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appeared pre- much be regretted that. where the readings of . but. To enhance the value of the work in an historical point of view. H. as nearly as possible. The present translation has been made on the same principle as those of Ovid and Plautus in the CLASSICAL LIBRARY . It is their labours. the narrative has been illustrated by a comparison With parallel passages in the Commentaries of Csesar. the text to still . has the merit of adhering closely to the original. and is remarkable for its accuracy. IN the following Translation. the text of Weise has been adopted. The Pharsalia has not been previously translated into English prose but there have been two poetical versions. Weher. .PEEFACE. and is intended to be a faithful reflex. in 1627. except ha a few instances. or the older Commentators. though replete with the quaint expressions peculiar to the early part of the seventeenth century. not only of the author's meaning. and the works of other ancient historians who have treated of the wars between Pompey and Csesar. The latter is too well known to require comment . ferable. of his actual modes of expression.Cortius. the former. R. T. it is strictly literal. notwithstanding remains in a corrupt state. one by Thomas May. the other by Nicholas Kowe.


16-42. 350-391. The soldiers wavering. Aruns City is purified. BOOK The nature I. 466 522. The complaints of the men. with approach. whom. and while he is preparing to lay siege to Corfinium. Lentulus. and promises to lead b 1 . 43-66. Caesar's address to his soldiers. Brutus Cato answers repairs to Cato at night. evil to the state. Curio. take to flight. The luxury of Rome. 292-351. Caesar advancing against Rome. and asks his advice. The complaints of the matrons. being expelled from Rome. The alarm at Rome described. long speech is spoken by an aged man in reference to the Reflections on the A Civil Wars carried on between Sulla and Marius. 67-97. 98-157. 1-7. 8-32. The lamentable Page the The Poet addresses Nero. Caesar gives him his liberty against his wish. The complaints of the inhabitants of those parts that they are the first to feel the effects of every war. Sulla. 478-525. Marcia appears. and entreats him to march against Rome. Caesar crosses the river. The Senators and citizens. since whose death she has sought him again as her husband. The reports at Rome 'on his The fear of the people. 183-230. and advises Brutus to do the same. 286- While they are conversing. Pompey. 352-385. In the presence of Brutus they renew the nuptial vow. 392-465. They consent to march against Rome. 158-182. the Etrurian prophet. Pompey has in the meantime retired to Campania. A Roman matron prophesies woe to the City.638. Varus. The Apennines. the war.CONTENTS. Aruns. 234-285. Caesar takes possession of the whole of Italy. with 325. from the cities which they hold. and takes possession of Ariminum. 584. comes to Caesar's camp. Domitius Ahenobarbus. are described. and Scipio. 261-291. his forces are enumerated. presages Figulus does the same. Thermus. Cato had given to his friend Hortensius. the citizens deliver Domitius to him. BOOK character of II. The sacrifices are productive of ill omens. 639-672. The flight of Libo. Laelius encourages them. is consulted. The rivalry between Pompey and Caesar after the death of Crassus. 1-15. 231-260. 523-583. Pompey addresses his troops. endeavours to impede the course of Caesar at Corfinium. The causes of warfare. formerly own wife. 673 695 of the subject. Caesar crosses the Rubicon. 67-233. 326-349. 386-391. Prodigies. 392-433. that he shall follow Pompey. by breaking down the bridge. 33-66. Prodigies then beheld are reThe counted. 439-477. his their streams.

Pompey arrives in Epirus. 526-595. Departing for Spain. Which Caesar grants to the enemy. deprecating Caesar besieges Massilia. though reluctant. The situation of that place is described. BOOK 704-736 46 III. and forces the soldiers. He retreats to Brundisium. 121-147. 169-297. and sides pitch their camps. 76-97. crossing to Greece. 509-537. 680-703. The hostility of the Senate to Caesar. 298-303. and the treasure is carried 153-168. which are enumerated. 46-70. 358-374. overflowed. 134-140. the ghost of Julia appears to him in a dream. good feeling. In the meantime Pompey collects forces in Greece and Asia. repairs to Massilia. 157-166. And then a flood. By reason Spaniards. and Brutus is victorious. 453 496. civil war. 89 752-762 BOOK IV. The works are described. is besieged by the adherents of . 195-211. The Massilians are vanquished. harangues his troops.CONTENTS. But Petreius an end to this 167-194. Both Caesar commands the flying enemy to be intercepted. 254-263. 133. The sea-fight is described. on his way to Spain. 1-10. to do so. 236-253. 267-336. 98-120. and Caesar's camp is A famine prevails. 363-401. When the waters subside Petreius departs from Ilerda. alarm at Rome described. 36-45. Cotta advises Metellus to 141-152. and predicts the devastating nature of the war. and calls his own men to arms. Caesar follows Pompey. 374-398. he entrusts the siege to Trebonius. Metellus the Tribune resists the spoilers of the public treasury. 650-679. The people of Massilia send deputies to him. 148-156. 91-97. In the meantime Caesar arrives in Spain. 48-90. yield. consisting of Romans and A battle is fought at Ilerda. puts interchange courtesies. The Pompeian troops fly towards Ilerda. He then The warfare is resumed. 98Caesar threatens him. repulse the enemy. 304-357. Caesar enters Brundisium. Caesar comes up with him. Caesar. The Massilians sally forth by night and The attack is now carried on by sea. In the meantime Antony. of the rains in the spring an inundation ensues. He himself prepares to cross over to Epirus. The sufferings of the Pompeians are described. by whom it is continued. 497-508. and a battle is fought. Afranius sues for peace. 11-47. The fellow-citizens recognize each other. 399-452. 596-609. which has remained faithful to Pompey. 610-627. 538-751. 337-362. off. Pompey sends Page his son to Asia to request the assistance of the eastern Kings. 264-266. Caesar commands a sacred grove to be cut down. 212-235. Caesar shuts them out from a supply of water. vi them to battle. 1-35. the lieutenant of Caesar. The corn in Sicily. Pompey leaves Italy. Caesar instructs Curio to procure While Pompey is He then marches to Rome. The Temple is opened. 628-649. where Afranius and Petreius are in command of Pompey 's forces. and endeavours to cut him off from the sea. Brutus arrives with his fleet.

760-790. Antony passes over with the rest of his troops. Appius goes to consult the oracle at Delphi. 319 364. himself before them thus complaining. answer. 365-373. . 498 503. 701-721. he orders part of his troops to embark. And is inspired by ever. He does so in a small boat. 715-798. 163-197. but being surrounded by Curio. Loose chains are placed by the enemy beneath the waves. 465-520. He then repairs to Rome. and Phemonoe. near Utica. howto dissuade Appius from his enquiries. 661-714. Caesar sends his army to Brundisium. 678-700. 403-411. 71-120. The oracle is apostrophized by the Poet. one Vulteius. trophized by the Poet. he determines to go across. in the Island of Euboea. intercept the flight Pompey on the commander than fall of the raft. and his troops are suffering He then attempts to escape by sea. 594-653. 65-70.' 126 V. to ascend the oracular tripod. 571-593. He apprises her of his intentions. tries She is forced. which is accordingly done. 790-801. 198The soldiers of Caesar's party become mutinous. 521-581. is routed by Antaeus. Curio fights against Juba. Evil omens give portentous signs. He arrives in Italy. 262-296. The oracle foretells.CONTENTS. Impatient at his delay. Pompey determines to send his wife Cornelia to Lesbos. the Pompeian commander. in ambiguous terms. 412 423. 374 380. 15-49. 237-261. The Poet praises the monarchs and nations who lent their aid. 654-677. He encamps at Dyrrhachium. 415-432. 433-464. although the skies betoken an approaching tempest. 504-570. and landing at the river Bagrada. and his soldiers expostulate with him for leaving them. death of Appius himself before the battle of Pharsalia. an ambuscade. The sea is suddenly becalmed. He is apos- commands. 424-460. 380-384. from famine. as to the result of the war. is informed by one of the inhabitants of the contest which took place near there between Hercules and the giant Vanis. He addresses them. silent. which of of Antony's rafts. 581-660. Caesar entreats Antony to send over the remaining forces. 297-318. Which is described. 50-64. And sails for Lesbos. 236. He harangues his soldiers. Lentulus addresses the Senators. in Epirus. Pompey Commander-in-chief. He goes thence to Brundisium . exhorts his men to slay each other rather hands of the enemy. 799-824 . and advises them to appoint 1-14. The tumult is appeased. Caesar encourages the mariners in a tempest. the the prophetic frenzy. the Priestess. 164 . They obey his into the Curio sails for Africa. and passing over he lands at Palaeste. BOOK . He returns to Epirus. is destroyed with his forces. 740-759. 141-162. 384-402. Caesar presents Their threats and clamours for peace. 722-739. where he is made Dictator and Consul. 801-815 . Cornelia's She embarks. and orders a fleet to be collected there. 121-140. which has now long been The oracle is described. 461-475. where collecting a fleet. In the early part of the year the Consuls convene the Senate in Epirus. 476-497. 402-414. vii Page the shores of the Adriatic. The Temple is opened.

Erictho. marches to seize Pompey intercepts him on his march. 385-459. 235-249. 124-150. 185-213. scribed. Pompey attacks the outworks nearer to the sea. 413-419. 15-18. He harangues his soldiers. The army of the impending catastrophe. Poet. 330-336. The Poet laments the approaching slaughter. and his praises descanted upon. to bring Caesar surrounds the situation of the city is described. viii BOOK Caesar. 775-820. The Thessalian incantations are magic arts. 820-830 201 A BOOK The vision of Pompey VII. He addresses her. 80-105. By her incantations and magic skill she raises the dead body to life. 434 506. army. The city VI. the troops anxiously awaiting the event. It discloses the woes of Rome. 118-124. 29-63. 62-85. 125 -139. and requests her to disclose to him the future. 337-384. 604-623. 299-313.CONTENTS. 214-234. 250-329. Commencing her incantations. to the camp. the night before the battle of Pharsalia is de- His soldiers demand to be led forth to battle. The situation of Thessaly is described. The army of Caesar also suffers from famine. 1-14. Poranswer. by means described. the son of Pompey. being unable Dyrrhachium. But is Whose praises are sung by the driven back by Scaeva. 654-666. 247-262. 85-123. Distant nations are tentous signs appear. 333-412. Both sides pitch their camps. She promises him that she will do so. Deceived by bis to be carried to the camp of Pompey. 64-79. He is at first successful in his attempts. 19-28. 45-61. 667-761. While Scaeva exhorts his comrades. for battle. Sextus repairs to her at night. a Thessalian enchantress. 1-44. 151-184. His wounds are described. Caesar prepares to renew the engagement. is urged by fear to enquire into the destinies of futurity of 420-434. The words of Scaeva. 263 278. 762-774. dead 589-603. Caesar repairs to Thessaly. The cave of Erictho is described. Cicero's address to Pompey on this occasion. She requests it to disclose the future. are described. Pompey'g The soldiers prepare for battle. and of the adherents of Pompey in The body is then burned. 278-289. 166-227. 570-588. the troops of Caesar are in alarm. made aware of Pompey is de- Caesar's delight on seeing them preparing for scribed. and is followed by Pompey. 235-239. and is dragged to her cave. Pompey and the A famine and pestilence the works. 624-641. Aulus is slain by him. Pompey neglects to follow up his successes. and Sextus returns particular. 314-332. and her rites. At sallies forth to interrupt arise in his the approach of Pompey. 642-653. 149-165. forces of Pompey with vast outworks. 507-569. The soldiers . 145-148. 106-117. he is pierced by an arrow. Pompey harangues his army. Pompey attempts to break through the outworks. They prepare battle. He requests bravely fighting. 228-235. 140-144. body is chosen for her to restore to life. stratagem. 290 299. Sextus. 240-246. Page Pompey to a battle. she reproaches the attendants of Sextus.

467-475. 35-49. The Poet apostrophizes Pompey. By whose Egypt. 460-469. 50-71. and concludes with imprecations against treacherous 663-686. Crastinus. And then sails past Ephesus. 647-679. 106-127. words. 72-85. 787-846. amid the regrets of the inhabitants. laments his fate. 476-535. 596-620. the king of Egypt. 328-455. an attendant of deplores the fate of Pompey.CONTENTS. Caesar exhorts his men to deeds of valour. 545-550. 1-34. 147-158. 128-146. 476-505. Caesar takes The bodies of Pompey's possession of the enemy's camp. 621-636. 159-201. and proceeds to Pelusium. The wild beasts. hesitate on both sides on recognizing each other. the king of Parthia. 256-327. 506-544. who carries it to Ptolemy. Septimius a small boat cuts off his head. The Poet is averse to describe the scenes of horror there perpetrated. Caesar attacks the beginning of the battle is described. The people of Mitylene welcome Pompey. cause. He consoles his wife. Pompey takes to flight. troops lie unburied. embalmed. and burying the bones. and Taurus. 249 847-872 BOOK VIII. and gives it to Achillas. Pamphylia. and the cavalry is repulsed. as he suspects the fidelity of the Egyptians and He is opposed by Lentulus. among whom is Domitius. The lamentations of Cornelia. 244-255. 728-786. 712-793. 617-646. where he is welcomed by the inhabitants. 456-466. It Multitudes of the is the design of Brutus to slay Caesar. Samos. Lesbos to join Cornelia. 202-243. who advises him Nnmidians. 597-616. and recommends them to take refuge with Phraates. The centre of Pompey's army offers a stronger resistance. take. Pompey comes to Larissa. a prey to birds and Poet concludes with imprecations against the scene of such horrors. His last sight of Cornelia by Septimius and Achillas. 539-560. laments the carnage. and to leave to fortune the course of He despatches Deiotarus to seek aid for his the ship. burns the body on the shore. Cornelia's Pompey answer. He commends their fidelity. Pompey goes on board He is there murdered in the for the shore. ministers of Ptolemy are in trepidation. Pompey. The Poet Cordus. commences the battle. expresses his grief and indignation. and deliberate what steps to Pothinus urges the King to slay Pompey. He arrives at Lesbos. The Poet Achillas is commissioned by Ptolemy to do so. taking Cornelia with him. 561-595. 794-872 order it is 293 . 557-585. 680-711. 551-556. The Poet Patricians are slain. The a soldier in Caesar's army. He embarks for arrives at the sea-shore in his flight. army of Pompey in flank. At night he addresses the pilot of the ship and orders him to avoid the coasts of Italy and Thessaly. 712-727. whose apprehensions are described. 86 -105. 692-711. to take refuge with Ptolemy. He leaves Lesbos. 470-475. 687-691. He follows The the advice of Lentulus. 586-596. Arriving in Cilicia he addresses his companions. 637-662. places The Poet again over them a stone with an inscription. 536 538. Rhodes.

They embark for the kingdom of . which she has brought with her. and thence looking down upon the earth inspires the breasts of Brutus and Cato. and the city of Cyrene is taken. with the remnant of Pompey's And thence to Crete and Africa. 167185. saying that fortitude. Cato delivers an oration-in praise of Pompey. the Cilician. and arrive at a spring filled with serpents. 619-658. 498 511. having escaped the Syrtes. which are then described. 411-497. 186-214. its situation is described. . The soldiers are trained to arms. forces. many of his men are killed by the serpents The complaints of the soldiers. suit of Pompey. and that Cato is indignant. persuades his soldiers to disembark and to march over the sandy desert. 319-347. where he meets the fleet of Pompey with Cornelia. having beheld the death of her husband and the funeral pile. During Cato's march. burns the vestments and arms of Pompey. but is dissuaded by Cato.Tuba. After which she has touched at Cyprus. The fleet. 965. and performs the funereal rites. the blood of the Gorgon falling on which produced the serpents. BOOK The IX. 942-949. 734-838. and the river Lethe. A description of Libya. and relates the story of Medusa. 51-116. The fortitude of Cato. 966-999. They arrive at Leptis. leaving the tomb. 215 254. impatient of delay. and by his eloquence prevails upon them to stay. 685-733. came to be thus infested with serpents. Which is sails along the Hellespont and touches at Troy. 512-543. in place of his body. 950He arrives in Egypt. 587-618. where Sextus informs his brother Cneius of their father's death. anchors off the coast of Libya. 371-410. Cato dissuades them. 881-889. where described. The Poet enters on an enquiry how Africa they drink. and the ships are separated.CONTENTS. their deaths are described. repairs to Corcyra. Cneius is desirous to proceed to Egypt. has been reluctant to leave the shores of Egypt. The Paylli assist them in their distress by sucking the poison out of their wounds. 544-563. in pur. in which were formerly the golden orchards of the Hesperides. She. The region of Tritonis is described. Cornelia having landed. The soldiers of Cato become dissatisfied. Labienus exhorts them to consult the oracle. The soldiers are tormented by thirst. Page soul of Fompey. whom Cato rebukes on which another one replies that they followed Pompey for his own sake. and not for the love of civil war. the Syrtes are described. however. . encouraged by Cato. 146 166. 24-35. Cato. at which. soars to the abodes of the Blessed. 294-299. 839-880. Cato. 890-941. the chief among the malcontents being Tarchondimotus. They proceed on their march. They arrive at the Temple of Jupiter Ammon. 348-367. And then flew in the air over Libya. 659-684. they are now desirous to return home. In the meantime Caesar. it is enough to know that a brave man ought to die with 564-586. 368-370. And how Perseus cut off her head. 1-23. 117-145. and the evils to be encountered by those who travel there. whence she has repaired to Africa to join Cato and the eldest son of Pompey. 300-318. 36-50. A tempest arises. 255-293. and wish to return home.

Collecting his soldiers. and then commands them to appease the shade of Pompey. Achoreus first combats the false notions that exist on the rise of the Nile. on the subject of the Egyptian Gods and the sources of the Nile. 332-398. Arsinoe. 1034-1108 337 1000-1033. comes to Alexandria. 104-135. sent by the king. Caesar assents. 136-171. xi Page a soldier. 444-467. Cleopatra entreats Caesar to her and her brother the of Pothinus. At the feast Caesar addresses Achoreus. to death. Caesar orders the gates to be closed. 1-19. with Achillas. 262-331. The valour of Caesar is described. And then states his own Pothinus plans the death of Caesar opinions on the subject. and the sumptuousness of the banquet. the chief priest. 399-443. The Poet inveighs against Alexander and the people of the East. In the meantime Ptolemy comes to Cassar as a hostage . Caesar. 468-484. 82-103. meets him with the head of Pompey. 510-519. against power protect The luxury of the Egyptians is described. The Poet utters maledictions against Cleopatra. 193-261. sheds tears. the younger sister of Ptolemy. Caesar takes possession of Pharos. 172-192. The palace is besieged. Ganymedes. BOOK X. although finding the people of Egypt hostile to him. 519-529. The ships of the enemy being Pothinus is put burnt. The dress and beauty of Cleopatra are depicted. and detains the king as a hostage. 61-81.CONTENTS. 20-52. slays Achillas. Caesar. 485-509. and the work concludes. actively wages the war 530-546 against Caesar. the newly-appointed general. and visits the tomb of Alexander the Great. Cleopatra also obtains admission to him by stratagem. 53-60. Achillas surrounds the palace. and reproaches Pompey's murderers. 384 . though really overjoyed.


B .LUCAN'S PHARSALIA. The luxury of Rome. 392-465. 1 however. and takes possession of Ariminum. The causes of the war. 1. frequently give the name of Emathia to Thessaly. The Poet addresses Nero. Wars more than civil) ver. 98-157. The fear of the people. which adjoined Macedonia. and entreats him to march against Rome. while another opinion is. Aruns. The reports at Rome on his approach. Prodigies then beheld are recounted. The sacrifices are productive of ill omens. Caesar crosses the Crassus. I sing. Curio. 352-385. There is some doubt as to the meaning of this expression. the Etrurian prophet. 158-182. Cassar's address to his soldiers. the compact of rule rent . Macedonia which lay between the rivers Haliacmon and Axius. that he alludes to the fact of Caesar and Pompey being not only fellow-citizens but connected by marriage. The poets. 231-260. and. A Roman matron WAKS more prophesies woe to the City. 639-672. The City is purified. than civil 1 upon the Emathian plains 2 and license conceded to lawlessness. Caesar advancing against Rome. and kindred armies engaged . his forces are enumerated. is consulted. and a powerful people turning with victorious right-hand against its own vitals. 67 The rivalry between Pompey and Caesar after the death of -97. It has been suggested that the Poet refers to the circumstance of foreign nations taking part in a warfare which had originated between the citizens of Rome . The Senators and citizens. with Pompey. 386391. The lamentable character of the warfare. Anins to the state. 1-7. 183-230. presages evil Figulus does the same. BOOK THE FIKST. Laelius encourages them. comes to Caesar's camp. 292-351. 33-66. 1. The soldiers wavering. 8-32. 2 T/te Ematkian Emathia was properly that part of plains) ver. of the inhabitants of those parts that they are the first to feel the effects of every war. 673-695. 523-583. being expelled from Rome. They consent to march against Rome. The nature of the subject. take to flight. and in which Pharsalia was situate. The complaints Rubicon. 584-638. 466-522. CONTENTS. 261-291.

19. " Pares More literally " matched.PHARSALIA. who translates " I have chosen to translate the it "pile. 19. . where too. frozen and unused to be relaxed by the spring. Romans." rium. the eagles alike -. of the sword. if 7 any there be." aquilas. . while nations are your hate. 20. 3-20. 10. He speaks of Babylon as then belonging to the Parthians. but it is generally supposed that a part of China was so called. The subject of the rise of the of Achoreus. which the Roman infantry discharged against the enemy at the commencement of the engagement. asunder '. that lies situate contiguous to the rising Nile ! ! . i. an indefinite region situate in the north-western parts of Asia . a contest waged with all the might of the shaken earth for the universal woe. 2 The T/*e eagles alike) ver. 1 The. ! 4 And. and where the mid-day intensely burns with its scorching moments . and standards meeting with hosstandards. a disaster which Had not been avenged. ." from the " comparatio" or " matching" of the gladiators at the gladiatorial games. 7. should be waged ? Alas how much of land and of sea might have been won with that self-same blood which the right-hands of fellow-citizens have shed. What madness." has the following Note here Latin word ' pilum thus nearly. Mesopotamia. compact of rule rent asunder) ver. There were rivers of this name in Armenia." he probably refers to the compact which had been originally made between the Triumvirs Pompey. and darts threatening darts citizens what lawlessness so great this." It was a javelin or dart about five feet in length. or indeed rather to keep it and make it English . 2 [B. to divide the sovereign " power among themselves. 4. has it pleased you that wars. Seres was the name given to the inhabitants of Serica. 7. "Whence Titan makes his approach." 6 The barbarian. peculiar eagles made use of here by Lucan purposely to denote the war made among themselves. and Crassus. By the use of the word regnum. in the fully treated of in the speech Tenth Book. while proud Babylon was to be spoiled of the Ausonian trophies. and the race. binds fast the icy ocean with the yoke should the Seres 5 By this beneath Scythian cold 6 by this the barbarian Araxes have come. who had recently conquered the Crassi with immense slaughter. doomed to Latian blood ? produce no triumphs. 4 Babylon teas to be spoiled) ver." Howe. Probably the first is the one here alluded to. a as were the to the because it was weapon. and Thessaly. and the shade of Crassus was wandering unavenged. Caesar. and ensigns. The great wall of China is called by Ammianus Marcellinus " Aggeres Se" The bulwarks of the Seres. Araxes) ver. the whiter. 3 And dartt threatening darts) ver. Persia. for you to shed the :l tile . "Pila. figure is derived : ' 1 Contiguous Nile is to the rising File) ver. and where the night conceals the stars. 5 Beneath the yoke should the Seres) ver.

are approved. in the neighbourhood of Cordova. as the First Book was evidently written under very different political feelings from the latter ones . in which he takes every opportunity of indirectly censuring the tyrant. 36. 21-41." the fortifications falling away. the eldest. :i . let Pharsalia fill her ruthless plains. not as yet has a foe been wanting to thee. . to no sword has it been allowed to penetrate the vitals. on these conditions. defeated the sons of Pompey with the loss of 30. 30. i. do we complain crimes themselves. two of the most terrible enemies of Rome. when thou hast subjected the whole earth to Latian laws. 1 Pyrrhus. and that hands are wanting not thou.B. and but few inhabitants are wandering amid the ancient cities. where Juba sided with the partisans of Pompey. and lawlessness. or war between the Gods and the Giants. . He alludes to the Gigantomachia. that Hesperia has remained unsightly with brambles and unploughed for many a year.000 men. 3 Wars of the raging Giants) ver. He alludes to Pyrrhus. But if the Fates have decreed no other way 8 for Nero to succeed. By this expression he either intends a compliment or to the prowess of the * At to the fame of Caesar and Pompey individually. It is. Home. fierce Pyrrhus. according to some. and. PHAESAL1A. and the houses are occupied by no protector. and heaven could only obey its own Thunderer then in no degree. for the fields requiring them nor yet the Carthaginian 1 will prove the cause of ruin so great. 40. deep-seated are the wounds of the fellow-citizen's right hand. . was slain there. vast stones are lying there. and at a costly price eternal realms are provided for the Gods. if so great thy love for an accursed warfare. turn thy hands against thyself. and Hannibal the Carthaginian. 45. B 2 . The Poet alludes in the preceding line to the war carried on in the north of Africa. more probable that it is intended in a spirit of adulation . king of Epirus. O after the wars of the raging Giants Gods above. 2 Have decreed no other way) ver. Roman people. or. nor yet the Carthaginian) ver.C. in the year B. Cneins. and let the shades of the Carthaginians be sated with blood let the hosts meet for the last To these destined wars. however.] 3 Then. But now that the walls are tottering with the dwellings half overthrown throughout the cities of Italy. Munda was a village of Spain near tearful Mwnda) ver. One of the Scholiasts thinks that this is said in bitter irony against the Emperor Nero. Malaga. 33. time at tearful Munda 4 . where Caesar. Caesar.

and to thy free choice will nature leave it what God thou shalt wish to be. since for thy sake these events have come to pass. off Mylae. 7 Some of the SchoObliquely thou mayst look upon Rome) ver. 41. 65. the brother of the Triumvir. sieged there relieve him. 3 a Alarmed at the change of the sun) ver. 46. Which nigged Leucadia overwhelmed) Ter. the famine of Perusia and the struggles of Mutina 2 be 3 added. 36. too. when the world was set in flames. or whether to ascend the flaming chariot of Phoebus. 43. till he was compelled by famine to surrender. preferred by thee. where a vast number of slaves had ranged under his banners. When. Antonius. whence with 7 thy star obliquely thou mayst look upon Rome . B. 4 [B. flattery than we could expect from a Poet whose works breathe the intense spirit of liberty to be found in the latter books of this Poem. This lengthened siege gave occasion to that campaign being called The famine of Perusia) ria. If thou 1 let 1 ver. Ai to the disaster of Phaeton. shall receive thee 5 . defeat of Seztus. Nero prided himself upon his skill as a charioteer.PHAESALIA. now Modena. in the Sicilian seas. which rugged Leucadia overwhelmed . He was first defeated by Agrippa. 41. the skies rejoicing . nor where the sultry sky of the south behind us declines . at the commencement of the Second Book. 49. still. see the Metamorphoses of Ovid. 4 He alludes to the Servile wars beneath the lurning JEtna) ver. a seaport between Mylse and Pelorum in Sicily. Decimus Brutus being bein the years B. the palace of heaven." 2 And Mutina.C. 43. s This is more abject The palace of heaven shall receive thee) ver. the son-in-law of Augustus. where But do thou to establish the sovereignty of the world. 41-56. I. He probably alludes to the disastrous result of Phaeton guiding the chariot of the Sun.C. Keference is made to the sea fight at Actium near the isle of Leucas or Leucadia. the He alludes to the siege of struggles of Mutina) ver. thou shalt late repair to the stars. 44. and not improbably the Poet intends here to flatter him on his weak point. thy allotted duties fulfilled. by every Divinity will it be yielded unto thee. much does Eome owe to the arms of her citizens. by Marc Antony. Perusia was an ancient city of EtruL. and the servile wars beneath the burning ^Etna^. and with thy wandering fire to survey the earth. neither choose thy abode in the Arctic circle. . off the coast of Acarnania. in which Augustus defeated Antony and Cleopatra. 44. the fleets. the son of Poinpey. the Consuls Hirtius and Pansa hastened to and perished in battle under its walls. " Bellum Perusinum. hi no way alarmed at the change of the sun . and was besieged by Augustus for several months. and again off Naulochus. whether it please thee to wield the sceptre. took refuge here.

4 Withdraw Bacchus from Nysa) ver. mingled constellations fiery stars shall fall into the deep faith shall refuse to extend her shores. situate on Mount Parnassus. it is not improbable that it is the one here re- cities sacred to ferred to. ' My design leads me) ver. and the denial to what is supreme to be of long duration the heavy fall. 1 Will be sensible of the burden) ver. . the last hour shall have closed so many ages of the universe. 5 design leads me to recount the causes of events so My and a boundless task is commenced upon what it what that was that impelled a frantic people to arms drove away Peace from the world. One was in India. near Delphi. and Boeotia. He alludes to the Temple of Janus. all things shall return once more to former chaos constellations shall rush on against great. . cient art thou to supply inspiration for Roman song. " fert animus. 57. would have this word obliquum. no ground for this notion. Caria. that satirical allusion is here made to the fatness of Nero. Another was in ^Ethiopia. . the same expression. arms laid aside. 62. may Peace. ' fancying that all this is said in irony. sacred to Apollo. a bard. 64. . if I. The others were in As the latter was. 67. the 1 Keep thy weight in sky will be sensible of the burden the mid sphere of the balanced heavens may all that part of the (Ether with sky serene be free from mist. and may all nations love one another. like Cyrrha. eye. who is here referred to. . which was shut in time of peace. . Then." The Metamorphoses of Ovid begin with . beneath a weight too great and Rome that could not support herself. . . Divinity and. 2 sent throughout the world. keep close the iron thresholds But to myself already art thou a of the warlike Janus. So when. I could not wish to invoke the God who moves the mystic shrines 3 and to withdraw Bacchus from Nysa"1 of Cirrha Suffi. which is also supposed to have been called Dionysopolis. receive thee in my breast. 2 Keep close the iron thresholds) ver.' 'sidelong. . and shall cast away th? ocean Phoebe shall come into collision with her bro. Thrace. and may no clouds interpose before Caesar.' or 'oblique/ to refer to the squint or cast observable in Nero's There seems. 65. The envious course of the Fates. Nysa was the name of several Bacchus. Cirrha was a town of Phocis. situate on Mount Parnassus. its structure dissolved. . PHAKSALIA. The same Scholiasts think liasts. too. may the human race consult its own good. Cappadocia.B. 3 The mystic shrines of Cirrha) ver. 56-77. i.] 5 shouldst press upon one side of the boundless aether. however.

Mighty things fall of themselves this limit to increase have the Deities assigned to a prosperous state. 95. discordant. i. Thou. 6. will confuse the ties of the universe rent asunder. "The earth did not as yet hang in the surrounding air. Nor yet to the advantage of any other nations does Fortune turn her hate against a people all-powerful by land and hy sea. Caesar." * He alludes to the death of Steeped with a brother'* blood) ver. why does it please you to unite your strength and to share the world in common ? While the earth shall support the sea. Remus. nor let the examples of t his the rising walls of Rome fatality be sought from afar were steeped with a brother's blood 4 Nor was the earth and the ocean then the reward of frenzy so great an humble . 85. By this arrangement Pod^ey had Spain and Africa. Ovid. . . 77-97. He alludes to the first Triumvirate or compact secretly made between Pompey. and all power will be impatient of a sharer. that he was slain by Celer. becoming the common 1 the fatal compact 2 too. wast the cause of thy own woes. 1. and. * An humble retreat) ver. iv. fore . and the whole mechanism. disdaining to guide her two-horsed chariot hi its sidelong course. disastrously concordant. 11." he probably alludes to the whole of the spot on which Rome then stood. retreat 5 brought into collision its lords. however.PHARSALIA. 90. in the Fasti. Crassus Syria. ." Under the name " asylum. B. fatal in its consequences. i. B. . 85. and the air the earth". except in the disastrous times of Sulla and Marius. will demand the day for herself . 3 And the air the earth) ver. 1 The common property of three masters) ver. and blinded by desires too great." the Romans having hitherto. sway successfully ye. His offence was the contempt which he displayed in leaping over the walls of infant Rome. 839. "The sovereign sway divided among several. 6 [u. feralia foedera regni !" The meaning is. . was slain by the hand of his brother Romulus . ther. for property of three masters never entrusted to a number. Roma- . according to some. 97. no faith is there hi partners hi rule. Ovid has a very similar passage in the Metamorphoses. while Caesar's government over Gaul was prolonged 8 for five years. 1. " Asylum. and night shall -succeed the day through signs as many. one of the followers of Romulus. And believe not any nations. " Nee nmqnam In turbam missi too) ver. says. and Crauus to share the Roman power between them. and a thing never successfully done beThe fatal compact. from the period when the kings ceased to reign. and his long courses shall whirl on Titan in his career. 1. been governed by the laws of the Republic. balanced by its own weight. Rome. who.

the land. 53. She died B. Just as the narrow Isthmus 1 which cleaves and divides the two seas. which some writers state to have been a Seneca says that Caesar was in son. it seems that. cut off by the ruthless hand 4 of the Destinies 5 bore away to the shades below the ties of allied blood. if the earth were to withdraw. but was married to Pompey. it skirted the Capitolium. died a few days after. nor yet allows them to meet barely together . The sway is cut asunder by the sword . the 2Egean on the east. Lachesis. the Haran of Scripture. B. not far from Edessa. she was devotedly attached to him. Literally. More. and the marriage . The kings of Parthia were called Arsacicke from Arsaces. and said to. From a passage in the Fasti of Ovid.C. which connects the Peloponnesus with the main land.B. and her only child. 54. running down to the banks of the Tiber. Crassus. This was a name of the Fates or Destinies. he became their first monarch. . " of the Parcae. 98-113. Britain at the time of Julia's death. was a city of Osroene in Mesopotamia. who kept asunder the ruthless arms of the chieftains.C. 113. 105. so. 1. he headed a revolt of the Parthians against Antiochus II. B. brook not two leaders. Carrhae or Carrae. have been a mountain robber. 67. 101. was the sole impediment to the destined war.] PHARSALIA. which 1 being successful.C.C. the Parthian misfortunes let loose the frenzy of Home. Clotho. B. cut off by tJie ruthless hand) ver. betrothed to Servilius Caepio. Just as the narrow Isthmus) ver. 3 Stained Assyrian Carrhee) ver. the whole earth. . and Atropos. through no inclination of the chieftains. civil warfare you conferred upon the conquered. and has the Ionian Sea on the west. 3 Ye descendants of Arsaces) v." Of the Destinies) ver. Crassus was slain in battle there with the Parthians. the founder of the Parthian empire. and his only child in marriage. 108. that he might thereby augment the number of his own-citizens. and the fortunes of a powerful people. He alludes to the Isthmus of Corinth. 59. 250 B. and received a shock which proved fatal to her on believing him to have been slain in a popular tumult. Julia was the daughter of She was Julius Caesar by his wife Cornelia. interposing. . 113. the Ionian would dash itself against the JEgean main . 1. Though she was twenty-three years younger than Pompey. hy a fate much to be deplored stained Assyrian Carrhse 2 with Latian blood.. which embrace the sea. He was a perAbout son of obscure origin. For Julia. 4 Julia. lus constituted a grove near the Tiber a place of refuge for the slaves and criminals of neighbouring states." 4 " Parcarum. ye descendants of Arsaces 3 was effected by you in that battle than you suppose . ii. when Crassus. 7 The discordant concord lasted for a short time and peace For there was. some a daughter. In later times the Asylum was walled in.

1. to join the armed hands. just as the Sabine Avomen. 3 He Laurels gained from tJie pirates should be eclipsed by) ver. Neither can Caesar now endure any one his superior. who is made the hero of the Ninth Book. the sword dashed down. united the sons-in-law with the fathers-in-law. interposing 3 ." Goddess ing especial veneration to * This passage does not at all It is not permitted us to know) ver. 8 [B. By thy death . . 112. 118. " Taedae" were the marriage torches borne before the bride when -being led to her husband's house. p. in which the latter books are written . Magnus. but the conquered one to Cato . 126. 122. 1 torches with direful omen. 1 And tlie marriage torches) ver." he means that her marriage torch was ominously soon supplanted by the torch which lighted her funeral pile." Caesar was in the habit of payAnd Fortune) ver. and those gained by Pompey over the Cilician pirates. . 128. and whom Pompey had defeated with a fleet of 500 ships. and Fortune 4 that cannot brook a second place. Casar." throughout the work calls Pompey by his surname of " 4 Fortuna. and. 201. iii. Thou. i. Who with the more justice took 3 each one defends up arms it is not permitted us to know himself with a mighty abettor. " Magnus. and while the Poet was still enjoying the favour of Nero. who had been carried off by Romulus and his Romans. nor Pompey any one his equal. See the Translation in Bohn's Classical Library. 113-128. 124. art afraid lest recent exploits should eclipse former triumphs. between their relatives and their husbands. does the continuance of thy labours and thy experience gained by tliem now elevate. 3 As tlie Sabine women interposing) ver. the conquering cause was 6 pleasing to the Gods. who had swarmed in vast numbers in the MediterraThe Poet nean. when about to engage in mortal combat. tliou alone hadst been able to restrain on the one side the husband and on the other the parent. B. and license granted to the chieftains to commence the warfare. It is not improbable that this book was written several years before the latter ones. But if the Fates had allowed thee a longer sojourn in life. The story is prettily told by Ovid in the Fasti. and the laurels gained from the pirates should be eclipsed by 3 the conquest of the Gauls thee. . is friendship rent asunder. By the use of the word " feralia. et seq. This is a great compliment to Cato. " the Fortune. portentous of woe. He was the great-grandson of Cato the Censor. and was doubtless the most virtuous of all the illustrioug Romans of his day.PHARSALIA. alludes to the victories of Caesar in Gaul. 97. alludes to the laurel crown with which Pompey would be grated when proIt may be here remarked that the Poet ceeding in triumph to the Capitol. TJie ambition of rivalry adds its spur. 6 But the conquered one to Cato) ver. He alludes to the reconciliation effected by the Sabine women. where every with the correspond spirit possible invective as a tyrant and murderer is unsparingly lavished upon Caesar.

i. and principally to rely upon his former successes. strength afresh. Togse. compares Pompey.] PHARSALIA. and was large enough to accommodate 40. 3 To confer many a " dare" he alludes to the on the Roman 4 "Dare multa.C. forms a shade and although it threatens to fall at the first eastern blast. since which time. to an oak. and. and the fame of the general but a valour that knew not how to rest in one place. 131." which Magnus. and fights of wild beasts. " " alludes here to Pompey's title or surname of Great. with upon . which bears the spoils 6 of an ancient people and the consecrated gifts of chieftains. He alludes to the theatre of a theatre his own) ver. 9 Nor did they meet on equal terms . . It was opened with scenic representations. It was built in the Campus Martins." By the word largess) ver." or was given to him by the Roman people after he had conquered Domitius Ahenobarbus and Hiarbas in Sicily. 135. It was the first one of stone there erected. Five hundred lions were killed. with his years tending downward to old age. solely to he wafted on by the popular gales. But in Csesar not only was there a name as great. in the isle of Lesbos. 5 The Poet probably Stood the shadow of a glorious name) ver. 133. He was only six years older than Caesar. he had been unused to active warfare. and to exult in the applause of a theatre his own 4 not to recruit his 1 . " " of the 1 Of the arts of peace) ver. and the gladiatorial shows which he exhibited. 137." Literally toga.000 spectators. 6 Tliat bears the spoils) ver. Applause which Pompey built at Rome. and a rhinoceros exhibited for the first time. the one. is fixed by its own weight.B. enriched the spoil of nations and the rewards of his fellow-citizens. largesses of corn which Pompey plentifully bestowed populace. He which a trophy has been erected composed of spoils and gifts. 2 In tranquillity forgotten the general) ver. an aspirant for fame. and trees so many around it lift themselves with firmly-rooted strength. with its trunk. and grown tranquil amid a long practice of the arts of peace'. 129-147. 133. hi a fertile field. for a period of fourteen years. and a shame only felt at not conquering in : . still it alone is venerated. There stood the shadow of a glorious name 5 just as the lofty oak. and eighteen elephants were hunted. Plutarch informs us that Pompey did not use that name himself till he was appointed to the command against Sertorius in Spain." This was the robe or gown worn by the Roman citizens in domestic life. gladiatorial combats. and sending forth its bared branches into the air. had now in tran2 quillity forgotten the general. 62. Pompey triumphed over Mithridates B. had been wont to confer upon the public many a largess' . 130. now no longer standing fast by its firm roots. and not its leaves. on the model of one at Mytilene.

He alludes to M. . 164. and to press on his own never to spare fleshing his sword war. it sends vast. disdained the tables of former tunes . and collects again its scattered fires. who was said to hare been taken from the plough to He died of the plague. advantages. the world subdued." 4 Ploughshare of Camillna) ver. and the manners gave way before prosperity. ready to lead his troops whither hope and whither vengeance should summon. no moderation was there in gold or hi houses . Furius Camillus. manly spirits. both falling. too. and which had submitted to the ancient mattocks of the Curii '. and triumphed over the Samnites. vast devastation far and wide. and returning. He probably alludes to the use " of multitia. 10 [B. lead his fellow-citizens against the enemy.PHARSALIA. lay far and wide beneath the charge of husbandmen unknown to their employers. and booty and the spoils of the enemy induced luxurious habits . 2 The males seized hold upon) ver. L 147-170. the males seized hold upon po3 fruitful in men was and was that fetched shunned. He means that as the lightnings rage amid the clouds and the air. and rejoicing amid ruin to have made his way. 155. Cornelius llufinus. no matter impeding its going forth. but there were public grounds for the warfare. B. hunger. Just as the lightning forced by the winds through the clouds flashes forth with the echoes of the riven aether and with a crash throughout the universe. the Roman Dictator. Against temples tit own) ver. dazzling the It rages against temples its eyes with its sidelong flame. Then did they join the lengthened boundaries of the fields.C. to rely on the favour of the Deity ." certain thin garments and silken textures which had been recently introduced into Home. Fortune introduced wealth too great. and terrifies the alarmed nations. which have ever overwhelmed mighty nations. bearing down whatever opposed himself as he sought the summit. He alludes to Marius Curius Dentatus." In the sense of " 3 Fruitful in men) ver. These were the motives secretly existing with the chieftains . own 1 . . verty from the entire earth by means of which each nation falls. their own realms. and overwhelms the light of day. and. 165. \Vhen their . 168. 169. 365. and the extended lands once turned up by the hard ploughshare of Camillus 4 . who held the Consulship with P. " Virorum. For when. so Caesar displayed hit warlike fury among his own fellow-citizens. * Mattocks of the Curii) ver. Fierce and unrestrained. dresses hardly suitable 2 for the matrons to wear. and enabled the Ro1 mans to withstand Fyrrhus.

180. and Tribunes confounding their Hence the Fasces 2 snatched up at rights with Consuls. J. 178. its Thence whom 11 tranquil peace might own liberty might satisfy with arms unarose ready broils. and the contemptible wickedness which poverty could prompt." These. he could not be conquered by money. On his march from Gaul to Italy. and the great honor. 3 The venal Plain of Mars) ver. the mighty image of his trembling country distinctly appeared to the chieftain hi the darkness of the night. and . and the word is frequently used to denote the office itself. who had nothing to lose. 182. 185. Laws and decrees of the people) ver." were passed at the " Comitia Tributa. hence laws and decrees of the people 1 constrained. whom moved. they found him at work in his field. a price. PHARSALIA. or that named Pisatello at the present day. too. invincible in the He died B. with an inscription importing that whoever should pass in arms into the Roman territory would be deemed an enemy to the state. and warfare profitable to the many 4 Now had Caesar in his course 5 passed the icy Alps.] This was not the people avail. to have been able to do more than one's own country. on the rogation of a Tribune. At Rome the " leges." or meetings of the tribes. 185. and canvassing fatal to the city. This was a small river between Caesenum and Ariminum. in the north of Italy. . bearambassadors came with the intention of bribing him. and credit shaken. which were formed of a bundle of rods inclosing an axe. Ccesar in his course) ver. he told them that he would rather be the ruler of the rich than be rich himself. revolved in his mind the vast commotions and the future war. It is said that on the bank of this river a pillar was placed by a decree of the Senate. 270." or decrees of the people. namely." or " laws " were " " approved by the Senate . and one worthy to be sought with the sword. "Fasces. 171-187. The leaves of tlie little Rubicon) ver. He alludes to the elections of the Eoman magistrates in the Campus Martius at Rome. and in answer to their solicitations. * s Profitable to the many) ver.B. 176. while the plebiscita. hence devouring usury. It is uncertain whether it was the stream called Lusa. When he had arrived at the waves of the little Eubicon 6. and that. bringing round the annual contests on the venal Plain of Mars'6 . which was Caesar's province. It was the ancient boundary of Gaul. were the insignia of the Consular dignity . and interest greedy for each moment. falling into the Adriatic. * Hence the Fasces) ver. might.C. and the system of bribery by which the suffrages of the people were purchased. Those. field. It is said to have received its name from the red (rubri) stones with which it abounded. and the populace itself the vendor of its own applause. Lucan here al' ludes to the corrupt and venal manners of the Eoman people at this period. was the measure of right.

199. ing marks of extreme sadness on her features. until it was removed from Alba to Rome by Numa. He alludes to Jupiter Capiwhose temple was on the Capitoline hill. and to have been founded by Ascanius. mingled with sighs " Whither beyond this do you proceed ? Whither. with her long locks dishevelled. i. . O my designs ! With no fatal arms am I pursuing thee . the son of . and its inhabitants were removed to Rome. 187-201. from the Sabine Some suppose it to have originated in the Sabine word " curis. and thou. Thunderer. 196. who dost look down) ver. Alba Longa was said to be the most ancient town in Latium. standing with her arms all bare. Soon he exclaims. Quirites to lament. ii. he is represented " Forbid the as saying. of Quirinus borne away 4 of Latium. through their agent Julius Proculus they spread the report that he had been taken up to heaven. 3 and Jove cret mysteries. according to Dionysius of Haliearnassus. do you bear my standards ? If rightfully you come." Who dost reside in lofty Alba) ver. was said to have been the ancestor of the Julian Jupiter had a temple. his son. was built on the mountain of Alba by Ascanius. It is not improbable that he was slain by his nobles. . and let the multitude pay adoration to Quirinus. their new God. Let them offer me frankincense. a part of which was called the Tarpeian rock. It derived its name of Longa from its extending in a long line down the Alban mount toward the Alban lake. favour . the capital of Phrygia. which family. from the virgin Tarpeia. 1. and was there worshipped The holy Are sacred to Vesta was under the name of Jupiter Latialis. and let them not offend my Godhead with their tears. 197. 12 [B. said to have been brought from Troy by J2neas. equal to a supreme Deity. Lucan here alludes to the mysterious manner in which Romulus disspear. Romulus. Rome.PHARSALIA. of which Julius Caesar was a member./Eneas. and uttering these uvrds. who was killed and buried there. derived. 197. first preserved there. He alludes to the sacred fire which was tended by the Vestal virgins in the Temple of Vesta. my4 father's arts and warfare. Penates or household gods from the flames of Troy." Then did horror smite the limbs of the chieftain. and let them practise 1 tnlinus. who dost reside in lofty Alba and ye Vestal hearths 5 . * JJneas rescued his Phrygian Penates of the Julian race) ver. if as citizens. too. his hair stood on end. 3 Quirinus was a name of Mysteries of Quirinus lome away) ver. 198. ye men. and ye Phrygian Penates of the Julian race ye se: . 4 And ye Vestal hearths) ver. who dost look down ' upon the walls of the mighty city from the Tarpeian 2 rock. thus far you may. 505. lo ! Thunderer. letting loose the white hair from her tower-bearing head. It was totally destroyed by Tullus Hostilins." a language. Ascanius or lulus. B. and that appeared. In the Fasti of Ovid. and a languor that checked his course withheld his steps on the verge of the " O bank.

and through the lowly vales it creeps along. From a small spring rises the ruddy Rubicon. " Here. careless of wounds so great. and. I. 220. where (if only it still. reached the opposite banks. and the violated laws behind . and swifter than the hurled ! . . First of all the charger 3 is opposed obliquely to the stream. ' Sonipes. crouches undecided until he collects all his fury soon as he has aroused himself by the lashings of his infuriate tail. At that time winter 1 gave it strength. and has raised his mane erect. Fortune. separates from the Ausonian husbandmen the Gallic fields. Just as when in the parched plains of sultry Libya a lion. do I follow henceforth. . the conqueror I. is impelled with humble waves.] here am by land and hy sea. 217. 201-230. and swiftly bore the standards through the swollen stream." said he. or the hunting spears enter his broad chest. pierces him." Thus having said. " Tertia Cynthia" is probably the third night after the change of the moon. hurled. if the light lance of the Moor. ! . when fervid summer glows. his enemy perceived at hand. the stream easy ford.B. a fixed boundary. . PHARSALIA. across the When Csesar. the active leader in the shades of night hurries on his troops. surmounted. " here do I leave peace. 1 At that time winter) ver. who shall make Caesar. thee. * The charger) ver. then. 218. he rushes on. Caesar passed the Rubicon at the end of the month of January. and stood upon the forbidden fields of Hesperia . and from his vast throat the loud roar re-echoes . far hence be treaties The Destinies have we trusted War as our umpire we must adopt. ' With her Hunted horn for the third time) ver. he the guilty one. and. He will it " me 13 is thy foe Then did he end the respite from the warfare. everypermitted me) thine own soldier even be. now broken in its course. The passage seems to menn that it had mined three nights (and probably days) successively." is the name generally used by Lucan when he speaks of the charger or war-horse." " sounding hoof. and now the showery Cynthia with her blunted horn for the 2 third tiime had swollen the waves. to bear the brunt of the floods . amid the weapons. and the Alps were thawed by the watery blasts of the eastern breeze. then the rest of the throng bursts through the pliant waves of the river.

268. * The Gauls for tiieir neighbours) ver. The Baleares were islands " in the Me- " and were called Major" and Minor . 230-249. then by the Senonian Gauls. clouds obscured the saddened light. aroused from their beds. they grew chilled with alarm. Caesar informs us in his account of the Civil War." their present names Majorca and Minorca. and the arrow 2 shot and threatening he surthe behind.C. . B. they laid hold of shields decaying with the frames now bare. hoarse-sounding and. and the Koman standards. and that here he met the Tribunes who had fled to him from Rome for protection. stars fled from the fires of the sun. or whether the murky south wind impelled them. left [B. and Csesar mounted aloft was beheld hi the midst of the ranks. 248. 1. When in the captured Forum the soldier halted. with the Gauls for their neighbours : ! 1 Of the Balearic sling) ver. that he took possession of this place with the 13th legion. Rubicon. He surprises Ariminum) city of TJmbria. The Parthians were filmed for the dexterity with which they used the bow when retreating on horseback at the swiftest speed. and darts with blunted points. whence the Roman and Carthaginian armies. bited . people was broken. now called Rimini.. Ariminum was originally inhaby the Umbrians. will of the Gods. when it was colonized from Rome. icy dread bound fast their limbs. Lucifer .PHARSALIA. 230. 238. 14 of charge the Balearic 1 sling behind the back of the Parthian Ariminum 3 prises . which a prolonged peace still afforded . the youth snatched down the arms fixed up near the hallowed Penates. 229. 8. 231. and now arose the day doomed Whether by the to behold the first outbreak of the war. i. Ariminum. 4 The ill-omened signals) ver. commanded to pitch his standard. off the coast of Spain. was a on the coast of the Adriatic. When the well-known eagles glittered. who were expelled by the Romans in the year B. and swords rough with the cankering of swarthy rust. about nine miles south of the The Via Flaminia and the Via JEmilia led to it from Rome. Caesar took possession of it immediately after passing the Rubicon. Their inhabitants were noted for their great skill in the use of the sling. the clash of clarions and the clang of trum4 pets sounded the ill-omened signals together with the of The rest the horn. 2 The arrow) yer. c. and they revolved these silent " O walls ill complaints within their speechless breasts 5 O walls founded. and were much employed in diterranean. Because sounding the note of civil war. these. as being a spot from which he could conveniently direct his operations against Etruria and Picenum. 3 ver.

And wandering abodes) ver. the City except the Capitol. . were the first to behold the commotions of the Senones 2 . and under the icy north. Migrating south with the Teutoni and Ambrones. and by Marius and Catulus at the battle of Cainpi Raudii. dwelling near the Sequana or Seine.C. and the greater part of them destroyed by the Consul Dolabella. the fields are silent. and to live in waggons. Forfirst encampment for these thus frenzied. 255. 3 T/ie Cimbrian. The Cimbri are supposed to have originally inhabited the Chersonesus Cimbrica. which they ravaged in all directions. 218 Sempronius directed his legions distinguished part. wouldst thou have afforded an abode in an eastern 1 clime. we are the prey and the ! Far better. * The commotions of the Senones) ver. they took up their abode on the borders of the Adriatic. 4 And the hosts of Libya) ver. 400. 254. in the second of which Ariminum played a In the year B. Light has now dispelled the cold shades of night . lo the Fates supply to his wavering mind the torches of war and inducements provoking to battle. posed to their first attacks. As oft as Fortune aims a blow at Eome. too) ver. this is the passage for the warfare. or Jutland. We .] condemned repose is 15 to a hapless site Profound peace and tranquil there throughout all nations. Of course Ariminum. and penetrating to the south. but in the same degree in which. Under the name of " Mars Libyes" he alludes to the Punic wars. ! . when the winter keeps in the birds. 253. and discovers pretexts for his arms. part of their people passed into Italy by way of the Alps about B. 390. The Senonian Gauls were ' ing of the life A originally from Gallia Lugdunensis. He alludes either to the wanderNumidian tribes or of the Scythians. i. and throughout that war it from its was one of the points to which the greatest importance commanding position. all Marching against Rome they took They were finally subdued by the Romans. who were said to move from place to place. not venturing to express his alarm aloud no voice was entrusted to anguish . and the hosts of Libya 4 .C. near Verona. the Cimbrian 3 too.C. and wandering abodes rather than to have to protect the threshold of Latium. being at the very verge of Italy. thither in order to oppose Hannibal in Cisalpine Gaul . rushing on. 254. tune. would be ex- 283. B. after expelling the Umbrians. 249-265. .B. They repulsed several Roman armies with great slaughter. was attached . they overran Gaul. thus profound was the silence. 101.C.C. B. and the mid ocean without a murmur is still." Thus with a secret sigh spoke each. PHARSALIA. and the career of the Teutonic rage. but were ultimately defeated by Caius Marius near Aquae Sextiae (now Aix) in Gaul. and rend asunder all the pauses of moderation Fortune struggles that the movements of the chieftain shall be justified. B.

according to some. 271. level at or. 3 The Gracchi leing throvm. in the famous words." This man sold his country for gold. Curio proposed that Pompey should do the same. and. 275. Csesar. 269. the Tribunes of the people. the year of his Tribuneship came to a close. . t?ith the loiter classes) ver. another five years. the same Caesar offered to lay down but the party of the latter would listen to no proposals for an accommodation. the daring Curio. Pompey would do 266. he abandoned him and joined Caesar. This the Poet considers to be unfortunate. and to reduce them to a private It is supposed by some that Curio is the person referred to by Virgil station. who reminded them very significantly of the conduct and fate of the Gracchi. with hit venal tongue) ver. He takes to himself the credit of having obtained for Csasar a prolongation of his government of * On Gaul for a. 266-276. They both met with violent deaths at different periods. " While. although against the will of the Senate. By his eloquence he was able to counteract the ambition of great men. 267. When the Senate demanded that Caesar should lay down his command before coming While he into the city. 3 The. He first belonged to the party of Pompey. for which reason their names became bywords for sedition and violence. on the understanding that he would pay off all his liabilities. " Vendidit hie auro pa" triam. . and to support the laws of his country. expelled from the divided city the differing Tribunes \ the Gracchi being thrown in their teeth 2 These now repairing to the standards of the chieftain moving onward and in their vicinity. inasmuch as it would consequently appear that Caesar marched towards Rome for no other reason than to preserve the privileges of the Tribunes. on which they escaped from the city by night. fearing for his own safety. 16 [u. disguised like slaves. daring Curio. Quintus Cassius Longinus. and to place armed potentates on a level with the lower classes 4 And when he beheld the chieftain revolving his various cares in his breast. then did we prolong thy rule 5 so long as I had . i. with his venal tongue 3 accompanies. ventured to speak boldly in behalf of Caesar. and fled to Caesar at Ariminnm. in their teeth) ver. againat the Patricians of Rome. the law violated. and Marc Antony." 4 Then did we prolong/ thy rule) ver. . thy party could be aided by my voice. at Ravenna. C. . and that had dared to defend liberty. in the sixth Book of the JKncid. but having run deeply into debt. but were violently censured by the Consuls Marcellus and Lentulus. The threatening Senate. and threatened them with a similar end. he fled from the city and joined Caesar Ariminum . was opposing the party of Pompey in the Senate. a voice that once was the people's.PHARSALIA. 1 Expelled command the differing Tribunes} ver. he said. Tiberius and Caius Gracchus devoted their public career to asserting the rights of the Plebeians his if . Scribonius Curio was an orator of great natural talents.

