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Digital Filter Design Techniques and its Applications

Ripal Patel
Assistant Professor,
Electronics & Telecommunication
BVM Engineering College,
Vallabh Vidyanagar-388120.

September 23, 2015

Introduction to Digital Filter 

Most powerful tool of DSP 

Analog Filter: component fluctuation over time and temperature 

Digital Filter: software control

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Application of Digital Filter  Noise Cancellation  Echo Cancellation in modem  Speech Recognition  Tuning Radio (Band-pass Filter) 3 of 28 .

Digital Filter Design  Same as Analog Filter  Design of Analog Filter?  Filter coefficient value instead of filter parameters 4 of 28 .

Digital Filter High Accuracy Linear Phase (FIR Filters) No Drift Due to Component Variations Flexible. Adaptive Filtering Possible Easy to Simulate and Design Computation Must be Completed in Sampling Period Limits Real Time Operation Requires High Performance ADC. DAC. DAC & DSP 5 of 28 Analog Filter Less Accuracy Non-Linear Phase Drift Due to Component Variations Adaptive Filters Difficult Difficult to Simulate and Design Analog Filters Required at High Frequencies and for Anti-Aliasing Filters No ADC. or DSP required .

Digital Filtering 6 of 28 .

Types of Digital Filters  Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filter  Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filter 7 of 28 .

8 of 28 .FIR Filter  Impulse response finite  Linear Phase  Always stable  Computational cost high as order of the filter increase.

Windowing Techniques 2. Frequency sampling approach 3.FIR Filter Design Three commonly used approaches to FIR filter design: 1. Computer-based optimization methods 9 of 28 .

) 3. Truncate to finite length.FIR Filter Design: Windowing Techniques 1. w (n) is the window function 10 of 28 . Modify to hw (n) = h(n)w (n) Where. Start with ideal infinite duration h(n) 2. (This produces unwanted ripples increasing in height near discontinuity.

FIR Filter Design: Windowing Techniques 11 of 28 .

Commonly used windows Drawback between main lobe width and relative sidelobe level  Rectangular  Bartlett  Hann  Hamming  Blackman  Kaiser 12 of 28 .

FIR Filter Design: Windowing Techniques 13 of 28 .EXAMPLE .

.IIR FIlter  Impulse response extends for an infinite period of time  Recursive i.e. they utilize feedback  Nonlinear phase  Potentially Unstable  Usually Designed to Duplicate Analog Filter Response 14 of 28 .

IIR Filter Design Techniques:  Approximation by derivatives  Impulse Invariant Transformation Method  Bilinear Transformation Method 15 of 28 .

Approximation of derivatives  Analog filter with system function H(s) PM k k=0 βk s H(s) = PN k k=0 αk s  Time domain equivalent of given system function: M X k=0  N αk d k y (t) X d k x(t) = βk dt k dt k k=0 Approximate a derivative by backward difference: y (nt0 ) − y (nt0 − t0 ) dy (t) |t=nt0 ∼ = dt t0 =  16 of 28 y [n] − y [n − 1] t0 .

Approximation of derivatives Mapping function: s= 17 of 28 1 − z −1 t0 .

Relation between s-plane and z-plane One to one mapping 18 of 28 .

equally spaced samples of hc (t) (ALIASING) hd (n) = Td hc (nTd )  Frequency response: Hd (ω) = X k 19 of 28 ω Hc (f − k/Td ) |f = 2πT d .impulse response of continuous time filter  hc (nTd ) .Impulse Invariant Transformation Method  hc (t) .

Example: Impulse Invariant Transformation Method  Partial fraction Analog transfer function: Ha (s) = N X Ak s − sk k=1  Inverse Laplace transform: ha (t) = N X k=1 20 of 28 Ak e sk t u(t) .

)  Sample Impulse response: hd (n) = Td hc (nTd ) = Td N X Ak e sk nTd u(nTd ) k=1 = Td N X Ak pkn u(nTd ) k=1 pkn  e sk nTd Where.. = Take z transform: Hd (z) = N X k=1 21 of 28 TAk 1 − pkn z −1 .Example: Impulse Invariant Transformation Method (Cont..

Relation between s-plane and z-plane  One to many mapping 22 of 28 .

.)  PRO:linear translation between analog frequency and digital frequency preserve shape of filter  CON: not suitable as highpass filter due to aliasing 23 of 28 .Impulse Invariant Transformation Method (Cont..

Bilinear Transformation Method  Most efficient and popular method  algebraic transform between the variables s and z s=c 1 − z −1 1 + z −1 H(z) = Ha (s) |s=(c(1−z −1 )/(1+z −1 )  One to one mapping between s-plane and z-plane 24 of 28 .

Relation between s-plane and z-plane 25 of 28 .

shape distortion + No aliasing.Table: Summary of Analog to Digital Transformation Technique Impulse Invariance Approximation of Derivatives Bilinear Transform 26 of 28 Mapping z = e st0 s= 1−z −1 t0 −1 s = c 1−z 1+z −1 +/+ Preserves shape of filter.Restricted pole location. . .Shape distortion . .Aliasing + No aliasing.

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