You are on page 1of 7

Operations Research Time Line

1665
1736
1738
1763
1788
1795
1823
1823
1824
1826
1833
1873
1880
1896
1896

1928
1930
1931
1933
1936
1936

Newton's Method for Finding a Minimum Solution of a Function, I. Newton
Königsberg Bridge Problem, L. Euler
St. Petersburg Problem, D. Bernoulli
Bayes’ Rule, T. Bayes
Lagrangian multipliers, Mécanique Analytique, J. L. Lagrange
Method of Least Squares, C. F. Gauss, A. Legendre
Solution of Inequalities, J. Fourier
Principle of Utility, J. Bentham
Kriegspiel (war gaming), von Reisswitz
Solution of Linear Equations, C. F. Gauss
Analytical Engine, C. Babbage
Solution of Equations in Nonnegative Variables, P. Gordon
Markov Chains, A. Markov
Pareto Optimal/Efficient Solution, V. Pareto
Solution of Linear Equations as a Combination of Extreme Point Solutions,
H. Minkowski
Time Studies/Scientific Management, F. Taylor
Gantt Charts, H. Gantt, F. Taylor
Solution of Inequality Systems, J. Farkas
“The Theory of Probabilities and Telephone Conversations,” A. K. Erlang
Inventory Economic Order Quantity (EOQ), F. W. Harris
Lanchester's Equations, F. W. Lanchester
Positive Solution to Linear Equations, E. Stiemke
“Application of the Theory of Probability to Telephone Trucking Problems,”
E. C. Molina
Probability Theory and Its Engineering Uses, T. C. Fry
Econometric Society founded
Quality Control Charts, W. Shewart
Hypothesis Testing, J. Neyman, E. Pearson
Transposition Theorem, Linear Inequalities, T. Motzkin
Facility Location, E. Weiszfeld aka A.Vazsonyi

1937

Time Zero: British military applications – the term Operational Research first used

1939
1939

“Mathematical Methods of Organization and Production,” L. Kantorovich
Optimality Condition for Constrained Problems (Master’s thesis, U. Chicago),
W. Karush
The Structure of the American Economy (Inter-industry Economics), W. W. Leontief
Transportation Problem, F. Hitchcock
USAF military OR
Antisubmarine Warfare Operations Research Group (first U.S. civilian group engaged in
military OR)
UK Naval Operational Research, P. Blackett
Search Theory, P. Morse, R. Rinehart, B. Koopman, G. Kimball

1900
1900
1903
1909
1913
1914
1915
1927

1941
1941
1942
1942
1942
1942

first OR journal. National Bureau of Standards First Symposium on “Linear Inequalities and Programming” Activity Analysis of Production and Allocation. H. J. now the Journal of Operational Research Nash Equilibrium. von Neumann. “Programming of Inter-Dependent Activities II. Morgenstern Utility Theory. Rivett First Solution of the Transportation Problem on a Computer. Stigler “Methods of Operations Research” [OEG Report (Classified)].” (optimality condition for constrained problems). National Bureau of Standards Unclassified version of Methods of Operations Research. W. Morgenstern Exponential Smoothing. J. W. Tucker . Kendall Naval Post Graduate School OR program “Study of Negro Manpower in Army. Dantzig Dynamic Equipment Policy.” Johns Hopkins Operations Research Office Primal-dual Linear Programs. Keeney Navy Operations Evaluation Group (OEG) Military Gaming An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications. J. O. G. von Neumann “Programming of Inter-Dependent Activities I. W. von Neumann. Tucker “Maximization of a Linear Function of Variables Subject to Linear Inequalities. von Neumann. J. Morse. J. SEAC. 2nd edition. M. G. Mathematical Model. Dantzig. A. W. I. Wood. Brown Project RAND (Douglas Aircraft Co. G. A. R. G. C.” D.) USN Operations Evaluation Group (OEG) “The Cost of Subsistence” (Diet Problem). Terborgh Cowles Commission Conference on “Activity Analysis of Production and Allocation” Quality Control. S. Goodeve. (Inter-industry Economics) W. Ulam. Koopmans. vol. E. M. P. B. G. Howard. Dantzig. Dantzig Project SCOOP (USAF Scientific Computation of Optimal Programs) Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. G. W. Nash Simulation/War Games Decision Analysis. Morse. Kimball First computer-based simplex algorithm. Dantzig Simplex Method. T. Kuhn.” G.1943 1944 1944 1944 1945 1945 1945 1946 1947 1947 1947 1947 1948 1948 1948 1948 1949 1949 1949 1949 1949 1950 1950 1950 1950 1950 1950 1950 1950 1950 1950 1950 1950 1951 1951 1951 1951 1951 1951 1951 1951 1951 1951 1951 Neural Networks. Leontief “Nonlinear Programming. M. McCulloch. Deming Operational Research Quarterly. Kimball Linear Programming Model. Raiffa. O. Dantzig “Some Problems in the Theory of Queues. G. R. P. E. Bellman Shortest Path Problem OR in Industrial Sector: British Iron and Steel Industry Research Association. C. E. von Neumann.” M. R. H. B. G.) The Structure of the American Economy. Edwards. (ed. Feller Dynamic Programming. P. R. General Discussion. R. G. Pitts Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. J. British National Coal Board.” (Simplex Method). Luce. SEAC. O. Morgenstern The RAND Corporation Johns Hopkins US Army Operations Research Office (ORO) First courses in OR at MIT Operational Research Club of Great Britain Monte Carlo Simulation.

