alison works works on on aa team team with with you. you. Mdmjunaida@2007 25 . friend. control.Chapter Check-Up: Personality Alison arrives to class and realizes that she’s forgotten her homework to turn in. what what kinds kinds of of discussions discussions do do you you think think the the two two of of you you might might have? have? Discuss Discuss with with aa friend.

she’s at the top of her class. she forgets to stop and eat lunch. She never leaves a task incomplete.Chapter Check-Up: Personality Julia is known for being a go-getter. A Mdmjunaida@2007 26 . Julia can be easily characterized as someone that has/is a Type ____ Personality. and is involved in a number of activities. Moreover. She’s so busy that sometimes.

Mdmjunaida@2007 27 . Type A’s are rarely creative because they generally don’t allocate the necessary time for new solution development. they usually rely on past experiences to solve problems in order to be speedy.Chapter Check-Up: Personality Julia is also likely to not be very • Happy? • Fun? • Creative? • Stressed? In general.