" or Rostra) ver." The original mean- " to " lustrum luo. support. " The risk and labour are equal to those you encountered in the Gallic war. the stage in the Forum at Rome. The Rostra were transferred by Julius Caesar to another part of the Forum. from which the Orators addressed the populace." Vetera. 282. Throughout his " the " poem. alone thou mayst possess it." and " " the son-in-law. the daughter of Caesar." ! .B." father-in-law. " " The Beaks. 289. The marriage Ponipey gener. we were driven from our paternal homes. from 1 To occupy name given to the which time the spot where the ancient Rostra had stood was called " Rostra " Rostra " Rostra Julia. strengthened with no again." while the other was styled the Nova. Rome for thee will subdue the world " Now neither does the procession of the lengthened 5 triumph receive thee returning. The Gallic campaigns of Caesar extended over a period of ten years. and to bring over to thee the wavering Quirites." or 2 Are sought for a greater reward) ver. " " " Geminis lustris. It was so called from having been adorned with " the "rostra." relatively to each other. Cankering envy denies thee everything. the factions are still in doubt. I. coerced by warfare. at the end of every five years. or four years according to the Julian Calendar. 286." ing of the word (which was derived from or "atone for." of Pompey to Julia. away with delay it always injures men prepared to procrastinate. . 283. "a purifying sacrifice.") was. Equal labours and anxieties are being sought for a greater reward 2 Gaul has kept thee engaged in war for twice five years 3 a portion If with a happy result thou hast of the earth how trifling J fought a few battles." was the Eostra. has been previously referred to.] 17 the liberty to occupy the Eostra *. But after the laws." or " beaks of the ships of war taken from the Antiates. . 27. " in conquering Rome you will have conquered the world." cleanse. were dumb. 4 Rome for thee will subdue the world) ver. 275. PHARSALIA. and of our own accord we endured exile t is thy victory will ' ." 5 He alludes to the unProcession of (fa lengthened triumph) ver. Meaning. Thou canst not share the earth . just refusal which Caesar had met with when he demanded a triumph for his in Gaul. people by finishing Roman people." offered in behalf of the whole one of after the census or review of the the Censors. 285. nor does the Capitol demand the consecrated laurels. make us citizens While." 3 For twice five years) ver. but the reward will be far greater. and hardly wilt thou escape with impunity having subdued the foe it is the determination of the son-in-law to deprive the father-in-law 6 of the sway. conquests a The son-in-law to deprive the father-in-law) ver. Lucan generally styles Caesar socer.6-291. That is to say. ! ! .

shed in the regions of the north. 311. too. and the Gods are summoning us to the mastery. He alludes to the coursers in the chariot races at the Olympic games. 294. were simultaneously opened by the aid of men and The " carceres " were ropes. anger still. in recent years grown unused to warfare. when Fortune acts with me hi prospering circumstances. than if the Punic Hannibal were descending from the Alps. hi the same degree as the Elean courser is urged on by the shouts although. Let him come to the 4 war. was called " manipularis. and headForthwith he summons the armed long loosens the bolts. enfeebled by prolonged peace with his so his soldiery hastily levied. The "carceres" were vaults at the end of the race-course. 1 Elean courser it urged on by the shouts) ver. 2 The starting place closed) ver. has your blood. was assigned as a standard. is . maniples to the standards. he has well calmed their hurrying tumultuousness. in the Peloponnesus. 296. now in the tenth year that you have conquered. on the signal being given. a " manifor the purposes of a standard. toga-clad partisans." as forming a handful)." 3 In the early times of the the armed maniples) ver. which." and the soldier." fastened with repagula. much 1 . and had inflamed the chieftain. and if the fierce nations of the Gauls had been rushing close on our backs ? Now. who together with me have experienced the thousand hazards of battle." or wisp hand. and the chariots came forth. - :f : ! and every forest is falling Csesar ordered to be expelled. " " " manum implere. and wounds and death. Pompey. [B. we are challenged. bad thus spoken. 295. as a Sumnnont Koman member 4 state a of it. and hence in time " the company itself obtained the name of manipulus.PHAKSAL1A. the starting 2 place now closed he struggles against the door. the multitudes collecting. with his countenance and his right hand he enjoins silence " " " O companions in war he exclaims. and are being filled . "ready for starting. " " bars or " bolts. deserved this. the chieftain." The chieftain. and when. closed by gates of open woodwork. With stout recruits the cohorts though eager already for the war. . and had aroused iu him. What. enfeebled by prolonged peace) ver." " to fill the of hay (so called from pulus. which were celebrated in the territory of Elis. He alludes to . 13 After he L 291-313. and winters passed at the foot of the Alps? Not otherwise is Home convulsed by the vast tumultuous preparations for war. bundle of hay on the end of a pole served the Roman army To each troop of a hundred men. if my standards had lain prostrate in adverse warfare. for the both by sea and by land fleet .

Pompey having conquered Hiarbas. 313. 318. and to prevent the tumults by c a . he was probably noted for his garrulity. Porcius Cato was tbe only one of the family who was distinguished at this period. It is supposed that he perished in the Civil War. or rather a part of it. 5 We Fields placed under restraint) ver. in the Life of Pompey. together with his colleague. distinguished himself by his fierce animosity against Csesar. Judging from the present passage. as. and other parts of the world.PHARSALIA. that by a law passed for the purpose. who. King of Numidia. and Plutarch states that it was asserted Clodius that the law was not made by reason of the scarcity of corn. who had espoused the cause of Cn. Cortius thinks that the word " extremi " " " refers to the lowest. The plural number is used here as a contemptuous mode of expression. are informed by Cicero. 8 Surrounded the terrified judgment seat) ver. C. Cornelius LenHe tulus. in his Epistles to Atticus. L 313-322. men from afar and purchased with the associate still sway for years Pompey dependants Is he to be guiding the triumphal chariot. Pompey was then the sole Consul. M. 314. the soldiery presuming to burst in upon the midst of the legal proceedings. Asia Minor. mere idle 3 Will. Africa. and defended by Cicero. 1 The loquacious Marcellus) ver. but that the scarcity of corn was made that it might give rise to a law to invest Pompey with a power almost supreme. by his agents.] B. and by Plutarch. 316. and a tool in the hands of the partisans of Pompey. 19 1 the loquacious Marcellus . and. his so many ? 4 years not yet permitting it ? Is he never to resign the names 2 . appears to have been a person of slender abilities. as well. triumph before he had attained his twenty-fifth year. the whole power of importing corn was entrusted to Pompey for five years . It is more probable that it alludes to persons or nations from a distance. Domitius Ahenobarbus. on the occasion when T. According to the laws of Rome. being intimidated. Pompey was accused of having. used under-hand means to create this scarcity. honors which he has once usurped? Why 5need I now complain of the fields placed under restraint throughout the whole earth. he forgot a large portion of what he had intended to say in favour of his client. the Catos as well. 4 His years not yet permitting it) ver. Claudius Marcellus is reConsul. as Pompey had gained victories and subdued nations in Spain. Annius Papianus Milo was accused of the murder of Clodius. 321. the Marian obtained a leader. ferred to. 313. when 2 The Catos. and how that starvation at his command has become his slave ? Who does not know how the camp has been intermingled with the trembling Forum ? When the swords ominously threatening surrounded the terrified judgment seat 6 with an unwonted array. a general was not allowed to enjoy a triumph till he had arrived at his thirtieth year." or dregs" of the people. mere idle names) ver. He alludes to the conduct of Pompey. forsooth. 3 Men from afar) ver. who then pronounced his oration pro Milone.

who. no jaws to become satiated. 5 The Pontic battles of the exhausted monarch) ver. leopards. The pirates are alluded to. dishonorable man. but from his previous continued use of antidotes. does thy lick the sword of Sulla.PHARSALIA. who were conquered by Pompey. and retired in exile to Massilia or Marseilles. Pompey acted thus solely with the view of maintaining the public peace. in the latter part of the civil wars against the Marian faction. that it was done to protect him . 3 He alludes to the retireLet this Sulla of thine teach thee) ver. so too. Caesar is made to insinuate. in the that were threatened present speech. the blood deep-drawn of the slain herds has nurtured thirst survive to thee . while they haunted the lairs of their dams. he lined the Forum and the This was contrary to law. Magnus. and the Pontic battles of the exhausted monarch 5 with difficulty ended through barbarian least. accustomed to civil warfare. king of Pontus. 1 To surpass his master Sulla) ver. 336. ment of Sulla from public life. for that purpose. what end will power meet At with. The Hyrcanian forest was situate on the shores of the Caspian Sea. let this . thus prolonged ? What limit is there to crimes '? Sulla of thine teach thee 3 now to dismount from this supreme sway. Shall then. Being closely besieged in a fortress by his son Pharnaces. to which reference is here made. at the age of sixty. 323-337. having put away his wife. 20 [u. who waged war with the Romans for a period of forty years. on which he fell on his sword and perished. In the next line Caesar refers to the protracted length of this war. too. whereas. Milo was condemned. he was ultimately conquered by Pompey. an old age spent in privacy should await him in his feebleness. the step-daughter of Sulla. he was unable to do so . 326. in the Hyrcanian forest*. and. and whose strongholds were on the coast sifter the of Cilicia. And as the fierce tigers never the standards of Now. Pompey closed around the accused Milo. by the friends of Clodius. Antistia. to surpass his master Sulla'. which. after 4 the wandering Cilicians . The country of Hyrcania flourished most under the Parthian kings. Still. blood allows the polluted accustomed to Once received within the lips. and though surrounding hills with soldiers. in Asia Minor. trained by crimes. Pompey was one of the most successful legates of the Dictator Sulla. he attempted to poison himself. 328. i. Having received many overthrows from Sulla and Lucullus. It was said to be the haunt of numerous panthers. and tigers. 336. 2 In the Hyrcanian forest) ver. who often resided there during the summer. He alludes to the death of Mithridates. in all probability. resigned the Dictatorship. 4 and retired to the town of Puteoli. . 335. lest lay aside their fury. He married JEmilia. wandering Cilicians) ver. Pompey aided the prosecution of Milo. he is preparing for contests accursed.

345. 4 We are tearing away its tyrants) ver. but through ruthless love of the sword and dread of their general. I did not obey? If from myself the reward of my labours is torn away. become the settlers ? Victorious already." When the " emeriti" retired from the service. on the Cicilian coast. who held the rank) ver. and many were settled at Soli. Avho held the rank of first centurion. The " emeriti " in the and were for the stipulated time. some of whom he distributed among the cities of Cilicia. shall pallid old age betake itself? What settlement is there to be for those who have served their time ? What lands shall be granted l What walls for the invalided ? for our veterans to plough. become tlie settlers) ver. When For our -veterans to plouyli) ver. duty and their paternal Penates check their feelings although rendered fierce with carnage. . Roman armies were those who had served 1 entitled to * immunity 344.? 3 Or." or " " first centurion " of the thirteenth The " legion. manner in which Pompey disposed of the Cilician pirates after he had conquered them . let these troops enjoy their triumph. or from hopes of promotion. in preference. Then 5 Lcelius. 346. 351.] 21 poison. In his charge was the eagle of the legion. to these. Magnus. will not forsake us for neither is due. i. for the future. commanded to lay down my conquering eagles. he was called " veteranus. Whither. . too. PHARSALIA. . because.B. which we have acquired to him who wields arms does he surrender everything who refuses what is his The Deities. . in preference. and wore the tinct . Others received grants of land at Dymae. an "emeritus" was induced to continue in the service. in Achaia. let the rewards of their prolonged service be granted. whoever he is. What lands shall lie granted) ver. which." Thus he speaks but the hesitating ranks mutter among themselves words of indecision in whispers far from dis. which had lately been depopulated by Tigranes. . plunder nor sovereignty sought by my arms we are tear4 ing away its tyrants from a City ready to be enslaved. 3 He refers to the Pirates. He probably alludes here to the sons of Pompey. after the wars. and their swelling spirits. shall pirates. raise. others in Calabria." and was next in rank to the military Tribunes. it was usual to bestow on them grants of the public land. 337-358. Caesar be granted to Pompey as a last province. and which was thenceforth called Pompeiopolis. s " Lselius was the Lcelius. primipilus. as well as their father. they are brought back. raise your standards the might we must employ. at least. either from attachment to his general. 357. is here the first . perhaps. king of Armenia. though not with their general under some leader. primipilus commanded " maniple of the Triarii.

and was dangerous from its rocky shores and the it variableness of its tides. and quicksands." afterwards from the "jesculns. " " s Togam. . 371. when the conquered world behind its back. The elder Pliny informs us that before the claim was allowed it was necessary to satisfy the following requisitions to have saved the life of a fellow-citizen in battle. 367. the Degenerate arts of peace) ver. The reward for saving a see the The " corona civica. He alludes to the passage Stilled tin swelling waves of Ocean) ver. "Venice. in following foaming Rhine at its northern mouth it 'is as a much matter of course to do. finally. There is . ." On the meaning of this word. 4 At its northern mouth) ver. wilt thou be submitting to the degenerate arts of 8 peace and the sovereign sway of the Senate ? Is it so very dreadful to prove the conqueror hi civil war ? Come.PHARSALIA. thy it left . 357. crown." three different kinds of oak. 344. do we complain. " Emeriti. and maintained his ground. The lesser Syrtis lay considerably to the west of the other one. referred to under the title of had the power of inflicting " insignia. opposite Syrtis gulf It was especially dangerous for its sandbanks the mouth of the Adriatic." literally. This army. " " the coast of Africa. from the "quercus. 358-372. of Caesar from the coast of Gaul to that of Britain. Was it that confidence hi us was wanting to thee? So long as the warm Wood imparts motion to these breathing bodies. amid the inhospitable shores of 4 Syrtis amid the sultry sands of thirsting Libya. toga. greatest guardian of the Roman fame. "heights. stilled the 5 swelling waves of Ocean with its oars. 22 [B." or " gown." The greater of on the shores was a wide Tripolita and Cyrenaica. 365. while on the shore 4 " civic was skirted by loose burning sands. 370. Note to 1. amid the tribes of Scythia. known by the name of Syrtis" or Syrtes. as commands." considerable doubt among the Commentators as to the exact meaning of this word in the present passage." Literally. slain his opponent." The vine sapling with which they soldiers was another of punishment on refractory the insignia of the centurions. i. and so long as stalwart arms have might to hurl the javelin." which was worn by the citizens in time of peace. and was presented to the soldier who had saved the life of a fel" low-citizen in battle. 4 There were two quicksands off Inhospitable shores of Syrtis) ver." was the second in honor and importance in the Roman armies. and its exposure to the northern winds . It was originally made from the ilex." and. 358. and subdued the 6 To me. 1 the oak that insignia of the decoration won in service 2 bespoke the reward for saving a citizen exclaimed: " If it is lawful. and if it is allowed to utter the accents of truth that a patience so long enduring has withheld thy might. . lead us ." or citizen) ver. 1 Won in service) ver.

and in the entrails of my wife teeming with her burden. . means to hint his readiness. i. when the Thracian Boreas beats against the crags of pine-bearing Ossa 3 the trunks bending of the woods bowed down. as the protectress of money. ancient country of Etruria. . . Under the name Moneta. but it seems most probable that the veteran is expressing his readiness. impelled by these arms the battering-ram shall scatter the stones far and wide even though that city which thou shouldst order to be utterly razed should be Eome herself. is I shall hear thy trumpet-signal. in which was the mint of Rome. 381. but was much less lofty than the latter. for whatever wars he shall summon them to. against And no whom 23 fellow-citizen of mine. and with standards moved from every direction marches upon Home. flamma MoneUe. Whatever walls thou shalt desire to level with the plain. Ossa was a mountain much celebrated by the poets. Caesar. 3 Waves of Elrv. By he the prospering standards of thy ten campaigns I swear. that . 389. 372-395. to march into the very heart of Rome to seize the statues of the Divinities." To these words the cohorts at once shout assent.nan Tiler) ver. the flames of thy camp 1 shall envelope the if to pitch the camp above the Divinity of Juno Moneta waves of Etrurian Tiber 2 a bold marker-out of the encampment will I enter upon the Hesperian fields. the roar of the forests arises. as. I will do all this if to despoil the Gods. and by thy triumphs gained over every foe if thou shouldst bid me bury my sword in the breast of my brother. Csesar. It was in the north of Magnesia. 380. and pledge themselves with hands lifted on high. it is PHARSALIA. when he perceives that the war is embraced by the soldiers thus heartily. still. and to set fire to the Temples. by no indecision he may impede his fortune. . at the command of his general. 3 The Tiber takes its rise in the The crags of pine-bearing Ossa) ver." The exact meaning of this passage has caused much discussion among the Commentators. Juno had a Temple on the The speaker probably Capitoline Hill. . and was in the vicinity of Pelion and Olympus. though with unwilling right hand. to melt the statues of the Gods in the flames for his master's purposes. and that the Fates are favouring.] to will. in the throat too of my parent. 1 " Numina miscebit castrensis The flames of thy camp) ver. . or returning again upright into the air. if necessary.B. in Thessaly. summons forth the cohorts scattered throughout the Gallic fields. An uproar ascends to the skies as vast.

rising in Mount Cema. 4 The shallows of Isara) ver. king Spain. and falling into the Mediterranean. 396." a seaport on the coast of Liguria. and possessed a temple of Hercules Monoecus. or Varo. or Narbo. a river of Gaul. the Rubicon was no longer considered the * boundary which separated Italy from Gaul. The Varus.PHAKSALIA. : Her boundaries now extended) ver. The town was situate on a promontory. beneath the divine authority of Hercules. The Atax. The yellow-haired Ruteni) The Ruteni. 402. The yellow-haired Rutenr' are rec lieved from the prolonged garrison. the placid Atax reat no Latian keels the the Varus. was a river of Gallia Narbonensis. 5 that the now Germans were also the Isere. from whom the place derived its name. 3 The pugnacious Lingones) ver. and the camp which soaring aloft above the curving rock of 2 Vogesus used to overawe the pugnacious Lingones with J their painted arms. north of Valentia. Their chief town was Andeinaturinum. falling into a stream of greater fame. the Roman state having extended beyond its former limits. too) ver. too. flows into the Rhone. . 404. or Saone. 398. This was the " Portus Monoeci. Isara. now the Vosges. Civitas Rutenorum. where. Vogesus. was the name of a range of mountains in Gaul. The harbour was of importance. " Promote limite. Saone. as being the only one on this part of the coast of Liguria. afterwards Lingones. her boundaries now extended 8 . afterwards people of Gallia Aquitanica. and the Varus. which lay far to the north-west of it. was substituted as such in its place. now called Langres. The rivers Seine. Hercules was said to have touched here when on his expedition against of Geryon. 403. 399. tains." This passage has presented difficulties to some of the Commentatorsj but it is pretty clear that he alludes to the period when. and Moselle rise in these moun- Curving rock of Vogesus) ver. 404. or Rutbeni. in the Alps. Hesperia. Spain also was sometimes called by that name. or Vosgesus. bears not its men name down to the ocean waves. now called Rodez. running with its own flood through such an extent. l deserted the tents pitched by the cavity of Lemanus . Those left the shallows of Isara which They :l . Their chief town was Segodunum." was one of the ancient names of Italy. 396-406. . running parallel to the river Rhine. were a ver. Tacitus informs us accustomed to paint their arms. 397. founded by the Massilians. 1 2 Lemanus) ver. now called Var. * The placid Atax) ver. rising in the Pyrenees it is now called Aude. I. The Lingnnes were a powerful people of Transalpine Gaul. 24 [B. Now the Lake of Geneva. 7 The Varus. 9 The consecrated harbour adjoins the sea) ver. the consecrated harbour adjoins the sea 9 with its hollowed . joices longer bearing too 7 the limit of Hesperia. was a river of Gallia Narbonensis. 405. separated from the Sequani by the river Arar. or the " country of the West.

the harbour of Monoecus opened to the south-west. or Cauvus. or when with ebbing waves it retreats. but to me. 419. Greeks. and bearing it on there leaves it waves of wandering Tethys 5 influenced by the second of the heavenly bodies flow at the lunar hours or whether the flaming Titan. for ever lie concealed Then does he. Corus. on the was Noviomagus. The city of the Tarbelli.B. I. Tethys is a name very geneShe was one of the most ancient of rally given by the poets to the ocean. It blows from the north-west. in his Third Book. 5 Waves of wandering Tethys) ver. whom the economy of the universe engages . Circius was a violent wind which was said to blow in the ancient Gallia Narbonensis. 413. Where. rising in the Pyrenees. who occupies the fields of Nemetis 7 and the banks of the Aturus 8 where on the curving shore. 406-422. afterwards Nemetae. the Argestes of the considered a stormy wind in Italy. it could not well be exposed to any wind blowing from the north. the doubtful coast extends at alternate periods. and the foster-mother of Juno. . is 2 the Deities. 407. ! . do uplifts the ocean. According to some it blew from the north-north-west. that dost govern movements thus regular. 406. daughter of Coslus and Vesta. Rhine. " Sidere secundo. or Atur. . 421. 3 Where the doubtful coast extends) ver. as is sometimes represented. . 420. and withholds the ships from the safe harbour of Monoecus. 9 Flowing by Tarbela) ver. and was the wife of Oceanus. whatever thou art. 8 The banks of the Aturus) ver. move his . and raises the billows to the stars you enquire. as being the next in apparent magnitude to the sun. 7 Who occiipies the fields The Nemetes. 4 it is tJiat the wind thus rolls on the sea from distant or whether the climes. The Aturus. as the Gods of heaven have willed it so. and flowing through the territory of the Tarbelli into the ocean. 412. The latter seems most probably the case. nor yet the Zephyr ." Under this name he refers to the moon. 414. 3 which land and sea claim too. flowing 9 by Tarbela it encloses the sea gently flowing in. Alone does Circius) ver. 6 The second of the heavenly bodies) ver. The second is the right one. who were a . 1 No Corus holds sway) ver. fi . were a people of Gallia Belgica. on the site of the present Spires. that he may quaff the refreshing waves. was a river of Gallia Aquitanica. or Neof Nemetis) ver. Their chief town metae. now called the Adour. He probably alludes to the flat coast off Belgium and the present kingdom of Holland. Pomponius Mela. thou Cause. . as if. while others call it a south wind. 409.] 25 rocks no Corus l holds sway over it. when the vast ocean is poured forth Whether upon it. * It is that the wind thus rolls) ver. alone does Circius 3 disturb the shores his own. PHAESALIA. mentions the same three theories. .

lying to the east of the Suessones and the JBellovaci. it is . It is now called Dacqs. between the rivers Matrona and Mosella. which are here " " beaked. . 422. Belgae made war against him. now Toul. Though mentioned here separately from the Nervii. too . 426. They formed an alliance with Caesar. L 422-427. B. or Garonne. afterwards called Remi. having Avaricum for their capital. the . 423. And the Kheman) ver. They were of German origin. when the rest of the ful Their chief town was Durocortornm. now 2 The Biturigian. " Rostrati covini. or Rhemi. the Atur or Adour. of the active Suessones) ver. ' The Belgian. capital was Noviodunum. and the Santonian exults . dwelling near the ocean. and on the east by the territory of the Treviri. on the west by the ocean.PHARSALIA. and Suessones.C." it appears that the Rhemi were especially famed for their skill in the use of the javelin. which the was Tullum. and the Bituriges Vivisci. the Biturigian 2 too. The Remi." 7 Skilful guide of the scythed chariot) ver. or Suessones. Their chief town was called Mediolanum. 424. or Santones. in the time of Caesar. lying between the ocean and the ' ' Their chief town was Aquae Tarbellicae. and the length of their spears and shields. They inhabited a fertile country to the west of the Rhine. 1 The Santonian exults) ver. 424. on the south by the Sequana or Seine and the Matrona or Marne. 423. all the latter were really tribes of the Belgae. The Belgae formed one of the three great They were peoples into which Caasar divides the population of Gaul. The Bituriges were a powerful people of Gallia Aquitanica. Their king. on dispossessing the former inhabitants. Divitiacus.' or AugusUe. the enemy removed. after- wards Santones. The Santoni. the Leucan and the Rheman . Its spokes were armed with long scythes. 4 The Leucan) ver. afterwards Augusta Suessonum. or Suessiones. the the extending Sequanian race most adroit with the reins guided in the circle the 6 7 Belgian. on the Garonne. now Rheims." literally having designated a covered travelling carriage by the same name. 3 And too) now Bordeaux. was reckoned the most powerful chief in Gaul. most adroit in arm with tJie poised javelin . the skilful guide of the scythed chariot . They were divided into the Bituriges Cubi. The " covinus" was a kind of chariot much in use among the Belgae and the ancient Britons. and had settled in the country. and the active Suessones a with their 4 9 long arms . too) ver. Remi.' on Pyrenees. 57. whose capital was Burdigala. 1 standards. Salutes. 26 [B. and possessed twelve towns. From the expression " optimus excusso lacerto. were a very powerpeople of Gallia Belgica. ver. were a warlike nation of Gallia Belgica. They were noted for the height of their stature. powerful people of Gallia Aquitanica. who innow the district called habited Bourges. were a nation of Gallia Aquitanica. now Soissons. The Suessones. to the north of the Garumua. The Leuci were a people in the south-east of Their chief town Gallia Belgica. 426." From the Romans referred to in the epithet rostrati. bounded on the north by the Rhine. or Ubisci.

6. 1 The Arverni. descended from the race selves 3 too fatally reof the people of Ilium the Nervian. ' With the loosely-flowing trowsers) ver." been found some who were even called the brothers of the Roman people. 427-431. speaking of the people of Tomi. . They were divided into several smaller tribes. It has been suggested that either this remark is a mistake of the Poet. is to be found in none of the fragments of Cicero's works which have come down to us. in the time of Caesar. .ZEdui for the supreThey are supposed to have possessed a large portion of the high macy. Levaci. El. he was drawn into an ambuscade by Ambiorix and Cation which the of with their volcus. in B. B. . 430. part of the British army. or that he simply alludes to the pride of the Arverni before they were conquered by the Romans. 1. Listening to the advice of Sabinus. 10. 47 " Here there is a Scythian multitude. he says " The inin their dress. Pleumoxii. The Vangiones were a people of Germany. the Persian trowsers cover instead of the dress of their country .] 27 who have presumed to pretend themArverni. 431. too who imitate thee. with which they took up their position in the territory of the Eburones. and crowds of the Getae. El. One of the Scholiasts says that a Trojan named Alvernus founded " Inthe colony. refers to this peculiarity In the Tristia. the Trojan. and Geiduni. 3 The Nervian. v. lands of central France. the rivals of the . " " was covered on all sides except the front." or driver of the We learn from Tacitus." This passage. that the " covinarii " constituted a regular chariot. also) ver. 34.B. bordering on Sannatia. and part of which was covered by the forest of Arduenna or Ardennes. Titurius Sabinus had the command of one legion and four cohorts. an officer in the army of Julius Caesar. he says " Even those who are sers. It has been. soldiers. He alludes to the fete of Q. were cut to they. Ovid. 1. 1. the Centrones. wearing ." supposed to derive their origin from the Grecian city. 4 Too fatally rebellious) ver. likewise) ver. and supposed that the covinus " that it was occupied by one person only. with the loosely-flowing trowsers . also 4 broken the and denied bellious by treaty with the slaughtered Cotta the Vangiones. habitants barely defend themselves from the cold by skins and sewn trowAnd again. whose territory extended from the river Sabis (now Sambre) to the ocean. and that Cicero makes mention of them in the words " There have venti sunt qui etiam fratres populi Romani vocarentur. Aurunculeius Cotta. and. . 5 The Vangiones. 427. however. Their territory gave its name to the modem Auvergne. fl . in the neighbourhood of the modern Worms. greater part pieces. The Arverni were a powerful nation of Celtica. in Thrace. 10. 2 Who have presumed to pretend themselves) ver. however. Sarma6 tian. 19. Grudii. loo) ver. the fierce Batavians. iii. PHARSALIA. 429. likewise 2 of Latian brotherhood. i. the covinarius. 427." and in B. iv. in the valley of the Allier. 1 . 429. He and Q. The Nervii were a warlike people of Gallia Belgica. supposed by some that the Arverni really did claim descent from Antenor. whose equals they considered themselves to be. El.

but Cortius says. 436. The Turones. 437. was the range of mountains now called the Cevennes. 435. and were of great service by means of 3 Harsh-sounding trumpets of crooked brass) ver. or Turonii. The Arar. subsequently called Pictavi. According to some. Lugdunum. now . or Ebro. Keep the fickle Turones) ver. Mayne." they had " cornu. now Tours. * Bears to the sea the Arar) ver. where the Rhone bears to the sea the Arar 4 swept along with its impetuous waves where the race dwells upon the heights on the mountain summits. 432. to pine amid thy fogs. that while they preserved the sound of the " tuba. These people were long the allies of the Romans Holland. The Batavi were a people who inhabited the country between the Maas and the Waal. later period Batavia. the Getae. 1 The fierce Bataviaiu. Andian disdaining. . called the Pictavi. the Britons. at the mouth of the trowsers. now Cinca. T/ie Pictones. left at 7 and no more does the camp liberty cultivate their fields pitched around keep in check the fickle Turones "." or "trowsers:" Phrygians. the Parthians. the Belgae. their excellent cavalry. left at liberty) ver. the Sannatians. now in their wars against the Germans. they were first found by Cujacius . This and the next five lines are generally looked upon as spurious. . the Gauls. situate in the middle of Gaul. Meduana) called the ver. or Cebenna Mons. 433. while the " tubae " of the " lituus " were curved. flows into the Rhodanus or Rhone. Turoni. Their chief town was Limonum. where Cinga flows around with its tide. rising in the Vosges. [The Pictones. The" "tuba" " cornu and the or trumpet of the Roman armies was straight. inserted these verses in the Poem to gratify his countrymen. were a powerful people on the coast of Gallia Aquitanica. extending northwards to Lugdunum or Lyons. * The Gebennce preeipitous) ver. now the Saone. 432.431 -439. were a people in the interior of Gallia Lugdunensis. 7 The Pictones. which. Gebennae. rising in the Pyrenees. the "braccae. subsequently Turoni. the Gebennse precipitous 5 with their snow-white crags. the Sacae. The . is The following nations are read of in ancient times as wearing the Medes and Persians." Their chief towns were Batavodurum and Leyden. flowing into the Ligeris. 436. now and a at Their country was first styled " Insula Batavorum. that Marbodus Andinus.PHARSALIA. 28 [a 1. that the report was. and separating the Arverni from the Helvii. now Poitiers. Meduana 9 ." Rhine. a river of Hispania Tarraconensis. the Dacians. A Their chief town was river of Gaul. falling with the Sicoris into the Iberus." the form of the * Where Cinga flows around) ver. is a river of Gaul. at Lugdunum or Lyons. . and the Teutones. Cinga. the Bishop of Rennes. too) ver. . 438. Caesarodunum. Probably the peculiarity of the Batavi was. who were afterwards Cultivate their field*) ver. too 1 whom the harsh-sounding trumpets of crooked brass 2 3 inflame to war. 431.

is one of the largest rivers of France.B. . i. 446. too. 2. 4 And thou. orLigeris. whose province it was to sing the praises of their chieftains and of the heroes who had died in combat. . You. . Teutas. on the north bank of the Ligeris. and the shrine of Taranis 8 not more humane than that 10 of Scythian Diana 9 who. 8 The shrine of Taranis) ver. B. 439-444. and were faithful allies of the Romans. cury. 7 And Hesus. and Hesus. and the chief town of the Carnutes . Gaul which was the to that part of last manners. now the Loire. Those who inhabited the Maritime Alps were called " Capillati. 10 You too. Bards) ver. . Trevirian) ver. 445. 425 of the Translation in Eohn's Classical Library. as poets. 449. a Thou. 6 The relentless Teutates) ver. 446. too.] 29 1 from the refreshed by the placid stream of Liger 2 squadrons of Csesar renowned Genabos is set free. all strangers were slain and sacrificed to the Gods. and thou. 9 That of Scythian Diana) ver. He alludes to the worship of Diana at Tauris in Scythia. El. dreadful with his merciless altars . too. and was called Augusta Trevinow or Treves. by whom the relentless Teutates 8 is appeased by direful 7 bloodshed. Genabum. is supposed to have been the name of a Gallic Divinity corresponding to the Roman MerHuman victims were offered to him. 3 Thou. and the Mosella flowed through it. and received its name from the inhabitants continuing to wear their hair long and flowing. 6 preferred to the whole of long-haired Gaul . where." or " Comati. Trier. those. or Cenabum. Hesus was the Mars of the Gauls. . in former times with thy locks hanging adown thy graceful neck. Ligurian) ver. while the other nations of Gallia Cisalpina had adopted the Roman s The long-haired Gaul) ver. Ovid. and rises in the Cevennes. PHARSALIA. They were famous for the excellence of their cavalry. too. Iphigenia was her priestess. " Gallia Comata" was the name given conquered by the Romans. Taranis is supposed to have been the Jupiter of the Celtic nations. or Teutates. p. the king. is . 443. 445. but was afterwards rebuilt. ii. 439. 2 Renowned Genabos) ver. 440. dreadful) ver. Their chief town was made a Roman colony by Augustus. was a town of Gallia Lugdunensis. The Ligurian tribes were divided by the Romans into the Ligures Transalpini and Cisalpini. it was plundered and burnt by Csesar. by order of Thoas.] now . 1 Stream of Liger) ver. Trevirian overjoyed that the course of warfare turned back. The Treviri were a powerful nation of Gallia Belgica. and to him the prisoners taken in battle were sacrificed. and narrowly escaped See the story related in the Tristia of sacrificing her own brother Orestes. Ligurian 4 now shorn. The " IBardi " were the Poets of Gaul and Germany. Their territory lay to the eastward of that of the Rhemi. The present city of Orleans stands on its site. 442." from the custom of wearing their hair long. ye Bards hand down hi your praises to remote ages spirits valiant. Liger. rorum. 441.

or the infernal regions. freed many a strain and . while Pythagoras thought that on leaving the human body it passed into the bodies of various animals in succession. the doctrine of the immortality of the soul. they resumed thair superstitious practices. 454. the king of Erebus. repair to in war. . The Cauci. granted to know the Gods and the Divinities of heaven." it know 3 The meaning is. :t . i. 464. does not move. barbarous once ceremonials and the ruthagain your sought To you alone * has it been less usages of your sacred rites. doctrine of the Druids differed from that of Pythagoras. Druids) ver. from warfare. .curling locks. whose country was divided by the Visurgis or Weser. Dis wa an epithet of Pluto. In remote forests do you inhabit the deep glades." or Druids. By " positia armis. Druids after arms were laid aside. who is said. the very greatest of terrors. death is the mid space in a prolonged existence. that the Druids taught On. whom this. 4 The pallid realms of Pluto) ver. or Chauci. priests of the Gauls. the fear of death. 1 And you. and the pallid realms of Pluto 4 in the depths below . Tacitus describes them as the noblest and most In the use of the word " cirrigeros. Gallic War. which had been checked by Caesar. 455. or alone to know that they do not exist. granted to no Gods. Caesar says. 14 go to war. * To prevent the Cauci) ver. stationed to prevent the Cauci 6 with then. and souls that welcome death and they deem it cowardice to be sparing of a life destined to return. 44^-464. the same spirit controls other limbs in another world 5 ." he courageous of the German tribes." the Foet does not mean that they wielded arms. " 4 In another world) ver. Thence have the people spirits ever ready to rush to arms. You. The Druids believed that the soul passed from man into man alone . from alarm. your authority) ver. but to have derived slender his notions on this authority. 451. but that after arms were laid aside in Gaul by reason of the civil wars. in his " The Druids do not ch. The " Druidae. " Orbe alio may mean simply " in " another region of the earth but it most probably refers to the idea prevalent with those who taught the doctrine of the transmigration of the soul. B. 453. were a powerful people in the north-east of Germany. if you sing what is ascertained as truth. . that The it animated various bodies in the stars in a certain cycle or routine.PHAESALIA. 80 and cut off [B. 457. too. " To you alone is the mysteries of the Gods. or the fact that there are alone) ver. were the high- and performed many mysterious rites. tribute together with the rest. Cayci. Assuredly the nations whom the Northern Bear looks down upon are happy in their error." 9 To you The meaning seems to be. On your authority the shades seek not the silent abodes of Erebus. subject upon very from them. . nor do they pay vi. did then pour forth full 1 you.

4 More inhuman than and the Britons. and with a camp densely thronged. Csesar. Iguvium. what they have invented they dread. a swift forerunner of the hastening warfare. that he himself. 480. Namely. by his fears. both more terrible and relentless does he seem to their imaginations. and that the City has been ordered. 1 Filled the neighbouring fortified towns) ver. were added and burst upon the feelings of the . and presented to them the destined slaughter. 11. L c. PHARSALIA. leading all his eagles and his collected standards. famous for a breed of white oxen fed on its after 2 Mevania displays banks. where Nar flows on to the stream of Tiber. B. and desert the savage banks of the Ehine. smitten by a groundless terror but the Senate . The Clitumnus was a river in the neighbourhood. 475. to be sacked by barbarous tribes. not far from Ocriculum. it the frontiers of Umbria and Picenum. and Auximum. where Mevania displays itself 2 in the plains that rear the bulls.B. Thus. with their collected strength. on the river Tinea. 12. and the world now laid open to the nations. torn from the Arctic regions and from their paternal homes. a . that the next places which he took Caesar's Ariminum. and filled the neigh- bouring fortified towns 1 Idle rumours. Some there are who. spread throughout all Italy. 473. Roman looking on. too. let loose tongues innumerable to false alarms. Fanum. 464-487. 468. the barbarian troops of the ruthless Caesar are spreading far and wide. Passing fell into the Tiber. aver that the audacious squadrons are pushing onward to 3 the combat. i. alludes to the custom of the German nations of wearing the hair long and curling. and no one the author of their woes. is advancing with no single column. to well-founded fears.] 31 Borne. on by Interamna and Narnia. and was very strongly fortified. And not such as they remember him do they now behold him . It was situate on the road from Borne to Ancona. Pisaurus. And not alone is the lower class alarmed. and more inhuman than the conquered foe 4 That after him the nations lying between the Rhine and the Alps. the conquered foe) ver. This was an ancient city in the itself) ver. interior of Umbria. This was a river of Central Italy. and that. the Gauls . public. are following close. We' learn from Civil War. when his immense resources. and. were Arretium. had created confidence for daring still greater things. 3 And where Nar flows) ver. does each one give strength to rumour.

i. while they were breathing prayers for their safety thus doubtful. too. from the Libyan Syrtes the boundless ocean. leavisic Rome in banishment. i. and my lingering foot itself paused indulgent to my feelings . Deities. and the pilot. in the Civil War. or when " that the the public safety was despaired of). did I again give utterance to many a word and. . 489." 1 zans of Caesar. ch. each one makes a shipwreck for himself so The parent. and the broken mass of the sail-bearing mast has sent forth its crash. B. i. the structure of the vessel not yet torn asunder. the nodding houses were tottering to their fall thus does the panic-stricken multitude at random rush throughout the City with precipitate steps. Praetors. El. describing the night of his " Thrice did I touch the threshold . 487-514. bursts forth. and what to leave as worthy to he feared. 54. and thus. the ruins shaking. B. to desert their paternal Just as. Caesar " Recourse was had to that extreme says. and Proconsuls in the City. now weakened with old age. whither the anxiety for flight directs each one. was able to call no one back 2 . as though there had been but one hope hi their ruined fortunes. connected in one long line. nor did any one pause at the threshold. B. Speaking of this crisis. do they fly unto the warfare. filled with perhaps his last glimpse of the beloved City. when the stormy south wind has repulsed walls. Then uncertain what to seek as safe. should take care that the State reOf course these decrees would be odious to the particeived no detriment. take his departure . house. it urges the populace headlong.PHAR3ALIA. 1. and the Fathers themselves rush forth from their seats. and the Senate taking to flight gives its hateful decrees * for the warfare into the charge of the Consuls. where. nor yet the wife her husband with her tears nor did the household Lares detain them. Tribunes of the people. often. ." : . as if now departing. the crowd rushes on. or that now. not to be called back. 2 Was able to call no one lack) ver. 82 [B. You would suppose either that accursed torches had set fire to the abodes. and then. the City forsaken. leaps into the waves. 505. I gave the last kiss. having bade him farewell. 5 and formal decree of the Senate" (which was never resorted to even by daring proposers except when the City was in danger of being set on fire. ready to grant supreme prosperity. the ship deserted. and the throng. and loth The cowardly throngs left the City a to preserve the same ! Oives its hateful decrees) ver. the seaman. . There is a similar passage in the Tristia of Ovid. Consuls. he says thrice was I called back.

that even no hope in the future might cheer their failing spirits. War. must be granted for alarms thus great. Pompey left the City on which he had placed in winter quarters in Apulia. filled with the people and with conquered nations. thy walls. i. and. hi foreign regions. came in the middle of the day. " 4 The Capital of Latium) ver. when Phoebe was now reflecting her . B. and the train of a fear-inspiring . on the name only of war being heard art being deserted a single night has not been trusted to . he escapes the dangers of the night by a simple trench and the rampart suddenly formed with the protection of some clods torn up affords secure slumbers within the tents.B. 529. the seas. if the multitude were collected together. ch. meteor. This was considered portentous of ill. . such as it had suffered under Marius and Sulla.] I. The gloomy nights beheld stars unknown. and bringing its fires from the Arctic regions 3 smote the Capital of Latium 4 the lesser stars. and torches flying obliquely through the expanse along the heavens. 515-538. Still. Pompey flying. with a prolonged flame. there was added the disclosed assurance of a still worse future. his road to the legions 2 Threatening tyranny to the earth) ver. *her horns closed. flashed in the heavens. 535. pardon must be granted. Incessant hghtnings flashed in the deceptive clear sky. and able to hold the human race. 14. Thou Rome. 3 From the Arctic regions) ver. Civil According to Caesar. It is not Improbable that the Temple of Jupiter on the Jupiter Latialis is Capitoline Hill is meant. 1 Pompey flying. pressed by the foe. and the fire described various forms in the dense atmosphere now a javelin. When. too. . and a comet threatening tyranny to the earth *. 198. 534. and now a torch. they were in dread 1 Besides. the skies. they were in dread) ver. PHARSALIA. mentioned in 1. as being the chief city of Latium. the Eoman soldier. . that were wont to speed onwards in the still hours of the night. and the threatening Gods of heaven filled with prodigies the earth. Lightning in silence without any clouds. 522. D . and the sky burning with flames. is hemmed in. with a scattered light. 33 prey on Caesar's approach. inasmuch as lightning was supposed generally to proceed from the south. By its appearance threatening tyranny to the earth . By " Latiale caput some understand Home. yes.

their bodies were burnt on the same funeral pile. The Sun is said to have hid his face in horror. their ridges quaking. With billows more mighty . Atreus. 545. 2 Opened the mouths of Sicilian Etna) ver. savage dogs barked in dismal The fire was torn from the Vestal altars and the tones. on seeing this transaction. the Theban brothers. 552. According to another version of the story. and the season was one of great rejoicings and feriae. while his brother was enjoying the meal. the sons of Pelops and: Hippodamia." or simply " Latinae. . the wife of Atrens. when he was the earth she turned pale. re4 Then did the Earth sembling the funeral piles of Thebes withdraw from her axis. having slain each other in combat. and. slew him. Eteocles and Pblynices. and rose with a twofold point. on which Thyestes fled to the court of Thesprotus. and enwrapped the earth in shade. " " to soften. 1 Atrens and Mycence of Thyestes brought on the night) ver. and forced the nations to despair of day . .PHARSALIA. the. This is a poetical method of stating that there was an eruption of Etna at this period. sons of (Edipus. but with its crest bending low the flame fell downwards on the Hesperian side. nor did it raise its flames to the heavens. 34 [B. sent Pleisthenes. invited Thyestei to his kingdom. . slew their half-brother Chrysippus. The festival called " Latinrc was performed in honour of Jupiter Latialis on the Alban Mount. on which Atreus. supposing him to be the son of Thyestes. struck by the sudden shadow of Titan himself. Thyestes having seduced JErope. concealed his glowing chariot in dense darkness. L 538-554. feigning a reconciliation. brother on her whole orb. just as. and the flames refused to unite. 4 Resembling the funeral piles of Thebes) ver. 3 Showed that the Latin rites) ver." feasting. and turned back in his course. the son of Atreus. Mycenae of Thyestes brought on the night 1 Grim Mulciber opened the mouths of Sicilian Etna 2 . and. flame that showed that the Latin rites 3 were completed was divided into two parts. The black Charybdis stirred up from her depths sea of the colour of blood . 550. 544. derived from " mulcco his being the inventor of working iron. bnt their animosity was said to have survived in death. the Sun retreating by the east. to murder his lather. the sons of Thyestes. Thyestes. when an ox was sacrificed there by night: multitudes flocked thither." from Mulciber was a name of Vnlcan. had their hands and heads brought in and shown to him. and killed and dressed the bodies of Tantalus and Pleisthenes. raising his head in mid Olympus. whom he had brought up. which is the one here referred to. the Alps shook off their ancient snows.

now called the Desert of Sahara. who is represented as a different personage from the former. Pompeius. of whom ten are mentioned by Varro. He probably means screech-owls and bats. on the sea-coast of Italy. 1 Hesperian Calpe) was ver. Manto. or Columns of Hercules. 4 And birds of ill omen) ver. PHARSALIA. situate between the Mediterranean and Spain. Evander. Livy and Valerius Maximus tell us that an ox spoke and warned Rome of the disasters which would ensue on Hannibal's arrival in Italy. Another informs us that an ox spoke when ploughing. Apollo granted her a life to equal in the years of its duration the grains contained in a handful of sand. and her own infant struck the mother with horror.R. which was said to mean " Romanum : F. of the Pro' Atlas*. such as Janus. decrepitude and infirmity became her lot as her years advanced.] 35 Tethys did overwhelm Hesperian Calpe and the heights of We have heard how that the native Deities a wept. " 3 were those The native Deities) ver. Lucan here alludes to a prophecy of the Sibyl couched under the followletters R.P.. as Mars. of human beings. too. ing ruitregnum. Pompey. the father of his country. i. 555.F. 564. the woods at nightfall deserted. We learn from one of the Scholiasts that in these Civil Wars an ass spoke. and Romulus. 5 Tongues of cattle adapted) ver. that the presented gifts fell down in their Temples. pater patriae. and others . which were considered birds of ill omen. resided at Cumae. 555. P. Atlas was the name of a mountain range in the north-west of Africa. The one here alluded to. there were. Daphne. JEneas. and were after their death raised to the rank of Gods.P. and told him that it was useless to urge him on. Latinus. Hercules.B. too. Venas. emboldened. for soon there would be no people left in Italy to consume the produce of the fields. pellitur ferro. Forgetting to add to her request the enjoyment of health and strength.F. Vesta.P. and hirds of ill omen 4 polluted the day. and how with sweat the Lares attested the woes of the Ciky.R. fame. flamma. The rock of Gibraltar in Hesperia. and how that the wild heasts.. Picus. Deiphobe. . According to the Scholiasts. &c. but she is sometimes called Herophile. is expelled D 2 . how. Faunus. monstrous births. The " Dii Indigetes Gods of the Romans who were supposed to have once lived on earth as mortals. which also called the the Great Desert. in reproof of his driver. a name given to several mysterious personages of antiquity. 561. Then were the tongues of cattle adapted to human accents." "The Roman state comes to ruin. 558. while others think that they were those whose worship was introduced into Latium from Troy. made their lairs in the midst of Rome. both as to the number and the formation of the limbs. Erythrea was her usual name. the fatal lines too. 5 The heights of Atlas) ver. 556. Some take them to have been only such Deities as took part in the foundation of Rome. 555-564. He alludes to the Prophecies of the Sibyl . There was another Sibyl of Cumse in 2Etolia. 6 The fatal lines) ver.

Urns filled with bones laid at rest sent forth groans. shaking her pitch-tree torch down-turned with flaming top. 510." According to one account a frantic woman ran through the streets of Rome calling out these initial letters. The origin Bellona. but it was most probably derived from the river Gallus in Phrygia. and hunger. Then [B. to whom Mars. Papias relates the same story. was probably a Sabine divinity. Pentheus having forbidden the people to worship Bacchus. Their wild and boisterous rites are here referred to. 484 et seq. Lycurgus. in Bohris Classical Library. It has been suggested that this passage means that the shadows of the body ominously fell in front at a time when they ought to have fallen behind. which flowed near the temple of Cybele. " Venientes cominus umbrae. on which he slew his own wife and child. 36 phetess of did those. whom with their hacked arms the savage Bellona inspires *. the Galli howled forth sad accents to the throng. 575. 5 T/ie weapons of the savage Lycurgus) ver. however. B. . 3 * Impelled the Theban Agave) ver. whose worship was introduced into Rome from Phrygia. 565. According to one account he was murdered by his . 570. i. Book vii. was punished with insanity. One of the Scholiasts says. the Goddess of war." and when they offered sacrifice to her they wounded their own arms and legs. who till the fields adjacent to the extremities of the walls. sometimes as his sister or his wife. and is represented as the companion of Her priests at Rome. the preferable one." 2 The Galli howled forth) ver." "the Day of blood. 204. et seq. sing of the Gods enraged and tossing their blood2 stained hair. too. and. . For a full account of the Sibyls see the Translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses. having ordered him to be captured. flames. 567. they were in the habit of mutilating their own bodies. and offered up the blood. Those. like the priests of by sword. or such . The Galli were eunuch priests of Cybele. and sometimes even drank thereof. Bellona. See the Metamorphoses of Ovid. 1 The savage Bellona inspires) ver. 574. after the conquest of Gaul. mistaking them for vine branches. of their name is uncertain. p. . king of Thrace. The translation given in the text is. and ghosts came nigh to men*. Cumae were repeated among the populace.PHARSALIA. and loud voices were heard amid the remote parts of the groves. having denied the Divinity of Bacchus. that to insult the Galli. " reference is here made. and her hissing locks such as when the Fury impelled the Theban Agave 4 or whirled in air the weapons of the savage Lycurgus'.C. which was thence called "Dies sanguinis. 564-576. were called Bellonarii. Then arose the crash of arms. his mother Agave and the other Bacchantes became inspired by the Furies and tore him to pieces. This sacrifice was performed on the 24th of March. fled in all directions the mighty Erinnys was encompassing the City about. 1. Caesar castrated had some persons and shut up in the temple of Cybele."* Ghosts came nigh to men) ver. and cut off his own legs. that they might become inspired with a warlike enthusiasm. and.

sent upon him . which stated that when he had returned from the Infernal Regions. as it had been previously the custom of the Cornelian family. It stated that none of his friends ever did him a service. who was fabled to have sprung out of the earth. The fates of Pentheus and Lycurgus are mentioned in " Thon also. strength. 582. This circumstance was the more striking. while another version states that he was slain by the panthers sacred to Bacchus.] PHARSALIA. to bury and not burn their dead. conjunction. 576-585. and the Translation in Bohn's Classical Library. as he had done those of Marius. and whom he had given to lolaus). the daughter of Creon (who had been his This wife. impelled by madness to assail thy own knee. when. king of Thebes. in the Metamorphoses. and Equites. amid the silent shades. 584. B. In using the word " fracto. too. xv. Ovid says. according to the express desire of the deceased. according to the ancient usage. who were forbidden by an oracle to taste wine till he had been dispatched. the chief of the Furies. 543. and was for many centuries the nursery of the Roman priesthood. By reason of these things it seemed good that. shalt remain unmentioned . sent forth an uproar as loud as that with which the cohorts are minThe shade of Sulla. Lycurgus. with the Priests. as he feared that his enemies might insult his remains. Hercules was called Alcides. A . k\*ot. and. monument was erected to him in the Campus Martius. 1. and black night. He alludes to a tradition relative to Hercules. which had been taken out of the grave and thrown into the Anio at his command. which was always famous for the skill of its natives in those branches." the Poet probably alludes to the circumstance above-mentioned. 721-2. and none of his enemies a wrong. by the visited. thou too. 4 The Etrurian prophets) ver. 1. 9 In the middle of the Plain of Mars) ver 581. accompanied the funeral procession to the Campus Martius. had. 577. ." " burst asunder. See 1. Vestal Virgins. his body was burnt. The Anio was a small stream which ran into the Tiber.B. After the death of Sulla the Senate paid him the honor of a public funeral. subjects. 3 The cold loaves of Anio) ver. in the Fasti of Ovid. where. 559. . was the first to teach the Etrurian nation how to foretell future events. on which he slew Megara. his relentless persecutor. which Megaera. seeming to arise in gled in combat. madness was inflicted upon him for having slain Lycus. iii. 637 of this Book. unhappy prey of thy Theban mother. he was seized with madness. . and her children by lolaiis." 1 Alcides shuddered at Megcera) ver. Pluto now Alcides shuddered at Megsera 1 Trumpets resounded. that Tages. i. of which he was a member. . 37 command of the unjust Juno. B. of the violation of his tomb by the orders of the vengeful Sulla. the inscription on which he is said to have composed himself. the middle of the Plain of Mars 2 uttered ill-boding prophecies and the husbandmen fled from Marius raising his head 3 at the cold waves of Anio his sepulchre burst asunder. the Etrurian prophets 4 should be as. p. by the command of Juno. probably from the Greek word. without being fully repaid. The Romans received their superstitions relative to augury and soothsaying from Etruria.

to whom alone it is permitted to behold the Trojan Minerva". 591. l^ext. inhabited the walls of deserted in the movements of the lightnings. at the foot of the Apennines. who purify the walls at the festive lustrum. 585-599. or which had been used in called 3 " In burning the dead. Deserted Luca) ver. Pornceria. Infaustie " infaustae " which were kindled liasts tells us that those flames were called from wood which had been struck by lightning. to go round about the lengthened spaces without the walls *. about four miles from the sea-shore. " moerium. 594. Luca. 586. 1 upper " Oscines. to be seized. was a lognrian city in Luna is another reading here . 598. and tying it in a knot in the front. fashion) ver. which now takes its name from the neighbouring town of Carrara. it was a town of Etruria. and the filleted priestess leads the Vestal choir. 588. situate on the left bank of the Macra. 596. It was famed for its white marble. and the warnings of the -whig hovering in the air." the "post" and old a space of ground adjoining the city name walls. 4 Spaces without compounded nified of ike ttulls) ver. now Lucca." those which gave the latter were called flammis. This word is probably "a for wall. The character of Aruns here mentioned is probably a fabulous one. * To behold the Trojan Jfinertia) ver." and sig- The limits of the Pomcerium were marked out by stone pillars at certain distances.PHABSALIA. Of whom. Aruns." or loose ends. 1 . to whom is granted the power to perform the rite. According to Servius. drawing its outer edge round the body. Auspices wre derived from the Those which afforded the former were flight and from the voice of birds. [B. which revolting nature has produced from no seed. i. the one most Luca years. who alone were permitted to look upon it. The Pomoerium was probably described to denote the space within which the City auspices were to be taken. invented by the Poet. 3 girdle." Prsepetes. 5 In the Gabinian. Italy. stricken in well-skilled and the throbbing 2 veins of the entrails. and the priests. at the extreme boundaries. . The inferior throng follows. * Warnings of the wing) ver. the " Cinctus Gabinius" was formed by girding the toga tight round the body by one of its " This was done by forming a part of the toga into laciniiE. One of the Schoill-omened flames) ver. and was deposited in the Temple of Vesta nnder the care of the Vestal Virgins. He alludes to the Palladium or image of Minerva which had been brought by JEneas from Troy. 88 summoned. those who have charge . and then bids them burn the accursed progeny of the barren womb in ill-omened flames 3 Then next he orders the whole City to be perambulated by the trembling citizens. 5 tightly girt in the Gabinian fashion . at the same time that the head was covered with another portion of the garment The Lares were generally represented in the Gabinian habit. In the first place he orders the monsters.