G. Thornthwaite First degree program (MA and Ph. Koopmans. A. S. G. Dantzig Operations Research Center at MIT. Beckmann Introduction to Operations Research. A. Jr. Orchard-Hays “Traffic Delays at Toll Booths. D. Edie The Compleat Strategyst. W. Jackson Proceedings of the First International Conference on Operational Research. E. J. Morse Hungarian Method for Transportation Problem. W. C. C. C. Davies. Eddison. W. Markowitz First OR Application in Agriculture. A. Vajda Quadratic Programming. M. Walker/D. Saaty Operations Research for Management. Wolfe First International Conference on OR (IFORS). H. I. A.” G. R.” L. Orden Blending Aviation Gasoline. L.S. H. Whitin Operational Research Society (UK) founded An Introduction to Linear Programming. Lemke. Bellman Games and Decisions: Introduction and Critical Survey. Page (eds. Paull PERT/CPM/MPM. Churchman. Beale First ORSA Frederick W. Gass. Raiffa Jackson Networks.. Clark.) . Simon Stochastic Programming. Ackoff Dynamic Programming. M. J. Dantzig. J. Trefethen (eds. Roy The Theory of Games and Linear Programming. Dantzig “A Proof of the Equivalence of the Programming Problem and the Game Problem. Luce. W. Fazar/B. Edie Parametric Programming . McKinsey Product Form of the Inverse. Frank. F. Malcolm. H. Lanchester Prize to L. Oxford Quadratic Assignment Problem. Alternate Algorithm for the Revised Simplex Method: Using a Product Form of the Inverse. Cooper.D. E. First OR journal in the United States Operations Research Society of America (ORSA) founded Portfolio Analysis. Air Force linear-programming problems The Institute of Management Sciences (TIMS) founded The Theory of Inventory Management. B. Charnes . Egerváry Trim (cutting stock) Problem. T.1951 1951 1951 1952 1952 1952 1952 1952 1952 1952 1952 1952 1953 1953 1953 1953 1953 1954 1954 1954 1954 1954 1954 1954 1954 1954 1955 1955 1955 1955 1955 1955 1956 1956 1956 1956 1957 1957 1957 1957 1957 1957 1957 OR group established at Courtland (UK fiber producer) “Application of the Simplex Method to a Transportation Problem. I. Kuhn. M.) formed at Case Institute of Technology. Arnoff. P. A. S. S. P. Cleveland. E. E. C. R. Backus. Henderson. Kelley. B. T. Roseboom. T. R. M. Ohio Introduction to the Theory of Games. W. R. J. Charnes. McCloskey. W.” G. Cooper. Mellon UNIVAC I installed in The Pentagon to solve U. Johnson Dual Simplex Method. C.) Naval Research Logistics Quarterly established FORTRAN programming language. T. J. T.W. C. Dantzig Operations Research. H. Flood Bounded Rationality/Satisficing. C. Williams Military Battle Models Traveling Salesman Problem. Ziller Sequencing and Scheduling (Johnson's Theorem). J. J.

I. J. Programming and Economics. II. Kwan Renewal Theory. R. Little Packet Switching Theory. Gass SIMSCRIPT. T. G. Murty. Howard Planning Production. A. Riley. S. Doig. J. R. Muth. K. and Work Force. J. F. Kleinrock Geometric Programming . L. Cox and W. C. Vazsonyi Mathematical Methods and Theory in Games. H. Whitin . Morse Linear Programming and Economic Analysis. C. Holt. S. Fulkerson Smoothing. R. R. Inventories. Benders Chinese Postman's Problem. L. A. D. Brown Fuzzy Set Theory. S. Dakin. Kemeny. G. Samuelson. M.K. G. C. Gass Integer Programming. T. Smith Research Analysis Corporation (RAC) Industrial Dynamics. P. Sweeney. Programming and Budgeting (PPB) Artificial Intelligence and OR Airline Group of the International Federation of Operations Research Societies (AGIFORS) Decision Trees Vehicle Traffic Science. D. Little. A.1958 1958 1958 1958 1958 1958 1958 1958 1959 1959 1959 1959 1959 1959 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1961 1961 1961 1961 1961 1961 1961 1961 1961 1962 1962 1962 1962 1962 1962 1962 1963 Linear Programming and Associated Techniques: A Comprehensive Bibliography. H. A. Vajda Queues. S. Simon International Abstracts in Operations Research (IAOR) established GPSS/Simulation Language. L. Laurie Snell Dynamic Programming and Markov Processes. M. R. Dorfman. Jr. Karlin Chance-Constrained Programming. A. Fishburn Planning. Modigliani. V. J. G. Inventory and Maintenance.. Gazis. L. Dantzig. Takács Finite Markov Chains. Saaty Queues. R. W. Markowitz Linear Programming: Methods and Applications. J. J. Prigogine Cost Effectiveness Analysis Stochastic Processes. Forrester Little's Law. Forecasting and Prediction of Discrete Time Series. I. D. Cooper Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition. D. P. Ford. Wolfe Mathematical Methods of Operations Research. I. Dijkstra International Federation of Operational Research Societies (IFORS) Branch and Bound. R.. Zadeh Center for Naval Analyses Analysis of Inventory Systems. Solow Scientific Programming in Business and Industry. R. Land. Oliver. Herman. G. Saaty Shortest Route Problem. Karel Facility Location Cost Effectiveness Analysis Value Theory. Newell. D. A. Cox Flows in Networks. Gomory Readings in Linear Programming. L. I. J. E. Gordon Elements of Queueing Theory. B. Hadley and T. Zener Benders Partitioning Method. Charnes. P. P.

Larson OR established in Federal Express . L. Helmer Implicit Enumeration/Additive Algorithm. Cook. Klee and G. Jenkins Marketing Decision Making: A Model Building Approach. Lodish Principles of Operations Research. B. G. B.1963 1963 1963 1964 1964 1964 1965 1965 1965 1965 1965 1966 1967 1967 1967 1967 1968 1968 1968 1968 1968 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1970 1971 1971 1971 1971 1972 1972 1972 1972 1972 1972 1973 1974 1974 1974 Linear Programming and Extensions. R. Karlin Introduction to Operations Research. Charnes. N. Quade (ed. R. A. L. H. Clarke and Wright Management Models and Industrial Applications of Linear Programming. Blumstein. Box. V. P. Whelan. Kotler ORSA's journal OR/SA Today established World Dynamics. E. Conway. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) Soft Systems Methodologies. Minty Decision Support Systems. Roy Advertising. Impossibility Theorem. S. Arrow Analysis for Military Decisions. C. Lieberman Theory of Scheduling. F. W. Cooper The Knapsack Problem. R. Hess. Glover Nonlinear Programming: Sequential Unconstrained Minimization Techniques. C. Hillier. J. Keen. Geoffrion Social Welfare Function. Edmonds. H. W. Cooper Complexity Theory. A. S. Peterson. Miller Criminal Justice: President's Crime Commission Science and Technology Task Force. Gillett. Howard Outranking Procedure (ELECTRE) for Multi-Attribute Decision Making. P. G. G. Balas. Sherbrooke Decision Analysis. I. G. E. Meadows et al. A. K. J. Karp Limits to Growth. S. P. Larson Geometric Programming. R. Zener Surrogate constraints. Morton Computers and Operations Research established Hypercube Queueing Model. R. J. McCormick Metric (Multi-Echelon Technique for Recoverable Item Control). S. Maxwell. J. Weaver. Little. Dalkey and O. R. Gordon New York City RAND Institute First ARPANET/INTERNET site at UCLA. Dantzig Political Redistricting. D. Gass. L. J. L. Duffin. Dantzig Delphi Method. W. S. G. A. Miller First Franz Edelman Award for Management Science Achievement presented to The Pillsbury Company Klee-Minty problem showed that the simplex method is not a polynomial-time algorithm. Checkland Sweep Algorithm for Vehicle Routing. P. G. Kleinrock Time Series Analysis. S. Zitlau A First Course in Stochastic Processes. Charnes. W. Seigfeldt. E. Fiacco. F. G. Wagner System Simulation. NP-Complete. A. Karp Goal Programming. R. A.) Vehicle Routing Savings Algorithm. J. B. Forrester Computational Complexity. C. C.