602." which were observed by these priests in certain auguries. next ten. 196. and Quindecimviri. i. to attend to the " " " Epulum Jovis. who represented the Titii or second tribe of the Bomans. In the previous line the Poet alludes to the " Quindecimviri. which was descended from the Sabines." or " Fifteen. According to Tacitus. iv. the other three being those of the Pontilices. and it is not improbable that they kept the auguries peculiar to the Sabines distinct from those used by the other tribes. The Salii were priests of Mars. a duty which had originally belonged to the Pontifices. who reigned jointly with Romulus. and were ene of the four religious corporations of Borne." who were originally three in number." or tufted conical cap. the alio." and the banquets. They formed a Collegium." whose duty it was to preserve the Sibylline books. with a brazen belt. After the processions had lasted some days. The dress of the Salii was an embroidered " trabea. or lectisternia. et seq. 4 The Salian. The Titii Sodales" formed a College of priests at Borne." . a small river near Rome. Ovid mentions this " There is a practice in the Fasti. was in existence in the time of Lucan. and whose office was first instituted in the year B. It was a yearly custom with the Komans to wash the statue of the Goddess Cybele and her chariot in the waters of the Almo. 600. an Arcadian. the shields were replaced in the Temple of Mars." proleap" cession round the City they danced with the shields suspended from their necks. . and continued to perform their ancient rites. lave the lady Goddess and her sacred utensils in the waters of the Almo. too. Julius Caesar added three to their number. who were instituted by ceived their Numa to name from " " ancilia ." He alludes to the " Septemviri Epulones." or Feast of Jove. 602. 599-603. It is very doubtful whether the office of the " Titii Sodales. and by Sulla they were increased to fifteen. 1." One of the Scholiasts says that there was a river of the same name in Phrygia. Augures. and the Septemvir joyous at the festivals." they keep the sacred shields or " to or because in the re- "dance. Some writers say that they received their name from Salius. 1 When bathed from the little Almo) ver. spot where the rapid Almo flows into the Tiber. whence the worship of Cybele was brought. This body is said to have been instituted by Titus Tatius. and the fellowship of the Titii 3 the Salian. but they were afterwards reduced to seven. likewise) ver. Their number was originally two. Varro derives the name from " Titioe " Titian aves. This line is by some thought to be spurious. which were supposed to reveal the destinies of Borne. B.] 89 of the decrees of the Gods and the mystic prophecies." and the "apex. who taught the Italian youths to dance in armour." given in honor of the other Gods . 2 And the Septemvir) ver. 338. it would seem that Bomulus made the worship of Tatius after his death a part of the Sabine sacred rites.B." the birds. and the lesser stream loses its name in that of the greater. There does the hoary priest. Their duty was. 603." as the preservers of the Sabine ritual.C. PHARSALIA. tunic. . in his purple vestments. the king of the Sabines. from the little Almo 1 the Augur. skilled in observing the birds on the 2 left hand. " Septemvir. and who reconduct Cybele. likewise 4 carrying : . when bathed. a companion of jEneas. " 3 Fellowship of the Titii) ver.

" fillets or by a cap. and was generally made of "on its summit it at sheep-skin with the wool on. and buried them in the ground with lamentations. The "ancilia" were under the especial charge of the Salii. but to enlarge its boundaries was deemed sacrilege. and bestows a name upon the consecrated spots 4 Then does he urge onward to the altar a Now had he begun to pour the male. or to touch it. and everything that had been scorched. and it was not allowable to tread on the spot. with which. To prevent its being stolen. that of having a lictor 1 was 3 he one. as the destiny of the Roman state was supposed to depend on its preservation. which being called "bidens." The cap was of a conical form. He alludes to the conse- This was a name given to a place struck by Similar veneration was lightning. Who wears the " 604." gave itt name to the place. broken off by the lightning. which was held sacred ever afterwards. also paid to a place where a person who had been killed by lightning was Priests collected the earth that had been torn up. iii. and with a lamenting murmur buries them in the earth. kept time with the voice and the movements of the dance. Aruns collects the dispersed objects struck by flames of lightning. ft teq. 40 [a i. it might be repaired. And while in prolonged circuit they go round about the emptied City. however. That tuft) ver. the This was held on the head by base of which was surrounded with wool. properly belonged to a pointed piece of olive wood." or " offendices. and from the "apex The Flamens were chosen from the higher length acquired that name. Numa ordered a number of shields to be made by Mamurius exactly resembling it. which was fastened by two bands called apicula. 603-610. 363. the ancilia 1 on his exulting neck. while dancing. wears the . The "ancile" was a sacred shield. Carrying the ancilia) ver. The " Flamen Dialis. refers to a peculiar cap name. See the Fasti of Ovid.PHARSALIA. Seneca mentions a belief that wine which had been struck by it. When the altar had fallen to decay. An altar was also erected there. the branches buried." 4 A name upon (tie consecrated spots) ver. B. ." by sacrificing a two-year old sheep. hence the classes. 608. 1. and madness was supposed to ensue on committing such an offence . each having a sword by his side. in order that those having criminal designs might not be able to steal it. and the Flamen 2 who 3 tuft upon his noble head. present epithet "generoso. though his political influence was less than that of the " Pontifex Maximus. or even to look at it. " Apicem. and a spear or staff in his hand. The Flamens were priests who dedicated their services to one particular Deity." Under the name of apex" worn by the Flamens and Salii at Rome. The spot was then consecrated cration of the "bidental. lightning would produce death or madness in those who drank ." held the highest office of the Roman priesthood. 604. with selected neck. which was said to have fallen from heaven in the time of King Numa." Among other privileges. while the Pontifices offered sacrifice to all." or " Flamen of Jupiter. 603. he struck the ancile. 2 And the Flamen) ver.

611. with knife pointed downwards and long was the victim impatient of the rites 2 not grateful to him. it was the custom for the priests to divide them into two portions one being assigned to those whom they favoured.E. Gods of heaven. and sought the wrath of the Gods of heaven in the torn-out entrails. ! . posed to denote the increase of Caesar's prosperity at the expense of Pompey." vertically. he understood the fated allotment of vast woes." used in sacrifice. 4 Mass of another head) ver. L 610-633. " Hardly is it righteous. which was assigned to Caesar. . PHAESALIA. is the more usual meaning of "obliquus. poured forth instead of ruddy gore. but to . shocking sign that which has appeared with impunity in no entrails. too. which was a portentous omen.] wine. when the aproned attendants pressed upon the threatening horns. " Obliquo cultro seems to mean "with the knife pointed downwards. which. the cauls. which latter. The very . In this instance the enemy's part. victim it would seem as though he had not been sacrificing to Jupiter. This. When. and beholds the veins 3 The fibres of the pantthreatening on the enemy's side ing lungs lie concealed. 4 He means that from the appearance of the Offered unto thee) ver. was sup. And no blood as usual spurted forth but from the gaping wound there was black venom. was replete with appearances of the most fatal ominousness. have I propitiously offered unto thee 5 this sacrifice and into the breast of the . for a pervading lividness streaked with spots of blood the pallid vitals. supreme Jupiter. and a narrow line separates the vital parts. and not obliquely. In divining by the entrails. 628. 633. 622. he exclaimed. . lo he sees growing upon the head of the entrails the mass of another head 4 a part hangs weak and flabby. tinted with foul spots and gorged with congealed blood. was a mixture of salt and spelt. a part throbs and with a rapid pulsation incessantly moves the veins. the other to the enemy. He finds a twofold portion of what they called the head of the liver. He perceives the liver reeking with corruption. for me to disclose to the people what you warn me of! nor indeed." 2 Impatient of the rites) ver. ! . together with wine. disclose their retreats and. Astounded at the illomened rites Aruns turned pale. The "mola. sinking on his knees he presented his subdued neck. For the victim to struggle when about to be sacrificed was considered an ill omen. 3 On the enemy's side) ver. by these means. was poured between the " horns of the victim before it was offered in sacrifice. 1 The salted corn) ver. 610. colour alarmed the prophet. The heart lies still and through gaping clefts the vitals emit corrupt matter. and to place on it 41 the salted corn". however.

8 Not Egyptian Memphit) ver. the founder of the art) ver. He was Praetor four years afterwards. conse- A quently.c. whom not Egyptian Memphis* could equal in the science of the stars and hi the ing . them in much perplexing doubt. or the Hephaestus of the Greeks. Will the earth yawn. but sank into insignificance after the foundation of Alexandria. 1 Tages. the most learned among the Romans. the foun" der of the art 1 have fondly invented all these things Thus did the Etrurian. 44. L 633-648. who have answered him with direful omens. B. It was the "seat of the worship of the Egyptian Ptha. in the Eusebian Chronicle. which means Ep. 637. See the note to 1. He was astrologer. 42 [B. The Egyptian priesthood were especially famed for their skill in astrology and divination. 584. in his book On Divination.PHAESALIA. compelled by Caesar to lire in banishment. was noted for his mathematical and physical investigations. letter of Cicero to him is still extant. "a potter. This was the second city in importance in ancient Egypt. utter his prophecies. its foundation being ascribed to Menes.C. and followed the He was also famed as an tenets of the Pythagorean school of Philosophy. who had a great reputation for learning. in his Epistles Ad Familiares. and died B. or else. slaughtered bull have the infernal Deities entered Things not to be uttered do we dread. 23." from the circumstance of having promulgated on his return from Greece that the globe whirled round with the rapidity of the potter's wheel. and took an active part in the Civil War on the side of Pompev. 639. principles which regulate the heavenly bodies. and. but things still greater than our apprehensions will come to pass. iv. Aulus Gellius lie pronounces him as. Nigidius Figulus. It stood on the banks of the Nile. next to Varro. It was of unknown antiquity. B. if the Furies and the other Deities of the Infernal Regions. He was. Cicero mentions Tages as having sprung from the earth. 13. May the Gods grant a prosperous result to what has been seen. 2 But Figulus) ver. ! . a Roman Philosopher. exclaimed " Either this world wanders without any laws throughout all : to and fro with uncertain the Fates hold sway.C. He probably alludes to P. a speedy destruction is preparing for the City and the human race. He is said to have received the name of Figulus. and the Constellations run movements . and was connected by canals with the lakes Moeris and Mareotis. an intimate friend of Cicero. and may tkere be no truth in the entrails but rather may Tages. obscuring the omens and conceal! . and was one of the Senators selected by him to take down the examinations of the witnesses who gave evidence with regard to Catiline's conspiracy. he is called a magician. and cities be swallowed up ? Or will the glowing atmosphere deprive us of all moderate temperature ? Will the faithless earth refuse her crops of corn ? Will all ages. But Figulus 2 to whom it was a care to know the Gods and the secrets of the heavens. ii. . 640. 63. B.

and the might of the sword shall confound all right by force and for many thou. and Mars occupies the heavens alone. is retarded. on which he was said to have been born. v. set on fire by thy chariot. 662. 655. 665. L 493. and the Cyllenian Deity 4 . * Side of the sword-girt Orion) ver. 648-672] 43 the water be mingled with poison infused therein ? What kind of ruin. 653. thou wast now 2 urging the fierce Nemean lion with thy rays. Mercury was called " Cyllenius. ' Enjoy the reward of thy deserts. however. the mother of the twins . Orion opposed it. and. And what avails it to ask .' " Such is the account which Ovid gives in the Fasti. & year madness prevail. . . only 1 now free during civil war. 4 . Pindar makes the isle of Chios to have been his birth-place. ' that I am unable to conquer. If. shall this . . Phcebus. There is no wild beast. fires. If the cold star of Saturn. O Gods of heaven. 3 He means the star so called. why dost thou make preparations thus mighty ? For with his remote 3 setting propitious Jupiter is going down. : who dost inflame the threatening Scorpion with his burning tail. ays that he was the son of Neptune by Euryale. L 540. of the origin of the Constellation of Orion. See also the curious tory of his birth related in the same Book. * The fierce Nemean lion) ver. B. Hesiod. and the healthful star of Venus is dim. the continuous series of thy woes protract for a length of tune thy calamities." Showers wort/iy of Deucalion) ver.' The Earth sent a scorpion it attempted to fasten its crooked claws on the Goddess. and why hi obscurity are they borne along throughout the universe ? Why thus intensely shines the side of the sword-girt Orion 5 ? The frenzy of arms is threatening . see the First Book of Ovid's Metamorphoses. For an account of the flood of Deucalion. . Those fires pause evil influence in the lofty heaven. Propitious Jupiter) ver. Gradivus. Prolong. the daughter of Minos. and not Boeotia. The Constellation Leo in the Zodiac was fabled to have been formed by the Lion of the Nemean forest. flames would be making their way over the whole world. I. PHARSA. Rome. ct end from Hie Gods of heaven ? That peace comes with a tyrant alone. 661 And the Cyllenian Deity) ver. " The unguarded words of Orion ' xcited the anger of the Gods." from Mount Cyllene in Arcadia. and dost scorch his claws. and said.u. with its had lighted up its dusky Aquarius would have poured forth showers worthy of Deucalion 1 and the whole earth would haye been concealed in the ocean spread over it. Latona added him to the number of the radiant stars. rapid in his movements. with what plagues do you furnish your vengeance ? At the same instant the closing days of many have met. which was conquered by Hercules. the sky would be in a blaze.LIA. " Why have the Constellations forsaken their courses.' said he.

hurries Ogygian Lyseus along. and extended Philippi beneath the 7 What frenzy this is. 680. who was Deity from " ra. : . a God who had the power of healing. 676. indeed. 7 The crags of Hcemus) ver. there was a town called Philippi. It may. 675." Similarly it afterwards became a surname of JEscuIt was also given to Apollo lapius. called Ogygia. Howe has the " It is following Note here pretty strange that so many great names of antiquity. They were celebrated " Edonis" in the Latin by their devotion to the orgies of Bacchus. In that sense it came from the the physician of the Gods." because wine dispels care. . striking with his rays. or Pangaeus. and Lucan should be guilty of such a blunder in geography. Petronius. was a range of mountains in Macedonia. 674. Greek -rcttui. hurried along amid the skies ? I see Pangceum". which was kings. * The Edonian female) ver." Death being supposed to strike with his dart. Lucan here falls into the error of confounding Pharsalia with Philippi. Bacchus was called Lyaeus. . " to strike. O Paean 3 am I being borne ? In what land art thou placing me. when it was very plain one was in the middle of Thessaly and the other in Thrace. says. He was probably styled " Ogygian " from the circumstance of his having been born at Thebes. perhaps as being liberators of mankind from suffering and sorrow. as the Deity of the Sun. or Death. situate between the Nestus and the Strymon. O Phoebus. from Ogyges. as in the present instance. healing. as all-powerful to avert evil. 3 The Ogygian Lyaut) ver. The Haemus formed a lofty range of mountains (now called the Balkan chain) separating Thrace from Moesia. For just as on the 2 1 filled with the heights of Pindus the Edonian female 4 3 so likewise is a matron . tell crags of Hsemus . whence Poets.PHARSALIA 44 IB.'itu. and Thanatos. 1 On the heighti of Pindut) ver. These presages greatly alarm the trembling multitude. : . The Edoni or Edones were a Thracian people. but greater ones confound them. one of its early name was Oritia. as to confound the field of battle between Julius Caesar and Pompey with that between Octavius Caesar and Brutus. one of the commentators on Lucan. L 673-681. borne along through the astounded City. 679. Paean was originally a name given Sulpitius says that her to a Pcean) ver. and Apollo. 678. in the vicinity of Philippi. Pangaeum. as Virgil. from the Greek word Xwr. between the Strymon and the Nestus. Sulpitius. Apollo was frequently appealed to under this name. however. Pindus was the name of that part of the mountain range running through Greece which separated Thessaly from Epirus. have been applied to the two last as coming Whither. signifies a female worshipper of Bacchus. to "loosen" or "relax. 675. white with its snowy ridges. they do not exceed 4000 feet above the level of the sea. a great part of Macedonia lying between them. disclosing by these words how Phoebus is exciting her breast " Whither. 6 I see Pangceum) ver. the place where Brutus and Cassius were afterwards defeated by Antony and Augustus Caesar. Though famed among the Poets for their immense height. 4 It * a matron) ver. Ovid.

682. 8 The aerial Pyrenees) ver. The Civil "Wars waged between Augustus and Antony on one side against Brutus and Cassius on the other. but upon what authority I know not. i. A hideous trunk) ver. which is related in the Eighth Book. it is undeniable that these two battles were fought in two different countries. " without a foreign foe.B. I must own it seems to me the fault originally of Virgil (upon what occasion so correct a writer could commit so great an error is not easy to imagine). In allusion to the death of Pompey. and once more throughout all the earth do I proceed. 685. 4 The ranks of Emathia) ver. 691. 692. 686. 684. related at length in the Ninth Book. bands the distant east. She alludes to the war in Spain waped by Caesar against the sons of Pompey. He alludes to the march of the Roman army along the desert sands of Libya under the command of Cato. The Nile is so called. . 693. 7 Impious warfare) ver. . To the abodes of my native City I return. 681-695. and afterwards between Augustus and Antony. * To the shifting Syrtes) ver. . 8 Factions again arise} ver. but supposing that. They are called Emathian from the circumstance of their then recent defeat in Emathia or Thessaly. in which Philippi was situate. have I beheld Philippi!" Thus she said and exhausted by her wearied frenzy she . whom he defeated at the battle of Wunda. Over the seas am I borne to the shifting Syrtes 4 and the parched Libya. now. and in the midst of the Senate 7 8 impious warfare is being waged. in whose neighbourhood the battle between Caesar and Pompey was fought. and that the rest took it very easily from him." 2 The Nile of Lagus) ver. Allusion is made to the death of Caesar by the hands of Brutus and Cassius and the other assassins in the Senatehouse. Phoebus. it was said to change the waters of the sea at 3 its mouth in colour and taste.] 45 why do Roman armies mingle their weapons and their ? Without an enemy 1 is there war ? Torn away. " * Fresh shores of the sea) ver. where the sea is changed by the stream of the Nile of Lagus 3 Him who is lying a hideous trunk 3 on the river's sand. Permit me to behold fresh shores of the sea y and fresh lands." 1 Without an enemy) ver. Factions again arise. the descendant of the Macedonian Lagus . whither am I being borne? Thou art conducting me to me . 689. do I recognize. By the use of the word " Pontus he seems vaguely to refer to the Euxine Sea lying off the coast of Thrace. without making any further enquiry. PHARSALIA. That is. as being under the sway of Ptolemy. 688. whither the direful Erinnys has transferred the ranks of Emathia 5 Now above the heights of the cloud-capt Alps and the aerial Pyrenees 6 am I torn away. laid her down. .

Caesar takes possesnines. Ahenobarbus. and proclaimed. the fkiality. CONTENTS.BOOK THE SECOND. The ApenPompcy has in the meantime retired to Campania. sion of the whole of Italy. While they are conversing. 1-15. by which he rules all tilings. 526-595. and asks his advice. by breaking down the bridge. 596-609. Cato bad given to his friend. and Scipio. The complaints of the matrons. the Prodigies. 680-703. allotted the world to endure its destined ages or whether it is that nothing is preordained. and promises to lead them to battle. Brnndisium. 43-66. 439477. Tarns. since whose death she has sought him again as her husband. Caesar follow! Pompey. Hortensias. 704-736. Domitius Lentulns. and. leaves Italy. set apart the shapeless realms and unformed matter. The flight of Libo. 628-649. are described. formerly his own wife. 392438. whom. Thermns. Caesar crosses the river. he established causes to endless time. when first the parent of the world. : . Caesar him his liberty against his wish. Pompey sends his son to Asia to request the assistance of the eastern Kings. Pompey addresses his gives He retreats to troops. that by means of direful omens they should know of misfortunes about to come? Whether it is that. an is man in reference to the Civil Wars carried spoken by long speech aged on between Sulla and Marins. foreknowing nature by her monster-bearing confusion overthrew the laws and the compacts of things. Cato answers that he shall follow Pompey. The alarm at Borne described. 286-325. Brutus repairs to Cato at night. with their streams. and while he is preparing to lay siege to Corfinium. ruler of Olympus. and the universe gave manifest signs of war. Sulla. but Chance wanders in uncertainty. 67-233. endeavours to impede the course of Caesar at Corfinium. Reflections on A Harcia appears. He himself prepares to cross over to E pirns. 16-42. and brings and brings round again events. has it seemed good to thee to add this care to anxious mortals. The complaints of the men. and accident rules the affairs of mortals may that be instantaneous. the flame re ceding. . binding himself as well by a law. Why. The situation of that place is described. Pompey Caesar enters Brundisinm. AND now was the wrath of the Deities displayed. 350391. In the presence of Brutus they renew the nuptial vow. and advises Brutus to do the same. whatever thou dost intend. 234-285. from the cities which they hold. the citizens deliver Domitius to him. with the immovable boundaries of fate. 478-525. 650-679. 610-627. and endeavours to cut him off from the sea. 326 -349.

to him dreads may it be allowed to hope. . with the fasces. awe-stricken. 3 " Conclamata. and. was another of their badges of office. . 23. . but came afterwards to denote a time when public business of every kind was suspended. which was one of the insignia of their office. 1 At this period the courts of law and the treasury were closed. . and with repeated bowlings strike upon the ears accustomed to be addressed in prayer. 47 the mind of man be blind to his future fate . and sorrowing throngs occupy the shrines." This term There was a general mourning) ver. These sprinkle the Gods with tears these dash then. The matron has laid aside her former habit. 18. " Justitium. no longer is it anguish. . person was dead. and under the under it was Empire only employed such circumstances. she presses the stiffened limbs and the lifeless features.] B. 15-34.breasts against the hard ground. 19. a justitium was usually ordered as a mark danger. to ascertain if rities this remained. By this expression he means that the Consuls forbore to wear the purple. PHARSALIA.n. on which occasion " conclamatum it was finally said est. Then did they withhold expression of their griefs. throw their torn-out hair upon the sacred threshold. and great anguish without a voice pervaded all. and the eyes swimming in death. and was done for the last time when the body was placed on the funeral pile. ." signifying that no hope of life now name. those who were present lamented aloud." After a Called upon by name) ver. Their being attended by lictors. and no ambassadors were received by the Senate. And not all lay in the Temple of the Supreme Thunderer may who . According to some authowas repeated daily for seven days. . and called on the party by he was only in a trance. Therefore when they perceived at the price of how vast calamity to the world the truthfulness of the Gods of heaven was about to be realized. and is astounded at her woes. but now it is dread distractedly she throws herself down. a Clad in the plebeian garb) ver. Thus at the moment of death the astounded house is silent while the body is 3 lying not yet called upon by name nor as yet does the mother with her dishevelled locks prompt the arms of the female domestics to the cruel beatings on their breasts but when. The justitium was formally proclaimed by the Senate and the magistrates in times of public alarm and In the lapse of time. of public mourning. life fled. there was a general mourning 1 in token of woe throughout the City clad in the plebeian garb 2 all honors lay concealed the purple accompanied no fasces. doubtless originally signified a cessation of judicial business.

. 46. is now marked by huge mounds. From forty to fifty thousand Romans are said to have perished in this battle. and thus causing the their Deities to be censured for inattention to the wishes of their worshippers. let the Scythian Ister 6 not confine :J ! .C." . now tear your locks. exclaimed. and at 1 no altar was there one of whom. was. and the ancestor of the Fenian kings. 50. in which are found fragments of bricks and 8 pottery." By addressing To create discontent) ver. " 1 Invidiam factura. called " Danubius" by the "' Romans. 35-50. we do not ask for peace. from its source as far as Vienna. Terentius Varro. the Consuls. the Carthaginian general. there over the Ramans. n. 4 Achamenian) ver. a Cannae was a village of Apulia. 48 [B. Susa called Shushan in the 49. . Punic days of Cannce) ver. Trebia was a small river in Gallia Cisalpina. Old (Sfaso) (which Testament) was the winter residence of the Persian kings. Oh luckless lot." With these incentives did grief en- itself. inspire with anger foreu/n nations at once arouse the enraged cities let the world let the Median ranks descend from conspire in arms Acheemenian 4 Susa s . and blackened with blows. you must courage rejoice. B. 218. Ahey made division of the Deities.C. 49. repairing to the hostile camps. from there to the Black Sea it received the name of Ister. prayers to the Gods which were not likely to be fulfilled. . and was situate in the the of of on banks the rirer The climate was Susiana. 36. province Choaspes. wanting a parent to create discontent tearing her bedewed cheeks. that we were not born for the of Punic days Cannse 2 and of Trebia a youthful race Gods of heaven. Now. and. by signification of " Persian. beat your breasts. when one shall have proved the conqueror. The men likewise. B. 216. wretched matrons. Now have you . JKmilius Paulus and C. are pouring forth well-grounded complaints against the relentless " Divinities. Hannibal gained a victory falling into the Padus. 46. 3 And of Trebia) ver. nor defer this grief and preserve it for our crowning woes. " upon her livid arms. the whole whereof is now called the Danube. while the fortune of the chieftains is undecided. He was said to have been nurtured by an eagle. and hence the choice of it for a winter palace. general. near Placcntia." * is ver. Poets. This epithet refers to Achremenes. It was famed for the memorable defeat there of the Romans under L. or Fo. Its site very hot here. The epithet in the present in as used the Latin the has instance. The Scythian Ister) ver. by Hannibal. the power to weep. the founder of the race of the Achaemenidae.PHAESALIA. situate in a plain near the rivers Aufidus and Vergellus. The river.

too.C. who dwelt in the vicinity of the Iberus. and the present Sea of Aral. 54.] 1 49 2 the Massagetan . 9. 52. In the reign of Augustus. and part of Hungary. make us the foes of all nations . Wallachia. let the one meet press. According to Tacitus it rose in the country of the Hermunduri. Moldavia. Their locality has not been with any exactness ascertained." That is. 5 Let the Dacian press upon us) ver. let the Albis pour forth the yellowhaired Suevi 3 from the extreme north and the unsubdued sources of the Rhine * . and spoke the same language. 1 The Massagetan) ver. 54. The lllucti lived about the sources of the Rhine. Davus similarly means a Dacian slave .O. The Getae are said to have been the same people as the Daci. and Geta figures as a crafty servant in the Plays of Terence. The Romans first reached this river B. 54. in the north of Independent Tartary. The Massagetse were a warlike race of Their Scythia. 4 Sources of the Rhine) ver. . PHAESALIA. of thine 8 enjoy eastern quivers. to the north of the Araxes. Let the Albis) ver. 50-56. this warlike people crossed the Danube. Suetonius says *hat Augustus crippled. 7 Meet the Iberians) ver. The Albis. . 56. who were remarkable for a migratory mode of life. and comprehended the present counit was a Transylvania. from which circumstance the Getae and the Goths have often been erroneously looked upon as the same people. " Let every hand be engaged E . The Daci inhabited Dacia. were repulsed by the generals of Augustus. They were of similar race with the Getae. The Getae furnished slaves" to Greece and Italy. In the reign of Domitian they obliged the Romans to purchase peace by the payment of a tribute. which lay to the north of the Danube.wpow us the Iberians 7 the other turn his standards against the Let no hand. and crossed it for the first time B. in war against a foreign enemy. but avert civil warfare. now the Elbe. 52. In the later periods of the Roman Empire their country was occupied by the Goths. Rome. was the most easterly river of Germany with which the Romans became acquainted. is tries of introduced in the Latin Comedy. They were finally conquered by Trajan. who had migrated from the southern shores of the Baltic. and. country corresponds to that of the Kirghiz Tartars at the present day. now called the Ebro. them. after plundering the allies of Rome. The term " Suevi is supposed to have been the collective name of a large number of German tribes. 3. n. Rome. under Domitius Ahenobarbus. 51. but did not subdue. It was said that their custom to kill and eat their aged people. . in the north-east of that country. 6 The Getan on the other) ver. On the one side let the Dacian 6 the Getan on the other . " 3 The yellow-haired Suevi) ver. 50.B. In the third century a race of people " called " Suevi settled in and gave the name to the present Suabia. Herodotus appears to include under this name all the Nomadic tribes of Asia east of the Caspian. The Iberi were the nations of Spain. 8 Let no hand. of thine) ver. he.

dost thou dare to shade.PHAESALIA. Fortune. aged Marius lay was in the " Man. that neither might. the Consul. with a rope round his neck. and they detested the long-lived destiny of a sorrowing old age. He alludes to the conquest of Jugurtha. seek to know which of the two is to rule the City? Hardly would it have been worth the while to levy civil war. dropped his sword. and rushed out of the house. but placed in the charge of a woman named Fannia. Allusion is made to the circumstance of Marius hiding in the sedge and mud of the marshes of Minturna-.000 taken prisoners at this battle. which. discovered. 70. " Not other commotions did the Fates intend at the time 2 3 when. gained at Aquas Sextiae (now Aix) against the combined forces of the Teutones and Ambrones. and years reserved for civil warfare a second time. gathered into fires let the entire aether l descend in lightnings upon the earth. and. dragged from his retreat. The speaker probably alludes to the victory which Marius. . n. however. imagining that fire flashed from his " I cannot eyes. doomed to be bootless. when taken captive. thrown into a dungeon. 50 [B. as much as by the general- ship of either Marias or his predecessor Metcllus. however. when pursued by the vengeance of Sulla.000 slain and 80. above the of the air. was effected by the treachery of Bocchus. one. who was supposed to be It was while he was here his personal enemy. thy deposit . He was." he means Probably by the term the fiery element which was supposed to range in the firmament. exclaiming " murder C. next did the chains of iron . Marius ! . regions 2 After the Teutonic) ver. ye Gods of heaven. was not. 6 And the Libyan triumphs) ver. as the present passage would seem to imply. 72. And Such complaints did forth . According to some accounts there were 200. 4 Amid the slimy sedge) ver. exclaimed. 5 The chains of iron) ver. 69. Do they with an extent so great of unheard of crimes. Or if. seeking precedents for their great alarm. 56-72." piety. " 1 Let the entire cether) ver. Enraged Parent. and with a terrible voice he exclaimed murder C. Marius 1" The barbarian. at the same instant smite both partisans and leaders. 69. delivered up to the authorities of Minturna?. but was secretly his friend. king of Mauritania. in Latium. 58. pour but a care their own afflicted wretched parents. aether. it is your pleasure to blot out the Hesperian name. while not as yet they have deserved it. by Marius . Marius. leisure. king of Numidia. that a Gallic or a Cimbrian soldier was sent into his apartment to put him where the room The part of the to death.victorious afterthe Teutonic and the Libyan triumphs the exiled Marius concealed his head amid the slimy sedge 4 The pools of the plashy soil and the fenny marshes con5 cealed.

and in alarm he had heard. who. 74. 76. the Roman general. at the very stroke of death stood riveted and from his faltering hand let fall the sword. and equally prostrate. he landed in Africa. to set foot on the African shore . He had beheld an intense light in the darkened cell. and the Marius of a future day. " He. and in vain was power 2 granted to his enemy over the hated blood. seeking new pastures for their flocks. on which he exclaimed. and fated to die successful in the subdued City. too. which the Numidians carried on waggons when they moved from place to place. where he was furnished with a small ship. s Jugurtha.] B. and prolonged squalor in prison. . ' ! Eome. 91. Cimbrians. ' It is not right for thee to touch this neck to the laws of fate does he owe many deaths before his own lay aside If it is your wish to avenge the destruction thy vain fury. an Of the conquered Jugurtha) ver. by the lictor of Sextilius. 4 Among the deserted cottages) ver. 51 A eat into the aged man. The Chnbrian or Gallic soldier 3 Borne over the stormy main) ver. Death herself fled full oft from the hero. He allndes to the departure of Marius from Minturnae. 90. . and driven among the deserted 4 cottages . borne over the stormy main 3 to a hostile land.PHARSALIA. " Go tell thy master that thou hast seen Caius Marius sitting amid the ruins of Carthage . but by the mighty anger of the Gods of heaven was this cruel man protected. long made head against Metellus. and he sufficed for Fate when desiring to ruin . he died in the 71st year of his age. in Sicily. and Jugurtha was finally thrown into a dungeon and starved to death. the country of his former enemy. of your extinct race. 2 Power granted to his enemy) ver. * Trod upon the Punic ashes) ver. and. n. who enjoyed the honour of a triumph on the occasion. Landing near Carthage. "Mapalia" were moveabls huts or cottages. referred to in the Note to 1. despite of E a . and the dread Goddesses of crime. do you preserve this aged man Not by the favour of the Deity. * Consul. 88. numerous defeats. but was finally conquered by Marius. Being afterwards restored to power Rome. patiently 1 at Fated to die successful) ver. 72. the Praetor. 73-92." not inaptly comparing the downfall of that great city to his own ruined fortunes. illegitimate son of Mastanabal. consolation for their fates. Jugurtha. 89. the king of Numidia. beforehand did he pay the penalty of his crimes. after touching at the isle of 2Enaria (now Ischia) and Eryx. Marius was forbidden. lay amid the 5 and trod spoiled realms of the conquered Jugurtha c upon the Punic ashes Carthage and Marius exchanged . and on the 18th day of his seventh Consulship.

" means the spades and mattocks which Another suggestion is. his fortune returning. and the great number of foreign slaves introduced to cultivate the lands. too high to be touched by the hand. 52 [B. Cn. 94. rience in wickedness. with Cinna and Carbo. what a day was that. the slaves' dungeons bands. Octavius. except to him who had now gained expe. submitted to the Gods. that " ferro were used in cultivating the fields. 1L 301. n. and the weapon is withdrawn from the breast of none. 95. and had brought crime into the camp. They were probably underground. " 4 were private prisons The slaves' dungeons) ver." he perhaps means such a thirst for vengeance as Libyans or Africans alone usually 1 It has been suggested that there is an intended reference here to display. There did he collect together the resentfulness of Libya 1 When first. as one of the Scholiasts suggests. 1. 8 To no one was his age) ver. ! ! ! The resentfulness of Libya) ver. and. collecting a large army. the giant Antaeus. who (as Lucan says in the Fourth Book. 93-104. Gore stands in the temples. 104. Oh ye Fates what a day. and red with plenteous slaughter the slippery stones are wet. rius. were used to make swords and other weapons. 3 The iron icroug/ti up) ver. " Conflato ferro. the MaConsul. He alludes to the dreadful butcheries perpetrated by the body-guard of Marius. and that similarly Marius always rose from the most depressed state superior to his misfortunes. Plutarch says that these prisons became necessary throughout Italy by reason of the numerous conquests of the Romans. on which the victorious Marius seized the walls and with strides how vast did cruel Death hurry on With the commonalty the nobles fall. for the confinement and punishment of their refractory slaves. To no one were entrusted the ensigns of their leader to be carried. that the iron chains and fetters with which the slaves were bound. which he had formed out of the . The serpents of Africa were said to gain fresh fury and venom from their contact with the earth. that the "ergastulum" was lighted by narrow " windows. by proclaiming freedom to the slaves. as appears from passages in Columella. with which he joined L. he set free troops of slaves 2 the iron wrought up 3 into 4 sent forth the ruthless swords. were guilty of the most dreadful atrocities. shortly afterwards entered Rome. where the dungeon is called by the name of puteus. To no one was his age* a protection. in their thirst for vengeance. and in the Au2 lularia of Flautus." probably means. 597) was born in the caves of Libya and of whom it was fabled that every time he touched the earth he received additional strength. 319. lie set free troops of slaves) ver. The " ergastula attached to most of the country residences of the more wealthy Romans." Columella also says. . By " Libycas irag. 93. and far and wide stalks the sword. and. He alludes to the circumstance of Marius landing in Etruria from Africa. 95. Cornelius Cinna.PHARSALIA. who had been driven from Rome by his colleague.

Bcelius) ver. . Baebius how that the countless hands of the dismembering throng tore thy limbs to pieces. who is spoken by Cicero as one of the greatest of the Roman Orators. a former friend of Marius. or thee.] 53 There was no shame at having hurried on the closing day of the aged man hi his declining years. Antonius. Until Sulla returns) ver. return to the City. one of the Scholiasts mentions Euanthius. who was thus 1 slain. 105-122. ' generate people. Antonius. 118. foreteller of 4 woes. and thereupon informed them where they would find Baebius. slaves attending him. hardly would it be becoming for men thus to earn lengthened ages of existence. 122. He alludes to the death of M. them on. were to be put to death Under these circumstances Q. By what criminality could little children be deserving of slaughter? But now enough is it The very impetuosity of frenzy hurries to be able to die. and indiscriminately. nor in the very threshold of life at cutting short the rising destiny of the wretched infant. probably as the price of his own safety. who had used his influence in the Senate to his prejudice. on his Touched by his eloquence. and the blood-stained victor seizes the head cut off from an unknown neck. PHAESALIA. torn to pieces by the hands of the Marian faction. Ancharius was killed . M. promised. whose features. much less the short-lived disgrace of surviving.B. who was He says that Terence. that he would discover to them an enemy of Marius. Although a thousand deswords attended the unheard-of signals for death. . of the guilty. n. 4 of Hanging by the torn white hair) ver. 1 To imprint trembling kisses) ver. . being surrounded by the Terence. Connected with his fate one of the Scholiasts relates a story not to the credit of 3 Hardly Baebius. the Comic Poet partisans of Marius. Marius had given instructions to his guards that all in the streets whom he did not salute. hanging by the torn white hah. and life until Sulla returns 2 " Who has the leisure to bewail the deaths of the multitude ? 3 rent asunder by thine entrails. Who dealt equal vengeance on the Marian party. and Hardly thee. or to whom he did not extend his hands to be kissed. 114. thee. the soldiers who were sent to the party of Sulla. as he is ashamed to go with an empty hand. 120. and it seems like sluggishness to be in search To swell the number a large portion falls . The only hope of safety is to imprint trembling kisses on the polluted right hand. having belonged was marked out for destruction by Marius. who slew indiscriminately all of the aristocratic party they could lay hands upon.

Annius. 1 Fimbria mangled) ver. It is. howfaction. Thee also. According to some accounts P. while he was at table. which was extended to be kissed by those whom he intended to save. he ordered it to be placed on the Rostra. however. on which P. and his son of the same name. Appian relates the story in a different manner. on which he fled for refuge to the temple of Vesta." "Neglectu violatse Vestoe. ever. refused to execute their commands. who afterwards stabbed himself to escape a more ignominious death at the hands of the Marian faction. after slaying the son. the Tribune. and that (certainly " by a forced construction) it means unregarded by the unscrupulous right hand. and spared the flames. who had endured all things which evil fortune is able to effect. cut off his head. Cicero styles him " a most audacious and most insane cissimus et insanissimus." "with heedlessness of the outraged Vesta. C. Mucins Scsevola. Flavius Fimbria was one of the most " homo audaviolent partisans of the Marian faction. having thrust his hand into the flames to show his firmness when taken prisoner by Porsenna. the Pontifex Maximum. more generally stated that the son was put to death before his father's eyes. was a younger son of the elder of these Crassi. He says that the father. his seventh Consular year followed That was the closing period of the life of Marius. and who had enjoyed all things which a better fortune can bring. and carried it to Marina. the soldier carrying placed upon the Fimbia mangled the beheaded Crassi 2 The relentless prison was steeped with Tribunitial gore. Thirteen years intervened between the sixth and seventh Consulship of Marius. was himself slain by the partisans of Marius. Mucius Sczevola. thinks that it refers to the right hand of Marius. Scctvola) ver. Scsevola neglected by the unscrupulous right hand. the father. 126. and had experienced what fortune can destine for man. slain by the younger Marius. notwithstanding his virtuous character. s Thee also. was proscribed by the Marian He was. however. . 124. their commander. a The beheaded Crassi) ver. as Scaevola was not put to death till some years after the de^th of the elder Marius. . and perhaps a preferable one. 130. before the very shrine of the Goddess and her ever-burning hearths they slew but exhausted old age poured forth little blood from thy throat. These things 4 the fasces regained. and the altars were drenched with hi " " violatae has been blood. he fell by the hands of one of his own slaves." is another reading." Being finally defeated by Sulla. l festive table. n. .PHABSALLL 04 [B. dextrae supposed by some to refer Neglectum to the story of his ancestor. Crassus. After he had handled it with scorn and derision. :t . were slain in each other's sight by Fimbria. Weisse. Licinius Crassus. His career seems to have been that of a madman. whom he commanded to slay him. 124." man. * Seventh Consular year followed) ver. He died at the commencement of his seventh Consulship. the Triumvir. . 123-133: dripping with blood.

was left by Sulla without any protection. The Porta Collina was the most northernly of the gates of Rome . sons 1 Now at Sacriportus) ver. the healing art exceeded its limits. at the time when the sovereignty of the world and the sway of power. who. despairing of holding out any longer. " PHARSALIA. 3 Had almost changed its site) ver. transferred. He alludes to the resolution abovementioned. landing Marina with great slaughter at Sacriportus. which. Telesinus was among the slain.] Now 55 how many dead bodies fell prosslaughtered troops did the Collinian Gate 2 endure. on which. slain. in Latium. and were sent under the yoke. and. The victory was gained by Sulla. 138." or " Caudine Forks. 135. let loose from the rein of the laws. and transfer the dominion to his own native place. 4 " Furcse Exceeding the Caudine Forks) ver. on Marins being shut up in Praeneste. The Caudinae. Then was scope guilty alone could possibly be surviving. had almost 3 and the Samnite hoped for Roman. He shed the little blood that was remaining to the City. given to hatred. added as an avenger to the boundless slaughter. to make his escape by a subterranean passage. trate. anger rushed on. came up with them at the Colline Gate. and while he amputated the limbs now too corrupt. Marins baring died. it was situate near the Quirinal Esquinal and Viminal Hills (Colles).C.C. 149. a town of Samnium. and the hand followed too far where the The guilty perished but when now the malady led it. but Once for all had the victor given his commands. which was most obstinately contested. 2 Did the Collinian Gate) ver. from which it took its name. under Pontius Telesinus and L. where he had been carrying on the war and after at Brundisium. 134-149. Here the Roman array had been defeated by the Sammies. n. One of the Scholiasts suggests that this is said particularly in allusion to the fate of the younger Marius. or at Sacriportus l how many . Through the entrails of his master 5 did the servant plunge the accursed sword . s Through the entrails of his master) ver. endeavoured. as Telesinus had vowed that he would level Eome to the ground. ! . however." were narrow passes in the mountains near Caudium. being shut up in Praeneste. 321. B. Lamponius. too. defeated the younger against Mithridates. marched towards Rome. B.B.000 men are said to have fallen on each side. Sulla. 136. and Cinna being Sulla returned from Asia. who favoured the cause of the younger Marius. all sacrificed. and a battle was fought. changed its site wounds exceeding the Caudine Forks 4 Sulla. finding their . 82. and. Not for one crime were each one framed a criminality of his own. 134. which had been formed by Pontins Telesinus and the younger Marius. with the brother of Telesrnug. to remove the seat of government from Rome to Samnium. but was betrayed by a slave . The-Samnites and Lucanians. but 50.

at his 1 Hanging in own the stalled) request. anxious to place the disfigured features of my slain brother upon the pile and the forbidden flames. through bribing Myrtilus. Whatever crime there is anywhere existing is then known. as a reward to brothers. and heaped up in the midst of the Forum. stealthily removed them with timid theft. According to other accounts Marius was stabbed by 163. nor Libya of nor did lamenting Greece weep the Antseus upon posts 8 for torn limbs so many in the halls of Pisa When now they had mouldered away in corruption. took possession of the fires. and. and This one the dens of wild beasts received the throng. . . Hippodamia. who cruelties. was also said to have perpetrated similar He alludes to the practice of (Enomaiis. In the /Milt king of Pisa in of Pisa) Elis. The contention was. 6 [B. too. while yet he might. searched about among all the carcases of this Sullanian peace. Not Thrace beheld so many l hanging in the stables of the Bistonian tyrant. and confused. Diomedes. who made it . . won the hand of . dashed against the hard ground. the right hand of the wretched parents collected them. burst asunder and from the blood-stained victor they snatched away their own slaughter this one himself heaped up the oaken fabric of his own funeral pile. ver. and. recognized. . a condition that those who came forward as suitors for the hand of his daughter. and to have fixed their heads on his doors. should contend with himself in a chariot race and that those who were conquered should be After many had been sacrificed in the attempt.PHAESALIA. with weight falling headlong. to whom the severed head of the parent belonged brothers fell The tombs were filled by flight. broke his neck and his compressed throat with the halter another hulling himself. that I myself. the charioteer of (Enomaiis. n. Hippodamia. . or. put to death. 8 was slain by Hercules. his own slave. the Libyan strangers. leaped down into the flames. Pelops. in length of time lost their marks. . was said to have fed his mares upon the flesh of Antaeus. killed himself. flight discovered. was giant. and living bodies were intermingled with the buried. The heads of chieftains are carried on javelins throughout the trembling City. and amid all the trunks sought for one with which the head lopped from the neck would correspond. 165. I remember. they slew each other. 149-171 were steeped in a father's blood. all his blood not yet poured forth. ver. king of Thrace (which also called Bistonia). and.

the friend and fellow-townsman of Cicero. He was butchered by the infamous Catiline. In revenge the death Catulus. according to some. . 176. an unutterable atonement 3 when we beheld the mangled limbs.B. but was adopted by one of the Marii. 3 To an insatiate tomb) ver. His tongue. By the direction of Sulla. . according to some accounts. and ears were cut off. and his eyes dug out. his son. He alludes to the cruel death of the victim) ver. and the ruthless usage of an accursed cruelty to Hands forego the death of him who was thus perishing." " A tomb that would be content with no propitiatory sacrifice. Gratidius. and. and to disfigure the features of Marius. the son of M. He was Gratidianus. Q. obtained of Sulla the proscription of Gratidianus. and the tongue cut out still quivered. " Inexpleto busto. who had formerly been the colleague of Marius in the Consulship. probably of for of a brother the elder Marius. 87. nose. all her citizens cut off The shades of Catulus appeased) ver. after it was taken. or. kindling a char- included coal fire. PHARSALIA. he shut himself in a room. Lutatius Catulus. his name was among the rest of victims in the Marian proscription of B. 194. on account of his connexion with the family of the Marii. as though an ignoble person ? . and This one with noiseless movement beat the vacant air. person could have endured the punishments thus numerous of a crime so dreadful. in his expe1 dition against the Cimbri.] 57 " shall I make mention of the shades of Catulus apWhy 2 l peased ? When Marius the victim made. That this criminality and slaughter on being made known might please Sulla. his J When Marius M.C. 173-194. 5000 of the inhabitants were put to the sword. although they had thrown . he ought to have4 been able to be recogPraenestine Fortune beheld nized. torn off fell down. 175. and. 174. and his head was then carried in triumph through the City. Marius brother. and no one given fatal to life. Lucretius Ofella laid siege to the town of Praeneste. at the tomb of Catulus. Thus under the mass of ruins limbs are broken beneath the vast weight nor more disfigured do the headless carcases come to shore which have perished in the midst of the ocean. another the nostrils of the aquiline nose that one gouges out the eye-balls from their hollow sockets. n. although upon a body mangled all over. to an insatiate tomb and the wounds equal in number with the members. put out his Hardly will there be any believing that one eyes the last." 4 Prasnestine Fortune beheld) ver. Finding escape impossible. " Why has it pleased you to lose your pains. and. cuts off the ears. died of suffocation. his mangled limbs viewed by himself. having espoused the cause of Sulla. a sad sacrifice to perhaps an unwilling shade.

or pestilence of climate and locality. the fall. Hardly. themselves upon the mercy of the conquerors. from its cool situation. not being cut clean off.PHARSALI A. was much fre- quented by the Romans in the summer season. 206. Then fell the flower of Italy. could the victors. amid the masses of the dense multitude. Hardly. 1 The skeepfolds of welched Rome) ver. Smotiter the living) ver. a careless spectator of wickedness so great. By suffocating the others. move their hands. he requested them to take no notice of what was going on. 194-213. It is doubtful what " dubia cervice" Cortius thinks that it signifies that the head is still remainexactly means. ing attached to the body." The town was situate about twenty miles to the south-east of Rome. vengeance it never was that did so. and who are borne down by the weight of others 3 who are slain outright. however. in which he had conquered Pontius Telesinus. many thousands of the hapless multitude "The Etrurian stream received 4 all the Sullanian Into the river the first ones foil. Sulla directed all the Samnite and Lucanian prisoners to be collected in the ovilia of the Campus Martius. who had been convened by Sulla in the Temple of Bellona. to mean those who have received wounds in the throat. fall oft has famine. he repented not that he had ordered so to die." the enclosures on the Campus Martins were called. in which the centuries were enclosed on the occasion of giving their votes for the magistrates of Rome. 204. " Ovilia. do they and with neck still dubious 2 they totter but the vast carnage bears them down. It is now called Palestrina. . 58 [B. 197. So many youths at the same instant to fall by a hostile death. a With neck still dubious) ver. the rage too of the ocean. corpses heaped together." By this name. now the solje youth of Latium. and -u<lden earthquake caused. Their shrieks alarming the Senators. choked up in its waters by the bloody carnage. and have not fallen but are only staggering. the slaughter completed. n. under " the name of Praenestinae Sortes. Unconcerned he sat above. which properly signifies " the sheepfolds. The bodies were generally thrown into the Tiber and thus carried down to the sea. and stained the sheepfolds of wretched Rome 1 . and. and. death inflicted. who are not as yet dead or mortally wounded. 210. and the pallid throngs. or slaughter in warfare. where her prophecies were highly esteemed. the trunks falling heavily smother the living *. Ships sailing with the tide stuck fast. upon the bodies the last. On the third day after the battle at the Colline Gate. and ordered his soldiers to slaughter them. The Goddess Fortuna had a temple at Praeneste. . and the carcases perform the part of slaughter . as he was only inflicting due chastisement on some rebels. It seems more likely. together by the sword a people perishing at a moment by a single death. 4 The Etrurian stream received) ver.

Being defeated at Philippi by Antony and Augustus. . B. Junius Brutus. nor more did victory afford to Sulla than utterly to destroy the hated fac2 tion. on account of the good fortune of their father. He believed himself to be especially under the protection of Venus and Hercules. His son and daughter were also named Faustus and Fausta. . Notwithstanding the favours which he had received from Caesar. PHARSALIA. M. 3 These Fortune) ver. which was not only granted. and it throws back the corpses on the plain. Namely.C. professing to follow M. 234. aided the impeded waters . 213-236.B. they meet in combat. :. pouring forth over all the plain and rushing with headlong stream down to the floods of Tiber. Neither would be commencing civil war. . But terror did not strike the breast of the noble Brutus nor was he a portion of the trembling populace weeping in alarm so great at the commotion but in the drowsy . whence he wrote a letter to Caesar. on the occasion of his triumph over Mithridates. and fearful of the future. These. n. After the battle of Pharaalia he fled to Larissa. 221. To le called the Fortunate) ver. sided with Pompey. contain the river. The following waves stood still at the mass. and. Porcius Cato as his political model. or " Fortunate. Fortune on other grounds thou dost invite. he joined Cassius and the band of conspirators who murdered Caesar in the Senate-Louse. According to Plutarch. Although still greater calamities do our alarms anticipate. it was Brutus who informed Caesar 1 of Pompey's flight into Egypt. . . with the flowing blood it divided the azure sea. SulTa claimed for himself the title of Felix. if content with that with which Sulla was. raised to and." Thus did old age lament. but the conqueror even requested Brutus to come to him.] mouth 59 of the river flowed out into the sea. he fell upon his own sword. Rome recovered was the greatest reward of war to the exiled Marii. 3 Of tlie nolle Jirutus) ver. and now no longer does its bed nor yet its banks. . until the stream of deep blood made a passage for itself. At length having struggled with difficulty down to the Etrurian waves. and they rush to battle with much greater detriment to the human race. sorrowing and mindful of the past. 230. 81. For this for did Sulla merit to be styled the saviour of the state 1 this to be called the Fortunate for this to raise for himself a tomb in the middle of the Plain of Mars ? " These wrongs await us to be again endured in this order of warfare will they proceed this conclusion will await the civil strife. After the death of the younger Marias. soliciting pardon. Caesar and Pompey. . power already." as being the especial favourite of the Gods.

Servilia. See her story related in the Second Book of Ovid's Fasti." or " involved in and unprincipled. to be to the debts of the extravagant . and the fortunes of the City. the daughter of Cato. To be lost sight of) ver. 236-267. that members of a family. keeping thy footsteps unshaken while the when night. was Parrhasian Helice) ver. gled. which waa said to Lave been derived from Parrhasus. 3 Sulpitius supposes "pollute. now the sole refuge for virtue expelled and long since banished from all lands. was called Helice. 60 [B. and in these words he began to address him " Do thou. It the half-sister of Cato. mingling in slaughter with the leaders of crime and of the maddened populace. 252. : . from the volves round the Pole. Greek word fair**. A own 4 offences. Cato shall be the sole leader of Brutus. direct me wavering in mind. and plighted faith to be lost sight of 4 amid the rums of the world. It may also mean. refer to acts of violation committed against the females of the families of those who consequently thirsted for vengeance. is in doubt ? Or has it been thy pleasure. both fearful for all and regardless for himself . and resorted to civil war to screen their riages. the Parrhasian Helice 1 was turning her chahe knocked at the not extensive halls of his kinsman Cato 2 He found him with sleepless anxiety reflecting on the public affairs. domus" to polluted house) ver. the fates of men. n. 253. to revolve. was changed by the vengeful Juno into the Greater Bear. et seq. as suggested by one of the Scholiasts. whom by no tempestuous shock Fortune shall tear away from thee. 153. they being the children of Livia. by different marBrutus also married Porcia. of whom Jupiter waa enamoured. having murdered the others. She was a daughter of Lycaon. 238. in which country there was a town and a mountain called by the name of Parrhasia. Fury has impelled no one to arms. a son of Lycaon. " . and laws to be dreaded in peace . these hunger to be driven away by means of the sword. king of Arcadia. they are repairing to the camps for its own sake is the warfare pleasing to thee alone ? What has it availed thee so many years to have remained untouched by the man- world : : 1 The constellation of the Greater Bear 237. Cato) ver. because it rewas fabled that Calisto. riot obliquely. 3 Of his kinsman.PHARSALIA. to forgive the civic strife ? Each one do his own reasons hurry away to the accursed combat these a polluted house 3 . had become desperate." he here alludes " minLiterally. . 1. overcome by a vast reward. do thou confirm me in doubt with assured for let others follow Magnus or the arms of strength Dost thou Caesar. adhere to peace. " Permiscenda. the mother of Brutus.

Under a general a private person) ver. ipse It most probably relates to Caesar. . . . would. 61 This sole reward of thy long-practhou receive . and grieves merely a private person . if it refers to Cato. . by the will of the Gods. nor let valour so great be thrown away on chance 1 All the fortune of the war will rest itself on thee. to person whom add Cato under the yoke of Pompey. not so much be allowed to the fatal arms as even to have moved these hands and let no javelins hurled by thy arms be borne in the dense cloud of weapons." it being the duty of the Consuls to wage war. 1 . stands above the clouds. 1 Be thrown away on " Nee tanta in casum virtus eat. guilty. " It me to see the Senate the Consul under the command of a general. let thyself they shall make. The least of things does ners of a corrupt age ? tised virtues shalt . The meaning is. and for the crime to be thine own ? Better alone without arms wilt thou live in tranquil inactivity. although falling by the wound from another. 276. n. if the Civil War which he has caused shall be pleasing to Cato . and if so. just as the stars of heaven ever unmoved roll onward in their course. 2 Too much does he please himself) ver. and latter takes part in the Civil 3 lead the armies of the state.PHARSALIA. 279.] B. then throughout the whole world Csesar alone will be free 4 But if for " . the meaning may be that Caesar will be extremely pleased with himself. whether to Cato or to Caesar." It " " is a matter of doubt to whom refers. Too much does he please himself 2 if war civil is pleasing to Cato. to die by this sword. . There have been some doubts about the readings and meaning of this pasIt not to throw away his wisdom and means that Cato is sage. A large portion of the Senate and a Consul. about to wage war under a general a private a and other nobles as weh cause me anguish." chance) ver. if the War. Who shall be unwilling. probably valour in a cause where the successful result will be sure to be solely attributed to the chances of war. 281. discord disturb the highest enjoy peace. others the wars shall find O Gods of heaven. 263. in some degree. it may mean that Caesar will be receiving too high a compliment at the hands of Cato. 4 Caesar alone will be free) ver. The air nearer to the earth is inflamed with the lightnings. be under the control of the Senate. 258-281. though general. How joyously will ! . Because Pompey. and the lowermost regions of earth receive the winds and the flashing streaks of flame Olympus. " Nimium placet ipse. the ears of Caesar learn that a citizen so great has come forth to battle For that the rival camp of the chieftain Magnus has been preferred to his own he will never grieve.

* of the nearest relative of the deceased setting fire to the pile. me ! :1 1 To */ect Scythia. To have held the svmrthy torches) ver. The elder was commander jointly with T. devoted themselves to death for the Roman cause. I will not be torn away. thy name. on the banks of the Axus and ike Dahans) who roamed at from them still They were famed for their skill as archers on horseback. die frantic notion that Rome 1 may fall. Bx>me. 308. but whither : It the fates lead. already diou dost have Brutus the enemy neither of Pompey nor of Caesar. and to defend liberty. pose this head of mine condemned to every punishment " The hostile troops bore down die devoted Decius . 301. and himself to have held the swarthy torches . Manlius Torquatus in the Latin . virtue with clear conscience shall follow. and shall I alone live in inactivity? avert. I confess that civil warfare is wickedness in the extreme. of die conqueror. when the lofty sky is rushing downwards. O Gods of heaven. the laws of thy country it pleases thee to take up arms. I shall have embraced thee lifeless. before. n. the weight of the confused universe mingling together. ver. As grief itself bids the parent bereaved by the death of his sons. 3 Bore down the devoted Decius) ver. father and son. but after the war. let the unappeased Gods receive a full expiatory sacrifice. 281-309. and shall have followed thy unsubstantial shade. and Kings be led over the seas beneath other Far hence climes. 296. So let it be . while I am free from care. Decius Mus. void of fear himself ? Who.PHAESALIA. and Liberty. It is impossible to say to which of the Decii he here refers. He alludes to the custom the Jaxartes. as two individuals of the name of P. shall be the crime of the Gods of heaven to have made even me guilty. to head the long funereal procession to the tomb it gives him satisfaction to have thrust his hands amidst the blackening flames. the earth is quaking. can keep his hands folded in inactivity? Shall stranger nations follow the frenzy of Hesperia and the Bx>man wars. 82 [B. ^Vho is able to look upon the stars and the world falling to die heaped-up structure of die pile . in its ruin to affect the Dahans and the Getans. And would diat it were possible for die Gods of heaven and of Erebus to ex. The Dahae were a great nation of large in the country to the east of the Caspian (which bears the name of Daghesan)." Thus he speaks. of no blood let us defraud die warfare. But Cato utters to him from his " secret breast these hallowed words Brutus.

but that she was divorced from him by the ceremony of sale. perish? Myself alone attack with the sword myself who in vain maintain our laws and empty rights this throat. he rushed into the thickest of the enemy. by the transaction. Heineccius quotes the case as an instance of a ' ' marriage contracted by coemptio. Let him conquer therefore. having left the tomb has conquered. and it was aneeringly remarked that Cato was not a loser. 1 The hallowed Marcia) ver. May this blood redeem the people. and wag the second wife of Cato. though it appears that she returned to her former relation of wife. Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography." War. Marcius 1'hilippus. infers. and married to Hortensius. 63 let two armies assail. receive from all the lances the wounds of the entire warfare. and dedicating himself and the army of the enemy to the Gods of the dead. will provide peace. it has been well ascertained that he as well promises himself the sway over the whole world. Thus he spoke. we " Heineccius find the following remarks on this transaction. After the death of Hortensius she returned to Cato. 309-328." . wearing the sacrificial dress. this. from the words of Plutarch.B. who commanded the left wing of the Iloman army at the battle of Sentinum against the Gauls. if Fortune shall favour. whatever the Roman manners have deserved to pay the penalty for. His son. that Cato did not. being knocked at. after I am gone there is no need of war for him who wishes to reign. may I. says that he was slain. Why should the people ready for the yoke why should those desirous to endure a harsh sway. the door. me let the barbarian multitude from the Rhine aim at with their darts . lend his wife. with the sanction of her father. Phoebus dispelling the chilly shades of night. Why do we not then follow the standards of the state and Pompey as our leader ? And yet. by a Iloman soldier. 328.' But it does not seem that Cato formally married her again after the death of Hortensius. n. by my fate may it be atoned for. however. and an end of their hardships for the nations of Hesperia . After she had borne him three children. as a devoted victim. Zonaras. he ceded her to hia friend Hortensius. and was slain. in the midst.] PHABSALIA. were devoted to the Gods of the dead. In the meantime. according to the common belief. sent forth a sound. in a pecuniary way. and he applied sharp incentives to his indignation and aroused the warm blood of the youth to too great fondness for civil war. and the hallowed Marcia 1 entered in grief. Learning from a vision that the general of the one eide and the army of the other. that he may not suppose that for himself he . resolved to imitate the example of his father. he fell a sacrifice for his country. accessible. myself his soldier. Marcia was the daughter of L. In Dr.' and dissolved by remancipatio.

My vitals wearied and exhausted by child-bearing I now return. 328. were hung by the bride on the doorposts of the house of the bridegroom. her third progeny was bom. The Deities thus adjured as witnesses would probably be Jupiter.000 year. tearing her dishevelled hair. grant only the empty name of wedlock . repudiated or only transferred. 2 Pregnant. destined to But after she had unite two houses by a mother's blood. and died a natural death. wife she was pregnant by Cato. and nuptials devoid of empty pomp. to escape . and. Juno. 328-355. the rival of Cicero. the wife of Cato nor let it be enquired as doubtful in remote posterity whether I abandoned my first marriage Thou dost not receive torch. two husbands did I receive*. No festive garlands 4 hang from the wreath-bound threshold. let it be allowed to inscribe on my tomb. At the time when he took Marcia as his casks of Chian wine to his heir. joined in wedlock to a better afterwards when. 339. famous of the Roman Orators. not destined to please her husband in other guise. and Cornelia be near to the civic strife?" These words influenced the hero.PHARSALIA. husband lock. for had the adroitness Q. do I come. her first husband. and the admission of the Gods alone 3 as witnesses of the solemnities. and beating her breast with repeated blows. the price and the reward of wed." or " fillets" of wool. Venus. Fate now summoning him to the war. to no other husband to be handed over. and bearing the ashes of the tomb. 8 Admission of the Gods alone) ver. while strength to endure a mother's pains. : 1 The tomb of Hortensius) ver. 353. Cato. enclosed hi the urn the last ashes. l of Hortensius once. attend the camp. in his sixty -fourth He was noted for his luxurious habits. He being enrolled on the lists of either the Marian or the Sullane faction. In allusion to her pregnancy when married to Hortensius. and at his death left 10. me as a partner hi joyous circumstances amid thy Allow me to cares and to share thy griefs. and pregnant.C. Grant the unenjoyed ties of our former union. Suada. " Infulae. a virgin. thus in sadness did she speak " While I had in me the strengthening blood. Marcia. she in her pregnancy was given to fill another home with her offspring. n. 50. and though the times were unsuited for wedlock. hurrying with tearful countenance. two husbands did I receive) ver. Hortensius was one of the most many years. and no white fillet : ' ' . 64 [B. 4 No white fillet) ver. and Diana. I performed thy commands. 355. Why shall I be left hi the safety of peace. B. still a solitary union pleased him. .

or hooks of gold. the bride was carried across the threshold by pronubi." or " bead necklice. . Persians. He alludes to the torches which were torches) carried before the bride by boys dressed in the praetexta. from the present " scamnum " was that the ornamented. concealed her downcast features the 7 no girdle with its gems did not encircle her flowing robes necklace her graceful neck 8 and no scanty under-tunic 9 . 361. See the Casina of Plautus. when she was conducted to her husband's house. which would be an evil omen. PHARSALIA." or " atrium. * Couch stand on high) ver. 1. with thread. that the amber distilled from the trees. 8 Jfo necklace her graceful neck) ver. The bedsteads used by the Romans were." and was of a bright yellow colour. He alludes to the " torus genialis. 3 With its ivory steps) ver. glass. 4 With the turreted crown) ver. 357. The usual . No saffron-coloured veil lightly to hide the timid blushes of the bride. They were more especially used (as mentioned in the present instance) by the Greek and Roman females as bridal ornaments. or adorned with ribands. Thus Ovid says in the second Book of the Metamorphoses. . 357. and Egyptians. the door of which was adorned with garlands and " flowers. Necklaces were much worn in ancient times by the Indians. which Varro calls by the name " scamnum. 362. or other materials strung togeEmeralds were used for a ther. Sc. When the procession arrived at the house of the bridegroom. iv. . nor are there the usual torches 1 nor does the couch stand on high 2 with its ivory or variegate its coverings with embroidered gold steps and no matron. that she might not strike against it with her foot. We Act 9 iv. . No The bridal veil which the bride saffron-coloured veil) ver. II.B. The "monile baccatum." and was bound round the waist with a girdle or zone. 2. which was also the colour of her shoes. The " supparus. 364. " called flammeum. 1 ver. 1. 366. which was generally placed in the on the ground floor of the Roman houses. This dress was called " tunica recta." or men who had been married to but one woman. so that persons were in the habit of entering the bed by means of steps placed beside it." The bedsteads were sometimes made of metal or of of costly wood. find.] 65 runs along the two doorposts. 358. being made of berries. . similarly passage. 359. was sent to be worn by the Latian matrons." or great room marriage bed. s With foot lifted over) ver." is F . :i : . wore was 7 Her flowing roles) ver. and amber was much employed. 363. similar purpose. silk. One of the Scholiasts states that a turreted crown was generally worn by the bride during the nuptial ceremonies. wire. pressing her forehead with the turreted crown 4 forbids her." was the most common. in general. 9 No scanty under-tunic) ver. rather high. into which the sisters of Phaeton were changed. 356. or else veneered with tortoise-shell or ivory. with foot lifted over 5 to touch the 6 threshold." or " supparum. 355-364. 1. The bride was dressed in a long white robe with a purple fringe.

forsooth. 1. gether. Covered by the funereal wool the purple was concealed. 675. the auspices of Brutus. 369.THABSALIA. peculiar to the nuptial ceresaid mony. (t . when the other persons had left.<'/. in the same her husband. iii. "Pignora. he had leisure for one thing alone free from factions and from hate to weep for mankind." which he derives from "under. by Fcstus to have been made of linen. and 368." meaning relations or children. It was. and to adhere to his end to follow the guidance of nature. The custom of singing these and of joking the bridegroom on this occasion. did she embrace. just as she was. Shortly after his reunion with Marcia Cato fled from Koine. 364-383. and in the way in which hor sons. Nor did Cato remove the grim long hair from his hallowed face. perhaps. nor after the Sabine usage did the sorrowing husband receive the festive No pledges of the house 3 no relations met totaunts. 370. was laid to have been derived from the Sabines. full of broad jests railleries. Since first he had beheld the deadly arms upraised. They were united in silence." Judging from the present passage.' while "supparus" he derives from "supra. * Nor after the Sabine usage) ver." "pledges. which. These were the manners. He alludes to the Fescennine verses were sung at the door of the bridal These verses were apartment. enveloped her bared arms. 4 His continence withheld) ver. but for the . Nor were the ties of their former connexion renewed his continence 4 withheld from even lawful love. 66 [u. . by way of See the Fasti. Because. B. and contented with '' . 1 None of (he wonted jests) ver." or under tunic . accounting for the origin of this custom. it appears to have been an outer garment. he had allowed the unshorn white hair to descend upon his rugged brow and the woeful beard to grow upon his cheeks. and to lay down his life for his country. also called epithalamia. * No pledges of the home) ver. ." "over." subucula. she preserved the mournful ensign* of the garb of woe. or admit of joyousness on his rigid features." or "ties. n. songs. None of the wonted jests 1 acted their merry part. by girls. and to have been the same as the " sulmcula. clinging to the lower part of the shoulders. but left her there to protect his property and interests. Ovid relates a curious story. and contrasts it with the subter. which left the arms and shoulders bare. . Even so. and not "to believe himself born for himself. this was the unswerving rule of the rigid Cato to observe moderation. 378. but Varro says that it was an outer gar" " ment.

whence the expression " obnoxia fluctibus Dalmaticis. 3 The whole state received from him -walls of the Dardanian colonist) ver. as some have supposed. make inroad and exact her share. on the other. -was the City's husband) ver. . thence to spread abroad his scattered party to meet the foe. The mountain hi the midst exbetween the two waters of the Lower and the 4 Upper sea and on the one side does Pisa. . 383-405. Ancona. ridges. This was the name of two rivers of Italy.] 67 To subdue hunger was a banquet to him. now called the Metaro. The Adriatic. B. Ancona is opposite the coast of Dalmatia. which is somewhat more southerly. too. who accompanied JJneas from Troy. 4 The Lower and the Upper sea) ver. an observer of strict honor he was whole world. n. . He is speaking of that part of Italy where Pisa is on the coast on the Etrurian side. and the Etrurian. with its shallows. Capua. or the Lower. 405. exerting all his might. one of which was a small river of Umbria. one of the See Virgil's JEneid. 393. In the mean tune. 1.B. for danian colonist 3 him. flowing into the Adriatic Sea. offspring he was the City's husband a worshipper of justice. On it produce boundless streams. Campanian capital of Trojans 145. took possession of the Campanian walls of the DarThis seat of war was to his mind. than which no land swells with its peaks to a loftier height. "Quiritis" here means one of the lower classes of the people in the city which had been founded by Quirinus or Romulus. From vast sources does and extend seas. after the manner of the Koman follower of Quirinus 1 was a costly robe to him. or the Higher. and Ancona. the affections of a father and a husband. z. Magnus departing with the hastening throng. and keep away by a mere roof the winter's cold. ." * The swift Metaurus) ver. to . along the space that separates the two side descend both the swift Metaurus 5 its rivers the left . opposed to the Dalmatian billows. 400. was said to have been founded by Capys. born but for herself. breaks the Etrurian waves. the Campania. . Olympus. the especial object of sexual desire was 2 and the City's sire . on the Adriatic. PHARSALIA. one of the ancient Romans in 1 contradistinction to those of the 3 He more modern Rome. an opulent abode to wrap a shaggy toga around his limbs. 388. Sea. and rendered memorable by the defeat and F 2 . that. where with its shady hills Apennine raises on high the mid part of Italy. or approaches . a good man for the common weal: and upon none of Gate's deeds did pleasure. bound the mountain more nigh tends to itself . Follower of Quirinus) ver. 386. and not.

207. 407. that this river) ver. See the story in the Metamorphoses of Ovid. It it now called La Nevola. 1 The Crustumium was a river falling Rapid Crustumium) ver. 4 And the Send) ver. (into a river more vast than which no region dissolves itself. and his sisters Phaethusa. The Sena was a small river of Umbria. n. founded by the Galli Senones. and not by itself is discharged into the Scythian waves. too. 325. the streams throughout the scorched earth being swept away. was a small river of Gallia Cisalpina.) the Eridanus rolls down dismantled forests into the main. if the Nile did not lie stagnant far and wide over the flat surface of level Egypt. Eridanus. his bounds overstepped. flows into the Adriatic near the city of Ravenna.PHARSALIA. was the principal river of Apulia. . Foglia. and flowing into the Adriatic. 410. 407. except that while the Ister flows through the globe. It rose in the territory of the Hirpini in Samnium. now the Roya. The Sapis. . B. 7 The story is. now called the Marro. 8 And the Rutuba) ver. and the rapid Crustumium 1 . the Isaurus) ver.1 stream on the east coast of Bruttium. 406. on its banks. ii. It is now called La and. ' The Eridanus rolls down) ver. B. which flows between very high banks. when '. also called the Padus. . 406-422. rising in the Apennines. 406. he fell into the river Eridanus or Padus." here mentioned. Lampetie. shade its banks with a poplar crown and that.C. falls into the Adriatic. near the town of Aiiimnum. 409. . 68 [B. The Rutuba. This river was also called the Fisaurus. Nor less is it than the Ister. when Phaeton was smitten by the thunderbolts of Jupiter. 4 The A ufidus) ver. south of Ravenna. was . now called the Ofanto. the brother of Hannibal. it receives streams that might have fallen as rivers into any seas whatever. flowing at first with a rapid current. and then more slowly into the Adriatic. is a small river on the coaat of Liguria. the Naiads of Italy. 1." or " left side. * And the Sapis) ver. that this river 7 was the first to of streams. and Phoebe. 422. set the skies on fire with his blazing reins. that beats the Isaurus the Adriatic waves and. now called the Savio. is the Adriatic. less is it death of Hasdrubal. The waters that seek the right-hand declivities of the mountain range form the Tiber. bringing headlong downwards the light of day. the Libyan sands. 406. were changed into poplars on its banks. this one had waves equal Not to quenching the fires than the Nile. and the Sapis 2 uniting with and the Sena 4 the Aufidus*. Phaeton. el seq. The second. into the Adriatic. and the Kutuba 8 in its of Phoebus. The Aufidus. flowing through Umbria. 3 With. now the Po. and by its waters empties Hesperia The story is. which flowed past the town of Senogallia. He refers to the tradition which stated that. The " laevum latus.

before the rise of Rome. 5 Of shady Marica) ver. of Salernum) It was made a Roman ancient town of Campania. 426. extending still beyond. the Sabines. 1 The swift Vultiimus) ver. 422-430. The Sarnus. The Liris. the Marsi. and the cavities. and falling the chief river of Campania.] 69 Thence downward glide both the swift Vulturnus '. Being in the vicinity of Mount Vesuvius. 2 And Ike Sarnus) ver. 425. when a College of Health was established there. The Marsi were a brave and warlike people of Central Italy. Rising in the Apennines it falls into the Etrurian Sea. and had a sacred grove on the banks of the river Liris. Etrurian Sea. 307. that some considered her identical with Aphrodite. that called Etruria. 4 through the impelled by the Vestine waters realms of shady Marica 5 and the Siler skimming along the cultivated fields of Salernum 7 the Macra 8 too. 425. Salerno. . . 430. and The Umbri were one of the most ancient nations of Italy. and discharging itself into the Ligurian As here stated by the Poet. colony B. The Vulturnus. neighbouring Luna. . and now the Garigliano. which in its shallows admits of no barks. ferfields. is a river the sea at Puteoli near Pompeii. . now called the Magra. rising into the Etrurian sea. 9 tile for the Umbrians and the Marsians 10 and subdued by . 424. 8 The Macra) ver. near Luna. forming the boundary between Lucania and Campania. at the " boundary between Latium" and Campania. but attained a greater prosperity in the middle ages. 9 He speaks of a former time. which was afterwards . it was unnavigable for ships. aqua. was a small river rising in the Apennines. runs into the sea of Liris :i . 426. Marica was a nymph of Latium. who was worshipped at Minturnse. when. and now called falling into Sarno.C. Horace speaks of the quieta " the of the Liris." placid waters 4 The Vestini were a Sabellian Impelled by the Vestine waters) ver. The Macra. 424. 194. is one of the principal rivers of Central Italy. race of Central Italy. it rises with its ridges elevated in the air. was in the Apennines in Samnium. 7 Fields now ver. and others with Circe. was a river of lower Italy. PHARSALIA n. Virgil mentions her as being the mother of Latinus by Faunus. * And the Siler) ver. called was an Salernum. now called Volturno.B. more anciently called the Clanis. 424. on the bay of Paestum. extending across the peninsula from the Adriatic to the The Umbrians were subdued by the Romans B. in the high lands surrounded by the Apennines. its mephitic vapours here alluded to were probably owing to the action of that volcano. Servius remarks. lying between the Apennines. north of Paestum. their country. Italy was inhabited by the Umbri. Fertile for tlie Umbrians) ver. of Campania. Sea. Where. rising in the Apennines and flowing into the bay of Caieta near Minturnae. 430. 423. and at the same time very powerful 10 And the Marsians) ver. The Siler. and looks down upon the declining Alps. 3 And the Liris) ver. now called the Silaro. it beholds the Gallic Then. near . flowing by Nuceria. and the Adriatic Sea.C. and the Sarnus 2 the producer of night-like mists.

Lacinium. He means that the Apennines were nee longer in extent than the present Italy. Ascensius. the Sabini. until) ver. " however. of exactly opposite meaning : by Thucydides long " " Caesar. TO f> n. Being probably acquainted with the medicinal qualities of many plants. the Sabelli. is not pleased at having a way 11 . and Farnabius. a few miles south of Croton. by one of the Scholiasts. 438. and extends 4 its rocks to the Lacinian temples longer than Italy. and these mountains ran nites. in the present instance. Scylla was a dangerous whirlpool lying between the coasts of Italy and Sicily. and were said to have descended from Circe. to have taken iU name extant. the Sabine ploughshare '. that it forming the north-east angle of Sicily. Temple of Juno. The Temple was situate on the Promontory. the enchantress. a robber. Lake Fucinus. and the Sam- The Marsi were. before the time of Hannibal. The common story was. most anxious for civil war. 430-440. from Lacinius." at extending to the confines of Lucania and Apulia. &c. 4 it as far as Pelorus. they acquired the reputation among their Italian neighbours of being magicians. who was slain there by Hercules. is not pleased at making his way without effusion of blood. Marruvium was their chief town. except with' effusion of blood. who was slain and buried there but. 433. furious for war. who was worshipped here under the surname of Lacinia. Grotius. and at not being able to sally forth against the fields in hostile form. 1 By the Sabine ploughshare) ver. is often applied to the Sabines. or mountain. Pelorus was a Promontory. and at not marching . at the time when Sicily was not broken off from Italy by the intervening sea. this passage may be translated in two different ways. and is not pleased at marching through the Italian territories free from an enemy. Caesar. Cortius. the extremity of the range ended in Sicilian Pelorus \ 6 Caesar. until the sea pressing on cut short its boundaries. it is called by this name through * . received its name from the pilot of Hannibal. most anxious for civil war. embracing with its pine-clad rocks all the native races of Latium. a tribe of the Sabelli. is pleased at Dot making his way. though properly this race was divided into three classes. * To the Lacinian temples) ver. would render it. was a Promontory on the eastern coast of Bruttium. /* not pleased at) ver. and It had a celebrated forming the western boundary of the Tarentine Gulf. and the ocean forced back the land. Sicilian Pelonu) ver. 439. it deserts not Hesperia before it is cut short by the waves of Scylla 2 .PHARSALIA. 434. 4 Longer than Italy. unfortunately for the truth of the story. and the remains of it are still The spot is said. and approved of by Weise. situate at the foot of the Apennines. Waves of Scylla) ver. 430." This is the translation suggested by Sulpitius. and The term " Sabellas. or Lacinia. But after the earth was separated by the two seas. properly speaking. 435. The Sabini were an ancient and powerful race in Central Italy. Owing to the peculiar manner in which Lucan makes use of the conjunctions copulative and negative.

that the only partizans of Pompey and the Senate were shut up in the fortified towns of Italy." * If again the earth) ver. "Non perdat iter." The first is probably the correct translation. too. the billows still retain the effects of the former wind. gratuitously a lover of bloodshed. 51. the God of the Winds. and rush down upon the deserted fields. See the JEneid of Virgil. i. as we find that the march of Caesar through the boundaries of Italy was unimpeded. By paths permitted he is reluctant to proThen the cities ceed. ii. as making him(though contrary to the real fact). 440-459." " Would not wish to loseadvantage the benefit of a an as march. hi doubt. and thereupon gaining the opportunity of gathering spoil as he proceeds. : . . which is quite consistent with the design of Lucan throughout the work. as to have broken them down nor so much for the fields to be ploughed by the submitting husbandman. 456. still with stout ramparts strengthen their walls. sends forth the eastern gales over the swelling waves. et seq. with his dread-sounding blasts. as if the land were laid waste with fire and sword. B. enemy's though through country. now Stromboli. of Latium. and awaited him in Campania. and wavering with varying party feelings. Besides. This is the more clear. was said to have his abode. for Pompey had withdrawn his forces to the south. and surround them on every side with the deep trench. 71 otherwise than by the shedding of blood. off the coast of Italy. He probably means the land of Strongyle. the first mode of translation would tend to blacken the character of Caesar. Round masses of stone. where were the persons to defend the fields'? It is notorious. 442. one of the Liparian or jEolian Islands. although swept by this fresh one. and that he cannot lay waste the limits of Hesperia now free from an enemy. and to appear to be a fellow-citizen. through the Italian territories free from an enemy. It delights him not so much to enter the opening gates. and while the heavens give way to the eastern 1 . . The multitude is more favourable to Magnus. for Weise very justly asks. and he would not lose the advantage of his march and would be leading on force hand to hand with force. they provide upon the lofty towers of the walls. possesses the 2 if again the earth sea.B. . and at being able to sally forth tigainst the fields in hostile form. 1. 1 Would not lose the of his march) ver.] PHAESALIA. and darts which may be hurled from above against the foe. although about to yield at the first alarm of the approaching warfare. on the other hand. where /Kolus. him do all the billows follow loosened by the stroke of the JSolian trident. and attachment struggles with threatening terror just as when the south wind.

35. He was the son-in-law of Pompey. but on the rapid approach of Caesar. He fell at the battle of Munda. he was defeated in a naval battle by C. warfare) ver. 463. B. This was Faustus Cornelius by his fourth wife. forsook his charge and hastened to join the Consuls in Campania.PHARSALIA. 34. 72 [B. When Pompey left Italy. ch. Augustus afterwards married his sister.C. should be excluded from their town and walls . But terror was able readily to change their feelings. Joinparty. 12: "In the meantime. was carried to Caesar. 3 Did Sulla wage the civic Sulla. Caesar says. lost the disposal of itself. wherefore he ought to pay some regard to the opinion of . ing Cneius Pompeius in Spain. and made his escape his soldiers deserted him on the This was Q. and he was Consul with M. with the assistance of Juba. Thermus repulsed . distrusting the affections of the townsmen. his son Sextus. the Praetor. in his History of the Civil War. be detached Curio. 46ti. law of Sextus Pompeius. B. This was P. c. 465. but that the feelings of all the inhabitants were very well inclined towards himself. Auximum was a large town of Picenum. the son of Pompey the Great He was entrusted with the command of Etruria. Scribonia. formerly Proroad. he was murdered in a tumult of the soldiers. Caesar thus relates the present circumstance in his Civil War. but finally deserted him. a son of the Dictator. Attius Varus. i. 2 Now. and a Roman colony. Didius. rushing through the name 1 Scribonius Libo was the father-inFlight of frightened Lilo) ver. when the approachattacked Auximum 5. * Attacked Auximum) ver. which. Thermus repulsed) ver. which he had at Ariminum and Pisaurus. being informed that Thermus. he subdued for the Pompeian He afterwards burnt several of Caesar's ships at Adrumetum. and now. 453-467. Minutius Thermus. and went over to M. Nor with his father's auspices did Sulla wage the civic warfare . Thermus. . a zealoas partizan of Pompey in the Civil War. turning his back. on :1 hearing the ing troops 4 of Caesar. B. in the victor's camp. 13 "On news of Caesar's approach. n. yet neither they nor the rest of the freemen were willing that Caius Caesar. a general who had merited so well of the : state. was in possession of Iguvium [an important city of Umbria]. 4 Varus. Varus. Being taken prisoner by Caesar after the battle of Thapsus. and his head. with three cohorts. with that of Labienus. and fortune swayed their wavering attachment. The Etrurian race was left defenceless by the flight of a Umbria frightened Libo '. after performing such great achievements. winds sweeping along the clouds. when) ver. the waves still obey the southern gales. and. the senate of Auximum went in a body to Attius Varus. he followed the fortunes of praetor in Asia. drew his cohorts out of it. Caecilia Metella. Antony. on the approach of Caesar. Upon notice of his approach. and returned home. and told him that it was not a subject for them to determine upon. crossed over into Greece. It is not known at what time he died. i.C. and was fortifying the town. with five cohorts. Antony in the year B. joining his party." After the death of Pompey. 466. 462. he crossed over to Africa.

Varus was deserted by his troops. it is not improbable that Lucan has confounded Attius Varus with C. to supply the great loss which he had sustained by the defeat of his legates. on the approach of Caesar. Citadel of Asculum) ver. sometimes called Luceria. and standards that escort no cohorts 4 Thou.B. and the rest came over to Caesar. and had a Temple of Minerva. some time before withdrawn from Ceesar's arms by reason of the Parthian panic with which Magnus reinstated the Gallic losses. was deserted by a great part of his men. Titurius and Cotta. Spinther occupied that town with ten cohorts . ii. 469." 4 That escort no cohorts) ver. and. . on the borders of Samnium. This was not the case. a town of Picenum . too. with Lentulus these two he marched to Asculum. where are the rocks. B. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther. he fled from the town. and his own danger. the chief town of Picenum. flies where are 2 the woods. and when the battle began. A few of Caesar's front rank having pursued him. dost forsake the deserted 3 entrusted to thy charge. Lentulus is driven from 3 The victor presses upon them rethe citadel of Asculum treating. it was a Roman municipium. and draws over the troops and alone out of a force so great the commander escapes. Marcellus. and another which had formerly been raised and lent to him by Pompey. and fled with him to the isle of Rhodes. the father-in-law of Pompey. 15: meantime. 469. This was P. Scipio. and in attempting to bring off his cohorts with him. drew out of the of Vibullius Rufus. who afterwards joined Pompey in Greece. . PHAKSALIA. In reference to the preceding passage." 1 Rushing through the walls} ver. Attius the Pelignian. " In the c. 467. There was another town in Apulia of the same name. His subsequent fate is not known. the Consul. whom he added shortly afterwards to the forces posterity. 3 This was Asculum. Nuceria. Attius Varus town the garrison he had placed there." of Apulia. It was situate on a was a town This was now held by L. 467-477. . Scipio. gave to his father-in-law the loan of Eoman blood. but on being informed of Csesar's approach. " citadel of Nuceria) ver. Caesar delivered to Bibulus one legion as his own. is posted in this camp. 473. By the mention of his mode of escape. some of whom dispersed to their homes. In obedience to this decree. . 471. for the purpose probably of weakening Ccesar. most hardy youthful band . i. and fled. his rear neglected. had prevailed on the Senate to make a decree that Csesar should give up one legion and Pompey another. whilst he himself summoned them to the warfare. who. as some of his men still remained with him.] 73 on the opposite side. Caesar thus mentions this circumstance in his Civil War. obliged him to halt. Alarmed at this declaration. These legions were now with Scipio in the town of Nuceria. leaped from the walls of Sulmo with the intention of-escaping. which they pretended to be about to send to the Parthian war. the 8 The Pompeian partizan. 2 Lentulus is driven) ver. the twelfth legion came to join Caesar. steep hill. although a citadel of Nuceria walls J .

were repulsed. that with thy foaming tide." No more having said. receive those recruits. 3 The river set at liberty) rer. he leads down from the walls his For when first. but these. Put a check upon the headlong leader Caesar first coming to a stop at this spot shall be to us a victory. At this line let the war come to a stand upon these banks let the foe at his leisure take his ease. where he commanded the left wing. But thee. risoned it with twenty cohorts. and collect together all the waters. L c. 3 The abodes of Corfinium) ver. 492. 16. bear off the alder timbers. on which. Hasten on. n. among which were those soldiers who had He enclosed the Forum when Milo was arraigned for the death of Clodius. . he was obliged by his soldiers to surrender Corfinium . and sink the bridge under water and thou. 478. thou mayst. sent five cohorts to break down the bridge of the river. the battle of Pharsalia. stream. by reason of the bridge being in the act of being broken down. lie said. " Amne solute. L. in all thy strength. " to the banks of the river. now come forth. He afterward* became more closely allied with Fompey. he retired to Massilia. See the Civil War of Caesar. B. obey thy trumpet's call. which was three miles from the town. should Ccesar now come to a stand at any river. 479. from the plains. "Is it not enough to have sought a lurking-place for your cowardice within walls? Do you close up the plains. after the waters of Rubicon. valiant Domitius 1 the abodes of Corfinium 2. Antony. from thy mountain sources. the active band." as it were. . Corfinium was the chief town of Ahenobarbus had garthe Peligni in Samnium : it is now called Popolo." " The river being about to be let loose. my comrades. and attempt to keep me hi check with streams? Not. if Ganges with his swelling tide were to separate me. 3 river set at liberty ." glittering in the glistening sun. meeting the advance-guard of Caesar's army. which he defended He afterwards joined Pompey in Thessaly. 478-499. Caesar beheld his passage being cut off. . . surrounded by strong walls. When he beheld afar an immense cloud arising on the plain. onward." or " set free. the structure broken. in vain. ye foot . ye squadrons of horse . Being abandoned by Pompey. . ye cowards. 1 Thee. and was slain at against Caesar. excited by boiling indignation. which once were placed around the polluted Milo. valiant Domitius) ver. offended at the remissness of his leader. . and followed the opinions of Cato. too. and the ranks shining with weapons " Run down. whose sister Forcia he had married. said he. 74 [B. Cicero asserts in his Second Philippic.PHABSALIA. Domitius Ahenobarbus was one of the most active opponents of Pompey and Caesar on their coalition. that he fell by the hand of M.

Domitius had endeavoured to poison himself on being about to fall in the hands of Caesar. He not only dismissed Domitius. and to restore the Tribunes of the people. he.B. Domitius. to say that they were ready to deliver the town and Domitius into his hands. seizing him. however. . while planks. They were on light frames. According to some accounts. Domitius determined on escaping from the town. 507. B. and the mantelet 2 had moved on beneath the midst of the 3 walls when lo a crime in warfare the gates being opened. and is brought safe to the citadel of the enemy. Csesar was aware both that punishment was wished for and that pardon was " Live 5 " dreaded 4 on. 512. his features contemptuously scowling. disdaining the bridge. and their stalwart arms hurled the darts to the opposite bank. The " vinese. PHARSALIA. its guard being put to flight. the troops dragged forth their captive chief. who had been expelled from the City. with undaunted neck did his high-born courage demand the sword. and that if any opportunity should offer." so that a passage by the bridge is probably meant. Still. stones. . ! . much like a shower thickly falling. in the Civil " War. sent dispatches to Cassar. n. 19. It is hard to say whether "ingreditur" here means that he crossed the river by the bridge. said he) ver. speaks of marching his legions over. the facts were these : Domitius. And now he was erecting towers to discharge vast masses. were roofs or sheds. 20). and fires hurled from the walls of the besieged town on the assailants. or that. was to come to Pompey A with his whole force. under which the besiegers protected themselves from the darts. 499-512. The roof and sides were formed of wicker-work. 506. 1 Caesar enters upon) ver. On this. His intentions becoming suspected. received an answer that Pompey would not encounter the risk of relieving him. 16. 503. his troops mutinied. Caesar. but his physician only gave him a sleeping potion. . and. injure any one. Caesar enters 1 upon the stream left vacant. covered with wet cloth or raw hides. as he had retreated to Corfinium without his own advice or consent." said he although thou art unwillsaid. and before the feet of his haughty fellow-citizen he stood. but even returned him sixty sestertia. .] ascend the bridge about to " fall ! 75 When this had been the light horsemen gave full rein along the plain. also supported the sides. 8 Live on. imparting his design to a few of his friends. c. They received their name from their resemblance to a leafy bower. * That pardon was dreaded) ver. Caesar says that Lentulus Spinther interceded with him for the lives of Domitius and the other nobles taken at Coron which the conqueror replied that he had not left his Province to tinium. 2 And the mantelet) ver." which were similar to what " are called " mantelets in modern warfare. i. C. 3 crime in warfare) ver. i. formed by the branches of vines. he forded it with his troops. having sent to Pompey for aid. According to Caesar (Civil War. 511. and were either carried or wheeled by the soldiers to the walls. B. but to protect himself against the malice of his enemies.

76 [B. in your aspirations demand the fight. B. to whom the Senate has given arms in no private cause '. '-' . O truly Roman band. n. Roman's shame to whom it is the very greatest of punishments. checks his heavy wrath. how much more becomingly might Fortune have spared a ing . their side let the criminality commence. 533. and to himself he says. c. Alas! even his murder perpetrated. that we were the first to endure the casualties of war On . In allusion to the Gallic forces who accom- . and the whole of the Senate. not aware of the chieftain being taken. yer. Well have the Gods provided. e'en now. he might recruit his party. With ruthless . See the Civil War.PHARSALIA. on the ensuing day. 512-640. " Non privata. to Rome. destined soon to die ? Rush on assured. and thus be rid of Caesar's gift. and who have followed the preferable standards. and burst asunder all delay to losing thy life." " in no private cause. i. and the retreats of peace? Dost thou not prepare to go into the midst of the frenzy of war. but j atJier is Rome it seek right for the wrath of an though he knew that it was a sum originally provided to pay the adherents of Pompey. The Gallic rage) panied Caesar. 1 In no private cause) ver. punishment and vengeance. to be pardoned because he has followed the camp of his country and Magnus for his leader. 22. if thou shalt be overcome. : ravages the fields of Hesperia glow along the icy Alps is poured forth the Gallic rage already has blood touched the polluted swords of Caesar. and thinking that the resentment of the soldiers about to move might be ascertained. Magnus was preparing arms. . myself the umpire. " And wilt thou repair. with a voice moving veneration he addressed the silent cohorts "0 avengers of crimes. 535. and orders the chains to be loosened on his tightened hands." In the meantime." lie having been enjoined to undertake the war against Caesar on behalf of the 1 state. that. And now. and the example of myself. undismayed. and by my bounty behold the light of day. about to order the trumpet to sound. To the conquered faction now let there be bright hopes. 23." He thus speaks. degenerate man. even if it pleases thee try arms once more and nothing for this pardon do I stipulate. let Nor indeed these to be called real battles. "Now. with strength intermingled. He.

548. laid prostrate. He probably alludes in particular to L. however. who had lost his seat in the Senate. Petreius. where he was again repulsed. but lost his sight in consequence .] 77 No more is this a war than when avenging country. submitting to my axe. 546. is buried ! . 540-548. n. 2 He alludes to an ancient Cethegus. the partizan of Marius. He at length succeeded in regaining power. M. 545. a 544. who. and was rewarded with a statue in the to the Capitol. collected an army in Etruria. and fled with the remainder of his troops to Sardinia. 1. submitting) ver. when. he had Rome to the flames. and is supposed to have died of grief. 547. Catulus Lepidus fell) ver. who. when Consul. 543. . x Catiline prepared the torches to blaze amid the houses. he rescued the Palladium from the Temple of Vesta when on fire. with his naked shoulders ~. He alludes to the intended rebel- lion of L. raising an army. in his Art of Poetry. refers more * And the great Metelli) ver. and the frantic band O frenzy of the of Cethegus. He was. the evidence against him being the swords and daggers which he had collected in doned of the associates of Catiline. Cornelius Lentulus Sura. PHARSALIA. He was 6 By by his own troops when marching against Sulla. who. no doubt. though using the plural especially to M. when he distinguished himself by his cruelty. waged open war against the He was defeated by M. ^iniilius Lepidus. Papirius Carbo was one of the leaders finally slain . the father of the Triumvir. Sergins Catilina. and the Camilli) ver. 541. * Among the Cinnce) ver. Among number. he was therefore allowed the privilege. destined the City of with desperate courage. Furius Camillus. arrested. previously granted to no one. the patriotic Dictator. Caecilius Metellus. leader greatly to be pitied When. Cn. The person here mentioned was C. and. Information of the conspiracy was given to Cicero. Cornelius Cethegus. 50. the Fates could wish to enrol thee among the Camilli 3 and the great Me5 4 telli among the Cinnse and the Marii dost thou come. and Lentulus the partner in his fury. of riding Senate-house in a chariot. When high priest. 7 Carbo. the deliverer of Rome from Gallic bondage. on which. his house. and other conspirators. with his naked shoulders) ver. of wearing the arms bare. Caesar. He. successfully opposed the Carthaginians in the first Punic war. and marched against Rome. and put to death. being declared by the Senate an enemy to the state. fashion which seems to have prevailed among the Cethegi. who endeavoured to recall Marius to Rome when in banishment in Africa. Here he was defeated in the Campus Martius by Pompey and Catulus. Catiline and others left the City. Cornelius Cinna. Horace.B. one of the most abanIt was to have been his part to murder the leading Senators. refers to the same custom. When 1 Catiline prepared) ver. and was slain in battle fighting state. who took instant measures to quell it . and became Consul jointly with Marius. in conjunction with P. as by Catulus Lethou shalt be Assuredly 7 6 pidus fell and Carbo. He alludes to L.

to the command of the war against him. If the Gods of heaven have ordained that thou as well shalt be added to my titles of triumph. Lucan unjustly quotes him as an instance of the prowess of Pompey having dealt retribution against rebellion. Licinius Crassus. And madness. Though he commanded one of the four armies which besieged Rome under Marius and Ginna. espoused his cause against the aristocratic party. and for many years kept the forces of Pompey and Metellus at bay. while Caesar had the veterans in his camp. of the Marian faction. too 1 . 548-561. and destroyed a great portion of their troops. He was assassinated. " Would that Crassus had returned safe after the battles of the Parthians. Sertorius. in Sicily. Long after the death of Marius he asserted his own independence in Spain. Although he styles me enfeebled and worn In this camp let the chief out. * The foeman Spartacut felt) ver. :< . he was entirely averse to the bloodshed which ensued. after rebuking him. He conducted the war in Cisalpine Gaul and Spain against the generals of Sulla. Regaining his freedom. Going thence to the isle of Cossyra. let not my age alarm you. M. by Metellns. mighty is my right arm at hurling the javelin this . though fully sensible of the faults of Marins. he headed his fellow slaves. and victorious from the regions of Scythia. B. Alluding to senior of Caesar. glowing blood has again waxed warm around my heart. he was taken prisoner by the emissaries of Pompey. Sertorins. a larger number of young recruits. who had long been jealous of him. 1 Sertorius. one of the most gallant of the Romans. Spartacus was a Thracian by birth. and that Rome has opposed my hands to thee in thy in a Sicilian sepulchre. an exixe. and afterwards a leader of banditti. and originally a shepherd. near Malta. if there is any belief in me. his old com- mander. 561. Q. aroused the fierce Iberians. 78 [B.C. who. defeated him at the river Silarus in a decisive battle. too) ver. 72. 549.PHAKSALIA. his being the and he himself . that not all who could submit to peace are cowards in war. 554. be more aged so long as the soldier is more aged in that. which he gent to Sulla. Csesar. and with Norbanus was finally defeated near Faventia. Being taken prisoner. had his head struck off. the Roman Praetor. who. thou shalt learn. after gaining several advantages. he was sold to a trainer of gladiators. He fled first to Africa and thence to Sicily. He was brought in chains to Pompey at Lilybseum. and. n. in armies. and defeated several of the Roman After a successful career. then a soldier. in Italy. by Perperna and some others of his officers. that thou mightst fall by a like cause to that by which the foeman Spartacus fell-. Regardless of his merits. 3 Let the chief be more aged) ver. to add thee as well to these. yet. I grudge. was appointed which Spartacus was skin.


n. 562-586.]




whatever height a free people could elevate a citizen,
have I ascended, and nothing have I left above
me hut the sovereignty. No private station does he desire,
whoever in the Boman City attempts to be higher than
Pompey. Here on our side either Consul is, here on our
side are the ranks of our nobles to take their stand.
Csesar be the conqueror of the Senate ? Not to that degree,
O Fortune dost thou drag onward all things in thy blind


career and feel ashamed at nothing.
" Does
Gaul, rebellious now for many a year and an age
Is it, because he
spent in labours, impart courage ?
of the Ehine, and, calling the
fled from the cold waves
shallows 3 of a fluctuating sea the ocean, he showed his
Or do
frightened back to the Britons he had sought out ?
vain menaces swell, because the rumour of his frenzy has
driven the City in arms from its paternal abodes ? Alas !
madman, they fly not from thee ; all are following me who,
when I raised my standards gleaming over the whole ocean,
before Cynthia had twice filled her completed orb, the pirate
abandoned every ford of the sea, and asked for a home*
in a narrow allotment of land.
I too, more fortunate than
Sulla 5 pursued to the death, the monarch hitherto unsubdued 6 and who stayed the destinies of Eome, flying in exile
through the retreats of Scythian Pontus.
" No
portion of the world is unconnected with me, but
the whole earth is occupied by my trophies, under whatever
sun it lies. Hence do the Arctic regions own me as a victor
at the cold waves of Phasis 7 ; a meridian clime is known to





Multis lustris," literally " for
year) ver. 568, 69.
periods of four or five years.
the cold -waves) ver. 570.
He alludes to the return of Caesar

For many a
many lustra,' or


Fled from
from Germany into Gaul, and
call it a flight.


for the

Calling the shallows) ver. 571.
asked for a home) ver. 579.


sake of a rhetorical

See B.


pretends to

Alluding to his conquest of the Cilician


pirates and their subsequent settlements.
More fortunate than Sulla) ver. 512. This is said antithetically, and
the words " although he was called fortunate (felix)," must be supposed to
be supplied. Sulla had previously gained some victories over Mithridates.
The monarch hitherto unsubdued) ver. 581. In allusion to his victories
over Mithridates.
The cold traves of Phasis) ver. 585. Phasis, now the Faz or Rioni,
was a famous river of Colchis. In ancient times it was crossed by 120





n. 686-596.



in hot Egypt
and in Syeiie which on no side diverts
The west obeys my laws, and the Hesperian
Bsetis', that beyond all rivers dashes into the retreating
Tethys. The subdued Arab has known me ; me the Hes
and the Colchians, famed for the fleece
niochi, fierce in war
borne away. My standards do the Cappadocians dread, and
and the
Judaea, devoted to the rites of an unknown God
luxurious Sophene 7
The Armenians, and the fierce Cili8
What war but a
cians, and the Taurians have I subdued.
civil one to my father-in-law have I left ?
His partizans followed the words of the chieftain with no






and had many towns on its banks. When conquered by Pompey,
Hithridates took refuge in the wild and inaccessible regions beyond the
Phasis, whither Pompey found himself unable to pursue him.
Known to me in hot Egypt) ver. 587. He had been sent by the Roman
Senate to Egypt to be the guardian of Ptolemy, the youthful king of that



And in Syene) ver. 587. Syene was a city of Upper Egypt, on the
eastern bank of the Nile, just below the first Cataract, and was considered
the southern frontier city of Egypt against Ethiopia.
It was an important
point in the geography and astronomy of the ancients, as appears from the
It lay just under the tropic of
expression used in the present instance.
Cancer, and was therefore chosen as the place through which they drew their
chief parallel of latitude.
The sun was vertical to Syene at the time of the
summer solstice, and a well was shown there where the face of the sun was
seen at noon at that time.

The Hesperian Badis)

ver. 589.




river in the south of Spain, was also called Tartessus
into the Atlantic to the north of Gades, now Cadiz.

the Guadalquivir, a




It falls



probably to his campaigns against Sertorius, which, however, certainly did not
redound to his credit as a general.
The subdued Arab) ver. 590. In his campaign in Syria and Palestine,
where he replaced Hyrcanus in possession of the government in opposition to
his brother Aristobulus.

The Heniochi, fierce in war) ver. 591. The Heniochi were a people of
Colchis famed for their piratical habits.
" Incerti
Rites of an unknown God) ver. 593.
Dei," a God unknown
to other nations.
It was at this period that Pompey restored Ariobarzanes,
king of Cappadocia, to his kingdom.
The luxurious Sophene) ver. 593. Sophene was a district of Greater
Armenia, lying between the ranges of Antitaurus and Masius, near the banks
of the Euphrates.
According to one of the Scholiasts it is here called

from the heat of the sun in those regions, but more probably it is
o termed by reason of the effeminacy of its inhabitants.
And the Tauriant) ver. 594. " Tauros." By this term he probably
means the inhabitants of the country adjoining the great mountain range of

Taurus in Central Asia.


B. ii.




demand the speedy trumpet signal
promised fight. Magnus too himself perceived
their fears, and it pleased him that his standards should he
borne back, and not to expose to the risks of a combat so
decisive troops already vanquished by the fame of Csesar
not yet seen by them. Just as among the herds a bull,
worsted in the first combat, seeks the recesses of the
woods, and, exiled amid the vacant fields, tries his horns
upon the opposing trunks and returns not to the pastures,
but when, his neck reinvigorated, his muscles exercised
give him confidence then, soon victorious, the bulls accompanying, he leads the recovered herds, maugre the shepherd,
to any pastures he lists
so, unequal in strength, Magnus
surrendered Hesperia, and taking to flight over the Apulian fields ascended the secure towers of Brundisium 1
This is a city once possessed by Dictsean colonists 2
whom, flying from Crete, the Cecropian ships bore along
the seas, with sails that falsely told a that Theseus was conquered. In this region, the coast of Hesperia, which now
contracts itself into a narrow arch, extends into the sea
a small tongue, which, with its curving horns, shuts in the
waves of the Adriatic. Nor yet would this water inclosed
hi the narrowed inlet form a harbour, if an island did not
receive upon its rocks the violent north-west gales, and
turn back the dashing waves.
On the one side and on the
other nature has opposed mountains with craggy cliffs to
the open main, and has warded off the blasts, so that, held
applause, nor did they

for the







by the shaking cables, ships can stand there. Hence
and wide extends all the ocean, whether the sails are

Secure towers of Brundisium) ver. 609. Caesar says, in his " Civil War,"
c. 84,
Pompey, being informed of what had passed at Corfinium,
marched from Luceria to Canusium, and thence to Brundisium." This was
a town of Calabria, on a small bay of the Adriatic, forming an excellent



harbour, to which the place owed its importance.
Dictcecm colonists) ver. 610.
Or Cretan colonists, so called from
Dicte, a mountain in the eastern part of Crete, where Jupiter is said to have

been reared.




falsely told)




alludes to the story of

Theseus having returned from Crete, by inadvertence, with black sails, when
they ought, according to the arrangement previously made, to have been
white ; on which JEgeus, his father, threw himself into the sea.
means that Brundisium was colonized by the Cretans who had escaped
from Crete with Theseus in the Cecropian or Athenian ships.