L. Link PROMETHE Method for Multi-Attribute Decision Making. E. C. Fiegenbaum Simulated Annealing. E. Crenson. Cunnigham. Beltrami Anti-Cycling Rules for Linear-Programming Problem. Borgwardt Neural Networks. A. Barnett. A. Harris Multicriteria Decision Making. G. Edwards. II: Computer Applications.-H. Sisson (eds. Saaty Parallel Computing LINDO. Greenberger. M. A. Geoffrion Ellipsoid Method. R. Quade Burger King receives OR practice award American Airlines Decision Technologies. Metropolis Average Running Time of Simplex Method Shown to be Polynomially Bounded. Taguchi Models for Public Systems Analysis. Gass. B. American Airlines. Khachian “Airline Safety: An Empirical Study. Quade Queueing Systems. Vol. Odoni Expert systems.-P. Karmarkar What's Best. Savage. A. Mareschal. Abraham. W. Cooper. M. Meeraus Tabu Search. W. Zionts. L. Roy First von Neumann Prize (ORSA) to George B. Crissey Quality Control. E. Dantzig Analysis for Public Decisions. J. H. Wallenius.1974 1974 1974 1974 1974 1974 1975 1975 1975 1975 1976 1976 1976 1976 1977 1977 1977 1978 1978 1979 1979 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 1981 1982 1982 1982 1984 1984 1984 1984 1985 1985 1985 1986 1988 1988 1989 1990 First joint ORSA and TIMS meeting OR/MS Today established (first joint ORSA/TIMS publication) TIMS's Interfaces becomes joint publication of TIMS and ORSA SLAM.” D. T. Kleinrock Decisions with Multiple Objectives: Preferences and Value Tradeoffs. R. W. Raiffa Models in the Public Policy. Cook General Algebraic Modeling System/GAMS. Cook Urban Operations Research. T. Hopfield Interior Point Methods. A. Brans. G. Schimmel Spreadsheet OR add-in software Constraint Programming The Analytic Hierarchy Process. J. I. M. S. Pritsker “A Guide to Models in Governmental Planning and Operations. M. Kleinrock Queueing Systems. R. K. Grinold. Charnes. R. H. Miser. Gross. P. Glover Desert Shield military airlift . Keeney. R. Vinke Flexible Manufacturing Systems Airline Crew and Aircraft Scheduling Handbook of Systems Analysis: Craft Issues and Procedural Choices. E. I: Theory.) “Fundamentals of Queueing Theory. K. Vol. S. Zeleny. Barr. B. GASP/Simulation Languages. L.” A. K. E. B. L. Schrage Conflict Analysis Revenue (Yield) Management. Larson. A. S. J. C. Rhodes Lagrangian Relaxation. Bland Manpower Planning. F. T. Marshall Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). N. V.

VPI&SU) Pfizer. W. receives the INFORMS Prize Merrill Lynch Private Client Group receives the INFORMS Prize Lucent Technologies receives the INFORMS Prize IBM receives the INFORMS Prize 50th anniversary of the publication of the Journal of Operational Research 50th anniversary of the OR program at the Naval Post Graduate School 50th anniversary of the founding of ORSA 50th anniversary of the publication of Operations Research .1990 1990 1990 1990 1991 1991 1992 1993 1994 1994 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1996 1996 1996 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2002 Supply Chain Management Financial Engineering. C. J. Harris e-Commerce Center for Excellence in Aviation Operations Research (Berkeley. Inc. Gass. U of MD. Mulvey Geographical Information Systems Evolutionary Algorithms American Airlines and Federal Express receive the INFORMS Prize OR and Persian Gulf War San Miguel Corporation receives the INFORMS Prize NYC's Office of Management and Budget and United Airlines receive the INFORMS Prize Network-Enabled Optimization System (NEOS) AT&T and US West Technologies receive the INFORMS Prize Data Mining INFORMS formed by merger of ORSA and TIMS Bellcore receives the INFORMS Prize Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) INFORMS OnLine Encyclopedia of Operations Research and Management Science. Ziemba. Zenios. S. MIT. S.