IL 622-638.

borne, Corcyra, to thy harbours', or whether on the left
Illyrian Epidamnus is sought, bordering upon the Ionian
waves. Hither is the flight of mariners, when the Adriatic
has put forth all its strength, and the Ceraunia have dis4
appeared in clouds, and when the Calabrian Sason is
washed by the foaming main.
Therefore, when there is no hope in the affairs that have
been left behind, and there is no means of turning the
warfare to the hardy Iberians, since the Alps, with their
immense tracts, lie extended between, then that son 5 one
of a progeny so great, whose age M more advanced, he
thus addresses
"I bid you try the distant regions of the world.
Arouse the Euphrates and the Nile 6 even as far as the fame
of my name has reached, cities through which the fame of




Home has been spread abroad after myself as her general.
Bring back to the seas the Cilician colonists scattered amid
the fields.
On the one side arouse the Pharian kings 7 and

my friend



neglect not, I advise thee, the
tribes that wander

arms of Pharnaces 8 nor yet do thou the

Corcyra, to thy harbours) ver. 623. Corcyra, now Corfu, was an island
in the Ionian Sea, off the coast of Epirus, long famed for the naval enterprise of its inhabitants.


Illyrian Epidamnus) ver. 624.
Epidamnus was a town in Greek Illyon the Adriatic Sea. It was founded by the Corcyreans, and received
from them the name of Epidamnus but when the Romans became masters
of the country, they changed the name to Dyrrhacbium, as it reminded them
" misfortune." It
of their word "


damnum," signifying loss,"
usual place of landing for those who crossed over from Brundisium.
And the Ceraunia) ver. 626. The Ceraunia, or Acroceraunia, were
immense rocks on the coast of Epirus.


Calabrian Sason)


rocky island


off the coast of Illyria,


Sason, or Saso, was a small
to the north of the promontory of

frequented by pirates.




called Sasseno, or


Then that son) ver. 631. His son Cneius Pompeius.
Arouse the Euphrates and the Jfile) ver. 633. He is to repair to the
Euphrates and the Nile to invoke the aid of the kings of Parthia and Egypt.
Arouse the Pharian kings) ver. 636. Lucan frequently calls the Egyp"
from the island of
situate at the mouth

Tigranes was king of Armenia, and was indebted to


of the Nile.


for his

The arms of Pharnaces)

properly, of the Bosporus,

Pharnaces, king of Pontus or, more
a son of Mitbridates the Great.
He com-

ver. 637.







in either Armenia, and the fierce nations along the shores
of Pontus, and the Rhipoean bands ', and those whom on
its frozen waves the sluggish swamp of Miotis
enduring the
Scythian waggon,
any further delay ?
Throughout the entire East, my son, thou wilt carry
the warfare, and awaken all the cities that have been
subdued throughout the entire world ; let all my triumphs

my camp. You too, who mark the
Latian annals with your names, let the first northern
breeze bear you to Epirus thence, throughout the fields of
the Greeks and the Macedonians acquire new strength,
while winter affords time for peace." Thus he speaks, and
all obey his commands, and unmoor their hollow ships from
repair once again to


the shore.

But, never enduring peace and a long cessation from
arms, lest it may be in the power of the Fates to work
any change, Caesar follows, and presses hard on the footTo others would have sufficed so
steps of his son-in-law.
many fortified towns captured at the first assault, so many
towers overwhelmed, the enemy expelled; thou thyself,
Rome, the Capital of the world, the greatest reward of the
warfare, so easy to

be taken.


Cffisar, precipitate


thinking nothing done while anything remains to be done, fiercely pursues and still, although
he is hi possession of the whole of Italy, because Magnus
is located on its extreme shores, does he
grieve that as yet
it is common to them ; nor on the other hand is he


pclled his father to put an end to his own life ; and, to secure himself on the
throne, sent offers of submission with hostages to Pompey in Syria, and
the body of his father to Sinope to be at the disposal of the Roman general.

Pompey accepted his submission, and gave him the kingdom of the Bosporus,
with the title of friend and ally of the Roman people.
Pharnaces afterwards
took advantage of the Civil Wars, and reconquered nearly the whole of his
father's dominions, but was defeated
by Csesar at the battle of Zela, and
shortly afterwards perished.




Rhipaan, bands)


ver. 640.

Rhipacan was a general and indefimountains

for the northern nations of
Scythia ; but the Rhipaean
are supposed to have been a western branch of the Uralian chain,

Swamp of Maotu) ver. 641. He alludes to the Palus Maeotis, or Sea
of Azof, which, when frozen, was said to be crosied by the Nomad tribes
of Scythia with their waggons.
So many fortified towns) ver. 653. Of which number the Poet has
already specified Ariminum,

Auximnm, Asculum, Luceria,and


o 2




n. 661-673.

that the foe should wonder on the open main, but with
and the expansive ocean
moles he dams out the waves
with rocks hm*led down.
To no purpose is this labour bestowed on the immense
undertaking ; the voracious sea sucks in all the rocks, and
mingles the mountains with its sands just as, if the lofty
Eryx- were thrown down into the midst of the waves of
the ^Egean Sea, still no rocky heights would tower above
the main or if Gaurus his pinnacles rooted up, were to
fall down to the very depths of stagnant Avernus.
Therefore, when in the shoals no mass retained its weight, then
it pleased him, the woods cut down, to connect rafts, and
to fasten together with wide extent the trunks of trees by








tion of


relates that exulting

out the waves) ver. 662.

Xerxes constructed 4 such a

This passage

what Caesar himself has written on the




Pompey remained



best explained


by a


Brundisium he might command

states that

the whole Adriatic Sea, with the extremity of Italy and the coast of Greece,
and be able to conduct the war on either side of it, and, fearing that he would
not relinquish Italy, he determined to deprive him of his means of communiFor that purpose (Civil War, B. i. c. 25), " where the mouth of
the port was narrowest, he threw up a mole of earth on either side, because
in these places the sea was shallow.
Having gone out so far that the mole
could not be continued into deep water, he fixed double floats, thirty feet on
either side, before the mole. These he fastened with four anchors at the four
corners, that they might not be carried away by the waves.
Having completed and secured them, he then joined to them other floats of equal size.
These he covered over with earth and mould, that he might not be prevented
from access to them to defend them, and on the front and both sides he protected them with a parapet of wicker-work: and on every fourth one he
raised a turret two stories high, to secure them the better from being attacked
by shipping and set on fire."
As, \f the lofty Eryx) ver. 666. Eryx was a lofty mountain of Sicily,
on the summit of which there was a Temple sacred to Venus.
Or if Gaums) ver. 667. Gaurus was the name of a volcanic range of
mountains in Campania. Avernus was a small lake seated near their foot,
It was supposed to be connected
filling the crater of an extinct volcano.
with the Infernal Regions. The mephitic vapours were so powerful as to be
said to kill the birds that attempted to-fly over it.
Exulting Xerxes constructed) ver. 672. Xerxes, king of Persia, the
eon of Darius and Atossa, when invading Europe, had a bridge of boats
thrown across the Hellespont from the vicinity of Abydos on the Asiatic
aide, to the coast between Sestos and Abydos on the European, where the

straits are

about a mile in width.



bridge having been destroyed


B. ii.




passage over the seas, when, daring great things, with his
bridges he joined both Europe to Asia, and Sestos to Abydos 1 and walked over the straits of the rapid Hellespont,
not fearing Eurus and Zephyrus at the time when he would
have borne his sails and ships through the midst of Athos 2
In such manner are the inlets of the deep narrowed by the
fall of the woods
then with many a mound the work
rises apace, and the tall towers vibrate over the seas.
Pompey, seeing the inlets of the deep choked up with land
newly-formed, vexed his mind with carking cares how to open
the sea, and to spread the warfare over the main.
Full oft,
filled by the southern gales, and dragged by extended cables
through the obstructions of the sea themselves, ships dashed
down into the salt tide the summits of the mass, and
made room for the barks 4 to enter; the balista, too, hurled
by stalwart arms amid the shades of night, hurled torches
cleft into many parts.
When at length the occasion
suited for a stolen flight, he first ordered his followers that
no sailors' clamour should arouse, or clarion divide 3 the




a storm, the despot caused the heads of the chief engineers to be cut off, and
commanded the Straits to be scourged, and a set of fetters to be cast therein.
A new bridge was then formed consisting of a double line of ships. (See
Herodotus, B.


viii. c.

Sestos to



in story for the loves of
Heroides of Ovid.

ver. 674.
Sestos and Abydos have been famed
Hero and Leander. See their Epistles in the

Athos is a mountain which was
tfte midst of Alhos) ver. 677.
Lucan here
Acte, projecting from Chalcidice in Macedonia.
alludes to the canal which Xerxes ordered to be cut through the Isthmus of
Mount Athos, from the Strymonic to the Toronaic Gulf, that his ships
might pass through; the remains of which work are to be seen at the


also called

present day.


cables) ver. 683. They were not only impelled by
but were also dragged on by means of ropes from the shore, on account

Dragged by extended


of their unwieldy size.
Made room for the barks) ver. 685. Caesar, in the Civil War, B. L
" To counteract
26, gives the following account of these operations
Pompey fitted out large merchant ships, which he found in the harbour of



Brundisium ; on them he erected turrets three stories high, and, having furnished them with several engines and all sorts of weapons, drove them
amongst Caesar's works, to break through the floats and interrupt the works;
thus there occurred skirmishes every day with slings, arrows, and other
Or clarion divide) ver. 689. The "buccina" was properly a trumpet
made from the conch-shell, and as such, in the hands of Triton, is described




n. 689-703.

hoars, or trumpet lead the sailors, instructed beforehand,

out to sea.

Now had the Virgin, towards her close 1 begun to precede
the claws of the Scorpion that were to bring on Phoebus, when
in silence the ships were unmoored.
No .anchor arouses
then* voices 2 while from the dense sands its hook is being
dragged. While the sailyards are being set to tJic wind, and
while the lofty pine-tree mast is being raised, the anxious
masters of the fleet are silent; and the sailors, hanging
by the ropes, unfurl the tightened sails, nor shake the
stout shrouds, lest the air should breathe a whisper.


his aspirations, Fortune, entreats,
thou dost forbid him to retain, it may be at least allowed him to quit.
do the Fates permit it; for with a loud noise, impelled
by beaks of ships, the sea re-echoes, the waters dash,
and the billows with the tracks of so many ships tliere










by Ovid in the Metamorphoses, B. i.
made of metal to resemble the shell.
the " cornu






was probably


after times it

distinct in


form from

As mentioned in the present
;" but is often confounded with it
it was used
chiefly to proclaim the watches of the night and day,
which were hence called " buccina prima," " secunda," &c. The present
orders were given that Caesar's troops might not be put on the alert.
The Virgin, towards her dote) ver. 691. Weise has the following Note
" The time after
midnight is meant, before the dawn and the rising
of the sun, which the Poet describes as then being in Sagittarius.
For the
'Chelae are [the claws] of the Scorpion. By Virgo ultima' he means that
part of the constellation Virgo in the Zodiac which is nearest before the Scorinstance,








hour Pompey sets sail from the harbour, being aided by the
The meaning of the Poet seems to be that this took place in au-


tumn, although others write to a contrary effect."
jVb anchor arouses their voices) ver. 694. He alludes to the "celenima,"
or call, with which sailors keep time in heaving the anchor.
Ship* there intermingUd) ver. 703. Caesar gives the following interesting
" Pomaccount of this escape of Pompey, in his Civil War, B. i. c. 27, 26
pey now began to prepare for his departure on the arrival of the ships ; and
the more effectually to retard Caesar's attack, last his soldiers should force
their way into the town at the moment of his departure, he stopped up the
gates, built walls across the streets and avenues, sunk trenches across the
ways, and fixed on them palisadoes and sharp stakes which he made level
with the ground by means of hurdles and clay. But he barricaded with
large beams, fastened in the ground and sharpened at the ends, two passages
and roads without the walls, which led to the port. After making these
arrangements, he ordered his soldiers to go on board without noise, and dis:






Therefore, the enemy being received by the gates, all of
which throughout the city attachment changing with fortune has opened, and within the walls, winding along the

with precipitate course seek the entrance to the harO
bour, and are vexed that the fleet has reached the sea.
shame a slight victory is the flight of Pompey
narrow pass let the ships out to sea, more limited
than the Euboean tide where it beats upon Chalcis
stuck fast two ships, and received the grappling-irons prepared for the fleet ; and the warfare being thus dragged to
the shore 2 here, for the first time, did Nereus grow red with
the blood of citizens.
The rest of the fleet departs, despoiled of the two last ships ; just as, when the bark from
Pagasse sought the waves of Phasis, the earth shot forth
the Cyanean rocks 4 into the deep ; less by its stern torn off







posed here and there, on the walls and turrets, some light-armed veterans,
archers, and slingers. These he designed to call off by a certain signal, when
all the soldiers were embarked, and left
galleys for them in a secure place.
The people of Brundisium, irritated by the insolence of Pompey's soldiers,
and the insults received from Pompey himself, were in favour of Caesar's
party. Therefore, as soon as they were aware of Pompey's departure, whilst
his men were running up and down, and busied about their voyage, they
made signs from the tops of the houses; Caesar, being apprised of the design
by them, ordered scaling-ladders to be got ready and his men to take arms,
that he might not lose any opportunity of coming to an action.
weighed anchor at nightfall. The soldiers who had been posted on the wall

guard it, were called off by the signal which had been agreed on, and,
knowing the road, ran down to the ships."
Where it beats upon Chalcis) ver. 710. He compares the narrow pasto

sage leading out of the harbour to the Enripus or Straits of Eubffia, now the
straits of Negropont, which
Chalcis was a
separated it from the main land.
city of Eubcea.

To the shore) ver. 712. Caesar, in his Civil War, B. i. c. 28, gives this
" Caesar's soldiers fixed their ladders and scaled
account of their capture
the walls; but, being cautioned by the people to beware of the hidden stakes
and covered trenches, they halted, and being conducted by the inhabitants
by a long circuit, they reached the port and captured with their boats and
small craft two of Pompey's ships, full of soldiers, which had struck against

Caesar's moles."


The " manus,"

or " hands,"

mentioned by Lucan, were

harpagones," or grappling irons."
The bark from Pagasce) ver. 715. He speaks of the expedition of Jason
to Colchis, to recover the Golden Fleece, in the ship Argo, which was built


at Pagasae in
The Cyanean rocks) ver. 716. The story was, that when Jason's ship
passed between the Symplegades, or Cyanean Islands, which floated at the


the complexion of the eastern sky no longer the same warns that Phoebus is pressing on. now the Wain of the declining Bootes growing faint.PHARSALIA. they should ever after remain fixed to one spot. Magnus. -mouth of the Euxine Sea. The Pleiades were the daughters of Atlas and Pleione. . and is withdrawing their flames from the nearer stars and now the Pleiades . a mighty exile thou dost go. that Egypt appointed by the Fates as the scene of the death of Porapey. spot . * And now ike Pleiades) ver.are dim. in a remote region. the isles closed and struck off the stern of the Argo. The Constellation before the Great Bear was called Bootes. and the larger stars lie hid. Exhausted by thy triumphs. did the Argo escape from the mountains. It was ordained by the Fates that if any ship should pass in safety between the Symplegades. Banished with wife and children. 4 Not is sought for thy unworthy downfall because the Gods of heaven prefer to deprive thee of a sepulchre in thy native land are the Pharian sands condemned to be thy tomb. It is Hesperia that is spared in order that. companying A distant thee. not bearing with thee those destinies which thou wast wont. Now." 3 The Wain of the declining Bob'te*) ver. or Arctophylax. 722. and the pale light is not yet ruddy. n. when on earth she was united to a mortal whereas her sisters had intercourse only with Divinities. because. 1 Destined to stand. 719. as the story was. Fortune may hide the horrid deed. still. it bounded bacl) ver. :f . and. and dragging all thy household Gods to the warfare. 722. 4 For thy unworthy downfall) ver. . afar off. nations ac1 to stand. destined it bounded back Now. and Lucifer himself flies from the warm day. They were changed into stars. when over the waves throughout all seas thou didst give chase to the pirate. returns to the appearance of the serene heavens. thou hadst gained the open sea. 731. Arcturus. and in vain did the Symplegas strike at the vacant sea. . resembling that of the driver of a team. Fortune has forsaken thee. The name Bootes was derived from the position of the star before the wain. The Romans called them " Vergiliae. 717-736. . is . 88 [B. The meaning is. of which six were visible and the seventh invisible. and the Roman land be preserved unspotted by the blood of her own Magnus.

and the ships set in motion the middle of the deep. His former wife. are described. The Massilians are vanquished. 374-398. and forces the soldiers.89 BOOK THE THIKD. on his way to Spain. 1 9 Jidia) ver. 751. wearied limbs of the chieftain yield to sopor. 538Brutus arrives with his fleet. 141-152. Then. Caesar threatens resists the spoilers of the public treasury. and 2 to stand like a Fury above the lighted pyre.forth by night and is continued. repulse the enemy. The sea-fight is described. Pompey collects forces in Greece and Asia. the daughter of a Fury) Caesar. In the meantime is opened. he entrusts the siege to Trebonius. it WHEN the south wind pressing upon the yielding sails urged fleet. while he heheld his country's harbours. 304-357. to do so. full of dread horror. 358-374. 1-35. each sailor looked upon the Ionian waves Magnus alone did not turn his eyes from the Hesperian land. Departing for Spain. by whom him. 11. The Temple Gotta advises Metellus to yield. 169297. 497-508. While Pompey is crossing to Greece. "Expulsa. as she states to out the Civil Warfare. and is unable. 76-97The alarm at Rome deThe hostility of the Senate to Caesar. but that she is aroused by the portentousness of the Civil War. the ghost of Julia appears to him in a dream. to remain there any longer. To stand like was her errand. and the shores destined never to return to his gaze. and the peaks hidden in Then did the clouds. which are enumerated. He Cassar besieges Massilia. Caesar commands a sacred grove to be cut down. saidslie) ver. The attack is now carried on by sea. and Brutus is victorious. 752-762. 134-140. though reluctant. 153-168. said she 3 . civil war. from the interest she feels in it. . him. Caesar instructs Curio to procure corn in Sicily. Julia 1 seemed to raise her sorrowing head through the yawning earth. 509-537. to follow him with vengeance through- ver. CONTENTS. 453-496. 10." on the . repairs to Massilia. and the treasure is carried off." she is expelled from the abodes of the Blessed by force. The term "furialis" is used because it him. which has remained The people of Massilia send deputies to faithful to Pompey. deprecating The works The Massilians sally . 399-452. 98-133. and predicts the devastating nature of the war. a ghost. then marches to Rome. 36-45. Caesar. 46-70. and the dim mountains. Metellus the Tribune scribed. 12. ferous slumber. 298-303. vanish. * This term does not mean that Exiled. "from the Elysian abodes and the "Exiled. Pompey arrives in Epirus.

lia. fled. Cornelius Scipio. i. 1 The ferryman of scorched Acheron) ver. the civic warfare shall make thee mine. . The usual period of mourning among the Romans for a husband or wife was ten months (see the Fasti of Ovid. which she preserved on his Alban estate. who are breaking their threads quite weary the Destinies. Metellus. expanding for manifold punishments. 86). the son of the adoption by Q. In vain dost thou sever thy ties with the sword. husband. and let no time be left at leisure for your love. I will come into the midst of the ranks." Thus having said. Charon. lo my funereal pile stitt warm. in war and upon the deep. having been married to Pompey very shortly after Julia's death. Thou waging the warfare. m. the ferryman of hell. who perished with his father in the Parthian expedition. By haunting his thoughts and his dreams. Caecilius Metellus Scipio on account of his She was first married to Crawus. the ghost. While I was thy Avife. Never. is conse" " quently here called by the opprobioug name of supplanter. gliding away through the embrace of her trembling husband. 1. the supplanter Cornelia 2 has manned tlitc. with thy marriage Fortune has and ever condemned by fate to drag her changed mighty husbands to ruin. ! . and returning to Rome. 27." 3 A nd Julia thy nights) ver. within which space of time it was doomed infamous to marry Corne* . Magnus. . and the princes of the dead have allowed me to follow thee. since the civil warfare have I been dragged. Hardly with plying hand do all the Sisters suffice for the work those right . shortly after the death of his wife Julia. not the obliviousness of the Lethsean nights shore has made forgetful of thyself. and Tartarus is fields of the Blessed. 12-35. unto the Stygian shades and the guilty I myghosts. thou didst head the joyous triumphal processions. sometimes called Q. B. but both let Ctesar occupy thy days and Julia thy 3 Me." " paramour. received from him the ashes of her husband. self have beheld the Eumenides holding torches." or pellex.PHAR8ALIA. The supplanter Cornelia) ver 23. In the Triumvir. Magnus. 90 [B. " Let her. Cornelia was the daughter of P. by the Shades and by my ghost shall it be allowed thee not to have been his son-in-law. Acheron 1 is preparing boats innumerable. next year she was married to Pompej-. After the death of Pompey she was pardoned by Caesar. adhere to thy standards. the which The ferryman of scorched to brandish against your arms. so long as it is allowed me to break thy slumbers not secure from care. 17.






He, although the Deities and the Shades threaten de-

more boldly to arms, with a mind
" are we alarmed
assured of ill.
And, Why," says he,
Either there
at the phantom of an unsubstantial dream ?
is no sense left in the mind after death, or else death itself
Now the setting Titan was sinking in the
is nothing."
waves, and had plunged into the deep as much of his fiery
orb as is wont to be wanting to the moon, whether she is
about to be at full, or whether she has just been full ;
then did the hospitable land present an easy access to
the ships
they coiled up the ropes, and, the masts laid
down, with oars they made for the shore.
Csesar, when the winds bore off the ships thus escaping,
and the seas had hidden the fleet, and he stood the sole
struction, rushes the


on the Hesperian



no glory hi the expulsion of

Magnus caused joy to him but he complained that the
enemy had turned their backs in safety upon the deep.
Nor, indeed, did any fortune now suffice for the eager

hero nor was conquest of such value that he should delay
Then did he expel from his breast the care
the warfare.

arms and become intent upon peace, and in what
manner he might conciliate the fickle attachment of the


populace, fully aware that both the causes of anger and the
highest grounds of favour originate in supplies of corn. For
it is famine alone that makes cities free, and respect is
purchased when the powerful are feeding a sluggish multitude.
A starving commonalty knows not how to fear 1
Curio is ordered to pass over- into the Sicilian cities, where
the sea has either overwhelmed the land with sudden waves or
has cut it asunder and made the mid-land 3 a shore for itself.









fear) ver. 58.

pats over)



Being always ready for insurrection.
The movements of Caesar at this con-


Therejuncture are thus related by himself in the Civil War, B. i. c.
fore, for the present, he relinquished all intention of pursuing Pompey, and
resolved to march to Spain, and commanded the magistrates of the free
to procure him ships, and to have them conveyed to Brundisiiim.
detached Valerius, his lieutenant, with one legion to Sardinia Curio, the



recovered Sicily, immediately to transport his army to Africa." The object of
Caesar was, as Lucan states, to procure supplies of corn from Sardinia and
Sicily, two of the great granaries of Rome.



mid-land) ver. 61.

Has made

that which

was the middle of a




ra. 62-84.

There, is a vast conflict of the main, and the waves are
ever struggling, that the mountains, burst asunder, may
not reunite their utmost verges. The war, too is extended
even to the Sardinian coasts. Each island is famous for its
corn-bearing fields ; nor more do any lands fill Hesperia with
harvests brought from afar, nor to a greater extent supply
the Koman granaries.
Hardly in fertility of soil does it
excel them, when, the south winds pausing , Boreas sweeping the clouds downwards to a southern clime, Libya
bears a plenteous year from the falling showers.
When these things had been provided for by the chieftain, then, victorious, he repaired to the abodes of his

country, not bringing with him bands of armed men,
but having the aspect of peace. Oh! if he had returned to the City, the nations of the Gauls and the
North only subdued, what a long line of exploits might
he have paraded before him in the lengthened procession

what representations of the warfare
might he have placed chains upon the Rhine and upon
How high-spirited Gaul would have followed
the ocean!
his lofty chariot, and mingled with the yellow-haired
Britons! Alas! by conquering still more what a triumph
was it 4 that he lost! Not with joyous crowds did the
cities see him as he went along, but silent they beheld
him with alarm. Nowhere was there the multitude coming
forth to meet the chieftain.
Still, he rejoiced that he was
held in such dread by the people, and he would prefer

of triumph



himself not to be loved.
And now, too, he has passed over the steep heights of

He has mentioned in the Second Book the
continent into sea-shore.
belief that Sicily once joined the continent of Italy.
The war, too) ver. 64. Weise thinks that " bella" does not here literally
mean war, but " ships of war," sent for the purpose of collecting corn in the
See the Note to 1. 59.
isle of Sardinia.
The south winds pausing) ver. 68. The " Austri," or south winds of
Africa, brought dry weather and kept away the fertilizing showers.


the lengthened procession of triumph) ver. 75.
Lucan, in his zeal,
the fact that a refusal to allow Caesar to do this, or, in other


words, to have a triumph for his Gallic wars, was one of the main causes
which led him to engage in the Civil War.
What a triumph was it) ver. 79. No triumphs were permitted for conquests in civil warfare.

B. ra.




Anxur 1 and where the watery way divides the Pontine
marshes. Where, too, is the lofty grove, where the realms of
and where there is the road for the Latian
Scythian Diana


Afar from a lofty rock he now
views the City, not beheld by him during the whole period
of his northern wars
and, thus speaking, he admires the






walls of his



And have

there been men, forced by no warfare, to deFor what city will they
abode of the Gods
The Gods have proved more favouring in that it is
no Eastern fury that now presses upon the Latian shores,
nor yet the swift Sarmatian in common with the Pannonian,
and the Getans mingled with the Dacians. Fortune, Borne,
has spared thee, having a chief so cowardly 4 in that the
warfare was a civil one."
Thus he speaks, and he enters Rome stupefied with
for he is supposed to be about to overthrow the
walls of Rome as though captured, with dusky fires, and to
This is the extent of their fear
scatter abroad the Gods.
they think that he is ready to do whatever he is able. No
festive omens are there, no pretending feigned applause with
joyous uproar; hardly is there time to hate. The throng
sert thee, the





Anxur, which was the former name
Steep heights of Anxur) ver. 84.
of Terracina, was an ancient town of Latiuni, situate 58 miles to the southeast of Rome, on the Appian Way, and upon the coast ; it had a citadel on a
high hill, on which stood the Temple of Jupiter Anxurus.
Realms of Scythian Diana) ver. 86. He alludes to the town of Aricia
at the foot of the Alban Mount, on the Appian Way, about 16 miles from

Home. In its
on the borders

vicinity was a celebrated grove and temple of Diana Aricina,
of the Lacus Neraorensis.
Diana was worshipped here in a

Her priest, who was called " Rex nemorensis," was always
a runaway slave, who obtained his office by slaying his predecessor, and
he was obliged to fight with any slave who succeeded in breaking off a
branch of a certain tree in the sacred grove. The worship of Diana was
said to have been introduced here from the Tauric Chersonesus by Orestes
and his sister Iphigenia, when flying from the cruelty of king Thoas. See

barbarous manner.

the story related in the Pontic Epistles of Ovid, B.




the Latian fasces) ver. 87.
He alludes to the " Latinae
Periae," which were celebrated by the Roman Consuls on the Alban Mount.
See the First Book, 1. 550, and the Note to the passage.

Road for


Having a

chief so cowardly) ver. 96.

proved himself by his



chief so timid as

Pompey hag






of Senators fills the Palatine halls of Phoebus drawn forth
from their concealment, by no right of convoking the Senate.


sacred seats are not graced with the Consul, no Praethere, the next power according to law; and the
empty curule seats have been removed from their places.
Caesar is everything. The Senate is present, witness to
the words of a private person.
The Fathers sit, prepared to
give their sanction, whether he shall demand a kingdom,
whether a Temple for himself, the throats, too, of the
Senate, and their exile.


Fortunate was it that he blushed at commanding, more
than Rome did at obeying. Still, liberty, making the experiment in one man whether the laws can possibly withstand force, gives rise to anger and the resisting Metellus



Palatine halls of Phoebus) ver. 103.
On arriving at Rome Caesar convoked the Senate not in the Senate-house, but in the Temple of Apollo, on

the Palatine


cut-vie seats) ver. 107.
The curule seats were graced
neither the Consuls nor the Praetors, as they were in arms with PomIn the account of the Civil War, B. i. c. 32, Caesar relates what he
said on this occasion.
He excused the war which he had undertaken as

The empty


he was compelled in his own defence to protect himself against the malice
and envy of a few, and at the same time requested that they would send
messengers to Pompey and the Consuls to propose a treaty for adjusting
the present differences.
This proposition of Caesar is suppressed by Lucan,
who throughout endeavours to place Caesar's conduct in the most invidious
" The Senate
light. Caesar tells us, c. 33,
approved of sending deputies, but
none could be found fit to execute the commission ; for every person by reason
of his own private fears declined the office.
For Pompey, on leaving the
city, had declared in the open Senate, that he would hold in the same degree
of estimation those who stayed in Rome and those in Caesar's camp.
three days were wasted in disputes and excuses.
Besides, Lucius Metellus,
one of the Tribunes, was suborned by Caesar's enemies, to prevent this, and
to embarrass everything else which Caesar should propose."
1 The
This was L. Caecilins Metellus Creresisting Metellus) rer. 114.
Reticus, the Tribune of the people, and one of the adherents of Pompey.
maining behind in the City on the approach of Caesar, he did not fly with
Pompey and the rest of his party. The public treasury of 'Rome was in the
Temple of Saturn, in which Appian states that there was a large sum of
money especially deposited as a fund to defray the expenses of any war that
night arise from the Gauls invading the Roman territory. Caesar laid hands
on this, alleging that as he bad conquered the Gauls there was no longer any
use for it.
Metellus attempted to prevent him, but he drew his sword in an
attitude of menace, saying, "
It is supposed that this

Young man,

it is

as easy to do this as to say

was the same Metellus who fought on the

8. ni.




when he beholds

the Temple of Saturn being forced open
hurries his steps, and bursting through the
troops of Csesar, takes his stand before the doors of the
Temple not yet opened. (To such a degree does the love
of gold alone know not how to fear the sword and death.
Swept away, the laws perish with no contest; but thou,
pelf, the most worthless portion of things, dost excite the
contest;) and, forbidding the conqueror the plunder, the
Tribune with loud voice addresses him
Only through my sides shall the Temple struck by thee
be opened, and, plunderer, thou shalt carry off no scattered
wealth except by shedding sacred blood. Surely this violated
power will find the Gods its avengers. The Tribune's curse,
too \ following Crassus to the warfare, prayed for the direful
Now unsheathe the sword for the multitude is
not to be regarded by thee, the spectator of thy crimes in
a deserted City do we stand. No soldier accursed shall
bear off his reward from our Treasury ; nations there are for
thee to overthrow, walls for thee to grant. Want does not
drive thee to the spoils of exhausted peace; Caesar, thou
hast a war of thy own." 2
The victor, aroused by these words to extreme anger,
" Thou
dost conceive vain hopes of a glorious
death my hand, Metellus, shall not pollute itself with that
throat of thine.
No honor shall make thee deserving of the
resentment of Csesar.
Has liberty been left safe, thee its
assertor? Not to that degree has length of tune confounded the highest with the lowest, that the laws, if
they are to be preserved by the voice of Metellus, would

by vast






not prefer by Cffisar to be uprooted."

Antony against Augustus, and on being taken prisoner was pardoned at
the intercession of his son, who had sided with Augustus.
The Tribune's curse, too) ver. 127. C. Ateius Capito and Aquillius Gallus,
the Tribunes of the people, were the opponents of Pompey and Crassus when
Consuls. They endeavoured to stop the levy of troops and to render the campaigns which they wished to undertake impossible ; Crassus, however, continuing to make preparation for an expedition against the Parthians, Capito
uttered curses against him, and announced the appearance of dreadful prodiThe overthrow and death of
gies, which were disregarded by Crassus.
Crassus were by many looked upon as the result of his disregard of the

warnings of Capito.
war of tky ovm) ver. 133.



gain sufficient


You have

the war in Gaul, in which you



[B. ra.


He spoke, and, the Tribune not yet retreating from the
door, his anger became more intense; he looked around
upon the ruthless swords, forgetful to pretend that there was
Then did Cotta- persuade Metellus to desist from
" The
his too audacious purpose.
liberty of a people," said
" which a
tyrant's sway is ruling, perishes through
excess of liberty
of it thou mayst preserve the shadow, if
thou art ready to do whatever thou art commanded. To
so many unjust things have we, conquered, submitted this
is the sole excuse for our shame and our
degenerate fears,
that nothing can possibly now be dared.
Quickly let him
carry off the evil incentives to direful warfare.




the people,




any there are,
but to our

to ourselves,

dangerous that acts the


then* laws pro-

tyrant, is the poverty


Forthwith, Metellus led away, the Temple was opened
wide. Then did the Tarpeian rock re-echo, and with a loud
peal attest that the doors were opened then, stowed away
in the lower part of the Temple, was dragged up, untouched for many a year, the wealth of the Roman people,
which the Punic wars which Perseus 4 which the booty of
the conquered Philip 5 had supplied; that which, Rome,
Pyrrhus left to thee in his hurrying flight, the gold for




That tfiere was peace) ver. 143. "Togam;" literally, the "toga" or
gown, worn by citizens in the time of peace, and consequently employed aa

the emblem of peace.
Then did Cotta) ver. 143. This was L. Aurelius Cotta, a relative of
Aurelia, the mother of Caesar, to whose party he belonged in the Civil War.
He had been Consul, Praetor, and Censor, and was an intimate friend of Cicero,
by whom he is much praised as a man of great talent and extreme prudence.



probably in error in representing him as unwillingly submitting to


Which the Punic tears) ver. 157. At the end of the first Punic war the
Carthaginians were obliged to pay 1200 talents, and of the second 10,000.
Which Perseus) ver. 158. Perses, or Perseus, the last king of MaceThe booty was of imdon, was conquered by Paulus .iEmilius, B.C. 188.
mense value, and was paid into the Roman treasury, much to the chagrin of
the soldiers, who were so indignant at their small share of the plunder, that
it was not without much
opposition that .V.imlius obtained his triumph.
Of the conquered Philip) ver. 158. Philip the Fifth, king of Macedon,
was conquered by Quintus Flamininus, who acquired a large amount of
booty, and celebrated a magnificent triumph which lasted three days. Philip
was the father of Perseus.






which Fabricius did not sell himself to the king, whatever
that which, as
you saved, manners of our thrifty forefathers
tribute, the wealthy nations of Asia had sent, and Mino'ian
Crete 3 had paid to the conqueror Metellus that, too, which
Cato brought from Cyprus 4 over distant seas. Besides, the
wealth of the East, and the remote treasures of captive kings,
which were borne before him in the triumphal processions
of Pompey 5 were carried forth; the Temple was spoiled
with direful rapine and then for the first time was Home




poorer than Csesar


In the meantime the fortune of Magnus throughout
the whole earth has aroused to battle the cities destined to
Greece near at hand affords forces for the
fall with him.
neighbouring war. Amphissa sends Phocian bands, the
rocky Cirrha too, and Parnassus deserted on either
mountain ridge. The Boeotian leaders assemble, whom
the swift Cephisus 9 surrounds with its fate-foretelling

Fabricius did not


himself) ver. 160.


alludes to the vain attempt

made by Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, when he invaded Italy, to bribe C. FabriThe money, according to Lucan, being left behind, was put
cius Luscinus.
in the public treasury.
The wealthy nations of Asia) ver. 162. He probably alludes to treasures
acquired from Antiochus, king of Syria, and Attalus, king of Pergamus,
the latter of whom made the Roman people his heirs.
And Minolan Crete) ver. 163. Crete, formerly the kingdom of Minos,
was subdued by Q. Metellus Creticus.
Cato brought from Cyprus) ver. 164. The island of Cyprus was made
a Roman province in the year B.C. 58, and M. Porcius Cato was sent to
The money which he had collected there was put
reduce it to submission.
in the public treasury, and afterwards fell into Caesar's hands.
It was said


have amounted to 7000


ver. 166.
Those which he had
gained from Mithridates, king of Pontus, Tigranes, king of Armenia, and
Aristobulus, king of Judaea.
Poorer than Caesar) ver. 168. Caesar, in consequence of the large sums
which he had expended in promoting his interests, was now greatly in debt.
Amphissa sends) ver. 172. Amphissa, now Salona, was one of the
chief towns of the Ozolian Locrians, on the borders of Phocis, seven miles from

Triumphal processions of Pompey)

The rocky Cirrha) ver. 172. Cirrha was a town of Phocis, a country of
Greece between .aJtolia and Boeotia, in which was the mountain of Par-

nassus, the fountain of Hippocrene and Helicon,

and the

city of Delphi.


The swift Cephims) ver. 175. The Cephisus here alluded to was the
chief river of Boeotia and Phocis, rising near Lilxa in the latter country,







Cadmean Dirce, too and the bands of Fisae 2
and the Alpheus 3 that sends beneath the main its waters to




Then does the Arcadian leave
peoples of Sicily.
Msenalus 4 and the Trachynian soldier Herculean (Eta*.
The Thesprotians 6 and the Dryopians 7 rush on, and the
ancient Sellse 8 forsake the silent oaks on the Chaonian
Although the levy has exhausted the whole of
Athens, three little barks keep possession of the Phoebean




Its waters are called
falling into the lake Copais.
rising in Phocis, in which was situate Delphi, the oracle of Apollo.





Dirce was a fountain near Thebes, which
city was founded by Cadmus, the son of Agenor, king of Phoenicia.
The bandt of Pitce) ver. 176. Pisa was a city of Elis, near which the

Dirce, too) ver. 175.

Olympic games were celebrated.


the AlpJteus) ver. 177. The Alpheus was a river of Arcadia, famed
in story for his love for Arethusa, a water nymph of Sicily, and fabled to
have passed under the earth from Greece to Sicily. See the story related in

the Metamorphoses of Ovid, B. v. 1. 487 and 576, et seq.
Leave Mcenalus) ver. 177. Maenalus was the name of a mountain
and a wood in Arcadia, in the Peloponnesus, sacred to Pan.

(Eta was the name given to a pile of mounIt was on one of these, that, according to
ancient mythology, Hercules put himself to death, by burning on his funeral
See the Metamorphoses of Ovid, Book z.
Tracbyn was also called
eraclea, and was celebrated as having been for a time the residence of
It was a town of Thessaly, situate in the district Malis.
was another of the same name in Phocis.
TJie Thesprotians) ver. 179.
The Thesproti were a people on the coast
of Epirus.
They were said to have been the most ancient race, and to have
derived their name from Thesprotus, the son of Lycaon.
And the Dryopiant) ver. 179. The Dryopes dwelt first in Thessaly,
and afterwards in Doris. Being driven thence by the Dorians, they migrated
to other countries, and settled in Peloponnesus, Euboea, and Asia Minor.
And tlte ancient Sella) ver. 180. The Sellae were probably a people of
The priests of the Temple ef
Chaonia, in the neighbourhood of Dodona,
The will of the Divinity was said
Jupiter there were called Selli or Helli.
to be declared by the wind rustling through the oaks ; and in order to render
the sounds more distinct, brazen vessels were suspended on the branches of
the trees, which, being set in motion by the wind, came in contact with ona
The oracle, as mentioned by Lucan, had now been long extinct,
for in the year B.C. 219 the Temple was destroyed by the JEtolians, and the
acred oaks cut down.
The levy hat exhausted) ver. 181. This passage has greatly puzzled
the commentators, but the sense is pretty evidently that suggested by Cortius
"Although it was but a levy, still it exhausted the resources of
Athens, which was now weak, and but thinly inhabited."

Herculean (Eta)

ver. 178.

tains in the south of Thessaly.


B. in.




and demand Salamis to be believed as true 2
Now, beloved by Jove ancient Crete with its hundred
peoples resorts to arms, both Gnossus skilled at wielding





the quiver, and Gortyna not inferior to the arrows of the

Then, too, he who possesses Dardanian Oricum
the wandering Athamanians 7 dispersed amid the towering
woods, and the Enchelians with then* ancient name, who
witnessed the end of the transformed Cadmus, the Colchian



Phcebean dockyards) ver. 182. The dockyards of Athens are probably
" Phcebea " from the circumstance of
Minerva, the tutelar Divinity of


Athens, having dedicated the Piraeus to Apollo, as she did the Areopagus or
Hill of Justice to Mars.
Salamis to be believed as true) ver. 183. The levy has so weakened

Athens, that there are only three ships of war left in the harbour, to ask
to believe that this is the maritime state which once vanquished the PerThese three ships of war may probably have
sians at the battle of Salamis.
been those which were used for sacred or state purposes, namely, the Theoris,
which performed a yearly voyage to Delos ; the Paralos, which, according to
the Scholiast on Aristophanes, was sent to Delphi or other places on sacred
missions ; and the Salaminia, which, according to Plutarch, was used for the
conveyance of those summoned from abroad for trial.
Crete was said to have been the birthNote, beloved by Jove) ver. 184.
place of Jupiter, and, according to some accounts, he was buried there.
Minos, its first king and lawgiver, was the son of Jupiter by Europa.
Both Gnossus skilled) ver. 185.
Gnossus and Gortyna were two of the
famed hundred cities of Crete. Its inhabitants were noted for their skill in



arrows of Hie East) ver. 186. By the word " Eoi's" he refers to
who were remarkable for their expertness in the use of the
bow, even on horseback.
Dardanian Oricum) ver. 187. Oricum or Oricus was a Greek town on
the coast of Illyria, near the Ceraunian Mountains and the frontiers of Epirus.
According to the tradition here followed in the use of the word Dardanium," it was founded by Helenus, the son of Priam, who had then become
the husband of Andromache.
Another account was that it was founded by
the Eubceans, who were cast here by a storm on their return from Troy ; while
a third legend stated that it was a Colchian colony.
The -wandering Atfiamanians) ver. 188.
By the use of the word
Athamas," he means the Athamanes," a race living on the mountains of



the Parthians,


And the

Enchelians) ver. 189. The Enchelise were a people of Illyria,
whose country Cadmus and his wife Harmonia retiring, were changed
into snakes or dragons.
Lucan says that they received their name from this
circumstance: ly^tAuj being the Greek name for a kind of serpent. See


Ovid's Metamorphoses, B.




et seq.



In navigating the Argo. however. first time incurred the This was a mountain forming the It was famed as having been one of the abodes of the Centaurs. 203. . and washes Peuce sprinkled by the main Mysia. The Cotchian Absyrtis. 190-204. He alludes to the two islands off the Colchian Medea was said Illyri. The shore might be considered polluted or guilty. loses the Sarmatian waves. It was inhabited by the Peucini. The Argo was said to have been the ship launched on the sea by mankind. whither Ovid was banished. too) ver. 200. of which lolcos was a seaport. 194. abandoned 6 accustomed to send the Bistonian birds to the warm Nile. And boundary between Arcadia and Elis. divided into many parts.i called Absyrtides. Lucan speaks here of its being washed by only one mouth of the Danube. too 8 and the Idalian land bedewed by the cold Caicus and . By the cold Catcus) ver. where have slain her brother Absyrtus. 8 Mysia. that foams down to the Adriatic tide. 203. formed by the two southern mouths of the Danube. Cone was an island at the mouth of the Ister or Danube. on the shores of the Pontus Euzinus. and Pholoe' that feigned 6 the two-formed race. 198. 191. 193. 1 Absyrtis. 3 The untaught Argo) ver. Strymon is . a tribe of the Bastarnae. in which Troy was situate. too . It was. Then Thracian Hsemus is deserted. 2 The fields of Peneus) ver.PHARSALIA. Pholoe that feigned) ver. . the Ister. The Absyrtis was probably a river at the mouth of the coast of to which these islands were situate. 1 . 100 [B. 190. more generally believed that this took place at Tomi. which were said to migrate to Egypt in the winter season. ra. Peuce was also an island of Moesia. from which the Argonauts set sail for Colchis in the ship Argo. 4 A polluted sea-shore) ver. :l . From that spot for the first time was the sea attempted when the untaught Argo mingled unknown races 4 upon a polluted sea-shore and first committed the mortal race to the winds and the raging waves of the ocean. ' And the barbarian Cone) ver. The Peneus was a river of Thessaly. Mysia was an extensive district of Asia Minor. mankind for the peril of shipwreck. The Strymon was a river of Thrace. Strymon is abandoned) ver. 199. and through that bark one more death was added to the destinies of man. and the barbarian Cone 7 where one mouth of . and those who cultivate the fields of Peneus 2 and by whose labours the Thessalian ploughshare cleaves Hsemonian lolcos. . The Caicus was a river of Mysia that flowed past Troy and the foot of Mount Ida. whose banks were frequented by large flocks of cranes. too) ver. by reason of Medea's undutiful conduct to her father and her other first iniquities.

Those. of the Cai'cus. that permits the Pactolus 5 to flow forth from its gold-bearing mines. 206. The bands of Ilium. 3 And was a great city of southern PhryMseander and Marsyas. too. 209. The Hermus was another river of Lydia. 207. or. it was founded by Ninus. on the shores of the Elaitic gulf. inasmuch as flowing forth from the mines it would tend to waste the precious metal. which. according to was founded by Nimrod. Ninus or Nineveh. The nations of Syria came the deserted Orontes 9 and 1 . 10 And Ninos so wealthy) ver. too. through the kings of Alba Longa. . mingling. gia. 214. and Csesar 8 declaring himself the descendant of Phrygian lulus. Pallas. is borne back again the land. "* . which flowed past Antioch in Syria. PHARSALIA. 213. said to have golden sands. whenever they had recourse to arms.B. with omens their own 7 seek the standards and the camp doomed to fall nor does the story of Troy restrain them. 11 The windy Damascus) ver. Julius Caesar boasted of being descended from lulus or Ascanius. And Arisbe) ver. 204-215. After he had been The story of the flayed alive. condemned when Phoebus was victor. Kinos so 10 wealthy (as the story ." "allowing" or permitting/' is used. Damascus in Coele-Syria is probably Scripture. 9 The deserted Orontes) ver. 210. at the mouth of the Evenus. B. Pitane was a seaport town of Mysia. Near the source of the latter river there was a grotto which was said to have been the scene of the punishment of Marsyas by Apollo.] 101 Arisbe very ban-en in its soil. The Pactolus was a river of Lydia in Asia Minor." that of being conquered. according to some. Celsenae which lay at the sources of the 1. the son of JEneas. 215. m. 205. " Ominibus suis . too. not less invaluable than which the Hermus divides the fields. Arisbe was a small town situate in the Troad. The word "passa. 2 Who inhabit Pitane) ver. 4 ver. is). laments thy gifts. the husband of Semiramis. 8 Caesar declaring himself) ver. which was also said to have golden sands. According to profane historians. 215. The swift Marsyas) vi. too. 204. musical contest between Apollo and Marsyas is told in Ovid's Metamorphoses. Celanai) ver. 212. 7 With omens their own) ver. It was the birth-place of the Academic philosopher 1 Arcesilaiis. . and. . the swift Marsyas descending with his straight banks approaches the wandering Mseander. who inhabit Pitane 2 and Celsense^. ^here. and windy Damascus 11 . He means the country about the river Orontes. his skin was hung up in the town of Celaenae." meaning " with their " usual ill-luck. 6 Tfa Hermus divides) ver. . rivers This river was said to have been formed rural Deities in sympathy for the by the 5 Permits the Pactolus) ver. by the tears which were shed tragical death of Marsyas. 383.

102 [B. 1 And Gaza) ver.PHAESALIA. Phoenicians of Tyre and Sidon. The Phoenicians first. 216. According to some. According. 224. Idnmaea in the later Jewish history and the Roman annals means the southern part of Judea and a small part of the northern part of Arabia Petraea. 216. * Memphis learned to unite) ver. extending beyond the ancient Edom of called Scriptnre. and only animals engraved upon stones." Virgil speaks in the First Book of the JEncid of the " Tyrii " the double-tongued Tyrians. and Gaza and Idumsea 2 rich in its groves of palms. These ships did thje Cynosure conduct 4 to the warfare by no winding track along the sea. Cynosure was the name of a nymph who nursed The Jupiter on Mount Ida. 219. See the Fasti of Ovid. kept in exbarks. before it was known to the Egyptians. istence the The magic tongues". which they carved on stone. 217." Sidon was the neighbour of Tyre. There were two cities of the name of Gaza. The famous city of Tyre was on the sea-coast of Syria : at this period it had considerably fallen from its " instabilis " from its opulence. B. while the other was a city in the Persian province of Sogdiana. 3 And Idumcea) ver. on the seacoast. both birds and wild beasts. who professed to be skilled in the magic art." the stars in their sequence being fancifully thought to resemble that object. fie means that the Phoenicians were the inventors of the art of writing. L 107. The Constellation of the Lesser Dog's tail. ventured to represent in rude characters the voice destined to endure. iii. 222. and the rival of its commercial enterprise and opulence. Notwithstanding this epithet. By "magicas lingua* he probably means the secrets known to the priesthood of Egypt. One -was the strongly-fortified city of the Philistines. Un3 Tyre as well and Sidon precious with its purple dye. 216-225. so called. took their observations from this Constellation. while the Greeks for that purpose used Helice or the Greater Bear. el ttq. forest. " Kept in existence the magic tongues) ver. of Taurus is " ventosa " from the circumstance of its being situate on a plain and exposed to the winds. Not yet had Memphis learned to unite 5 the rushes of the stream. and only knew the use of hieroglyphics. too. who had not then discovered the art of making paper from the byblus or papyrus. in navigating the ocean.- eiaa " the . ra. bilingnes. more certain for no other 1 . however. which was extremely valuable." 4 Did conduct) ver. These cities were " famed for the production of the " mnrex or purple dye extracted from the hell-fish so called. if belief is given to report. h is called liability to " fickle " or "-deearthquakes. it* situation it considered one of the finest in the globe. and for that service was raised to the stars. the Cynomn Bear was called Cynosnra from Ki/vo. to another account. stable . 3 Unstable Tyre ax toell) ver. while others would have the word to mean ceitful.

225-237. in return for the clemency they had experienced from Pompey when conquered by him.ZEgse was a seaport town of Cilieia. Corycus was a city of Cilieia. and confessed that he was conquered by the vast earth. Euboea. law.m. espoused his cause against Caesar. Assyrian king Sardanapalus. also famed as a retreat of the Muses. 228. and who paused in his conquests The remark is intended as a reproach against his at the Eastern Ocean. the son of Jupiter and Danae. 287.giro. There was another Corycian cave in Mount Parnassus. who was born at Pella in Macedonia. 4 And the Cilician ship) ver. " a hoof." which the winged horse Pegasus was said to have lost there. 236. And Persean Tarsus) ver. and the Cilician ship forth obedient to the no a now. called the " Corycian cave.] PHABSALIA. and ' Jiolia. 103 and Persean Tarsus and the Corycian cave 2 with its rocks worn away. J Mallux) ver. He probably means that the Ganges was the only river that discharged itself into the Eastern Ocean. Those also. He alludes to Alexander the Great. Indus carrying along his rapid stream with divided flood is not sensible of the Hydaspes mingling" with his waters. Tarsus was a very ancient city of According to the tradition here alluded to. 4 And remote ASffce) ver. 2 A nd the Corycian cave) ver. 9 Drink the sweet juices) ver. inordinate ambition in wishing that there was another world for him to conquer. too. who alone throughout all the world dares to discharge himself by a mouth opposite" to the rising sun. of the warfare has moved the corners of the East. and famous for its saffron. who drink the sweet juices 9 from the 1 deserted. where Ganges is worshipped. Other accounts ascribe its foundation to the 1 Syria. was the most northerly of the five great tributaries of the Indus. 230. About two miles from it there was a cave or glen in the mountains. The Hydaspes. rather perversely. 227. This river is still an object of worship by those who live upon its banks. B. . It was the birth-place of St. now called the Jelum. Thifl river formed the limit of Alexander's progress in Asia. 226. Where. 6 By a mouth opposite) ver. 233. and impels Ms waves towards the opposing eastern winds here it was that the chieftain from Pella 7 arriving beyond the seas of Tethys. whence the sun was supposed to rise. said to have been founded at the time of the Trojan war by Mopsus and Amphilochus. Salmasius. thinks . Macedonia. 7 The chieftain from Pella) ver. 8 The Hydaspes mingling) ver. Mallus 3 and remote opening 4 5 ^Egte resound with their dockyards. too. Mallus was an ancient city of Cilieia. . stopped short. . 227. Paul." celebrated by the Poets. it was founded by Perseus. The Cilician pirates. and was said to have been so called from the Greek <ra.. There were also towns of the same name in Achaia. . 225. goes longer pirate The rumour.

of the Erythraean Sea. 239. who is called by the Greek writers one of the Gymnosophists of India. Those also. and those. ! ! . wondering how the shadows of the groves do not fall on the left hand 7 . Their ambassadors. who build up their own funereal pyres. to present to the Deities what still remains The fierce Cappadocians come. used by the natives of India. in his Feriplus sugar from the sugar-cane by the natives of India. who came to Rome to pay homage to Claudius. not towards the south. ascend the heated piles) ver. 237-248. in the Georgics. 244. Calanus. now inha4 and the Armenian who bitants of the hardy Amanus 5 that rolls down rocks the Coatrse 6 the possesses Niphates have quitted the woods that touch the skies. Under the name "carbasa" he probably alludes to fine textures of cotton or linen. Niphates was a mountain chain of Armenia. 104 [a ni. * Flowing linen garments) ver. whereas Yossius and most others agree that it refers to the extraction of Annan. Virgil. 246. were especially surprised to see their shadows own country. that reference ' called sacchari. forming a prolongation of the Taurus from where it is crossed by the Euphrates. Amanus was a mountain of Cilicia. 245. relative to the inhabitants of Taprobana or Ceylon. 4 Of the hardy Amanus) ver. . .' clearly alluding to sugar. ii." " inhabitants" or " tillers" of the land. 3 Oh how great a glory and. yellow gems. but using girdles or zones decked with precious stones of various colours. 1. is here made to the manna or aerial honey of the Arabians . 22. on the left Under the name hand or southward. B. 238. in contradistinction to their former roving 1 and piratical habits. being now the " cultores. 6 The Coatrce) ver. pass over them. 240. alive. " Arabes " he intends to include the ^Ethiopians and other nations living on or near to the Equator. full of life. tinting their hair with the 2 bind linen with coloured their garments flowing drug. only using dyes for staining their hair of a golden hue. and burnt himself on a pyre in the presence of the whole Macedonian army. He probably alludes to the story told by Pliny in his Natural History. 3 He alludes to the Brahmins Alive. 124. if they stood facing the west. He speaks of the tribes of India as not Tinting their hair) ver. the people. as in their fall northward. and .PHAKSALIA. You. and their ceremony of Suttee or burning alive. He probably speaks of the natives of Cilicia. who. The Coatrae were a nation living in the mounprobably between Assyria and Media. speaks of the Indians as drinking honey from canes. have come into a world to you unknown. 248. was one of this class. and. 1. ascend the heated piles is it to this race to hasten their fate by their own hands. 1 tender cane. 5 Possesses the Wiphates) ver. 7 Do not fall on the left hand) ver. B. That is to say. speaks of the height of their trees as such that no arrow could tains. or perhaps silk. Arabians. vi.

as the smaller. 1 The extreme Oretee) ver. spreading over the fields the fertile 8 Euphrates performs the part of the Pharian waves while the earth with a sudden chasm sucks up the Tigris 7 and . The Poet means to say that stellation * With . like the Nile. 250. . of each other. both the Euphrates and the Tigris rise in the mountains of Armenia and opposite the city of Seleucia they come within 200 stadia. the extremity of the hoof of the bending Bull extend beyond the Zodiac. bounded on the south by the Indian Ocean. We may here remark that Lucan is frequently very incorrect in his geographical descriptions. 250. And where with the rapid Tigris 5 the vast his rise. and then reappears all in its magnitude. 261. The region. there the swiftly-moving Bootes shines but a small part of the night. overflowing. . By means the Zodiac. or Orse. streams which Persia sends forth takes Euphrates from no different sources . reappears. a province of the ancient Persian empire. having traversed underground 25 miles. were a people of Gedrosia who inhabited the coast of a part of India now called Urboo in Beloochistan. too. The Oritae.] Then did the 105 Roman frenzy influence the extreme Oretee and the Caramanian chieftains 3 1 '. that if they were united it would be difficult to say which. they deserve to be quoted : Performs the part of) ver. But. of the . the rapid Tigris) ver. except that the hoof of the Con- Taurus projects over it. . PHARSALIA. " 4 " he signiferi poli Sky that bears the Constellations) ver. 2 Caramanian chieftains) ver. He means that the elevation of the North Pole is so very small in those regions that those Constellations which never set with us. Oretae. 254. Seneca and some others of the -ancient writers mention that the Tigris disappears in its course. and so nearly equal in size. by 260. whose sky declining towards but not the whole of it. 256. they are both such mighty streams. The Caramanians inhabited the modern Kirman. his knee inclining downward. Though they do not rise in the same spot. which name in preference there would be for the waters. or about 20 miles. It sinks under one of the mountains of the Taurus chain. and. appear there but very little above the horizon. 7 Suds up the Tigris) ver. the south' heholds Arctus set. 249-262. . and . if the earth were to mix the rivers.m. One of the Scholiasts has in his commentary on this line preserved three lines composed by the Emperor Nero on the Tigris. and intends to say that ^Ethiopia lies beyond that part of the earth which is beneath the Zodiac. which would not be overhung by any portion of the sky that bears the Constellations 4 did not./Ethiopians. and unite about 60 miles above the mouth of the Persian Gulf. fertilizes the country through which it passes. 249. would lose its name in the larger. As they are nowhere else to be found. 3 Declining towards the south) ver. B. 8 He means that the Euphrates. and it is uncertain. They then recede from each other.

On this side the Lacedaemonian Heniochi 4 a nation fierce in wielding the rein. and Hyrcania with its vast forests. Alexander the Great. people of Colchis. 2 Whom Bactros) ver." * Of the savage Moschi) ver. which. 268. which was usually . Content to have reduced their number two and thus embroiled the Roman world. Hyrcania was a fertile produce of the ancient Persian empire. Or the river Don. 106 [ Heniochi) ver. in. 6 Wl&re runt the Halys) ver. Between die ranks of Ceesar and the opposing standards the warlike Parthians held a neutral ground. "passing over the Halys. et longo terrarum tracing hiatu. that. " Heniochi in Greek signifying charioteers. but in later times extended into Iberia and Armenia. traversing beneath Persia passed through. and the Sarmatian. which It was conquered by occupied the locality of the modern Bokhara. whose territory was originally iu Colchis. 269. 3 And Hyrcatiia) ver. lut two) ver. restores its waters that were sought for to those now seeking them no longer. 262-274. Tigris. as here represented. Lacedaemonians. the charioteers of The story probably arose from the fact of the word Castor and Pollux." This be took to be the kingdom of Media. but the event proved that it was his own. Quique pererratam Tigris Demerit. whom he has just described as being neutral. the neighbour of the 5 Where the Phasis cleaves the most wealthy savage Moschi fields of the Colchians where runs the Halys fatal to Croesus where falling from the Ehipsean heights the Tanais has given 7 the names of different parts of the world to its " subductus Persida ." Made them. The Moschi were a people of Asia. 266. Like Bactria it was at this time under the Parthian rule. Lucan is hardly correct in representing these tribes as preparing for the war. whose kings often resided in it during the summer. be should overthrow a mighty empire. conceals his hidden course. 272." . who. as they had been conquered by the Parthians. which was conquered by Cyrus. The Bactrians were a wild and warlike race. while he lived. the wealthy king of Lydia. the capital of the ancient Bactria. 7 The Tanais has given) ver. and probably used poisoned arrows. . and does not exclude the river born again from a new source from the waters of the sea. 1 to the oracle given to Croesus. a Tlie Lacedamonia. by slaying Crassus at Carrhae . 273. and. 4 He calls the Heniochi. The wandering tribes of 2 their arrows. fi . whom Bactros encircles with Scythia dipped 3 its icy stream. Bactros was the name of the river that flowed by Bactra (now Balkh). travelling in prolonged chasms of the earth. content that 1 they had made them but two . was the mediator between Caesar and Pompey. Lacedaemonii. " And the Reddit quaesitas jam non quserentibus undas. 267. forsakes it. The Halys was a river which served It was rendered famous from as the boundary between Lydia and Media. because the colony was said to have been founded by Amphitus and Telchius. . 270.

whichever way it turns. 281. when Cyrus leading forth his forces from the Memnonian realms 8 and with his troops counted by the throwing of their darts. 283. 9 Tlte Persian came down) ver.B. Herodotus tells us that in order to count the numbers of his army. . considered to be the boundary between Europe and Asia. of opening veins in the "bodies of their horses and sucking the blood. to the Trojan war. " Memnonian. This river rises in the centre of Russia. and the same with regard to Asia. which was considered as a part of the east. and the Euxine sea is borne away. 286. 1 enlarges the world the Where. In this part the Essedonian nations 4 and thou. Where it extends within the Asiatic line it widens Europe as it were. . too. He calls the realms of Cyrus the Great. They were said to live on the banks of a river of the same name. It occupied the site of the present Cadiz. 284. . . the king of Persia. PHARSALIA. -274-286. now in this direction. 276. The Arii were the inhabitants of a part of the ancient Persian empire. the Essedoniang were a people of Scythia. near the Palus Mseotis or sea of Azof. a vaunt wrested from) ver. who were fabled to have but one eye. 7 And the rapid Geloni) ver. the Persian came down 9 and. They were said to have been of Grecian origin. The meaning is that the Pontus Euxinus (now the Black Sea) by its magnitude detracts from the glories of the pillars of Hercules (now Gibraltar) by pouring into the Mediterranean a body of water almost as large. east of the Tanais. the same boundary both of Europe and of Asia. whose sands produced gold. 3 Tltat Gades alone) ver. The Arimaspi were a people of A Scythia. when overtaken by hunger. According to Pliny. and denies that Gades alone 3 admits the ocean. Gades was founded by the Phoenicians. king of Persia. when the avenger . flowing strait pours forth the waves of Meeotis." from Memnon. said to be watched the Massagetan) ver. and. Arimaspian 5 tying thy locks bound up with 6 gold in this the bold Arian. a vaunt wrested from 2 the limits of Hercules. 280. * And tfiou. 8 From the Memnonian realms) ver. -which is now the eastern part of Khorasan and to the west of Afghanistan. jirimtispmn) ver. and the Massagetan satisfying the long fast of Sarmatian warfare with the horse on which he flies. m. 279. And The Massagetee were said to be in the habit. Under the name "Perses" he alludes to Xerxes. and the rapid Geloni 7 Not. 4 The Essedonian nations) ver. 283.] 107 banks. and was fabled to have come from Ethiopia. They had 6 also gold-mines. The <jreloni were a people of Scythia who dwelt in Asiatic Sarmatia. . and his memorable expedition against Greece. by griffins. 1 Enlarges the world) ver. who was the son of Aurora. 278. . now hi that. . cutting through the confines of the mid part of the earth.

4 . 293. This was Agamemnon." the fickleness or want of good faith for which the Greeks were proverbially notorious. * Dared to preserve their fidelity) ver. that all the nations extending from Mauritania to Pompey. Nor ever did races unite so varied hi their dress. It was founded by a colony of Phocaeans from Asia Minor about B. languages of people so different.C. The meaning of this circumlocu- tion is. on the same site as the present city of Marseilles. among the Romans. Nations thus numerous did Fortune arouse to send as companions in his mighty downfall. 3 The Marmarian troops) ver. who led by Paris to the affections the Greek forces to Troy to avenge the injury done of his brother Menelaus in carrying off his wife. 301. however far parched Libya extends from the western Moors. may here remark that Lucan re" " " an peatedly uses the word juventus to signify army." and were. Egypt sided with We 4 Tlte Phoccean youth) ver. He alludes to the inhabitants of Massilia. 286-305." or the fighting men of a place . 1 of his brother's love beat the waves with so many fleets. and as obsequies * worthy of the end of Magnus. Lucan falls into the error of confounding these with the inhabitants of Phocis in Greece . and in the present instance he compliments them on not showing the usual " Graia levitas. 600. m.The Parcetonian Syrtes) ver. men were considered to be juvenes. in Libya. as such. Yet first they attempted with peaceful words to modify the . 2 Horn-bearing of Jupiter of a ram. Lest fortunate Caesar might not meet with all at once. by counting which he might have an exact account of their numbers. the Phocsean youth 5 amid doubtful fortunes dared to pre serve their fidelity 6 with no Grecian fickleness. 301. when he quitted the walls of trembling Rome. swept across the cloud-capt Alps with his hastening troops and while other nations were alarmed with terror at his fame. . The Marmaridne were the inhabitants of Marmarica. and extending inland as far as the Oasis of Ammon. and their plighted faith. 292. Pharsalia gave the whole world to be subdued at the same moment. 295. from the age of seventeen to forty" six. liable to mili- tary service. did sovereigns so numerous have one leader. and to adhere to the cause and not the fortune. as. Paraetonium was a city of Egypt. 286. situate at one of the mouths of the Nile. in the south of France. 1 Avenger of his brother's love) ver.PHARSALIA. Ammon Ammon) The country situate near the Temple where Jupiter was worshipped under the form ver. Horn-bearing Ammon did not delay to send the Marmarian troops 3 to the warfare. he commanded each soldier as he passed by in review to discharge an arrow. 108 [u. even to the Pareetonian Syrtes 4 on the eastern shores. He. a district between Cyrenaica and Egypt.

] PHAKSALIA. and be willing to entrust thyself to our walls. if you do not wage war with those 3 with whom it is lawful. and to thee. Cffisar being admitted. a treaty pleases. the warfare to be shutout. if fate wishes well to the unconquered City.B. ver. nor does the slothful world so shudder at the contact of wickedness that the civil war stands in need of coerced swords. if in an unknown world thou art seeking any triumphs. they entreated the approaching enemy in these terms : " That always hi foreign wars Massilia took part in common with your people. 305-336. the 8 " Arma committere here most Wage war with those) ver. on opposite sides. will forbear to hurl the darts." and "illis" is the ablative plural. probably means "to engage" or "fight. sacred to Minerva. or if the earthborn Giants were aiming at the stars. 306. and. that they would refuse to hurry on your destiny. Most of the commentators take the phrase to mean " to entrust arms to. that. If to the inhabitants of heaven fury had given arms. that same bears witness." or " " illis" the dative put arms in the hands of. you are preparing a deadly strife. An end is there to your state. if direful battles. only by his lightnings would be sensible that still the Thunderer reigns hi heaven. m. A branch of olive. a branch of the Cecropian Minerva l being borne before." and make plural " . indeed. discordant. and permit. This is the sum of our prayer leave the threatening eagles and the hostile standards afar from the city. " Would. parent. exempt from crime. and that no On beholding his strange soldier would wage these battles. . 1 A when branch of the dangers so great of the Iberian warfare the Cecropian Minerva) symbol of peace. to civil arms we give our tears and our dissent. nations innumerable are meeting together on every side. By our hands let no accursed wounds be meddled with. be safe to Magnus . " Or else. still not either by arms or by prayers would human piety presume to give aid to Jove and the mortal race. whose right hand will not grow weak ? Brothers. And now. receive the right hands that are pledged to foreign warfare. 328. that there were the same feelings in all. there may be a place to which you may if repair unarmed. too. Let this place. ignorant of the fortunes of the Gods. 109 impetuous wrath and stubborn feelings of the hero. But if. Besides. whatever age is comprehended in the Latian annals.

Caesar gives the following account of this interview in his Civil War. from which their ancestors had been expelled by Harpagus. thirsting. Sagimtnm was a city of Spain. 35. and by force to break through our gates. 301. that they ' . after the towers of burnt Phocis were transferred safe on foreign shores. whom he had lately released. I. and. Torn from the bosoms of their mothers. if bounteous Ceres should fail. then with stained jaws to eat things horrid to be looked upon and foul to be touched. i. mencing there. the children shall be hurled into the midst of the flames. whom fidelity alone makes renowned If by siege thou dost prepare to block up our walls. m. he remonstrated to the effect that they ought to follow the precedent set by all Italy. underwent.PHABSALIA. had been ordered to " Caesar sent for fifteen of seize Massilia. drawn from them by turning the streams out of their course." 4 invite you. 110 [B. on which they colonized Massilia. wives and children into the flames. 345. When sieged by Hannibal for eight months in the second Punic war. too. besieged in the Punic warfare. Brothers shall exchange wounds. we are prepared to receive on our roofs the torches and the darts. a multitude that never has enjoyed prospering arms. 4 In preference will they vxtge) Ter. he hastened thither from Rome. to us in we 1 1 Towers of burnt Phocis) ver. To prevent the war comthe principal persons of Massilia to attend him. besieged) ver. and by compulsion this civil war in preference will they wage. The deputies reported this speech to their countrymen. See the note to 1. on the It was faithful to the Romans. to suck at the dug up earth . exiled from the original abodes of our country. 3 Saguntum. rather than submit to the will of any one man . your rapid march? are not of moment. Nor does this people fear to suffer for liberty that which 3 Saguntum. By the word "Phocis" here. the inhabitants the city and threw themselves and their set fire to taken. 340. 350. the general of Cyrus the Great. from her dear husband shall demand her death. within humble walls. Having heard that I)omitius Ahenobarbus." water withDraughts of water rescued) ver. B. they properly mean Phocaea in Asia Minor. We are of why do you turn no weight aside in affairs. The wife. and was besite of the present Murviedro. to seek. and. and vainly drawing at the breasts dried up with thirst. and. draughts of water rescued from your force. That they and by the authority of the state brought back this answer: understood that the Roman people were divided into two factions. the streams 2 being turned aside. 336-355. " Haustus * raptos. 355. and made use of such other arguments as he thought would tend to bring them back to reason.

in the Civil War. Caesar led three legions against Massilia. Caesar had some grounds for being offended at the duplicity of the Massilians. themselves had neither judgment nor ability to decide which had the juster cause. You shall suffer retribution * for suing for peace and you shall learn that. was entrusted to him. Even though we should be speeding onward to the furthest regions of the west. he turns his march towards 2 the fearless city. 36. and had augmented their revenue. and left Caius Trebonius. the two patrons of the state. At his command they sent the fleet to all parta. to invest the city. Now. unless those who could be conquered rebel. As the wind loses its strength unless the dense woods meet it with their oaks. that the heads of these factions were Cneras Pompey and Cains Caesar. He says. and was received into the city. still there is time to raze Massilia. B. with arms laid aside. Caesar says. But if I go alone. do they wish. having received equal favours from both. 355-374. the anger of the chieftain at length in a loud voice testifies his sorrow " Vainly does assurance of my haste encourage you Greeks. Kejoice. 370. i. 1 the merchantmen they could meet with. there is nothing more safe than warfare. during my life. c. now betrayed by his agitated features. Domitius arrived at Massilia with his fleet. and assist neither against the other. and being brought to Massilia. his lieutenant. when." they seized all into the harbour.B. Wherefore. and carried them They applied the sails. 373." 2 Turns his march towards) ver. war forsooth. which. degenerate. and made The chief management of the war governor of it." After he has thus spoken. 37. ra. but to inclose me. in the Civil War. nor admit either into their city or harbours. myself the leader. " While this treaty was going forward. Ill Thus does the Grecian youth make an end . and rigging with which they were furnished to rig and refit their other vessels.'" You shall suffer retribution) ver. If hia own account is true. and resolved to provide turrets and mantelets to assault the town. i. then are their dwellings open to me. he put under the command of Decimus Brutus. . c. ye cohorts by the favour of the Fates a war is presented before you. . and forof . and to build twelve ships at Arelas. then he beholds the walls shut. not so much to shut me out. But yet they would keep afar the direful contagion : . . the former of whom had granted to their state the lands of the Volcae Arecomici and Helvii the latter had . timber. being dissipated in empty space so it is harmful to me that foes should be wanting and we think it an injury to our arms. " Provoked at such ill treatment. assigned them a part of his conquests in Gaul. being completed and rigged in thirty days from the time the timber was cut down. they ought to show equal regard for both. B.] PHAKSALIA.

and the woods are spoiled of their oaks. hastening to set her hero over the whole world. and. This no rustic Pans. it alone was conquered with much is it that his destinies are stayed. that he might inclose the entire city. and ah others being 1 first . tified by a dense band of youths. Csesar drew a long work from the camp to the sea. Well worthy now to be remembered did this befall the Grecian city. the rays of the sun being far removed. never violated during long ages. these operations were carried on while he was fighting against Afranius and Petreiui. But first. encircling the springs and the pastures of the plain with a fosse. m. to be brought about with immense labour. and Fauns and Nymphs all-powerful in the groves." " Not smitten down or Cortius suggests this translation of the passage " " not " Non laid prostrate with fear. . its top widening. "Non impulsa. 398. as crumbling earth and twigs keep up the middle of the mass. which with its knitted branches shut in the darkened air and the cold shade. The nearest part of the city rises with a high citadel. him. mound . not provoked at nor yet prostrated by very fear. 1 : acting precipitately through provocation/' and not to depend upon 3 " metu. it stayed the headlong course of a war that raged on every side. and an eternal honor. spreads out a little plain this rock seems to the chieftain fitted to be surrounded with a long fortification. and fields Then did a thing please are situate in the valley between. however. to join the separated elevations by a vast mound. that the mound being pressed down may not give beneath the towers. with turf and unmixed earth he raised outworks that elevated their numerous towers. but sacred rites of the Gods barbarous in their ceremonial. to mean. How loses these days Then ! all the forests fall.PHARSALIA. where it is surrounded by the earth. the wood may keep close the earth knit together by the framed construction of its 2 sides. and elevations crowned with ruthless far and wide do Not provoked at first) ver. way There was a grove." impulsa seems. According to Caesar. Not far from the walls a of earth rising aloft. 1 seized instantaneously by Csesar. 112 [B. 389. equal in height to the mound. and delay. nee ipso strata metu. the generals of Pompey. in Spain. 374-404. and very well suited for a safe encampment." The mound being pressed down) ver. possessed. that Fortune. that. that.

the priest himself dreads the approach. has 1 antiquity. too. all. 425. If at awe at the Gods of heaven. when he beheld his cohorts involved in . 3 Images of the Gods) ver. But the valiant bands trembled. altars. and is afraid to meet with the : . moved by the venerable sanctity of the place. but have left it to the Gods. Csesar. Fame. too. and that they were especially Every tree Druidiciil rites * A enraged against mortals who presented themselves in their path. By this he would seem to imply that were performed in the wood. 4 The guardian of the grove) ver.] and every tree 113 was stained with human gore. nor does any wind blow upon those groves. 431. Besides. It was a prevalent belief that the Divinities walked on the earth at midday. 411. 4 guardian of the grove This forest he commanded to fall beneath the aimed iron for close by the works and untouched in former war it stood most dense in growth amid the bared mountains. 404-433. They believed that the axe would rebound as a punishment for their profaneness. the birds of the air dread to perch. 1 was stained) ver. * Would rebound back) ver. and. of the kind called by the Greeks auregt/X*. and the wild beasts to lie in the caves. .B. or dark night possesses the heavens. and that flames shone from a grove that did not burn. upon these branches. they believed that if they should touch the sacred oaks. in. These figures of the Deities were rough unhewn logs of wood. shuddering in themselves) ver. and stand unsightly formed from hewn trunks. and that serpents embracing the oaks entwined around them. the mid sky. struck with been deserving of belief. and a shuddering in lightnings hurled from the dense clouds . 412. PHAESALIA. the axes would rebound back 5 against their own limbs. The people throng that place with no approaching worWhen Phoebus is in ship. By the use of "suus" he means that the leaves are left entirely undisturbed by the winds. and that yews that had fallen rose again. reported that full oft the hollow caverns roared amid the earthquake. The very mouldiness and paleness of the rotting wood now renders people stricken with awe not thus do they dread the Deities consecrated with ordinary forms so much does it add to the terror not to know what Gods they are in dread of. I . from black springs plenteous water falls. themselves 2 prevails among the trees that spread forth their branches to no breezes. 405. and the saddened images of the Gods a are devoid of art.

not. and thrown down with its trunks thickly set the falling wood supports itself. and Cortius has come to the conclusion that it alludes to the axle-trees of the wheels upon which the " agger" or mound was placed and then wheeled to the city. believe that I have incurred the guilt. The general. they bring waggons. . never heard of before." This expression has caused great perplexity among the commentators. of two . ii. And when enough of the grove is cut down. however. orders the warfare to be carried on 2 A mound is erected with props studded with iron 8 and receives two towers equalling the walls in height. and with the iron to cut down the towering oak. but the youth shut up within the walls exult. Leaving the conduct of the war to Caius Trebonius. For who can suppose that the Gods are insulted with impunity? Fortune spares many that are guilty and only with die wretched can the Deities be angered. . B. and the alder more suited . Down fall the ashes. the knotty holm-oak is hurled : down the wood of Dodona. was also placed at the door of the house in which a person of station was This tree is said to have been considered an emblem of death lying dead. It is much more likely that it signifies cross beams studded with iron. 8 Wilfi props studded with iron) ver. from the fact that when once an incision has been made in it. it dies. the oxen being carried off. that no one of you may hesitate to hew down the wood. HL 483-457. 114 [B. and. the iron being buried in the violated wood. free from care. thus says " Now then. and in " the following passage the cross beams are referred to: They began. first daring to poise a hatchet snatched up. the cypress. admit the day. the yearly produce of the soil relaxed from the curving plough. but the wrath of the Gods and of Ceesar being weighed. . too. The cypress was planted near the tombs of the rich. 455. c. " Stellatis aribns. . great alarm. then first lay aside their foliage.PHABSALIA. Looking on. to make a mound of a new construction. turning towards the Spanish forces and the extremities of the world. 455." Then did all the throng obey. sought amid the fields and the husbandmen bewail. the nations of the Gauls lament. 1 5. and was sometimes used for the purposes of the funeral It was a tree of comparative rarity and great value. his legate. to the waves. too. that bears witness to no ple1 beian funeral mourning. This operation is described by Caesar in the Civil War. 1 Witness to no plebeian) ver. therefore. A branch of it pile. impatient with a contest destined to linger on before the walls. * Orders the warfare to be carried on) Ter. 442. which were used in constructing the agger which they were building round the city. spoiled of leaves. all fear removed.

name in this case was suggested by the resemblance which the ram presented to a tortoise thrusting its head forwards from its shell and drawing it for their bodies. just as a rock.B. made of timber. the youth supposed that the wind seeking to burst forth had shaken the empty recesses of the earth. but scatters hi every direction whole limbs together with the bleod. those which. But as often as a stone is hurled by the vast impulse of the blow. before hurled from the distant retreats. valour approaches the hostile walls.] PHARSALIA. back again. by the soldiers uniting their shields over their heads. but. m. not hurled by against the Roman bodies. locking one in the other. rushing onwards it bears down everything. 115 these are fastened with no wood to the earth. Avhich old age. death left behind. or to change the level of then. But 1 when. and the space which was floored was covered over with hurdles. i a . While the : . it flies on after the wound a career still remains for the weapon. But a greater power was there in the Grecian weapons For the lance. and wondered that their walls were standing Thence did the darts fall upon the lofty citadel of the city. content with heavy masses alone. sheltered beneath the stout tortoise . and to lay floors over them of almost the same breadth with the mound. each six feet thick. they hurl down stones with their bared arms. walls of brick. but discharged by the tightened whirlwind force of the balista. has separated from the height of the mountain. but. But wherever the space between the walls or the weakness of the timber seemed to require it. and not only de'prives of life the bodies it has dashed against. did not. and the uplifted shield protects the helmet. under cover of which the besiegers worked the battering ram. content to pass through but one side. 474. and the foremost bear arms connected with the arms of those behind. the cause lying concealed. When so great a mass was tottering. cease in its course . now fall behind their backs nor is it now an easy task to the Greeks to direct their charges. proved destructive. The "testudo" was a mode of attacking a besieged city. 457-482. arms alone. aided by the power of the winds.engines of war adapted for hurling weapons to a distance ." 1 Sheltered beneath the stout tortoise) ver. and thus making a compact covering The "testndo" also meant a kind of penthouse moving on The wheels. and the hurdles plastered over with mortar. opening a way through both arms and through bones. but moved along a lengthened space. pillars were placed underneath and traversed beams laid on to strengthen the work.

14. just as roofs rattle. Hope by land now departed from the conquered. and the wind sweeping onward the flames bears them throughout the Koman fortifications with a swift course. See the Civil War. his labour spent hi vain. struck by the harmless hailstones. but borne away from every torch it follows after extended volumes of black smoke.PHARSALIA. and. concealed under the sheds and screened front of which they now attempt to undermine the lower part of the walls. covered with earth to prevent them from being set on fire from above by the 1 While series. and with iron implements to overthrow them . the one in the other. The Poet conceals the fact related by Caesar that this sally took place under circumstances of considerable treachery. 497. is the weapon of the men. were Covered with light eartfi) ver. ii. m. they prepare to make a charge with their troops and. . Now. Nor. does the fire display slight strength. 3 He means that it had been the limit of their It was at first) ver. smitten. and as it lies still longer does it appear. attacking by night. so does it ward off all the missiles . now the batter. It was at first 3 the greatest wish of the Greeks that their walls might stand. and the bold 4 youth sally forth . and the solid rocks dissolve into dust.2 Then." The " vineae. single arms give way beneath the continuous blows. the hurdle roof. 12. although it struggles with green timber. 487. 4 The bold youth sally forth) ver. they conceal under their arms blazing torches. c. and the blows of oaks hardened by fire. B. no spear. ing ram. 1 connected chain of arms exists. 116 [B. the soldiers being wearied. by flames from above and fragments of vast masses. falls prostrate. 13. but after the excited valour of the men. and many a stake." or mantelets. and they were awaiting the arrival of Caesar from Spain. 500. more mighty with its suspended blows. still further. but now they prepare to sally forth and attack the enemy. at their own request. and it . 482. breaks down the lengthened fence." the connected " So 3 enemy. a truce had been granted them. gives way. no death-dealing bow. covered with light earth the mantelet moves on. chain of arms) ver. the wearied soldier seeks again the tents. it consumes not only the wood but huge The mound stones. and to But struck strike away one from the stones placed above. but fire. "Dum fuit armornm long as the shields kept firmly locked. 482-509. wishes that their walls might stand and the city remain uncaptured. impelled endeavours to loosen the texture of the solid wall. when.

The statue of the This was distinct "tutelar Divinity" of the ship was placed at the stern. They are now called the Isles d'Hierea. 117 pleased them to try their fortune on the deep sea. and just as the tree falls on the mountains. by order of Antony. during the Civil War. and the Massilians were aided by Lucius NasiSee the Civil dius. and by equal arms on the one side the ships of Caesar. 3 The land of Stcechas) ver. urged on 1 . War. as descendants of the rhocuiims. The Stoechades were a cluster of islands. making for the land of Stoechas*. in the Mediterranean. he joined the murderers of Caesar. According to Caesar. See the Tristia from the " insigne. Not with painted oak did the resplendent tutelary Deity grace the ornamented barks. has refracted them on the waters. * The Grecian youth) ver. 510. and the sky is free from clouds. each one moves his ship from each station." which was placed at the figure-head. five in number. ni. . too. is a firm surface put together for the naval warfare. After the siege of Massilia. spreading his morning rays upon the seas. on the other by Grecian rowers the fleet is impelled . for Pontus was a helmet. under Caesar in Gaul. He means the Massilians. ii. he having been left in command of This was D. " 4 With the tads) ver. a Sequanian. who had been sent by Pompey with sixteen ships. Notwithstanding this. 509-527. His bark was thus distinguished as being the Praetorian or admiral's ship. this naval engagement between Brutus and the Massilians took place before the attack by land . and enjoying his full confidence. When Phoebus. the ships worn out in the dock-yards. whom Lucan supposes to have been Greeks. was sent to conduct him the for the to Senate-house purpose of assassination." " Ephebi was the name given to those between the ages of 16 and 20. only standing on the waves. 516. prepared for the warfare the sea lies calm. 516.B. 3. 514.] PHARSALIA. and took every opportunity of showing him marks of favour. who had served the fleet by Caesar. And now. . Boreas being banished and the south winds holding their peace. * " tutela" or 1 Tlie resplendent tutelary Deity) ver. c. Caesar gave him the command of Further Gaul. B. mingled. where the Massilians kept an armed force to protect their trade against pirates. to the east of Massilia. and. " Ephebis. but rough. where he says that the insigne of the vessel in which he sailed " tutela" of it. 7. " " of Ovid. Junius Brutus Albinus. and armed the aged men with the lads interwas then did the which Not fleet. receive the men they sought again. while Minerva was the 2 The towered ship of Brutiis) ver. attending the towered ship of Brutus 2 the fleet had come into the waves of the Rhone with the tide. He was afterwards deservedly put to death by Capenus. 518. The Grecian youth 4 as well was wishful to entrust all its strength 6 to the Fates.

in form of a crescent. hi that the sea . 1 The Liburnian Janb) name given to ver. But the lloman ship was more sure in. This force breasts the open sea. and were then probably limited in size to two ranks of oars. affording a keel firmly laid. ra. and convenience to the warriors equal to the dry land. Just as. and those which the rising ranks of rowers built up fourfold. the seas from afar with its highest oars. and stretch along the benches." was a " bireme" up to those with six every ship of war. innumerable voices are mingled in the vast expanse and the sound of the oars is drowned in the clamour. move on. a people of Dalmatia. and with no tardiness to obey the turning helm. the opposing ships are received. the prows separated. The Liburnae" here mentioned. and strike their breasts with the oars. . surround the wings of the Roman fleet. and to change their course with no wide sweep." appear to have had but two ranks of oars. the other beats back. They are said to have been first used " by the Romans at the battle of Actium. by oars the ships shake again. the ships run astern. and those which dip in the seas still more pinewood oars. when the ships hi the ploughed-up tide describe their varying tracks. the sea which the one fleet impels onwards with its oars. 534. the Liburnian barks '. Pliny tells us that they were formed with sharp bows to> offer the least possible resistance to the water. They were originally constructed by the Liburnians. and seeks. the wings extend. torian ship of Brutus more lofty than all is impelled by six tiers of oars. Then said Brutus to the pilot sitting " Dost at the ensign-bearing stern thou suffer the battle to> Where fleet .PHARSALIA. the lofty barks." or Libunrica. and. in this direction run the waves. In the centre. Then they skim along the azure main. so. fall back. : " " Libarna. now. and the repeated strokes Both strong three-oared galleys. so oft as the tide struggles against the Zephyrs and the eastern gales. and the hurled And darts as they fall fill the air and the vacant deep. content But the Praeto increase with two ranks of oars. from a ranks of oars. 118 [B. move on there is just so much sea intervening that either could cross orer to the otlwr with the oars once pulled. But the pine-tree ships of the Greeks were skilful both to challenge to the battle and to resort to flight. " from the words ordine gemino. ships in numbers. 527-559. nor can any trumpets be heard. and carries a tower along the deep. the fleet sundered. When first beaks meeting beaks send forth a sound.

she stuck fast) ver. grappling-irons united and smooth chains. Javelins. and dost thou contend with the vagaries of the ocean ? Now close the warfare oppose the mid part of the vessels to the Phocsean beaks. facing full the blows of the enemy and none The deep blood foams in fall slain hi their own vessels. whatever ship tried the oaken sides of that of Brutus. 566. The ships. conquered by her own blowT captured. his own ship. was impaled. . and the tide is thickened with clotted gore. Some. perish in the sudden wreck of the dismantled ships. its crew divided. nor do the wounds fall from afar by means of the hurled weapons . . too. the waves. and hand meets hand. the ships lying broadside to broadside. and boldly seizes hold of the Grecian flag ." which formed the highest part of the poop." In the ancient ships the upper part of the stern often had an ornament called " aplustre. Now no longer are the darts hurled from the shaken arms. from the high stern of which. . with equal warfare defends the right side and the left .] PHAKSALIA. on the beak of the large ship of Brutus. while Tagus maintains the fight. A Roman ship hemmed in by Phocsean barks." He obeyed. fall into the vast deep. 3 Held themselves on fiy the oars) ver. with its weight used to no purpose. Then. half-dead. adhering to life struggling with slowly-coming death. Oars being inserted between oars. an it were.. she But others both stuck fast 1 to the one she had struck. and they held themselves on by the oars'. m. finds a wound on being received hi the midst of the waves. The "aplustre" rising behind the helmsman served in some measure to shelter him from wind and rain . and drink of the sea mingled with their own blood.B. and a lantern was sometimes suspended from it. the same do the dead bodies clogged together hinder from being united. which the chains of iron thrown on board are dragging. 564. accomplish their slaughter in the sea. Some. missing their aim. 559-588. 586. 3 Hold of the Grecian flag) ver. In a naval fight the sword Each one stands upon the bulwark of effects the most. 119 be shifting about upon the deep. he is pierced both hi back and breast at the same moment by hurled darts in :i . It is most probable that the form of it was borrowed from the tail of the fish. " Aplustre. on the covered sea the warfare stood fixed to the same spot. 1 The shock was so great that she Captured. and sidelong he laid the alder barks before the foe. and whatever weapon falls.

in the naval battle at Massilia. dares from a Grecian stern to lay hands 1 upon a Hi iiai bark. which were successively cut off. the dart holding him back. and A 1 To lay hands upon) ver. While Gyareus attempted to leap on board the friendly bark. imitating the memorable example of Cynaegyrus among the Greeks. did the barks obey weather better known to any one. Of these. a soldier of Caesar. and it being cut off. more high-spirited wrath has he. in reality. By his mischance his valour waxes . however. and states that he held with both hands." Plutarch and Valerius Maximua mention the same . the midst of his breast the iron meets. 588-615. whom the same womb bore to differing fates. and scatters death in the wounds. the brother of the poet JJschylus. having seized with his right hand the ship of the enemy. Lucan. which was cut off. until the plenteous gore at the same time expels both the spears. who. in. and the right hand of the dying pilot turned away the ship. the oars of two ships being mingled sideways. similar story to this is told of Cynaegyrus. here attributes to the Massilians a valorous exploit which was. and then held on with his teeth. He always renews their grief. whether he looks at Phoebus or whether at the horns of the moon. Justin magnifies the story. Two twin brothers are standing. and presents his lost brother to them as they mourn. hi order always to trim the sails to the coming winds. the glory of their fruitful mother. his shield. a cause for everlasting tears. when the sea was nor was the morrow's boisterous. with his usual distortion of facts at all favourable to Caesar. leaped on board the ship and drove all be- fore him with circumstance. still. all mistake being now removed. Cruel death separates the heroes and the wretched parents recognize the one left behind. holding fast with tightened nerve. he received the iron driven through his suspended entrails. uncertain from which wound to flow.PHARSALIA. and rends asunder his life. and the blood stands. it stiffens. and as it dies. and pinned to the ship. with the effort with which it has grasped it keeps hold. He with the beak had broken the ribs of a Latian bark. performed by a soldier of Caesar's array. . when the Persians were endeavouring to escape by sea. seized one of their ships with his right hand. i] i stronger. there he hung. 120 [B. Hither also the right hand of hapless Telon directed his ship. but from above a heavy blow lops it off. 610. " Acilius. mutilated. than which no hand more aptly. the one. comb-like indented. but quivering javelins entered the middle of his breast. Suetonius says that.

as though from a wound. it let hi the sea the top of the hatches. and the downward flow of his life's blood passing into his rent limbs is intercepted by the waters. Many of the learned. does his blood slowly flow the veins torn asunder 1 on every side it falls . and in the place of the bark the sea closed up. too. . while to others state that the lines beginning at ones so repeated. 639. and nerves his members with all the blood that is remaining. But after. Cleft asunder by the sunk ship. being filled to . and. 615-645. bark. however. 1. Then he summons his life. into his wearied limbs. . 811 in the Ninth Book were the . at his own request.] 121 he renews the combat with valorous left hand. 1 The veins lorn asunder) ver. destined to injure it by his weight alone. the lower part of him mutilated gives to death the limbs deprived of their vitals but where the swelling lungs are situate. do not believe this story. there does death delay for a long time . Many wondrous instances of various fates besides did that day afford upon the main. when commanded by Nero to slay himself. where the entrails are warm. m. . This hand. its ribs broken.B. . The life of no one slain is parted with by a passage so great. and about to tear away his right hand he stretches out over the waves. pierced by many a spear. and having slanting sides. is cut off with the entire arm. . Torn away he is rent in two nor. he still persists and weapons that were to have fallen to the destruction of many of his own friends he receives with a death that he has now earned. it fixed on Lycidas. he is not stowed away in the bottom of the ship. and with much blood. but. fleeting with many a wound. his members failing in strength. PHARSALIA. heaped up with the slaughter of the men. He would have been sunk in the deep but his friends hindered it and held fast his suspended thighs. This and the next four lines are said his veins have been repeated by Lucan when dying by a similar death having been opened. While a grappling-iron was fastening its grasping hooks upon a ship. the waves divided. exposed and covering his brother's arms with his naked breast. it descended into the waves. Now deprived of shield and weapons. he leaps on board the hostile . sucking in the neighbouring waters with a whirling eddy. received numerous blows on its The filled ship.

spouted forth corrupt matter. and may start forth after hav: . but when they caught hold of the woodwork on high with forbidden arms. And now. the impious crew from above struck at the middle of their arms with the sword leaving their arms hanging from the Grecian ship. 672. the body. While. they were slain by the hands of their own side . swayed to and fro from the multitude received. one hurls an oar at the foe but others whirl round with stout arms the wrenched-up flagl staff and the benches torn away. . rushed to receive the aid of a friendly ship . through his mouth the blood. ra. 1 Wrenched-up flag-staff) ver. For the purposes of fighting they break up the ships. Then was a remarkable kind of dreadful death beheld. 122 [B. no longer did the waves support on the surface of the sea the heavy trunks. within its hollow hull incloses both sea and sailors . The greatest part of a crew being shipwrecked. the company of one ship is pressing straight against the side. and leaves the deck empty where it is free from the enemy. likely to perish. struggling against death with expanded arms.PHAKSALIA. fury finds arms . all the soldiers stripped bare. struggled much with this portion of the man. mingled with the entrails. nor is it allowed them to throw out their arms hi the vast deep. " Aplustre. His breast divided hi the middle at such mighty blows . the rowers being driven off. and the beaks withdrew. too eager for fight. 645-679. hardly does it take possession of all the limbs. and spoil the carcases of the weapons Many. nor with the ground bones were the limbs able to prevent the brazen beaks from re-echoing." See the Note to L 586. ing hurled the hostile spear. and with the left hand clench fast their wounds. the vessel. so that the blood may allow a firm blow. the weapons being expended. being cast into the sea admitted the water into the wounds. overturned by the accumulated weight. with the pierced breast. After they backed the ships with the oars. but they perish in the inclosed waves. His middle burst asunder. draw the deadly javelin wrenched out from then.own entrails. wanting darts. . when by chance ships of opposite sides transfixed with their beaks a youth as he swam. The bodies slain they catch as they are falling overboard. and the bark.

and examining in the sea if anything had been. 680-711. if but small the supply of weapons that is afforded. as often as the anchor had proved insensible to the tightened rope. 681. and warded off the blows from the beaks. beneath a covering of sulphur. victorious. valour idle in shipwreck. in. .. while he believed that he was rising amid the vacant waves. 198. sunk in the sands. See the Sixth Book. . is spread about now with pitch. and supply them to the ships. . 1 Fire fixed to unctuous torches} ver. returned to the surface of the water . This one takes to the waves. They collect darts thrown up by the sea. applied his wounds to the stern. Not to throw away their deaths was the greatest care many a one." and similar to our wildfire. barks now scattered over the sea. and withheld the flight of the ships. he met with the ships. that in the sea he may extinguish the flames these. 2 Lygdamus. For fire fixed to unctuous torches 1 and alive. and to die drowning the foe. See the First Book. now with melted wax. 1. cling to the burning spars. sition . that single end is an object of Nor is their dread. and they delight to sink with arms entwined. and at wrenching up the tooth of the fluke too firmly fixed. and He took the enemy quite down when grappled with. 1 Tht Balearic sling) Ter.B. 710. . This was probably a compowhich was sometimes called " Greek fire. than the antagonist opposed to the sea. dying. a slinger with the Balearic sling aiming with then. This weapon was said to have been particularly used by the people of Saguntum. that they may not be drowned. and at last remained for Some threw their arms around the good beneath the sea. Darts were used which they called " phalaricae. 229. PHARSALTA. In that mode of fighting there was one Phocsean skilled at keeping his breath beneath the waves. the gration.] 123 Yet upon this ocean nothing causes more destruction. . hostile oars. spread the conflaNor do the waves conquer the flames and. but the ships ready to afford a nutriment. by which they have begun to perish. Fierce enemy clutches hold of enemy. and with failing Now efforts ply their erring hands through the waves. the fierce fire claims the fragments for itself." and which being dipped into this combustible matter were then hurled against ships or wooden towers. I. they make use of the sea. . but. Amid a thousand forms of death.

with a headlong leap. ra. he said : " You. This carcase. strength. that I have fled from . seeing the death. He. his sight destroyed. caused by the bloodshed. often stumbling. not a soldier. and falling down he aided the weapon with his own weight. worn out with old age. just as you are wont to direct the missiles." Thus having said. When the old man was relieved from his torpor. O companions. No tears fell from his cheeks. and. being an aged man. and thought that this was the darkness of death . began to gain " " I will lose the time granted not. and I will pierce my aged throat. and found the panting limbs. Night came on. but after he found that strength existed in his limbs. He sinking. Tyrrhenus. a youth of noble blood. The warm blood has not yet quitted thy wounds. . not quite where the midriff slopes down to the loins. Now stood the unhappy sire of Argus in the opposite part of the conquered ship in the days of his youth he would not have yielded to any one in Phocsean arms conquered by age his strength had decayed.PHARSALIA. and his grief." he exclaimed. with aimless hand he hurled the dart against the foe. came between the benches of the long ship to the stern. 711-750. and as he looked upon him he ceased to recognize the wretched Argus. but grew stiff all over his body with distended hands. and niayst still be the survivor. Expelled from their sockets. Employ. in a great degree is of considerable use to the warriors . what remains of life hi all the chances of war. the hurled bullet at Tyrrhenus as he stood on the lofty elevation of the prow. the eyes started forth. although he had stained the hilt of the sword driven through his entrails. grant pardon to thy wretched parent. by the cruel Gods. thy last kisses. he did not beat his breast. 124 [B. and dense shades spread over his eyes. in the place of one living shalt thou be struck by the blow. when dead. and but half-dead thou dost lie. he stood amazed. after the blood had burst all the ligaments. he was a model of valour. raised his head and his now languid neck . This Argus. place me also straight in a direction for hurling darts. still. thy embrace. on seeing his father. no voice issued from his loosened jaws only with his silent features did he ask a kiss and invite his father's right hand to close his eyes. but still not without effect. received. shattered his hollow temples with the solid lead." Thus having said. : . Argus.

and four Civil taken. was there in the city! along the shore Often ! . On being taken. that five of the Massilian ships were sunk. but other ships. Changing their rowers) ver. victorious on the deep. believe them to be the funeral pile being lighted. in the War. the features being embracing the dead body of a the features of her husband and. 1 . ii. added to the arms of Csesar the first honor gained on the waves. His life hastening to precede the end of his son he did not entrust to but one form of death. B. wretched parents contended for the mutilated body. changing a few with pre- own conquerors cipitate flight reach their haven. 750-762. Roman. c.] 125 he descended beneath the deep waves. Caesar says. PHAKSALIA.B. What wailing of parents What lamentations of matrons did the wife. But Brutus. 754. 7. disfigured by the waves. . m. Now do the fates of the chieftains take a turn. nor is the event of the warfare any longer doubtful: of the Grecian the greatest part is their rowers \ carry their fleet sunk.

Varus. 521-581. and obtained a triumph in B.C. 167-194. 212-235. with three legions. 433-464. the lieutenant grants enemy. 98-120. is routed by Curio. Antony. Ilerda. at 11-47. which. Petreius first served under Antony against . In consequence. 264-266. Vulteius. exhorts his men to slay each other rather than fall into the hands of the enemy. The Pompeian troops fly towards Ilerda. 4. puts an end to this good feeling. near Utica. Caesar commands the flying enemy to be Both sides pitch theircamps. Caesar shuts them out from a supply of water. 236-253. 715-798. taken prisoner and put to death shortly after the battle of Thapsus. 799-824. had been given to him by Pompey. 267-836. and was throughout the Civil War a warm friend and partisan of Pompey. Curio sails for Africa. the Poet. 402-414.126 BOOK THE FOURTH. When the waters subside prevails. * And Petreiut) ver. 837-362. but being surrounded by an amHe is apostrophized by buscade. 254-263. 415-432. the meantime. not injurious with much slaughter but destined to give the greatest impulse to the fate of the chieftains. They obey his commands. The sufferings of the Pompeians are described. With equal rights. under whom he had served against Sertorius in Spain and in the Mithridatic war. and Caesar's camp is overflowed. CONTENTS. enemy beneath the waves. Afranius sues for peace. and his troops are suffering from famine. 2 Afranius) ver. of his having intercepted the supply of water of the enemy. of Caesar. the Pompeian commander. 121-147. He was afterwards Consul. and calls his own men to arms. Curio fights against Juba. 148-156. Caesar comes up with him. where he had charge of the camp. 1-10. The warfare is resumed. Afranius was a person of obscure origin. 91-97. M. 195-211. probably for some advantage gained over the Gauls. is informed by one of the inhabitants of the contest which took place near there between Hercules and the giant Antaeus. The fellow-citizens intercepted. the commander of the raft. and interchange courtesies. Loose chains are placed by the attempt* to escape by sea. L. as is seen in the sequel. 157-166. where Afranius and Petreiiu are of Pompey's forces. 1 Not injurious with much slaughter) ver. He then harangues his troops. Afranius 2 and Petreius* . He was present at the battle of He fled to Africa and was Pharsalia. consisting of Romans and Spaniards. 48-90. Which Caesar In to the 363-401. 59. 661-714. is destroyed with his forces. He now had the command of Hither Hispania. 5. and landing at the river Bagrada. Bat Petreius recognize each other. and a battle is fought. Petreius departs from Ilerda. By reason of the rains in the spring fought command A battle is an inundation ensues. which intercept the flight of one of Antony's rafts. In the meantime Caesar arrives in in Spain. is besieged by the adherents of Pompey on the shores of the He then Adriatic. A famine And then a flood. 2. BUT afar in the remotest regions of the world stern Caesar 1 wages a warfare. 581-660. 465-520.

becoming mixed with the Iberians. Sufficiently strong and high to admit of the passage of the mountain floods of winter. was a town of the Itergetes. He was a person of considerable military experience. besides the Latian bands. and with a of gentle slope increases on high . B. mingling slight elevation. which. PeThere were besides about eighty cohorts raised in Hispania treius two. unfolds extended fields. now called Lerida. Now called the Cinca. the eye scarcely catching the limits . and.B. which was crossed here by a bridge of stone. protector of the trenches. 1 . expanding from here. after the he and the of fell fatal issue of battle Thapsus. or natives of the region now called " the Asturias. i. (of which the troops belonging to Hither Hispania had shields. situate on an eminence over the river Sicoris (now the Segre). nor on a smaller hill does Caesar rear his camp . separated from Asturia by the river Durius. or Vectones. With these. After the Spain. With reference to these levies of Pompey. who migrated from the ancient their name with the Iberians. upon this rises Ilerda 4 founded by ancient hands. and thou dost bound the plains. 2 The light-armed Vettones) ver. and a He was one of the legates of Pompey in staunch partisan of Pompey. 10. " Afranius had three Caesar says. 21. race of the Gauls. Ilerda. now the Douro. PHAESALIA." 4 Upon this rises Ilerda) ver. 8. there was the active Asturian and the light-armed Vettones 2 and the Celts 3 . raised in both provinces. the Sicoris. 4-21. 16. " Astur. destined to endure the wintry waters'." Catiline. in Hispania Tarraconensis. c." though used in the singular.] 127 were rulers in that camp an agreement divided the cominto equal shares and the ever-watchful guard. 39. not the last among the Hesperian rivers. oheyed alternate standards. the original inhabitants of the country. in his Civil War. battle of Pharsalia he fled to Achaia and thence to Africa. being forbidden to repel the hill . those belonging to Further Hispania leather targets). occupied the country now called Arragon. king Juba by each other's hand. where. legions. iv. which a stone bridge spans with its large arch. mon command . 9. 13. He means the Celtiberians. with the . The rich soil swells with a . The Vettones. 6 Impetuous Cinga) ver. a river hi the middle divides the tents. and after his defeat by Csesar. 1 The active Asturian) ver. and about live thousand horse. impetuous Cinga 6 . But an adjoining rock bears the standard of Magnus . in Spain. * To endure the icintry waters) ver. flows by with its placid waves. were a people of Lusitania (now Portugal). joined him in Greece. * And the Celts) ver. who were descended from the Celts who had originally crossed the Pyrenees. means the Asturians. The earth. to avoid falling into the power of the enemy.

Then. the Iberus. and that his soldiers. "Prono Olympo. the light of day declining 1 Caesar by night surrounded his troops with a trench sud2 denly formed. 43 hill. c. and near the middle of it an eminence somewhat raised above the level. waves and the shores of ocean in thy course for. and all the stores which they had kid up in the town. he for the present pursued the same plan in his work eacli legion. At early dawn he commanded them with a sudden move. : . one after the other. c. as was at first appointed. and rested them under arms the next night. 11 Sicoris. his maniples being drawn up near each other in close ranks. Behind them the third line was carrying on the work without being seen . that gives it to the region. and one day did they devote to country and the broken laws. he led three legions out of the camp. and as it was necessary to bring materials from a considerable and to distance. he assigned one side of the camp to fortify. in his Civil War. while the front ranks kept their post and he deceived the foe. B. continued under arms. This passage is rendered more intelligible by a reference to the narrative of Caesar. . The Cinga is supposed to have Sicoris to the west. 41. which must rise high and be seen at a distance. might not be terrified by any sudden attack of the enemy. the streams being mingled." literally being here used to signify the light of the day. and drawing . 28. The day following he kept his whole army within it. 30. whilst en: gaged in their works. but to draw on the front The first and second lines opposite the enemy a trench fifteen feet broad. They were ashamed of their wickedness fear restrained the arms of them thw frenzied. He kept the rest of the legions under arms to oppose the enemy. 2 " When Caesar perceived that Afranius declined coming to an engagement. 128 [B. enveloped the camp. The first day of the warfare refrained from blood-stained battle. 1 " The light Olympus of day declining) " " felling " . 21-32. and drew out both the strength of the chieftains and the numerous standards to be reviewed. there was a plain about three hundred paces broad. 2 The front ranks kept their post) ver." 3 At early dawn he commanded) ver. . iv. . so that the whole was completed before Afranius discovered that the camp was being fortified.PHAESALIA. B. lain to the east of the hostile camps. takes away thy name from thee. In expectation of this. the bridge. he ordered them not to fortify it with a wall. or disturbed in their work. 32. In the evening Caesar drew his legions within this trench. i. or Ebro. he resolved to encamp at somewhat less than half a mile's distance from the very foot of the mountain . i. and. This attack is thus described in " Between the town of Ilerda and the next the Civil War. Caesar hoped that if he could gain possession of this and fortify it he should be able to cut off the enemy from the town. and ordered trenches of the same magnitude to be cut. on which Afranius and Petreius were encamped. Olympus and the ver. falls into the river Iberus.

and on a reinforcement being sent.B. and ordered the cavalry to take part in the warfare. The two parties engaged." 1 : K . his troops hurried on. being cut short. but to those possession of the place itself. were elevated by the shields of those that followed. kept the showers in the clouds. and. and as the men of Afranius had reached the eminence first. and the dry north winds. Thus was the foot. PHAESALIA. The chieftain beheld the troops likely to fail with disaster. readily. and hoar-frosts destined not to last on and the whole earth nearer to the sky that seeing the sun sinks the Constellations was parched. the battle it. while he was tottering and strengthening his footsteps with his javelin fixed in the ground. top riding between the two armies. and described by Caesar in the Civil War. made our retreat more easy and secure. the sky being frozen up. uncertain with its varying fluctuations. and. and. they were obliged to turn their backs. 41. 32-55. cut their way with the sword. Snows pinched the mountain districts. and by a circuit to the left 1 to place before them its protected side. and the disappointed conqueror. iv. Hither did hoth shame and terror drive the foe. the cohorts which were on guard before the camp of Afranius were instantly sent a nearer way to occupy the same post. stood aloft. The loaded soldiers struggled up the steep rocks and with faces upturned the ranks clung to the opposing mountain. c. likely to fall upon their backs. on either flank. B. . . and with no one pressing upon relieved. while they were clinging to crags and stumps of trees. our men were repulsed. clogged with the sluggish ice. The " aid given by the cavalry is thus described in the latter Chapter Our cavalry also. the spot. 45. he ordered the advanced men of one legion to hasten forward and take possession of the eminence. to the of the and yet bravely struggled up hill. though stationed on sloping or low ground. 129 which in the middle separated Ilerda in safety from the camp.] ment to ascend a hill. up his army in an advantageous position. and retreat to the standards of the legions. Upon intelligence of this. i. Thus far were the vicissitudes of arms the rest of its fortunes did the weather give to the warfare. winter's clear sky. 6." By a circuit to the left) ver. There was opportunity for no one to poise his dart. Lucan seems here to confound the his attempt to take the rising ground with an attack on the town made by " ninth legion. he first took possession of the hill to these valour and the sword promised . The winter. hardened beneath the . the enemy neglected.

Constellations. Lucan uses the word " cardo " very indefinitely and apparently with numerous significations. When the days became longer than the nights after the vernal Equinox. 63. and gave her name to that sea.PHARSALIA. 57. the days exceeded in duration'-. were a people situate in the north-western parts of the Arabian peninsula. . or Nabathse. " vento semper rubet aurea Phoebe. where now the lofty sky of heaven 6 meets with the limits of Zephyrus and the ocean. They afterwards extended into the original territory of the Edomites. and received flames from Eurus 4 He. has carried along. when the former fell He alludes to the entrance of the sun off. in the First Book of the Georgics. iv. hurls on towards the western world with Nabathrean blasts '. the hours having been made equal according to the weights of the true Balance. 60. or ancient Idumea. the eldest son of Ishmael. 61. forbidden to pass beyond they roll in their dense masses. both those which the Arabian feels. And now. 73. Aries. pressed by the sky. Avhatever has defended the Indians from the heat . . 3 . 3 Shone dubious with her horn) ver. the clouds removed afar from the east rendered tempestuous the day nor could they with their heaviness burst upon the mid region of the world. and whatever the orient sun allows to collect. at the looks back upon the time when Cynthia first shone dubious with her honr she excluded Boreas. and were said to be descended from Nabath. Because her horns are then but indistinctly seen. 59. whatever clouds he finds in his own region. . the sun left behind. then. Here. the Ram. remarks that the approach of wind causes the moon to be red . and hardly does the space that separates the earth from the heavens contain the mass of darkened air. that fell off. " * The lofty sky of heaven) ver. who 56-76. brought back the warm Titan. the darkener of the eastern sky. " Summus cardo here seems to mean the horizon. 130 But after the vernal carrier of Helle 1 [u. Arctus and Notus are free from rams. they are thickened into dense showers. who carried Helle and Phryxus on his back over the Hellespont. 4 Received flames from Eurus) ver. but hurried along the showers in their flight. * The days exceeded in duration) ver. and the mists which the Gangetic land exhales. " The term Nabataeis" here probably signifies "Eastern" generally. The Nabataei. and once again. into Aries in the Spring." * With Nabathcean blasts) ver. towards Calpe alone floats the humid air. 1 The vernal carrier of Helle) ver. Virgil. whatever Corus.

." They are called both names by Lucan. but that he did not long survive the bargain. ." or " Pyrensei Monies. a starving seller is not found wanting. Then. borne away. 95. it whirls hi sudden vortices the roaring waters and repulses the tides of ocean. in the deep trench rivers overflow. flow down. such an extended stream does all the bed of the river receive away beyond the banks. the soldier is in want. which divide France from Spain. with arch incomplete. no fodder do the furrows under water bear through mistake of the covered ways. their sight. The Pyrenees. they flow downward nor do the lightnings preserve their flames. And now. scattered abroad. ! . which he had caught. and the roeks are wet with broken ice. 77-105. And now. 81. the rainbow with its curve spans the air. besieged by no enemy. not a prodigal. by a For a whole fortune) ver. iv.B. . and drinks of the ocean 1 and carries the waves. and. the waters which spring forth from wonted channels have no passage. ravening famine comes.] 131 and. varying in colour with hardly any light. On this side. in his 28th Book. For a whole fortune' one. Nor is the night. Livy. for 200 Roman denarii. sensible that Phcebus rises . the Pyreneaii snows 2 which Titan never was able to melt. the foragers. a soldier who was dying with hunger sold a mouse. O the pallid thirst for gain The gold Now hills proffered. ever the first attendant on great calamities. 1 And drinks of the ocean) ver. siege of Praeneste. and restores to the heavens the ocean spread beneath. and. 3 The Pyrenean snows) ver. were called " Pyrene. K 3 . 1 . the disfigured face of buys a little corn. carried along with a vast torrent. PHARSALIA. are deceived amid the fields hidden from . No capture of cattle is easy. and bears away the shelters of wild beasts. Now . Virgil and Plautus also allude to the popular belief that the rainbow drinks of the waters of the ocean. spread over the sky. . . the shipwrecked arms of Cfesar are floating in the plain. and elevations lie concealed now one continued marsh hides all the rivers. 83. ur to the clouds. and sinks them in its vast gulf entirely it absorbs the rocks. stronger than they. the camp is swept away. united together. mentions an exHe says that during the traordinary instance of this species of avarice. and carries off themselves and. although they flash incessantly the bolts are quenched hy the rains.

and mayst thou do thou. these the Rhone hither let the rivers direct their vast resources. tears) ver. a Rescue from civil Caesar. too. and. thus. but be beaten back by the waters of the main and let the shaken earth crumble into channels for the streams. 120. render dense the air with perpetual showers Neptune. in the Civil War. .PHARSALIA. snowy zone and perpetual winters oppress no stars does it behold. 1 The fires of the Constellations) ver. that it was agreed that there were never eeen higher floods It swept down the snow from all the mountains. they were all of necessity confined within these narrow limits. By "ignes medios signorum. there happened an unexpected misfortune. before Caesar's arrival. 110. second rani) ver. so as to render the countries habit- beneath them. ranked next to his brother Jupiter. Thus lies the remotest part of the world. 109. the Sicoris and the Cinga. Let not the rivers find a downward course to the sea-shore. and rescue from civil wars the wretched lauds." he means the supposed heat of the Constellations in the torrid zone. mayst thou do. and that the northern regions counteract able which it. These plains let the Rhine inundate. Neptune. aa they were stopped by the floods . into Ilerda. whatever streams thou hast sent forth. Thus. which tfie in the heavens . wherever they extend. . . broke over the banks of the river. thus describes this tempest and its effects days after For so great this transaction. forbid to return. 105-120. and in one day carried away both the bridges which Fabius had built a circumstance which caused great difficulties to Caesar's army. Neither could the states which had espoused Caesar's cause furnish him with corn. nor the troops which had gone far to forage return. lie " Sorte In the secunda. O supreme Parent of the world. and as neither of these could be forded for the c. nr. because Afranius had conveyed almost all the corn. The cattle and whatever he had left had been already consumed by which might have served as a secondary resource against . Caesar. the 2 king of the heavens. B. for as one camp was pitched between two rivers." Neptune. a storm arose. and in those countries. not anything does it produce with barren cold but with ice it moderates the fires of the Con1 stellations in the middle of the system." "in the second rank. its . heaven and the united shades mingle the varying traces of objects. nor could the convoys coming from The states. " In two 48. Hither send the Rhipsean snows to thaw hither pour forth the pools and lakes. i. . were exItaly and Gaul make their way to the camp. 132 [B. : space of thirty miles. the sluggish 3 marshes. hausted. as the king of the ocean. ruler in the second rank 2 of the ocean trident.

contented with this slight alarm. and covered over with hides. When these were finished. before he was perceived by the the bank. had been removed by the states to a great distance on account of the war. 54. These were like the coracles. and the nights are reddening with the approaching light and. 133 But the Fortune of the hero. The woods begin to raise their foliage. : . then the rest of the hull of the ships was wrought with wicker-work." 1 He means that the Moisture departs from. a distance of twenty-two miles from his camp. is woven into small boats. < want. which sucks up the water. the bullock being slaughtered. 2 The Briton sail) ver. To this he afterwards transported a legion . 126. and more than usual do the propitious Deities favour him and merit his forgiveness. safe to his camp the convoys and those who had gone out to forage. c. 134. which Caesar had seen used by the people of Britain. Caesar ordered the soldiers to make ships of the kind that his knowFirst. enemy. . and whatever of the water is poised aloft seeks the lower regions. returns in full career. and began to prepare a conveyance for the provisions. Now the air is more serene. has scattered the dense clouds into fleecy forms. he drew them down to the river in waggons in one night. and having bejrun a By this means he brought bridge on both sides. and Phoebus.] PHARSALIA. and on the expanded ocean the Briton sail 2 . filling the clouds. moisture departs from the stars'. in the first place the white willow. and the valleys to become hard. says. the stars) ver. and the hedges could not be repaired. and all the passes were guarded by the soldiers and horse of Afranius. and on a sudden took possession of a hill adjoining This he immediately fortified. the due order of things observed. ribs were made of light timber.B. the hills to emerge from the standing waters." from its growing in the sand. stream." 3 Of the swampy papyrus) ver. " When Caesar's War. that he calls the papyrus " bibula. Sulpitius. and covered over. 121-136. and transported in them some soldiers across the river. the keels and ledge of Britain a few years before had taught him. moisture now departed. is the Memphitic boat framed of the swampy papyrus '. And when the Sicoris regains its banks and leaves the plains. i. had obscured the light of the stars. or light In the Civil boats. when the Nile covers everything. the Scholiast. iv. B. thus. 136. he finished it in two days. equal to the waters. he thus describes these operations affairs were in this unfavourable position. the light of day beheld. adapted for passengers it floats along the swelling Thus does the Venetian on the flowing Padus. which before. its twigs steeped in water.

146. " to cut of elliptical method arches for a bridge. Thrown across on these vessels the army hastens on l either side to curve the cut-down wood . The rest of the legions he drew out without any baggage. and. the soldiers gathered in parties and declared their They regret that the enemy had been suffered to escape from their hands.THARSALIA. 1 To curve the cut-down wood) ver 137. and the soldier. and not a man perished. B. And lest the Sicoris dare anything with its waters rising once again. it is into channels." and On able. and seeing that the cavalry had overtaken the enemy (Civil War. aa Caesar informs us. it pays the penalty for the more swollen waters. look for bridge or by the His cavalry bridge. applied to their tribunes and centurions. all the weaker soldiers to be selected from each centhem with one legion besides to guard the camp. the stream being divided by canals. the day speeding onwards to the noon. and would venture Caesar ordered tury. into and was to repair to Celtiberia. bwnm across the river. or fords :1 . hardy arms. 3 nations we expressing unsubdued) learn from Caesar. 137-156. they are detained. until the shadows decrease. and left . 149. " Snccisura ciirvare nemus down wood and bend The object of it Petreius " . they warm their Obedience soaking limbs. And now the cavalry over takes the hindmost ranks. 134 [a iv. their arms regained. eagerly hastens on a path which in flight he would have dreaded. beholding the hills forsaken and the camp abandoned. and he directs his course to the limits of the world. above and below the ford. this. He says. and. he led his army over. is given. 54) through the whole camp. swelling foundations on the edges of the banks. Afterwards. When Petreius sees that all tilings proceed with fortune to Caesar. rushing to the battle. c. and." an 3 Seeks Afranius. by running. and may drawn away always fierce in arms by courting death. Because the route fords) ver. and dreading the it does not of the place the wooden threatening river. undecided for flight and for fight. and entreated them to inform Caesar that he need not be sparing of their labour : that they were ready to ford the river where the horse had crossed. and having disposed a great number of horse in the river. A few of his soldiers being carried away by the force of the current were stopped by the horse and taken up. distrusting the might of the knoAvn world.. that " The foot being left behind. bids them take up arms. i. seeks nations unsubdued -. required too large a circuit. Csesar. Not ver. but extends the bridge into the midst of the fields. reinvigorate their joints chilled by the stream. he abandons the lofty Ilerda. and. and not look for bridge but surmount the stream with.

and they beheld their own brothers. in the Civil War. ." He spoke. i. c. and we seemed Ilerda. IT. 157-176. to go by a circuitous path. . and in contumelious language upbraided us. that when they had encamped they were so close that they could easily recognize the countenances of each other. and return to For our route was different from what we purposed. and he came in front of the foe speeding onward to the mountains. straining by reason of no distance. Caesar finds that there is a passage through It appears from his these defiles to remote regions and barbarous nations." says regions of the earth and into savage nations.B. B. that. 170. 162. high spirits from their camp to look at us. Ca3sar perceives that the warfare may be carried thence into the remote " Go. " that there was a level road for account that from his scouts he learnt the next five miles. On the one side the elevated earth forms a chain of lofty hills. straits an enemy gaining possession of. and reaching the pass before the enemy." 3 Had mutually caught sight) ver. . with more powerful impulses. . to be going a contrary way.] PHARSALIA. between which These with darkened route safe paths lie concealed. 157. leaving their ranks. For a little tune they held their peace through fear only with signs and the waving of the sword did they salute their friends. and present your faces and your threatening countenances to the battle and let not the cowards fall by an ignoble death as they fly let them receive the weapon straight hi the breast. and children." 2 Without keeping your ranks) ver. . with a narrow trench between. the soldiers ventured to pass the trench. 69. 1 Two rocls raise) ver. had * mutually caught sight of each other's countenances in full view. Soon. . and to stretch he. that we were forced for want of necessary subsistence to run away. ardent affection overpowered the rules of war. the wickedness of civil warfare was revealed. There they pitched their camps a little distant from each other. " without keeping your ranks 2 and in your speedy course turn back your hastening force. 135 Two rocks raise 1 their craggy ridges from the plain. when. The meaning is. " At first the soldiers of Afranius ran in to do this. and fathers. when his troops began him. a hollow vale being in the midst. He means. and that there then succeeded a rough and mountainous country and that whichever should first obtain possession of the defiles would have no trouble in preventing the other's progress. there to face about and charge Caesar says. that Caesar instructed his men to make all haste. After their eyes.

B. and invited him to him. c. so that the two camps seemed to be united into one. their friends. madman. and bring them brought camp. and paid their . they promised that they would immerank as diately remove their standards. 176. and that they had taken up arms against their relations and kinsmen. i. . and declared their sorrow that they had not done so in the : beginning. and. away by and several of the tribunes respects to him. came out in great numbers. . 176-194 One calls out the the extended hands' for an embrace. the soldier dreads to have done what he might have done. First they returned them general thanks for sparing them the day before. 136 [B. and acknowledged that they were alive through their kindness. The skulking places of crimes so many have come to an end pardon is torn away from an erring people they have recognized their own friends. whom thou thyself dost make to be dreaded ? Let the trumpet-call sound to battle. are others to their invite their acquaintances. dost thou groan ? Why dost thou pour forth empty laments. and hal lowed love of the universe now does our age hold a vast in fluence on what is to come. and sent centurions of the first In the meantime some of them deputies to treat with Caesar about a peace. Why dost thou beat thy breast? Why. although stained sighs they interrupt their kisses with no blood. Concord. and enquired each for whatever acquaintance or fellow-citizen he had in our camp. . name of his host another shouts to a neighbour a youth spent together reminds another of their boyish pursuits nor is there a Roman that does not recognize an enemy The arms are wet with tears.PHARSALIA. and Csesar. do thou neglect the ruthless signal . do thou approach. O thou salvation of things and of the harmonizing world. 1 To stretch the extended hands) ver. When they were guilty of a crime in having betrayed assured of obtaining their demands. stay behind . encircling all things in thine everlasting embrace. will love his son-in-law. with as an acquaintance. Now. iv. soon will the let them bear on the standards. . Then they enquired about the honor of our general. that they might not appear their generals. they desired the general's parole for the lives of Petreius and Afranius. civic strife to ! . and not own that of thine own accord thou hast been obedient to criminality? Dost thou so greatly dread him. These circumstances are " The soldiers thus related in the Civil War. Encouraged by these conferences. . 283 having obtained a free opportunity of conversing with each other. a private person. and whether they could with safety entrust themselves to him . come an end." and centurions came to Caesar.

PHARSALIA. B. forgetful of your standards. 205. wandered at large in friendship on the hard turf they little ! . that by reason of a respite increase calamities so great There was a truce. For after the treaty for a truce 2 is known to Petreius.B. and. and the soldiers. their couches united. in the Civil War. 75. surrounded with a multitude. and separates them. See the Note to 1. 209. 1 The libations floiced) ver." * You can. and let them out at night over the rampart. what alone the Fates are seeking. and put to death as many as he Orders were given that caught. Libations of wine in honour of Bacchus were poured forth on the hearths that were temporarily made on the grass. whoever had any of Cwsar's soldiers should produce them . its champions. headlong drives the unarmed enemy from the camp. . the Deity thus unpropitious. and all the future criminality waxes the stronger by reason of their affection. drove our men from the camp. and. Csesar being overcome 4 at least you While there is can. mentions the conduct of Petreius in the following terms treius did not neglect himself. and with the mingled wine the libations flowed on the grassy hearths. Fierce anger adds words to provoke the battle : " O unmindful of your country. 194-215. While they are boasting of the valiant things which they have done. to be overcome soldiers. prepared the banquets. wretched beings. to le overcome) ver. he armed his domestics . the tale of the wars prolonged the sleepless night 1 : on what plain they first came to a stand. whom he commonly kept near him to guard his person. 198. 76. to return. . thus prove their fidelity. but most of them concealed those whom they had entertained. if they cannot they may still . they put them to death publicly in the Praetorium . and he sees himself and his own camp being betrayed. " Pec. Caesar. and with plenteous bloodshed 3 disturbs the peace. joined in embraces. he arouses the right hands of his household troops to the accursed warfare. He means. interrupted the conferences of the soldiers.] 137 O Fates. with the sword. confidence is renewed in them. he suddenly flew on the rampart. mingled in either camp. 2 The treaty for a truce) ver. iv. if you cannot bestow this on the cause of the Senate. 214. with them and the : Prcetorian cohort of Spaniards and a few foreign horse. that be the champions of the Senate by the conquest of Caesar. his dependents. 176. and though conquered. from what right hand sped the lance. In allusion to the overtures made by his troops to Caesar. fight. 3 With plenteous bloodshed) ver. and while they are disagreeing on many a point. i. as soon as they were produced.

and have learned to submit to man if a little blood comes to their burning mouths. and will you raise standards condemned for treason? And will Caesar have to be entreated that he will make no distinction between his slaves ? Is l Never shall also to be begged for for your generals ? be the and the reward of abominable treaprice my safety son civil wars tend not to this. O shocking compact of disNow.*219. and brought back the fondness for criminality. it is allowed you fighting for a just cause pardon as well. 215-245. wild beasts have grown tame in an inclosed prison. because to hope for ! perhaps by our treaty safety is already basely promised thee. 1 In allusion to the terms which /* life also to le begged for) ver. and he aroused all their feelings. no walls would be fortifying cities. and the Fates are yet uncertain. to the dis grace of the Deities. when teemed. In allusion to the promise of safety for their generals which Caesar had given. the sword. ly. when. 138 [u. that we should live on. own . amid the ." Thus he spoke. reminded by the tasted gore. which. will you be going over to a tyrant. Magnus. and hardly does it withswell hold from the trembling keeper. they had proposed to Caesar for the safety of their generals. and broken faith commits excesses. They rush on to all wickedness. if liberty were ever righteously bartered hi return for peace. Nations would not be digging iron out of the mine that retreats far within the earth. " Under the name of peace we are betrayed. Sworn in accursed criminality) ver. amid the dark night of battle. no spirited steed would be going to the wars. 228. and art arousing the monarchs who possess the extremities of the world. and blood shall not be wanting to flow from many a wound. . their jaws their anger waxes hot. their rage and fury return. Fortune. unused to the woods. might have been guilty of. ignorant of thy lot throughout the grace whole world thou art levying annies. and. forsooth! but by you is your fidelity less eslife . Thus. no fleet upon the ocean to spread its tower-bearing ships upon the deep. Oaths sworn in accursed criminality 2 are to bind my enemies. contrary to his withes.THARSALIA. he reproaches them with the readiness with which they were about to make themselves and * their generals indiscriminate!}' his slaves. and have laid aside their threatening countenances.

in not violating the rites of hospitality and good faith by slaying the troops of Petreius which were in his camp. TV. 245. meeting them. 1 Amid the tables) ver. 245. Polluted by an accursed slaughter. dost recognize 3 the Gods of heaven as favouring tliee. 4 Ccesar strives to surround them) ver. cuts off all the plain.B. 255. And. they expose all their monstrous deeds before the faces of their chieftains . when the sword. as Rowe justly on observes. and in Egypt. 139 1 and the couches 2 . they take delight in being guilty. and encloses the enemy on the parched hills. although at first lamenting they unsheathe their weapons. Now the camp waxes hot with the tumult. adheres to the right hand. the baseness and cruelty of Petreius were inexcusable. consider it to mean that Dost recognize) tators . Thou. He means to say that the cause of Caesar was not more profited by his successes at Pharsalia. Some think that it that Caesar recognizes the Gods as propitious to him in this transacwhile others. 4 And the couches) ver. It is a matter of doubt with the Commen" the true meaning of " agnoscis here. Nor indeed in the Emathian plains 4 was thy fortune greater. perhaps with some reason. Indeed. Then Csesar 3 strives to surround them destitute of water with a deep entrenchment. 80-84. and with the riot of criminality the necks of parents are wrenched. than by the favour which he found with the Gods this occasion. c. B. and not to permit the camp to reach the banks of the river. 3 means tion ver. It may be observed that this is one of the very few occasions on which the Poet speaks favourably of Caesar. springs. 4 Nor indeed in the Emathian plains) ver. the dissuader from right. they hate their own friends and strengthen their wavering spirits with the blow. since through this crime alone in the civil warfare thou shalt be the leader of the better cause.] PHAESALIA. See the Note to 1. The "tori" are the couches on which they reclined while taking the repast. Csesar. The cavalry. nor were exploits so great performed in the Pharian seas . 209. what is Caesar shows reverence for the Gods. These events are related at length in the Civil "War. 264. soon as they strike. and again they take flight towards the walls of lofty Ilerda. although despoiled of many a soldier. they stab the breasts which just before they have enfolded in their embraces. This is contrary to the account of the conduct of the soldiers given by Caesar himself. 245-266. Massilia. nor in the waves of Phocsean Massilia . . the generals dare not entrust then* troops to an adjoining camp. i. 255. And as though hidden criminality might be valueless. or the outworks to wind around plenteous tables .

B. . iv. When they beheld the road to death. now threatening to perish with loss to myself. and the warm blood gives an active impulse to the nerves. until. Lemaire thinks. and. . their fierce anger moderated. he said " Soldiers. after the congealed blood has contracted the dried-up wounds. the strength being withdrawn. who with his throat exposed challenges the foe. And now deprived of water.PHARSALIA. making their way to certain death. the war forbidden. when no opportunity was given of mingling in the fight. horses. to wax faint. Claudian also speaks of the goldmines in the country of the Asturians in Spain. the youths rush on. 267-298. their terror was The soldiers slew the into headlong rage. See how life being hated by them. : 1 Does the pale searcher) ver. They will feel no wounds. so far behind. i. When Csesar saw them running down with extended front. Then. but with their own swords hollowed mountain is sunk as far as the surface of the Not so deeply down." Silius Italicus speaks of the avaricious Asturian as being "con- " of the same colour. they will fall on the swords. Let them be rid of their wish to die. appa" " is to be read in a literal or phyrently with good reason. faid aside. and withholds his hands. color. the earth first dug up. then a cold numbness fastens on the limbs and spirit. being doomed to fall they are hope : . . let this mad fit subside. 298. . night substituted her lights. devoted. does the pale searcher * for the Asturian gold by degrees . that pallidus sical sense. valueless to themselves. 231. Phoebus having sunk. borne upon the foe. Let this zeal forsake their minds. and the bones have not as yet cleaved to the skin if the victor stands conscious of the sword being driven home. now keep back your darts. tumed ." Thus did he suffer them to be inflamed to no purpose as they threatened. no useful aid to people blockaded and at length. not daylight left watery plain. and their spirits cooled just as wounded breasts manifest the greatest courage while the pain and the wound is recent. and. they seek hidden springs and concealed streams and not alone with mattocks and sturdy spades do they dig up the and a well upon the fields. and withhold your swords from them as they rush on with no blood shall the victory be gained for me he is not conquered at no cost. and rejoice in shedding their blood." as the gold which he seeks. 1. 140 [B. compelled to condemn all flight.

they squeeze juices from the crude shoots or the tender sap. 141 bury himself. Ceesar. all the soldiers vying with each other fall down for the polluted draughts. 2 With poison mingled with the springs) ver. . wearied. king of Epirus. the youths are drawn up above. They long for the showers. the loathsome blood is sucked Then they wring the grass from the exhausted udder. would drink. Still. \vearied with the hard incisions in the flinty rocks. and. and catch at the night air. whom the barbarian enemy. Now do their /eins shrink up. thou shouldst openly pour springs-! into these streams poison. nor is the gravel disturbed. of wild beasts. are mentioned in history as having so done. . Nor do they. . and leaves. king of Mauritania. however. and if at all they can. 320. still. 1 The less able to endure) ver. and. likely to live. the more thirsty they became. milk denied. 305. not deceived. Their entrails are scorched by the flame. flying. exhausted with much perspiration. The more they vainly searched for water. and strip off the branches dripping with dew.] PHARSALIA. If a softer soil betrays moisture. Jugurtha. by whose onward force but just now : . they dry the distended cattle.B. 298-331. and the gore of wild beasts. quaff the waters. refresh their bodies with feasting. in the search for you cause them to be the less able to endure l the parching atmosphere. they make hunger their resource against thirst. Several opponents of the llomans are said to have poisoned the rivers and springs . which. refreshed with no moisture. happy they. on the pumice-stone being struck nor do the sweating caverns distil with small drops. Tough with scaly tongues. and. and their parched mouths are clammy. has slain amid the fields with poison mingled with the Though. nor any new streams gush forth. and dying. And you. they open their mouths. moved upwards by the little spring. waters. loathing food. iv. and the pallid aconite that grows upon the Dicteean rocks. Then. too. their ungs contract the alternating passages for the air and harddrawn sighs hurt their ulcerated palates. both hands squeeze the unctuous clods If turbid filth is lying unmoved upon over their mouths. Pyrrhus. and Juba. neither do any rivers resound in their hidden course. Mithridates. the black mud. the Koman youth. they would have been unwilling after the manner.

and thirty days' journey from Kgypt. if there was any room left for mercy. i. the generals yielded. . stood suppliantly before the feet of the conqueror. Meroe was a spot in . them nineteen days' journey from ^Ethiopia and the shores of the Indian Ocean. and with a breast void of care he sues for . Afranius. His dignity is preserved as he entreats.'' . the adviser to sue for peace. they were prevented from procuring water. arms being laid down. 333. given by Caesar in the Civil War. the heat there would be intense. for wishing to That they had preserve their fidelity to their general.^Ethiopia called an island by the ancients. and had suffered punishment sufficiently discharged enough. 3 He sues for pardon) ver. Of course. " That Caesar on this occasion. in having endured the want of every necessary. and India. And that the more the want of water may afflict them in their wretchedness. and. 84 : ought not to be displeased either with him or his soldiers. not beaten down by calamities. Cneius Pompeius. The Fates we . iv. but now.PHARSALIA. the army. The scorching Meroe) ver. The Garamantes were the most Herodotus places southerly people known to the ancients in North Africa. The following is the speech of Afranins. they are not encamped 1 upon the scorching Meroe beneath the sky of the Crab. ^Ethiopia. B. It was the chief emporium for trade between Egypt. there was not wanting the bold right hand for hurrying on my oivn death but now the sole cause of my entreating for safety is. and were unable to bear either the bodily pain or the mental anguish. 343. but confessed themselves conquered. 331-351. and from walking abroad. and their looks are fixed upon the dry clouds. en trapped between the flowing Sicoris and the rapid Iberus. now their duty to him. Now subdued. 1 4 The naked Garamantes) ver. By no zeal for party are we influenced nor have we taken up arms as foes to thy designs. fifteen days' journey from Ammonium. and begged and entreated. Csesar. all things were inundated. pardon 3 : " If the Fates had laid me prostrate under a degenerate enemy. but that one a general. and he performs between his former good fortune and his recent misfortunes all the parts of one conquered. looks upon the adjacent streams. that I deem thee worthy to grant life. c. 142 [B. . though not really so. where the naked Garamantes v plough but. pent up almost like wild beasts. 334. Us in fact did the civil warfare find generals and to our former cause was fidelity preserved so long as it could be. from its southerly situation. Arabia. dragging after him his half-dead squadrons into the enemy's camp. that they might not be necessitated to suffer the most severe penalties.

. and gluttony. And no great things are asked. and remitted continuance in As soon as ever the the warfare 1 and all punishment. concluded the war This alone forgive for thee. O Luxury. . nor sword and wearied troops. compact for the desired peace had pleased them. . B. " Uswm belli Continiiance in the warfare) ver. 351-378. learn from this with how little we have the power to prolong life. the soldiers ran down to the now unguarded rivers they fell down along the banks.B. i. to conquer along . c. TV. and power to the men. The Poet thus exclaims in a vein of Stoicism in which he sometimes indulges. and we permit thee to feel assured of the world left behind thy back. 86 Caesar gave security that they should receive no damage. against his inclination. and how much it is that nature de." He spoke. and troubled the conceded In many the long-continued draughts of water streams. their entrails now filled with the stream. to take the military oath under him. and serene in countenance.] 143 do not withstand the western nations we yield. and thou.'' " Prodigal of resources) ver. 373. " Nor has blood. probably means further employment in the wnr. conquered. the eastern ones we open unto thcc. . and the captured to take part in thy triumphs This do we ask. readily prevailed upon. craving for food sought for over land and sea. that thou dost conquer. suddenly gulped not permitting the air to have a passage along the empty veins. L 351. 364. but C&sar. and that no person should be obliged. demands water for itself. was appeased. . " so in the Civil War." by being forced to serve on his side. that thou wilt not compel us. Afterwards strength returned to the nerves. pride of a sumptuous table. See the Second Book. prodigal of resources 2 never content with moderate provision. " 1 "any : . . with thyself. PHAESALIA. this multitude has fulfilled its destiny. Grant repose to the wearied suffer us unarmed to pass the life which thou dost bestow consider that our troops are lying prostrate along the plains nor does it indeed befit thee to mingle with fortunate arms those condemned. shed upon the plains. . compresses and shuts in the breath nor even yet does the parching plague give way but the craving malady. thy foes.

Consul gone out of memory) ver. Happy he. called pittacia. 144 No wine. " Quo jaceat jam scire loco. them refreshes . in what place he was to lie No battles summoned them forth in their weariness no trumpet-call broke their sound slumbers. Oh! how much do they regret. so To many who have experienced remain so many doubtful throughout the world should waver- those." without any stronger signification. and through his fortunes so numerous Caesar be followed. and says that they were chiefly It has been suggested that they were valued for their variety of colours. so often must victory be gained. in the ruin of the world he is to lie. " For the present. 380." were suspended from Ovid has a somewhat similar passage to them. B. ii. that they have ever with vibrated shoulders poised the weapon." 2 And porcelain) ver. wretched they who engage in wars do they drink porcelain life 378-395." There is some " where " doubt about the exact meaning of jaceat. the ! Then. and when the " vessels were of glass. toils there still . 379. blood be poured forth upon all lands. Their Nero is said to have given three hundred talents for value was very great a drinking cup of this description. bread. from no gold and but from the pure water does people is the stream and Ah. made of a kind of glass. 3 He was to lie) ver. poured mands. On the outside of the " am" cadi. return. 394. memory 1 2 forth under a Consul gone out of fainting." or : cestors. or " where he is to die. the date of the vintage being denoted by the names of the Consuls then in office ." the titles of the wine were painted." it may have the meaning of " ." or " murrea vasa. in his Art of Love.PHARSALIA. wai-fare. stating to a similar effect." myrrhine vessels. pour forth the wine of my an1 A phorae. 1. let the cask. and have endured thirst. on having obtained the granted peace. 88 me. leaving their arms to the victor. Enough for . stored up in the times of ancient Consuls. successful battles. ing Fortune never make a slip in success. . :t . who was able then to know. principally from places within the Parthian empire." it may signify simply. are dispersed among their own cities. perhaps. the soldiers. the ruin of the world impending. forsooth. but it is. TV. and chiefly lie describes them as made of a substance formed by a from Caramania. moisture thickened in the earth by heat. Pliny says that these vessels came from the east. small tickets. more probable that they were made of Chinese porcelain. [B. The " murrhina." were first introduced into Rome by Pompey. unharmed with spoiled breast and free from cares. and have in vain asked the Gods for pros- perous battles.

where Dolabella commanded for Caesar." ver.B. the other was their leader. in command of Caesar's forces there. and the land their own. and was besieged by Libo. 4 Race of the Curictans) ver. on the Illyrian with an excellent harbour. inasmuch as. 409. while Caius Antonius encamped on the island. . they alone. Here the Emperor Diocletian was born. being disbanded. situate on a small bay of the sea.] Now 145 do the wives. taking up his position in that 5 of war. and the innocent children. alludes to a river so called near called Jader. or Jadera. Marc Antony. Salona. and ended his days in retirement. 1 No husbandmen draughted off) ver. There. was slain by him in revenge for the murder of Cicero by feated Marc Antony. is shut up. 2 The extended Salonce) ver. Happy in not having to await the conclusion of the war. that besieges with certainty. off the coast of Illyria. they immediately retired to their own homes.tia. Antonius was Proconsul of Macedonia at the time of Caesar's death. the soldiers strip the plains of grass. draw. It was the seat of a Roman colony. Antony. iv. :i . The earth affords no forage for feeding the horses. who at this time was at Brundisium. 406. trusting in the warlike race of the Curictans 4 whom the land rears. in order to be planted (deduci) in the enemy's country as military colonists. towards the gentle Zephyrs. C. 396-415. was an important city of Illyria. in happiness. and. receive no This burden as well does husbandmen draughted off Fortune remove from them at ease. the yellow-haired Ceres produces no crops of corn. that tormenting party The one is the spirit is removed from their minds. whole earth but against the side of Caesar something did it dare. and the capital of Dalma. 5 of " Safe from the onset) or " secure. 3 The warm Jader) ver. distant region. "Cautus" has here the unusual meaning safe/' L . and being deby Brutus. the fields now shorn close. Curicta was the name of an island in the Adriatic. PHAESALIA. where the waves of the Adriatic sea beat against 2 and the warm Jader flows forth the extended Salonre . Salona there was also a town He coast. 405. Thus do giver of their safety. would with- by the Adriatic sea. He must not be confounded with his brother. safe from the onset if only famine. 397. and the humble dwellings. or Salonae. Not the same fortune of war lasted throughout the 1 . with their wretched teeth they tear the dry As soon as grass from off the turf of their encampment. look on upon the cruel warfare with no favouring wishes. 404. flowed around .

Then the straits are watched. Octavius. 1 Behold iJieir friends) ver. . or " cuppa? (more literally " wine vats "). bella. For. And now. by whom he was adopted. slaves about a year after. Being thus rowed from within. Satrius. :t . on every side. for Caesar original name was M. and Lemaire suggests that it is one description formed from a mixture of several. the between which tiers was not covered "ver. was written by Cicero to Basilus. and its two companions. who was commanding 415. he took part in his murder. 420. apace while the outer sides of the raft were protected by hurdles. not according to wont do they extend the keels and build aloft the sterns. empty caissons support the raft a series of which. 415-433. whose Basilus their leader) ver. fastened together. for the purpose of rowing.PHABSALIA. The "socii" here mentioned are Dola- on the mainland. and it shows the miracle of a silent course. 3 This was L. 4 Octavius. was un. The whole of this account is very confused. is retiring. For. whereas Florus mentions them as being sent by Basilus to the relief of the troops on the island. 3 Support the raft) ver. and whom Basilus had joined with his fleet. while waiting to relieve Antonius. The floats or rafts seem to hare been of oblong form. The fifteenth Epistle in the sixth book Ad Familiares. congratulating him on the death of Caesar. before he assumed that of his uncle. Upon them all a lofty tower is threatening above. their motion would naturally astonish the enemy when at a distance. and formed " each of two tiers of caissons. with his troops. iv. the waters the raft. Lucan speaks of the floats being made by the forces of Antonius. and in the Civil War commanded part of his fleet Like Brutus and others. but with an unusual shape they fasten firm planks together for supporting a massive tower. 416. while the ebbing tide is retreating with lessening waves. a friend of Octavius. and the decks are formidable with nodding pinnacles. the guardian) rer. because it neither carries sails nor beats the discovered waves. Nor does it carry its oars exposed to the weapons in the open front but that sea which it has surrounded with the beams the oars strike. with extended chains receives alder planks laid obliquely in double rows. . He served under Caesar in Gaul. and the sands are laid bare by the sea flowing out. the shores increase borne gliding along on the receding tide. the guardian of the Illyrian waves. 433. . being launched. 4 This was M. l on the shore of the opposite they behold their friends mainland and Basilus their leader 2 a new stratagem for flight across the sea is discovered. 146 [B. Minucius Basilus. though a personal friend He himself was slain by his own of Caesar.

* By shaking Uie leash) ver. the rafts greedily sought. Bibulus. he commanded the middle of Cicero and Curule Antony's fleet. however. 1 On a second passage) ver. 440. the masses are filled again. he retreated first to Illyricum. in Epinig. was appointed. contented by shaking the leash 4 to point out the lair. L S . to try the deep once more through the pacific appearance of the sea. Scribonius Libo. 444. until his prey should be increased on a second passage '. notice was given to the hunter by the shaking of it. The meaning of this is obscure. As the feathers seem to have been used for scaring the deer. 433-447. neither is the wood permitted to any dog." 3 The light Molossian hound) ver. think that it refers to the smell of the feathers themselves.B. to the command of the Liburnian and Achaean fleets. rashly going on hoard. with nose pressed to the ground. when. the dogs were held by a long leash or cord. It appears from this passage. and withheld his swift ships. while the hunter encloses the scared deer in the feather-foil 2 as they dread the scent of the strong smelling feathers. with M. and. for the purpose of scaring them away from breaking through the nets when inclosed.ffidile B. knows how not to bark. And no delay is there. :> . The last time that he is mentioned in history is on the occasion of the battle of Actium. and. The " odorata penna " here mentioned is supposed by some to toil refer to the smell of the red dye in which the feathers were steeped. except the one which. 435. both by the sight and the smell. the footsteps. Thus. 50. PHARSALIA. the commander of Pompey's fleet. and thence to Africa. . " the deer fearing the " strong-smelling feathers as they move about in the breeze. the island is abandoned. or while he is lifting the nets on the forked sticks duly arranged. the line may mean.] 147 willing immediately to assault the raft. 437. and invited them. scents . the strong smell of them driving away the and wild beasts. and covered with feathers of a red colour. he holds the noisy mouth of and restrains the Spartan and the light Molossian hound the Cretan dogs . when successful. others. iv. The formido. and . but it seems to be that Octavius would not attack the floats till the first successful attempt had led them to return and fetch away more troops from the island." or.C. where he says that the feathers of vultures were used for foils." or feather-foil. while those of Sparta and Crete were prized for their swiftness. were famed for their courage in the chase. fearing the scent of the strong-smelling feathers. at the time when at nightfall the waning light now opposes the first He espoused the cause of Pompey. Justeius. cite the Cynsegeticon of Qratius Faliscus. that when sent into dense thickets to find. The dogs of Molossus. After the battle of Pharsalia. the prey found. serving as legate to M. He and Libo defeated Dolabella on the Illyrian coast. with Q." was a or net used for catching deer. and. " 2 " In the feather-foil) ver.

We learn from Floras that two were carried over 4 by the high tide. laden with colonists of Opitergium this the ships. and by a rope drawn 4 follows on to the rocks. Vulteius perceived 7 the silent stratagems beneath the waves (he was the captain of the raft). was near the town of Taurornenus. Here one mass. the sea-shore. 447-468. 461. 5 Tauromenian Charybdis) ver. 449. but nothing more is known of him. The sea enclosed restores the spoil. . and drowned bodies. from of old. The hollow cliffs hang over the sea. which way his breast. and permit the connected links to hang loose. 467. the waves of the eddying whirlpool surpass in rage the Taul . Getting entangled by the chain or boom. 452. . 7 Vulteius perceived) ver. 8 Without any hope) ver. ! romenian Charybdis*. But the Cilicians of Pompey with their ancien-t skill prepare to lay stratagems beneath the sea. 3 Neither the first raft) ver. a rope drawn) ver. shades of night. unmoored from all their stopped short others swarmed upon the rocks and stations. always about to fall. By * "Colonists of Opitergium) ver. 1 With their ancient skill) ver. among which was the whirlpool here described. though with no hope of being victorious. in the north of Italy. strange the mass stands. The whirlpool of Charybdis. and. 2 Fasten them to the rocks) ver. and when the caverns have vomited forth the water. thus extending nearly from the shore to the point of embarkation in the island. This was a Roman colony of The present name is Oderzo. or Tauromenium. uncertain which way to turn his back. 148 [a iv. 465. 454. "We learn from Florus that this brave man was a tribune of Caesar's army. Hither did the ocean often bear ships. the float appears to have been dragged by the enemy upon the rocks off the mainland. and fasten them to the rocks 2 of the Neither the first raft a nor the one that Illyrian cliffs. follows is retarded but the third mass sticks fast. surrounded .PHAESALIA. 452. . while the other was probably fastened down with anchors. suspend chains in the midst of the deep. and with the woods overshadows the deep. without any hope 8 demanded the fight. 462. Wishes to fight. and suffering the surface of the main to be free. who having in vain endeavoured to cut the chains with the sword. wrecked by the north wind. Venetia. He alludes to the skill which. the Cilicians had possessed in naval matters in consequence of their former piratical mode of life. One end of the chain or boom was fastened to the rocks on the shore. and hide them in the darkened caverns. in Sicily.

free no longer than one short night. and gone whatever is necessary. parties. all fear is . the same our youths will transcend. 495. 463-499.B. in running to meet approaching fate. for black night concealed the dubious light. youths. . rr. while by your own hand you hasten your fate. . ing fate consult in this limited time for your fortunes in this exA short life remains for no one who in it has tremity. the island from the summit of its cliffs will present them the two sides from opposite shores 1 will be spectators." say what were the This description localities of the would seem that the island was probably at the mouth of a river. Then thus with magnanimous voice did Vulteius encourage the cohort dismayed and dreading their approach" Youths. or when armies envelope their own darts with the shades side bent against our throats. Fortune an example hi our deaths how great and memorable thou art contemplating I know not.] 149 to the warfare. and In a ship have the Gods valour perishes overwhelmed. ! 1 is From opposite shores) ver. and in cutting short the moments of your closing existence. however. both in sacrificing the years which you have hoped for. plain. we have not to fall amid the dark haze of warfare. Whatever memorials in ages past fidelity has afforded and a soldier's duty preserved by the sword. it was able. Valour. when heaped up bodies are lying on the and every death goes to the common account. time to seek death for himself. nor. : Determine on death. our fellow-citizens stand on every much as as. while the Pompeians had possession of the mainland on the other side. and darkness caused a truce. in this calamity effected The fight was beensnared. tween so many thousands pouring in upon the captured not raft and scarcely on the other side a complete cohort long indeed. " Still. that same desire. on which they now dragged the raft of different Vulteius. equal is the praise of courage. PHARSALIA. and it is " Diverse a difficult to littore. No one is compelled to wish to die. The period of their life to come being uncertain to all. It . the land will find them. No way for flight is open . placed us conspicuous to our allies and to the foe. and that the mainland on one side of the river was occupied by Antonius and his troops. The seas will find us witnesses. very confused. is the glory of death inferior. intermingling.

and that it was about the beginning of June. when his precepts had influenced their brave minds. iv. 1 With our old men and children) ver. 504. for us to give as pledges of affection so An envious lot has cut off much from our praises. upon our own swords but to hemmed us. 506. supposed to have been formed by Castor and Pollux. that Caesar. that it is sweet to die. 500 527. now longed for day. to deem to be but fall little . they would proffer pardon. By great valour must we deserve. I have parted with life. I would not wish to avoid what is pressing on. those same. Nor was the sky then slow to sink the stars in the main for the sun was occupying the Ledrean Constellations 3 when his light is most elevated in they all . in order that our distindisgraced life. * And be glad Utat) ver. 160 " For. when we pierce our vitals with the warm weapon. who . and dread our courage. and be glad that no more rafts have stuck fast to will be corrupt us with treaties and with a trying They O would that. may " Though the Fates should afford an egress and let us escape. and am wholly impelled by the longing for approaching death. call this a loss and a calamity. captured together with our old Let the enemy know that we are men children unsubdued. 526. that we are desperate. before the words of their leader. to live. that they might not. the twin sons of Jupiter and Leda. in that we are not environed. 3 The Ledcean ConstellatioTis) ver. It is a frenzy. think men and 1 . Csesnr. great. Probably in allusion to the slew their aged people and children rather than allow them to fall into the possession of the enemy. Saguntines. and bid us hope for safety. beheld with moistened eyes the stars of heaven. guished death might gain the greater fame. He means the Constellation Gemini. The meaning of this circumlocution is. [B. glowing and eager for 2 death. in. . in order that they may endure To . for thee we no greater ones are existing. Because he must envy onr glory in dying thus valiantly. that the sun was passing from Gemini into Cancer. companions. a few among so many thousands being lost.PHARSALIA. those alone is it granted to feel it whom now the approach of doom is influencing and the Gods conceal from those destined to live." Thus did courage arouse all the spirits of the magnanimous youths whereas. and were in dread at the turning of the Wain of the Bear.

Life now forsworn. ct seq. taur. 550. Cadmus slew . or Istri. the commander of the float. Their light-sailing " Liburnicae " or " Liburnae naves " of vessels were the original models of the the Romans. iii. it then rises at night. exclaims " Is there any one of the youths whose right hand is worthy of my blood. secure in fight. 100. 527-550. Vulteius himself. a district of Illyricum . He alludes to the Constellation Sagitwhich was supposed to be formed by Chiron. and sowed its teeth in the ground. 1. their fury was turned from the enemy. and the warlike Liburnians on the sea with the Grecian fleet. can" testify that with wounds from me he is ready to die ? Having said no more. he slays with a grateful stroke. The fight suspended.standing on the rocks. or the Archer.] 151 A short night was then urging the Thessalian the Crab. the devoted youths stood resolved. 530. and. from which soldiers sprang up who slew each other. their deaths assured to themselves by their own hands and in no one of them did the outcry of the enemy shake the minds of the heroes prepared for the worst. They were a warlike Illyrian race. 1 The Thessalian arrows) ver. already has not one sword alone . here mentioned. and. it perchance life might become more desirable to those entrapped. both by sea and land. He commends all. 3 The warlike Liburnians) ver. were adherents to the cause of Pompey. dying. so And Avhen it seemed great was their confidence in death. and at the same time. as here seen. but him to whom he owes the first wounds. they first tried to conquer by a treaty. were the inhabitants of Histria. through the very delay of death. 529. 528. Their chief towns were Tergeste and Pola. First. B. and who. who dwelt in Thessaly. and the whole horrors of warfare on one side do they perpetrate. arrows 1 The rising day disclosed the Istrians. few in number. with certain assurance. * The Disclosed the Islrians) ver. they were very skilful sailors. that in the warfare blood enough had flowed. on this occasion. He alludes to the occasion when the dragon near the fountain of Dirce. and were the partisans of Pompey. :J . they bore up against innumerable forces. : pierced his entrails. the Cen- tarius. See the This was ominous of the Metamorphoses of Ovid. Being opposite to Gemini. his throat bared. The others rush to meet each otlier.B. The Liburni were the inhabitants of Liburnia. iv. a peninsula at the northern extremity of the Adriatic. 4 Seed sown by Cadmus) ver. now demanding death. Histri. Thus did the Dircsean band spring up from the seed sown by Cadmus 4 . PHAESALIA.

.PHARSALIA. Octavius and Libo. When with a blood-stained fate brothers rush upon brothers. they turned their weapons against each other. B. the anger being enflamed by magic charms. sprung from the teeth were committing. 572. and with their throats they press against the hand of him who gives the wound. and the son upon the parent. 1. still. after Jason had thrown the stone among them. the brothers. Thus engaged to mutual destruction do the youths fall. the generals wondering that to any one his leader can be of value so great. not to repeat the blow. and to feel the approach of death. through the arts See Ovid's Metaof Medea. Nor are the wounds owing to the swords driven home the blade is run against by the breast. 122. iv. . has spoken with greater praises of no ship Still. half-dead. too. 1 On the plains of Phasis) ver. and with proud looks to gaze upon their conquerors. Now is the raft beheld heaped up with the bloody slaughter. sprung on the plains of Phasis from the wakeful teeth of the dragon." slew the dragon that guarded the Golden Fleece. nor does his right hand deceive any one. their entrails. 552. The crime of fratricide which those 556. and they pour It gives them pleasure to beinto the sea plenteous blood. descendants of Cadmus. spreading abroad over the whole world. 3 The generals wondering) ver. and in the deaths of the heroes death has too great a share in the valour equally do they slay and fall with deadly wounds . . Jason also at Colchis. hold the scorned light of day. cowardly nations will not come to a sense how far from difficult it is . 152 [B. with all their might they drive home the There is but one mark of duty in those who swords. Now. by each other's hands. ' . to the hatches. or " the plains of Phasis. sowing its teeth in the ground. filled the furrows so vast with kindred blood and Medea herself shuddered at the crime 2 which she had wrought with herbs before untried. as related by Ovid. a dire presage to the Theban brothers the earth-born ones. on which. gushing out. a race of men sprang up. and the victors give the bodies to the funeral piles. and fall by the wounds of its own side. a vii. the leaders of Shuddered at Pompey'a forces. after these precedents of the heroes. and. with no trembling right hand. :| deaths of Eteocles and Polynices. they drag strike. Fame. et teq. 550-576. the crime) ver. morphoses.

588. whence the spot was called liana. side. 586. 586. and. 1 The shore of Lilylceum) ver. despising the forces of Publius Attius Varus. It was a city on a promontory so called. to the hills in the vicinity of Utica. in the north-east of the Carthaginian territory. in Mauritania. 2 great Carthage and Clupea with its well-known encampment^ and his first camp he pitches at a distance from the surging sea. what was known to A him through many ancestors. Clupea. Strabo mentions this mountain chain as of Antaeus. 23. has a convenient harbour. makes for the shores between the half-buried towers of ! . having sailed from Sicily to Africa. which is now called the the sea near the ancient Utica. Death. " Castra Cornecamped in that neighbourhood." Its present name is Klibiah. 1. I wish that thou wouldst refuse to withdraw the fearful from life. . desiring to know the reasons for the ancient name. It was founded by Agathocles. 577-592. but that valour alone could bestow thee Not more inactive than this warfare was the one which at For the bold that time was raging in the Libyan fields. where the sluggish Bagrada 4 betakes itself. Caesar. and five hundred and horse.B. in the 2 And translation of Aspis. This river. on every . transported only of the four legions which he had received from Caesar. in the Civil War. as mentioned by Lucan. no boisterous north wind being caught in his sails. from Tingitana. was originally called Aspis. in his expedition Cornelius Scipio. or Clypea. ii. and was taken in the first Punic war by the Romans. thus mentions the departure of Curio for Africa " About the snme time Caius Curio.] 153 But tyrants' rule is to escape slavery by ones own hand. feared by reason of the sword." 4 " The sluggish Bagrada) ver. Probably from the circumstance of Hercules having been said to have landed there." Clupea) ver. 583. arrived at a place called Aquilaria. the Clupea. : from the first. king of Sicily. iv. opposite to the coast of Africa. B. who called it Clypea. Curio unmoors his ships from the shore of Lilybseum l and. had formerly enagainst Antaeus. and liberty is galled by cruel arms. which is about twenty-two miles distant from two summer season. names the realms of Antseus 5 rude countryman informed him. not without reason. having spent two days and three nights on the voyage. Thence he repairs to the hills and the rocks eaten away . PHARSALIA. on the site of the present Marsala. meaning "a shield. and is ignorant that swords were given that no one might be a slave. 590. situate on a promontory of the same name. Lilybseum was a town on the western coast of Sicily. and. of Ante-us) ver. which antiquity. the plougher-up of the parched sand." and describes it as extending many hundreds of Mejerdah. 3 With its -well-known encampment) ver." 4 Realms " the tomb falls into miles.

2 The Nemean lion. The stranger besprinkled his limbs with oil. conceived a dreadful offspring in the Libyan caves. and invited to the Libyan shores the magnanimous Alcides. 4 This must have been necessarily laid Sprinkled warm sand) ver. in that. or Tityus and the fierce Briareus and she spared the heavens. not as yet ban-en. which was near the spot where it was slain. they perish whom the sea has brought. Nor to the Earth was Typhon so just a ground of pride. rish. for a long time not using the aid of falling. pevered his strength. ." a mixture of oil and wax. 612. 614. The volcanic tract Tityus. . from which he derived his but dust or fine sand was universtrength. whose skin Hercules The lion of Cleonce) ver. who was relieving the land and sea from monsters. . after the Giants being born. sprinkled warm sand 4 as an aid to his . . 616. themselves. his sleep no skins of wild beasts were wont to afford a bed. 1 The Phlegraan fields) ver. it was the custom of the wrestlers to anoint their bodies with " ceroma. At the Olympic games. the limbs now exhausted were vigorous again with renewed strength. when they touched their parent. 593-616. tillers of the fields. "'At length the report of the blood-stained pest was spread abroad. no wood a couch. and there the Earth gnve birth to Typhon. too. who waged war against the Gods. iv. He threw off the skin of the lion of Cleonse 2 Antaeus that of a Libyan lion. wore. 3 The Olympic exercises) ver. and at the "palaestrae" in general. . and his strength. " Earth. and had caught lions for his food. upon the ceroma with which he anointed himself. 597. although he kept standing. The Phlegraean plains were said to be situate in Thessaly or Macedonia. This cavern was his abode they report that under the lofty rock he . For lay concealed. extending from Capua to Cumae in Campania was called by the same name.PHARSALIA. in that she did not bring forth Antseus in the Phle1 By this privilege as well did the Earth grsean fields redouble the strength so vast of her offspring. and lying on the bare earth he recoThe Libyans. always in contact with him sally used by wrestlers for sprinkling on their bodies after they had anointed . not entirely trusting to touching his mother with his feet. is so called from the town of Cleonse. 154 [B. unconquered was he in slights the gift of the Earth strength by all. and the tradition was. that there. and Briareus. the custom of the Olympic exercises 3 observed the other. Lucan says that it was done in order to have some portion of the earth. the Giants warred with the Gods.

where Hercnles slew the Hydra with many heads. hopes. which would have gratified the vengeance of his imJuno. grasp the back of the hero as it is giving way. arms. Then his wearied neck began to shake then breast to be pressed upon by breast then the thighs to totter. . did he dread the Hydra cut asunder hi the Inachian waves 1 her snakes renewed. iv. and with fixed features the head was held unmoved and they wondered at having fovind their match. strength received. he spreads asunder his thighs. 634. . . own accord. and not so much. " Equally matched they struggle. The scorching earth carries off his sweat. " Nor in the beginning of the contest was Alcides willing to employ his strength. Alcides stands astounded at strength so vast. was replaced by two new ones. The muscles swell out." placable step-mother.B. " When at last Alcides perceived the aid of the contact of his parent availing him. rises more mighty. and. and with the struggling hero the earth labours. . each of which. " He never was in If is unrelenting stepdame) ver. 616-647. Whatever vigour there is in the ground it is infused into his weary limbs. and the cold sweat from his fatigued body. upon which he bore Olympus. and his feet inserted. when cut off. Thou must stand. and in all the limbs he grows hard. Never has it been allowed his unrelenting stepdame 2 to be more hi She sees the limbs of the hero exhausted by sweat. the one with strength from the earth. falls of his taeus. and stretches the hero with all his limbs upon the ground. and he wearied out the hero which his continued panting betrayed. Annot waiting for the might of the foe. he encircles him around the middle . in vain were their throats tried at by their ponderous arms. and his neck parched.] 155 With many a twist they linked their hands and For long. near which was situate the marsh or swamp of Lerna. stmck sideways by the hand. he said. his body refreshed. Now does the victor limbs. . . Inachus was one of the ancient kings of Argos. with warm blood his veins are filled. his flanks squeezed up. and no ' 1 In the Inachian leaves) ver. and. And when again he lays hands upon his wearied limbs. 637. and. he loosens the Herculean grasp. although he was then inexperienced. PHARSALIA. the other with it his own. greater dagger of being destroyed.

shalt thou fall. having lost his cohorts. This was Fublius Attius Varus. Not a more extended . B. in the Civil War. He was the son of Hiempsal. now was his breast numbed by a torpid chill for long he did not entrust his foe to the earth. iv. whose cause Juba now espoused. though trusting in the Latian strength. who had been re-established on the Numidian throne by Fompey. 31. . 156 [B. Antaeus. 647-670. Le found Attius Varus in com: mand of the province. pitching his unlucky tents upon the fortunate spot. indulged his camp with hopes. as already related. Earth was not able to infuse strength into the limbs of her dying son. 656. and having vanquished Hasdrubal and Syphax. But a more noble name 1 has Scipio given to these hills. Cornelius Afri- so called canus Scipio the elder. thus mentions his arrival in " When Tubero arrived in Africa Africa. further shalt tliou be entrusted to the ground. alarmed the Carthaginians to such a degree. recording antiquity. and took their omen away from the hills. He was also probably influenced by personal enmity against Curio. had seized it of his own accord. who." It was Castra. was then under the command of Varus'-'. who." 3 Attended their Juba) ver. Hence. Alcides held him by the middle. 667. Look you perceive the vestiges of the ancient entrenchment. Caesar. and. and standards that attended their Juba from the extremities of the world. c. and thou shalt be forbidden to be laid upon the earth. making levies. and finding it without a governor. ! 1 But a more nolle name) ver. had straightway fled to Africa." or He " alludes to the Comeliana from P. as running away from Auximum in Italy. who called back the Punic foe from the Latian towel's for this was the encampment on the Libyan land being first reached. With thy compressed limbs thou shalt cling fast to my breast thus Thus having said he raised far. " Cornelian Camp. ii. 3 Command of Varus) ver. i. as though the fortune of the spot would wage the war. . whom we have already met with in B. when Tribune of the people. who. the guardian of ancient times and the admirer of herself. who landed in that vicinity B. . overjoyed.' aloft the youth. and with unequal strength provoked the warlike foes. which had submitted to the Reman standards. 1. All Africa. that they were obliged to recall Hannibal and Mago from Italy. 466." Curio. 204.C.PHARSALIA. still summoned from every side the forces of the king of the J Libyan nation. struggling to gain the ground. had raised two legions. 670. had proposed a law for reducing the . at Auximum.Roman victory first took possession of these plains. and preserve for himself the destinies of former commanders. has marked the land with his name.

Gyrene. Races so numerous follow the camp the Autololes 3 and the wandering Numidians. a people of the north of Africa. . . and the Great Desert s The needy Nasamonian) ver. 673. success of the arms of Caesar. and the Mazagian . . it divides the Ocean 3 and the humt-up regions of the scorched zone suffice for the space that intervenes. and Egypt were universally considered as essentially southern climes by the Roman Poets. he and Petreius were slain by each other's hand. . 678. . hi the vicion the south J Ammon. on the western extremity. nity of Gades. Gyrene. and would include Egypt in his dominions. were it not the fact that the desert of Ammon and the adjacent coast lie in a considerably more southern latitude than the eastern extremity of the kingdom near Grades and Mount Atlas. and. belonged to Juba. 680. . iv. i. and afterwards by the Romans. As to the Marmaridre. 679. Besides. the extent of Numidia from east to south. kingdom of Juba 1 It would appear curious that Lucan mentions 0>i the south) ver. and south of the range of Atlas. Numidia. near the coast of the Lesser on of the banks the river Triton. 293. Syrtis. In its widest sense. east and west. The Mazagians were probably the tame Maxyes. of the same colour as uncaparisoned horse the Indian the needy Nasamonian 5 the swift Marmaridse 7 mingled with the scorched Garamantes. as that would contradict what he has just said as to the breadth of the kingdom. a mistake which Lucan certainly would not be guilty of. ever ready with his 4 then the Moor.] 157 region was there under any master. 4 With his uncaparisoned horse) ver. According to Pliny. 6 The smft Marmaridce) ver. and the Gfetulian. PHARSALIA. iii. . see the Note to B. 2 It divides the Ocean) ver. They were said to claim descent as the from the Trojans. On the ultimate to the condition of a Roman province. . belonged to Juba. 3 The Autololes) ver. And the Mazagian) ver. . as before mentioned. 677. This seems bounded. the Autololes were a people of Mauritania Tingitana .B. 675. 671-681. Atlas. 7 1. He alludes to the custom of the Gaetulians riding on horseback without saddles. but Ptolemy places them on the western coast of Africa. . terminates them adjacent to the Syrtes hut where in its breadth extends the scorching track of his vast realms. Where the realms are the longest. 681. but were driven inland by the Greek settlers of Gyrene. according to one account. a better explanation than that given by some who would have the Poet to me:m that the whole track of country from north to south which lay between the Eastern (or Atlantic) Ocean and the Western Ocean (or Red Sea). He seems to mean that the whole region which lay between the Mediterranean and the southern ocean of Africa. the region of Gsetulia included the inhabitants of the regions between Mauritania. he fell at Utica. The Nasamones were a people of Libya who originally dwelt on the shores of the Great Syrtis. the Libyan desert.

4 He was making a kingdom) ver. rode without saddles. making this a pretext for addressing them. . since he has no confidence in his weapons. he had been bribed by Caesar to 1 ritania. who is wont to wander with his empty cot. fancies that this Avar is the fruit of himself retaining the sceptre. but were those Corfinium) ver. nor bear arms against those who had shared the same fortune. was at Corfinium. While he was Rome under the despotic sway of Caesar. who. The strength of the lion was commonly supposed to be centred in the eye. but aroused. therefore. 28 : " In the army there was one Sextus Quintilius Varus. The llassyli were a people of Mauwho. 681-698. and to entreat the soldiers not to lose all recollection of the oath which they first took to Domitius and to himself. 1 In the year in which) ver. the Massylian nation too. covertly trying to bring * In the citadel not the veterans of soldiers. never been entirely devoted to the cause of Caesar. began to go round Curio's lines. IT. were Caesar at the Rhine. he granted war to his private resentment. in his Eighth Book. excepting the change of a few centurions. Pliny the Elder. that sitting on the hare back of the horse. by a tribunitial law Curio had attempted to expel from the throne of his forefathers. This circumstance is thus referred to in the Civil War. nor as soldiers had been tried in the waves of the Rhine. had gone over to the party of Caesar. having been taken in the citadel of Corfinium 5 . he was 4 making a kingdom of thee. in the year in which 3 he had denied the Gods above and things human. their Quaestor. and to wrest Libya from its king. ii. He means the year in which he was Tribune. Him too. 685. of the king approachAnd because those youths have ing Curio now trembles. that will rival the arrows of the Medes. ii. When Caesar gave him his liberty he went over to Africa. 689. remembering his sorrows. 697. and at the same time. according to report. who had fought under His who. and in which. so that the officers and companies were still the same. like the Gaetulians. B. with a slight wand guides the mouth unacquainted with the bit the African huntsman. Rome. and endured the same hardships in siege. 692. He. Nor alone did Juba prepare arms hi the cause of civil strife. captured at Corfinium (see B. nor fight for those by whom they had opprobriously been called deserters. 682. 2 To cover the infuriate lions) ver. as we have mentioned before. 1. to his sorrow." . At this report. while.PHARSALIA. both unfaithful to The Massylian nation) ver. accustomed to cover the infuriate lions 2 with flowing garments. 158 [B. Now Curio had transported to Africa those legions which Caesar had received under his command a short time before at Corfinium. Quintilius. 507). when he hurls the 1 quivering spear. c. . too. desert the aristocratic party. informs us that the Gaetulians were in the habit of catching lions by throwing a cloak or garment over their heads.

by stealth he hurried on his troops. Sabura is to advance with a small force to lead Curio to believe that he alone is marching against him. who thinks of comparing the leaders. 1 ward to combat together. defeated." 2 in the open plains he drew up his said the fortune of war. * For he drove Varus) ver. blandly received. fearing this alone. 35. Sabura next after the king among the Numidians. 710. by P. :) . The particulars of this defeat are related in the Civil War. c. 1 He In ike gladiators theatre. was sent before to provoke the commencing battle with a small troop and to draw them on. 4 Sabura) ver. 9. ii. 714. thus hi his agitated mind their deem does he speak " By daring great fears are concealed to arms will I reLet the soldiers descend to the level plains sort the first. When the disposition dire intent waxes strong with the sword grasped in hand. or Saburra." where the " arena.] 159 new leaders. Sittius." muncra gladiatoria. 34. who of weighing the causes ? The side he has taken to that does he wish well just as in the shows of the fatal sand no ancient grudge compels those brought for. B. The speeches of Curio to his council of war his soldiers are set forth at length in Caesar's Civil War. of the Amphifought upon the " alludes to the Thus having said) ver. and by enjoined silence retarded the report of himself approaching. about to deceive him with Thus having . 722. . and the nightly guards of the trenches forsaken by desertion. utterly See the African War of Hirtius. battle of the worsted Varus was heard of by Juba joyous that the glory of the warfare might be recovered by his own aid. while they are yet my own rest ever produces a wavering : . 2 shows of tJi fatal sand) ver. c. remove all consideration by fight. This Sabura. until their camp prevented it. 722. "Fatalis arenae Muneribus. through want of caution to be dreaded 4 by the enemy. the field. faint with inactive dread. c.B. ii. 5 A* though pretending) ver. whom For he drove Varus from future woes." or " gladiatorial shows.C. . 46. 93. Caesar says that of the enemy there were and about six hundred killed and a thousand wounded. 698-722. PHARSALIA. and helmets conceal their shame. was. 708. and that Juba . IT. . with his forces. B. but they hate those pitted against them. and smote their backs exposed in disgraceful But after the sad flight. they But after he perceives all either side equally right. B." or area covered with sand. 32. 31. ranks. as though 5 pretending that the warfare was entrusted to himself. and wavering to their former one.

is . B. and resolves to hazard a battle. " So in the Civil War. provoking head. iv. . was attacked whose advanced guard unexpectedly by the cavalry of Curio. gave way a little. He. 39-43. with great slaughter. without its deadly matter. Over steep rocks. At the same moment the leader himself was . doomed to perish. ii. believing this a flight. is drawing near to Utica. the mountains filled on every side. its . and to spread far and wide over the unknown plains. espied afar from the tops of the hills. often and vainly having begged them to apprehend Libyan stratagem and the Punic warfare. being called home by a neighbouring war. in their stratagem. ii. He alludes to the ichneumon. the hill being left. that there was no stratagem at first on the part of Juba. Cxsar snys. The destiny of approaching death had delivered up the youth to the Fates. and the civil warfare urged on its author to his doom. on which it with the shadow of it would seize it its own tail. always fraught with treachery. B. and the multitude. astounded. 160 [B. and provokes them. who. stretching out in vain into the air. Then first was the stratagem disclosed. until. enraged by a deceiving shadow. fjrce. and destroyed him and his forces. and unacquainted with the concealed design. See the Civil \Var. the enemy. is informed by some deserters from the town that Juba has stayed behind in his own kingdom. over crags. It appears. baulked of its purpose. shortly after which. The more crafty enemy) ver. who has been sent with a small Curio. which was said to be a deadly enemy to the asp of that country. Curio neglecting to make proper enquiries. To the stratagems Fortune gives success and fierce. or rat of Ei-ypt. and obliquely seizes with safe grip the head of the serpent. again attacked Sabura. and its jaws overflow with the wasted poison. He himself. rashly believing this information. by the throat and to cause it to raise kill it. 723-748. is squeezed out. he entrusted his extended ranks to the wide plains. by alters his design. Curio not near at hand. c. He himself in a hollow valley keeps back the strength of the realm just as the more crafty enemy 1 with his tail deceives the Pharian asps. however. and a dispute with the people of Leptis and that Sabura. hemmed in the troops. 724. as though victorious. 1 and. . the strength of the concealed foe not surveyed. gradually surrounded him with his armv. commands the signal to sound in the camp." Caesar's account. led forward his forces into the midst of the fields. falling back. then the venom. c. about the first break of dawn. along an abrupt path he led his standards when.PHARSALIA. and the flying Numidians. Curio commands his cavalry to sally forth from the camp by night. 38.

B. iv.




The fearful sought not flight, the valiant not battle ;
since not there did the charger, moved by the clangor of
trumpets, shake the rocks with the beating of his hoof,
working at his mouth that champs the stiffened reins, and
spread his mane, and prick up his ears, and not with the
varying movement of the feet did he struggle not to be at
His wearied neck hangs down. His limbs reek
with sweat, and his parched mouth is clammy, his tongue
hanging out his hoarse breast, which an incessant panting
excites, groans aloud ; and the breath, hardly drawn, contracts the spent flanks
the foam, too, grows hard upon
the blood-stained bits.
And now, compelled neither by
whips nor goads, nor though prompted by frequent spurring, do they increase their speed.
By wounds are the
horses urged on. Nor avails it any one to have cut short
the delay of his horny-hoofed steed, for they have neither
space nor force for the onset he is only carried on against
the foe, and affords room for the javelins, the wound being





But when first the skirmishing African sent forth his
steeds hi a troop, then did the plains re-echo with the
sound ; and, the earth loosened, the dust enveloped the air
in its clouds, and brought on the shades, as vast as it is
when hurled by the Bistonian whirlwind 1 But when the
miserable fate of war befell the foot, no fortune stood in
suspense upon the decision of a doubtful conflict, but
death occupied the duration of the -battle. Nor yet had
they the power to run straight against them, and to mingle
their troops.
Thus, the youths, hemmed in on every side,
by those who fight hand to hand and by those who send
them from above, are overwhelmed with lances obliquely

doomed to perish not by
slanting and held horizontally
or bloodshed, solely through the cloud of darts and
the weight of the weapons.



The Bistonian whirlwind) ver. 767. Thrace is called Bistonia," from
the Bistones, a people of that
country between Mount Rhodope and the
-35gean Sea, near Lake Bistonis.
Whofiyht "
hand) ver. 774. It seems not improbable that in this
" eminus
and " comminus " have changed places ; for the darts or
from a distance, " eminus," would fall obliquely,
while the spears presented by those close at
hand, "comminus," would be
rectce," or
horizontally" pointed.




[u. iv.


Therefore, ranks so numerous are crowded into a small
if any one, fearing, creeps into the middle of
the troop, hardly with impunity does he turn amid the
and the mass is made more
swords of his own friends
dense, inasmuch as the first rank, their feet bearing backwards, contract the circles. For them compressed there is

compass, and


now no room

for wielding their arms, and then* crowded
armed breast is broken by breast
limbs are trodden on
The victorious Moor did not enjoy a
beaten against it.
spectacle so joyous as Fortune really presented he did not
behold the streams of blood, and the faulting of the limbs,
and the bodies as they struck the earth squeezed up in
the crowd every carcase stood upright.
Let Fortune arouse the hated ghosts of dire Carthage by



funeral sacrifices 1 ; let blood-stained Hannibal
and the Punic shades receive this expiation so dire. Twere
profane, ye Gods of heaven, for a Roman's fall on Libyan
ground to benefit Pompey and the wishes of the Senate ;
rather for herself may Africa conquer us
Curio, when he beheld his troops routed on the plain,
and the dust, laid by the blood, allowed him to perceive how
great the slaughter, did not endure to prolong his life amid
his stricken fortunes, or to hope for flight and he fell amid
the slaughter of his men 2 eager for death, and valiant with







a bravery


which he was

What now


avail thee the turmoil of the

Forum, from which, with the




sacrifices) ver.

arts of





Romans by



the standard-

were propitiatory



the hand of Romans
the shades of Hannibal and the Carthaginians
the hands of their ancestors.


says that this slaughter of
will be as good as a propitiatory sacrifice to

offered to the shades of the dead.



Rostra and the

the slaughter

by Caesar in the

who had

of his men) ver. 797.

War, B.




suffered so

The death


of Curio




" Cneius
Domitius, com-

mander of the cavalry, standing round Curio, with a small party of horse,
urged him to endeavour to escape by flight, and to hasten to his camp, and
assured him that he would not forsake him.
But Curio declared that he
would never more appear in Caesar's sight, after losing the army which had
been committed by him to his charge, and accordingly fought till he was

The arts of harangue) ver. 799. The " tribunitia ars," or " tribimitial
was his eloquence, for which he was famous, and which, as

art," of Curio

Tribune of the people, when speaking from the Rostra, he

knew how



B. iv.




bearer of the plebeians, thou didst deal arms to the people ?
What, the betrayed rights of the Senate, and the son-in-law
and the father-in-law enjoined to meet in battle ? Thou liest
prostrate before dire Pharsalia has brought the chieftains
together, and the civil warfare has been denied thee to beIs it thus, forsooth, that to the wretched City you
pay the penalty with your blood ? Thus, ye powerful ones,
do you atone with your throats for your warfare
Home, indeed, and destined to possess fortunate citizens, if
the care of its liberty had pleased the Gods above as much
as to avenge it pleases them
Lo, Curio, a noble corpse, covered by no tomb, is feeding
But to thee (since it will be to no purthe Libyan birds.
pose to be silent upon those things from which their own
fame repels all the lengthened age of time) we grant,
youth, the due praises of a life that deserved them. Not
another citizen of capacity so great did Eome produce, or
to whom the laws owed more, when pursuing what was
Then did the corrupt age injure the City, after
ambition and luxmy, and the possession of wealth, so
much to be dreaded, had carried along with a torrent that
crossed his path his unsettled mind and the altered Curio
became the controller of events, charmed by the spoils of
the Gauls and the gold of Ceesar.
Although powerful Sulla acquired rule over our lives by the
sword, and the fierce Marius, and the blood-stained Cinna,
and the long line of Caesar's house 2 to whom was power so
great ever granted? They all bought the City, he sold it






to dangerous purpose.
to the Eostra at Home.

See B.



275, where Curio, in his speech, alludes

The betrayed rights) ver. 801. In allusion to the charge made against
him of having been bribed by Caesar.
The long line of Caesar's house) ver. 823. Lucan must clearly have
been on bad terms with Nero when he penned this line, as he would not
otherwise have joined the " series
of the house of Caesar, of which Nero
was a member (through adoption), with Sulla, Marius, and Cinna, whom he

repeatedly mentions as monsters of cruelty.
He sold it) ver. 824. Virgil is supposed to refer to him in a somewhat
" He sold
similar manner in the Sixth Book of the JEneid, 1. 621.

country for gold, and imposed upon


a powerful tyrant."




In the early part of the year the Consuls convene the Senate in Epirus,
Lentulus addresses the Senators, and advises them to appoint
Pompey Commander-in-chief, which is accordingly done, 15-49. The Poet
praises the monarchs and nations who lent their aid, 50 64.
goes to consult the oracle at Delphi, which has now long been silent, as
to the result of the war, 65-70.
The oracle is described, 71-120.
The Temple is opened, and Phemonoe, the Priestess, tries to dissuade
Appius from his enquiries, 121-140. She is forced, however, to ascend
the oracular tripod, 141-162.
And is inspired by the prophetic frenzy.
The oracle foretells, in ambiguous terms, the death of Appius himself
before the battle of Pharsalia, at the Island of Eubcea, 163-197.
oracle is apostrophized by the Poet, 198-236.
The soldiers of Caesar's
Their threats and clamours for peace,
party become mutinous, 237-261.
262-296. Caesar presents himself before them thus complaining, 297-318.
Headdresses them, 319-364. The tumult is appeased, 365-373. Caesar
sends his army to Brundisium, and orders a fleet to be collected there,
374-380. He then repairs to Rome, where he is made Dictator and
Evil omens give portentous signs, 384-402.
He goes
Consul, 380-384.
thence to Brundisium where collecting a fleet, he orders part of his troops
to embark, although the skies betoken an approaching tempest, 403-411.
He harangues his soldiers, 412-423. The sea is suddenly becalmed, and
He encamps
passing over he lands at Palaeste, in Epirus, 424-460.
at Dyrrhachium, 461-475.
Caesar entreats Antony to send over the
remaining forces, 476-497. Impatient at his delay, he determines to go
He does so in a small boat, 504-570. Caesar enacross, 498-503.
Which is described,
courages the mariners in a tempest, 571-593.
He returns to Epirus, and his
in Italy, 654-677.
soldiers expostulate with him for leaving them, 678-700.
Antony passes
over with the rest of his troops, 701-721.
Pompey determines to send
He apprises her of his intentions,
his wife Cornelia to Lesbos, 722-739.
740-759. Cornelia's answer, 760-790. She embarks, 790-801. And
Bails for Lesbos, 801-815.

THUS did Fortune reserve the two 1 generals who had suffered
the alternate wounds of warfare for the land of the MaceNow had the
donians, mingling adversity with prosperity.
whiter sprinkled the snows on Hsemus, and the daughter

This term, used in the athletic
Reserve the two) ver. 3.
to signify the two athletes or gladiators that were
against each other, is often used by the Poet.



B. v.





sets in the cold Olympus ; the day, too, was
gives a new name to the Calendar and which
who introduces the seasons.
is the first to worship Janus
But while the latter part still remained of their expiring
sway, each Consul invited the Senators dispersed amid the
duties of the warfare to Epirus.
foreign and a lowly

of Atlas

hand which






nobles, and a foreign senate
under a distant roof heard the secrets of the state. For
who could call so many axes wielded by the laws, so many
The venerable order taught the people
fasces \ a camp ?
that it was not the party of Magnus, but that Magnus was
their partisan.
When first silence pervaded the sorrowing assembly,
" If
Lentulus from a lofty seat thus spoke
strength exists
in your minds worthy of the Latian spirit, if of your ancient
blood, consider not in what land you are banished, and how
far we are located from the abodes of the captured City ;
but think of the aspect of your own assembly; and, able
to command everything, first, Senators, decree this, which
to realms and to nations is manifest, that we are the
Senate. For whether Fortune shall lead us beneath the icy
Wain of the Hyperborean Bear, or where the burning region
and the clime shut up in vapours permits not the
nights nor yet the days, unequal, to increase, the dominion
of the world will attend us, and empire as our attendant.
When the Tarpeian seat was consumed by the torches
of the Gauls, and when Camillus was dwelling at Veii c ,
retreat received the




The daughter of Atlas) ver. 4.
"Atlantis;" "the Atlantis," or
" Allan tides" or "
Pleiades," who
daughter of Atlas," is here used for the
were fabled to have been originally the seven daughters of Atlas. He alludes
to the middle of November, when the Pleiades set cosmically.
The Calends or first day
dives a new name to the Calendar) ver. 5.
of January, on which the new Consuls came into office and gave their name
Fasti or Calendar. See the Fasti of Ovid,
to the commencing year in the
B. i. 1. 53, et seq.
To worship Janus) ver. 6. The month of January was sacred to the
God Janus. See the Fasti of Ovid, B. i. 1. 63, et seq.


So many fasces) ver. 12. He alludes to the presence at the camp of
the Consuls with the fasces and axes, the emblems of state.
This was L. Cornelius Lentulus, one of the
Lentulus) ver. 16.
He raised two legions for Pompey in Asia. He
Consuls for that year.
was finally put to death by Ptolemy, the tyrant of Egypt.

Dwelling at


ver. 28.



called laola Farnese,

was one



there was


[B. v.


Never by change of place has our order

lost its rights.

Sorrowing abodes does Csesar possess, and deserted
houses, and silenced laws, and judgment seats shut up in
sad cessation from the law. That Senate-house beholds
those Senators alone ', whom from the full City it banished.
Whoever was not expelled ly us from an order so mighty,
is here.
Unacquainted with crimes, and at rest during a
lengthened peace, the first fuiy of warfare dispersed us
once again do all the members of the state return to
Behold with all the might of the world
their place.
do the Gods above recompense us for Hesperia lost;
the enemy lies overwhelmed in the Illyrian waves 2 ; in
the loathsome fields of Libya, Curio, a large portion of
Caesar's Senate , has fallen. Generals, raise your standards ;
urge on the course of fate ; entrust to the Gods your hopes,
and let fortune give us courage as great, as the cause gave
when you fled from the foe. Our rule is closing with the
finished year ; you, whose power is destined to experience
no limit, Senators, consult for the common welfare, and
bid Magnus be your leader."
With joyous applause the Senate received the name, and
entrusted to Magnus his own and his country's fate. Then
honors were distributed among kings and" nations that
deserved them; both Ehodes sacred to Phcebus 4 and powerful
by sea, was decorated with gifts, and the unpolished youth



of the most ancient cities of Etruria, situate on the river Cremera, about
twelve miles from Rome.
It was here that the Senate were convened
the Gauls had destroyed Rome, on which they appointed Camillas


The Romans at this time were anxious to make Veil their
and were only dissuaded by the eloquence of Camillus.
Those Senators alone) ver. 32-4.
The meaning is that "the Senatehouse at Rome now only beholds those Senators whom the senate ha* expelled as enemies to the state at the time when the City was full, and


not deserted as








Illyrian waves) ver. 39.


alludes to the fate of Yulteius

his Opitergians, related in the last Book.
large portion of Casar's Senate) ver. 40.



reason of his eloquence

activity in Caesar's cause.


Rhodes sacred to Phoebiu) ver. 51. The isle of Rhodes, off the coast
of Caria in Asia Minor, was said to be especially beloved by Phosbus, who
it from beneath the waves.
There was a splendid temple of Apollo
there, and the Colossus erected there was a statue of that God.


B. v.





In fame is ancient Athens praised, and
of cold Taygetus
is Phocis presented with freedom
for her own Massilia
and brave
from tribute. Then do they extol Sadales
the ruler of a frozen region
the sceptre-bearing
it, they bid Libya pay obedience to
Alas, sad destinies
Ptolemy, to thee ,
most worthy of the sway of a faithless race, the shame of






Fortune and the disgrace of the Gods 7 it is permitted to bind
thy pressed locks with the Pellsean diadem. A remorseless
boy, dost thou receive over thy people and would
The palace of Lagus has
it were over thy people alone !
been given; to this the life of Magnus is added; and by


Youth of cold Taygttus) ver. 52. The Lacedaemonians are here meant,
whose country was separated from Messenia by the mountain range of


For Iter oien Massilia) ver. 53. This could not in reality be the ground
for the honours paid to Phocis in Greece, inasmuch, as has been already
remarked, Massilia was a colony from Phocrea in Asia Minor. See B. iii. 1. 340.
Extol Sadales) ver. 54. Sadales was the son of Cotys, king of Thrace,
and was sent with his father at the head of some cavalry, to assist Pompey.
He was forgiven by Caesar after the battle of Pharsalia, and left his kingdom to the lioman people. Of his father, Cotys, nothing further is
And Deiotarus) ver. 55. Deiotarus was Tetrarch and king of Galatia,
who, though extremely advanced in years, came to the aid of Pompey with
six hundred horsemen. He was afterwards pardoned by Caesar, but, according
to Cicero, Caesar deprived him of his Tetrarchy and kingdom, though he
suffered him to retain his title.
And RJtasipolis) ver. 55. This person, whose name is also spelt
Rhascuporis," was chieftain of a Thracian tribe, lying between Mount
He joined Pompey with two hundred horse at
Pthodope and the sea.
Dyrrhachium. Caesar, in the Civil War, B. iii. c. iv., speaks of his troops as
coming from Macedonia, and as being of extraordinary valour.
This was Ptolemy XII., king of Egypt,
Ptolemy, to tkee) ver. 59.
by some said to have been gurnamed Dionysus. Lucan justly expresses

his disgust that this unprincipled youth should succeed to a throne founded
by him of Pella," Alexander the Great. More particulars relative to this

king will be found in the Ninth Book.
Alexandrian war against Caesar.

He was



in the


Disgrace of tite Gods) ver. 60. By his father's will, the throne was
given to Ptolemy and his sister Cleopatra jointly ; but he succeeded in expelling her after she had reigned jointly with him for three years.
By his
murder of Pompey, he saved Caesar, doubtless to our Poet's sorrow, the
criminality of having murdered his son-in-law Pompey.



[B. v.


a realm has been snatched away from a sister, and
crime from a father-in-law.
Now, the assembly broken up, the multitude takes up
arms. When the people and the chieftains were resorting
to these with uncertain chances, and with indiscriminate
fear to embark upon the
allotment, alone did Appius
doubtful events of the warfare and he entreated the Gods
of heaven to unfold the destiny of events, and opened again
the Delphic shrine of fate-foretelling Phoebus, that had been
closed for many a year.
Just as far removed 2 from the western as from the
eastern clime, Parnassus with its twofold summit reaches
to the skies, a mountain sacred to Phoebus and to
Bromius 4
on which, the Deities united, the Theban
Bacchanals celebrate the triennial Delphic festival 5
This peak alone, when the deluge covered the earth
rose aloft, and was the mid division of the sea and the
Thou even, Parnassus, raised above the sea, didst






Alone did Appius) ver. 68. This was Appius Claudius Pulcher,
He sided with Pompey, and died in
noted for his avarice and rapacity.
the isle of Eubrca, before the battle of Pharsalia.
He was distinguished for
his legal and antiquarian knowledge, and was a firm believer in augury and
divination, in which he was deeply skilled.
Just as far removed) ver. 71.
Delphi was said to be in the very centre
of the earth, and for that reason was called the " navel of the earth."
3 With its
These two peaks or heights were
twofold summit) ver. 72.
called Hyampeum and Tithoreum.
And to Bromius) ver. 73. Bacchus was said to be called "Bromius,"
from the Greek verb fytftvt, " to make a noise," in allusion to the shouts of

his devotees.

Macrobius, in the Saturnalia, B. i. c. 18, tries to prove that
Apollo, or the Sun, and Bacchus were the same deity.
Triennial Delphic festival) ver. 74. The " Trieterica
was a festival
celebrated in honor of Bacchus every three years, probably to commemorate
his conquest of India.
Ovid, in the Metamorphoses, B. vi. 1. 587, et seq.,
thus speaks of these rites : " It was now the time when the Sithonian

matrons are wont to celebrate the triennial

festival of Bacchus.
Night is
conscious of their rites ; by night Rhodope resounds with the tinkling of
the shrill cymbal." See the Translation of tlie Metamorphoses in Bohn's

116 and 216.
Deluge covered the earth) ver. 75. He alludes to the tradition that in
the flood of Deucalion the peaks of Parnassus alone arose above the waters.
See the Metamorphoses of Ovid, B. i. 1. 315, et seq.
The height called
Tithoreum was afterwards said to be sacred to Bacchus, while Hyampeum
was devoted to Apollo and the Muses.
Classical Library, pp.

B. v.




scarcely lift the top of thy rocks, and as to one ridge
thou didst lie concealed. There, when her offspring extended her womb, did Psean, the avenger of his persecuted
mother, lay Python prostrate with his darts till then un~
occupying the sway and the
When Psean beheld that the vast chasms of the
earth breathed forth divine truths, and that the ground
he enshrined himself in the
exhaled prophetic winds



sacred caves, and there, become prophetic, did Apollo
abide in the inmost shrines.
Which of the Gods of heaven lies here concealed?
WTiat Deity, descended from the skies, deigns, enclosed, to
inhabit the darkened caverns ? What God of heaven puts
up with the earth, preserving all the secrets of the eternal
course of fate, and conscious of the future events of the
world, and ready, himself, to disclose them to nations, and
both mighty and powerenduring the contact of mortals
ful, whether it is that he prophesies destiny, or whether it
is that that becomes destiny which by prophesying he
commands ? Perhaps a large portion 5 of the entire Jove,
pervading the earth by him to be swayed, which sustains the


Lay Python










Apollo with his arrows of the serpent Python, which had been sent by
the malignant Juno to persecute Latona when pregnant with Apollo and
When Themis) ver. 81. Themis was said to have preceded Apollo in

She was the daughter of Coelus and
giving oracular responses at Delphi.
Terra, and was the first to instruct men to ask of the Gods that which was
lawful and right, whence she received the name of Themis, signifying in
Greek " that which






Ventos loquaces." These were cold exhalations which were said to arise from a hollow cleft in the mountain
Prophetic winds) ver. 83.

rock, and,


received into the

body of the

priestess, to inspire

her with

prophetic frenzy.
Contact of mortals) ver. 91.
In allusion to the divine spirit animating
a mortal, the Pythia, or priestess of the God.
He suggests that possibly that
large portion)
divine spirit which pervades all things and keeps the earth poised in air,
finds a vent in the Cirrhaean caverns or shrines of Parnassus.


Virgil, in

726, speaks of a spirit
perviiding all things,"
See also Ji. i. 1. 89.
intus alii."
Lemaire somewhat fancifully suggests that
this passage refers to a supposed axis of the earth, which the Poet imagined
to run through it at Delphi, its so-called navel, and to be connected with the
the JEneid, B.




it re-echoes. . and opens the mouth of the prophetess*. 3 Of Inarime) ver. benignant to the just. In the war of Xerxes against Greece. For. Campanian rocks. 110. globe poised in the empty air. said to have built Sidon and Tyre and Gadea by the command of the 4 At to the Delphic oracle. v./Etna or as Typhoeus. whose son Androgeua had been slain by the Athenians. 94-110. 6 Removed Vie wrath of the earth) ver. prophesying what is destined and impious wishes." Ape He alludes to the Tyrians. roaring aloud. made manifest to all and denied to none. and is attracted. he forbids mortals to wish. who were Tyrians) ver. given satisfaction to Minos. and formerly called JEnaria as well. heats the 1 . to be altered for no one. according to Diodorus So was Attica after it had. 99. coming in contact with the human spirit. 2 The mouth of the prophetess) ver. certain adjoining may have been derived from. was an island not far from the coast of Campania. Egypt was said to have been relieved from famine by following the directions of the oracle.PHARSALIA. buried beneath the everlasting mass of Inarime '. 2 Asians. just as the 'Sicilian peaks undulate when the flames press upon . as to the Tynans 4 . The name is supposed by some to have been coined by Virgil from the expression of Homer. and is followed by Ovid and our Poet in the present instance. passes forth through the Cirrhsean caves. 108. 109. " " islands. alone denies himself to the pollution of human Not there in silent whispers do they conceive criminality. Strauss tells us that "aremus" was the Etrurian name for an ape. as the sea of Sala- mis 1 6 remembers. which. the name of the island or have given name to. Phrygia was." which were or the ' islands called Pithecusae. The meaning probably is that an inspiration is derived thence. and derives its vigour from him. by Siculus. on which they forthwith took to their ships. as the likening of the Fythia to Mount . Inarime. 101. 96. being an emanation from Jupiter. now called Ischia. under the command of Themistocles. . 170 [B. however. 5 At the sea of Salami*) ver. and. he has removed the wrath of the earth 6 With the cetfureal Thunderer) ver. as that writer is the first found to use it.ZEtna seems forced and this passage there is a hiatus after are unnatural. in unison with the sethereal When this divine inspiration has been conThunderer ceived in the virgin's breast. if so. full oft has he assigned an abode to those quitting entire cities. direction of the oracle. " It has been suggested that in solvit. on Thmsius being killed by Busiris. This Deity. conquered the fleet of Xerxes at Salamis. similarly relieved on burying Atys. the Athenians were advised by the oracle to put their trust in wooden walls . he has granted to drive back the threats of war. is still connected with him. and soon afterwards." and that probably some lines lost.

3 Monarchs have dreaded) ver. xv. 4 Seizes Phemonoe) ver. and the silence of the vast rocks. and forbade any Acsacrifices to be offered to him in future. The priest. One of the Scholiasts suggests that Lucan alludes to Pyrrhus. speak of the delivery of the Romans from pestilence on sending to Epidaurus for the God . the answer was that a matricide ought not to be let into the knowledge of the future. This is probably intended as a general appellation for the Pythia or priestess of Apollo. dreading to stand within the awful threshold. on which Nero. and they have the benefit of the cessation of the Temple's rites.] PHAESALIA. seizes Phemonoe 4 roving amid her wanderings around the streams of Castalia and the recesses of the groves. et seq. . sacrificed an ass to the God. 113. king of Epirus . which caused him to order the temple to be closed. . by advice of the oracle of Delphi. and to admit to the Gods a trembling prophetess. or the reward. according as the priestess was attached to or weary of life. inasmuch as under the vehemence and the fitfulness of the frenzy the human frame sinks. Nor yet. since monarchs have dreaded 2 events to come. as it was the name given to his first priestess at Delphi before the times of Homer.. v. Livy.. . 117. Thus does Appius. requested to open the dreaded seats. and the impulses of the Gods shake the frail spirit. the end of it being shown . on which the oracle ceased. ix. Death being deemed a punishment or reward. a voice denied them. and Ovid in the Metamorphoses. 110-130. a Either the punishment) ver. while another says that the Emperor Nero is here alluded to. The Thebans were delivered from a plague on banishing. 111. and that on his making enquiries of the oracle. the oracle gave answer that Nero would be slain by the populace. B.-Esculapius. make application to the tripods for a length of time unmoved. For if the God enters 3 any breast. and have forbidden the Gods of heaven to speak. The Lucanians experienced a similar relief on appeasing the shade of Palinurus.. 1 When generating pestilence) ver. and compels her to burst open the doors of the Temple. do the Cirrhaean prophetesses mourn. 1. cording to another account. B. 126. The maid inspired by Phoebus. the murderer of Laius. fearing the oracle might be harder still upon his crimes.B. 622. he has cleared the air when generating pestilence 1 Our age is deprived of no greater blessing of the Deities. a premature death is either the punishment of the Deity being received. in when barren. than that the Delphic seat has become silent. by a vain stratagem attempts to wean the chieftain from his ardent longing to know the future. an enquirer into the remotest secrets of the Hesperian destiny.

She. wont to drive the guilty from his temples. the grove. upon the Temple." and bands. and. The deceit of the maiden manifest. 4000 in number. and raging. utters from her breast. words. B. testifying a spirit moved by no divine frenzy with no murmurs of a hurried voice. by the will of the Gods. v. and obstructed the passage for Phoebus. Her words broken with no trembling sound. and not so much about to injure the chieftain to whom she is prophesying falsely. dreading the fateforetelling recess of the deep-seated shrine. her very fear imparts confidence. an unbecoming hope thee? Its chasms dumb. all tJiese betrayed that she dreaded to Appius beheld the tripods unyield herself to Phoebus. the Deities is being denied. the laurels shaken off. and has turned its changed course towards the far regions of the world. in the first part of the Temple comes to a stop. and it is sufficient that the secrets of future fate have been entrusted to yourselves in the lines of the aged Sibyl or whether Paean. " " " The meathed JUiet) ver. and has silenced the God. 130-158. when Python was consumed by the barbarian torch '. devoted to the worship of the Gods. but on examination it would appear that Brennus was utterly thwarted in his attempts by the The passage may possibly refer bravery of the Delphians." vittae." formed an especial part of the costume of the priestesses who were The Vestal virgins at Home wore them. 279. and the summits of the Temple without vibration. and burning of the Temple at Delphi by firennus and his Gauls. exclaimed " Impious woman. the ashes entered the immense caverns. whether it is that the spirit " does [B. or whether. 143. her voice not sufficing to fill the space of the capacious cavern. and. with no standing of her hair on end. Roman. to the attack 2 " . who invaded Greece from Fannonia. too. ' By the to the plunder made by Fyrrhus. as the tripods and the credit of Phoebus. or whether. king of Epirus. has forsaken these yawning clefts." says she." . and. The infulae." fillets. Then does the wreathed fillet 2 bind her locks in front. undisturbed beneath. 134. thou shalt both pay the deserved penalty fictitious : This has been generally said to refer barbarian torch) ver. feigning the inspiration of the God.C. Cirrha is silent.PHARSALIA. of hearing the truth attract Parnassus holds its peace. her hair streaming down her back a white head-dress encircles with Phocsean laurel. unshaken. 172 " Wliy. occupied. finds not in our age mouths by which to disclose the Fates.

The mortal The lash alone and goads) ver. is 5 wanting. was founded by a colony from Chalcis in the isle of Eubcea. part. . and throws prostrate the tripods that stand in her way as she roams along. and throughout her whole breast bids the mortal 2 give way to himself. . consulted upon the tumults so vast of the trembling world. shaking from her upright hair both the fillets of the God and the garlands of Phcebus. enduring thee. and receives the Deity in her unaccustomed breast . Nor dost thou employ the lash alone and goads 3 flames. v. 1 Gained the Cirrkcean breast) ver. 183. unless thou art hidden in the caverns. 168. who pours forth the spirit of the rock. now for so many and at length ages unexhausted. nor is it permitted 4 the prophetess to disclose as much as to know. You hinder her from disclosing more than you wish the enquirer to be informed of." At length. there remains. and the bridle she too. and all the future struggles for the light of day arid fates are striving that demand utterance: not the first day. PHARSALIA. According to some accounts. 158-183. through the empty space of the Temple she whirls round with her neck shaking to and fro. she rages throughout the cave. * The Cumaan proplietess) ver. not the number of the sands. 165.B. dost cease. 177. The God now fully inspiring the priestess. and Such a vast ages so many press upon her afflicted breast. . or human mind. Such did the Curnsean prophetess in the Eubcean . Frantic. All time comes in a single mass. dost thou bury in her entrails submits to. and. that in her frenzy the priestess seems to be driven along with whips and goads. to speak. not the laws of ocean. the affrighted maiden flies for refuge to the tripods. bearing her neck possessed. and he banishes her former mind. 2 3 Bids the mortal) ver. 175. which was the abode of one of the Sibyls. He alludes to the occasion on which the Sibyl offered the books which revealed the destinies of Home for sale to Tarquinius Superbus. raging with wrath. into the prophetess 1 having gained the Cirrhsean breast never more fully did Psean enter into the limbs of female inspired by him. Phoebus. * Nor is it permitted) ver. led away within the vast caverns. thyself. .] 173 to me and to the Gods of heaven. . The meaning is. and. chain of events is disclosed. . Cumae in Italy. and boils with mighty flames. whom thou art feigning as inspiring thee. which bore reference to them. and says that she favoured the Roman people alone by putting the prophecies in writing. not the last of the world. and.

thou dost escape from the vast threatenings of war.PHARSALIA. with difficulty she discovers. consulter of the Deity hidden in the Castalian land. 1 Of the Eubcean quarter) ver. while the stars yet hesitate to doom the head of Pompey ? rest Apollo suppresses. the maiden now overcome " O Roman. Psean.Tuning Brutus is to take the same part in ridding his country of Caesar's tyranny that Junius Brutus. 206. By alluding to the Bruti. he that . He alludes to the swords of Brutus and 3 his fellow conspirators. "side. powerful in the truth. cull with proud hand the Roman from the heap of destinies so vast. did in the expulsion Falling means of the tyrant Tarquins. and the slaughtered chieftains. to the avenging Bruti) ver. and at last voices resound. indignant that her frenzy should be at the service of many nations. first the foaming frenzy flows forth about her maddened lips. Her frantic fit still lasts and the God whom as yet she has Tier . uninformed by the Gods of heaven of no day of the future. struggle. free from dangers so great. that Fortune may fulfil Or art . why dost thou hesitate to reveal the latest moments of the falling state. and." in allusion to the situation of the long narrow island of Eubtca. " Lateris. 183-211. Ye tripods. and nations so numerous falling amid Hesperian bloodshed ? Is it that the Deities have not yet decreed mischief so great. Thus does Phemonoe. thou silent upon the crimes of the avenging sword 2 the penalties of civic frenzy and tyrannies falling to the avenging Bruti 3 once again. 8 Of the avenging sword) ver. of the same family. while thee. . Appius thought that this prophecy. filled with Phoebus. and groans and loud murmurs from her gasping mouth then are there mournful yells in the vast caverns. she leaps forth from the Temple. smitten by the breast of the prophetess the doors open." literally. guardians of the Fates. According to Lucan and some other authors. bore reference to a kingdom reserved for him by destiny. 207. and ye secrets of the world. retreat. 174 [a v. : The and stops her speech. hurried on. and aim ? Then. O Appius. long amid fates so mighty seeking thee concealed." 1 . and thou. 196. which skirts the eastern side of Greece. and are destinies so numerous withheld. Then. which was really significant of where he should die. and the deaths of potentates. and alone shalt thou take thy rest in the wide valley of the Eubcean quarter.

mineral called "asbestus" was found in the neighbourhood. She 175 remains in her not having said the rolls her fierce eyes. and the future returns to the tripods of Phoebus. and. the Goddess of Retribution. deceived by ambiguous responses. where rocky Ca1 2 rystos straitens the outlets of the sea. about seven miles from Marathon. The spot is now called Karysto or Castel Rosso. and a paleness exists. According to another account the statue was the work of Agoracritus. . features a fiery blush tints her face and her livid cheeks. it was named after Carystus. she falls to the ground. come on. intervening. and her looks wandering over the whole sky. And while from the sacred light by which she has beheld the Fates she is being brought back still still . but. v. not that which is wont to he in one who fears. so do silent sighs relieve the prophetess. Psean sends Stygian Lethe into her entrails. son of Chiron. to be exempt from the woes so numerous of the world ? The secret recesses of the Eubosan shore thou shalt possess. and. statue carved by Phidias out of a block of marble which the Persians brought to Greece for the purpose of making a statue of Victory. hurried on by vain hopes thou dost prepare to found the kingdom of Euboean Chalcis. PHARSALIA. 232.] not expelled whole. The Poet refers to the worship in this place of Nemesis. The according to tradition. consequently Lucan is wrong in representing it as situate on the straits of Eubcea. Death Alas. and was said to have been founded by Dryopes . and. Appius. 211-233. holding a spear of ash in the right hand. 233. in which was her punisher of presumption. to the sunbeams of ordinary day. It wore a crown and had wings. situate on a rocky peninsula on the eastern coast. Rhamnus was a demns or borough of Attica. buried in a memorable tomb. Carystos was a town on the south-eastern coast of Eubcea. the sway of the world being matter of uncertainty. as the swelling sea after the hoarse blasts of Boreas moans. does the nearness of death alarm thee. 2 Where Rhamnits) ver. . but inspiring fear. hardly come to herself. shades. and which was thus appropriately devoted to the Goddess of Retribution. Then from her breast the truth. now with timid. and where Khamnus flies ! 1 Rocky Carystos) ver. Nor yet. now stern with threatening. the avenger of crime and the She had a famous temple here. what one of the Gods. madman excepted.B. Nor does her wearied heart find rest but. can possibly grant for thee to be sensible of no crash of warfare. It was situate at the foot of Mount Oche. looking towards the Cyclades . the disciple of Phidias. to snatch from her the secrets of the Gods. was seated on a stag.

part dangerous ships . . in Eubcea. Caesar or sedition among his troops. enclosed in its rapid tide. in spite of the wind. 1 And the Euripits) ver. 233-257. tells us that during his ten had not experienced nny mutiny had several times to encounter it The mutiny here described took place at Placentia. change along. " " Hollows of straits of Eubcea. while each is afraid of those to whom . away from Chalcis. There was now no timid murmuring. but of the soldier. worships the Deity hostile to the proud. satiated with blood. had expelled the mania for war." or Eubcea. the Iberians subdued. hostile to fleets In the meantime. v. about to cany his eagles into another region . and the sword sheathed and cold. Aulis. was in the habit of carrying ships. Through the mutinous spirit of his soldiers. when almost. deprived of hands so many. 242. he looked down on everything. which was the Coele. ships of 2 Chalcis to Aulis. 235. 480. and stood propped up upon a stumbling spot . nor yet anger concealed in the secret breast . and the Euripus their that the with waves course. where the sea 1 hurries boils. for the cause which is wont to check doubting minds. the bands. that is unsheathed.O. which.PHAKSALIA. towards Aulis. within the tents of his camp did the chieftain fear to lose the 3 profit of his excesses. not from a firm height. Not in any 4 danger was Caesar more tried. which were very a the to here of Persian fleet was wrecked. at last forsook their leader: whether it was that the trumpet-call ceasing for a time from its melancholy sound. was sensible that it is the sword not of the general. and left almost to his own sword. Suetonius years' campaigns against the Gauls. while the soldier looked for greater rewards. he who dragged so many nations to war. For. 236. faithful throughout so many wars. in the north of Italy. 3 To lose the profit) ver. or whether. hostile to fleets) ver. 2 He alludes to the violence of the tide. and even then held on sale his sword stained with crime. on the opposite coast of Boeotia. but from a trembling one. He is alluding to that part of the Euripus. 249. he condemned both the cause and the leader. flowing and ebbing seven times each day and night. 4 Not in any danger) ver. when almost did the Gods turn aside the course so mighty of fate amid his prosperity. as now. in no warfare subdued. but that he during the Civil Wars. 176 [B. or B. Caesar returned." between the promontories Caphareus and Chersonesus.

if he has not yet discovered that these hands are capable of doing everything. to die. that shall close our eyes 2 to sink amid the tears of our wives. indeed. in our poverty. from thee a part of us Spain. does not withhold them inasmuch as the daring multitude itself has laid all its fears aside. N . ! 1 . the Senate expelled. and behold our feeble arms. which of mortals or which of the Gods was it allowed us to spoil? Guilty with hands and weapons we incur eveiy crime. our years we have consumed in wars dismiss us. we alone are not aware. Thus they pour forth their threats " Let it he permitted us. held so cheap. The prime of our life is past. death.] 177 is a cause of fear. 1 To leat against the clod) ver. Behold our unreasonable request to allow us not to lay our dying limbs upon the hard turf. he . Why by hopes dost thou draw us on.know that a pile is prepared for each. and our lives. does the army perish. and thinks that the injustice of tyranny oppresses himself alone. thee being the conqueror. our arms ? " What is enough. and to. relative closing the eyes of the dying person. as though ignorant for what monstrous crimes we are being trained ? As though.B. however. not with our breath as it flies and to seek in death the right to beat against the clod . Csesar. 279. we captured the abodes of our country. v. PHAKSALIA. and the whole world over. aged men. What limit is sought for pious. thou Gaul has snatched art ready to throw away upon any foe. a part a part lies in Hesperia. Whatever offence is committed hy many goes unpunished. of which treason the reward is the greatest? Nothing has been effected by the wars. What profits it to have poured forth our blood in the northern regions. With the violent pulsation or palpitation consequent on the struggles of death. if Rome is too little ? Now look upon our hoary locks and our weak hands. By land and by sea thou dost seek a sword for these throats. amid civil war. When. : . 2 He alludes to the custom of the nearest Shall close our eyes) ver. the Rhone and the Rhine subdued? In return for so many woes to me thou hast given civil war. with her severe wars. to depart from the frantic career of crime. 280. 257-288. . May it be allowed us by disease to end our old age Besides the sword let there be under Caesar's rule some other hand .

the soldiers ' . .PHAK3ALIA. Barbarous man. and the matrons of the Senate T and brides doomed to suffer disgraceful career. 288-318. let discord make an end in civil war. . Alas Csesar. nor does he wait until their rage may abate he hastens to tempt their fury in full : Not to them would he have denied cities and temples to be spoiled. accustomed headlong to meet the Fates. He wishes indeed for everything to be asked of to be courted only the recovered senses of the disobedient soldiery are feared. thus indignities. renders equal. and rejoicing to exercise his fortunes amid extreme dangers ." Thus having said. 316. and it is left to place our hopes in evil ways. he spoke : 1 And the matront of the Senate) ver. On a mound 2 of turf built up he stood. Those whom criminality defiles. anger dictating. and in no instance more so than in the present passage. and not alarmed. intrepid in countenance. enraged. from which the commander harangued his soldiers. Gods of heaven! when duty and fidelity forsake us. Though thou shouldst hope for every favour of the Gods. deserved to be feared and. he wishes the rewards of warfare . and learn to be able to endure existence without arms let it be possible for thee to put an end to criminality. why dost thou press on? Why now dost thou urge on the unwilling? Civil war is flying from thee. and the Tarpeian abode of Jove. art thou not ashamed for wars now to prove pleasing to thyself alone that have been condemned by thy own bands ? Shall these be weary first of bloodshed ? Shall the law of the sword prove burdensome to them ? Wilt thou thyself rush through all right and wrong ? Be tired at last. 178 [B. For his own purposes. they began to rush to and fro throughout all the camp. What chieftain could not that tumult alarm? But Caesar comes. and with hostile looks to demand the chief. the Poet does not scruple to libel the memory of Caesar. . v. him . Add that. there will be peace. " Nor do right or the bonds of law forbid us to attempt Amid the waves of the Rhine Ccesar was my chieftain. here he is my comrade. It was the usual custom in the Roman camp to erect a tribunal formed of turf. a On a mound) ver. 305. our valour is lost tune. ! . it this. Thus may it be. under a thankless estimator of our whatever we do is entitled fordeserts. Csesar.' Let him be aware that we are his destiny.

to bear off the rewards of the shortened warfare. and shall victory give us no attending multitude. with my own destinies. and leave me. proves faint hearts. Fortune will give in return heroes as many as the weapons that shall be unemployed. your swords being left here. v. Pompey your leader. and. Soldiers. soldiers. a worthless the arms of Caesar Labienus was brave 2 1 Your swords left here) ver. to attend with no wound the laurel-bearing chariot? You. Labienus had been an able and active under Caesar in his campaigns against the Gauls. you have. yourselves rejected. only receiving the concluding stroke. . just now with countenance and right hands you were raging. its waters diminished. beneath my fame 1 the terror of the Iberian and of the native of the north. and taunting them as " fellow his soldiers. certainly. . against whom." pointing to his breast. 321. if an end of the warfare pleases you. a crowd neglected and destitute of blood. that the Fates should have leisure to attend to your death and your safety. 3 Lalienus was brave) ver. and. he took the earliest opportunity of deserting him. Amid . Through a few does the human race exist.B. Notwithstanding the favours he had received from Caesar. that dares nothing bravely. 319-346. Fly. T. On the movements of the great do ah these things attend. now. pey all the soldiers of Caesar who had been taken prisoners at Dyrrhachium." and upbraiding them with asking if it was the cusofficer K 3 . Do the nations of Hesperia attend the flight of Magnus with a fleet so great. by whom he was amply rewarded for his services. PHARSALIA. who appointed him one of his legates Caesar relates that he obtained from Pomduring the campaign in Greece. suppose that the career of Caesar can possibly feel ill results from your flight ? Just as. and wearied with the prospering successes of their unconquered general. when absent.] 179 " Him. and youths that meditate flight alone. the sea would never decrease the more. the price of your labours snatched away. shall behold " Do you my triumphs. " Bun away. Go. aged men. 345. and became a zealous adherent of Pompey. with breast bared and exposed to wounds. than now it swells. Do you suppose that you have imparted any weight to me ? Never does the care of the Gods thus lower itself. to the warfare these weapons will find hands. though all the rivers should threaten to withdraw the streams which they mingle with the deep. your swords left here 1 Sedition. and after parading them before the army of Pompey. then the commonalty of Borne. you would have fled.

which had been the first mover in the sedition. depart from the ! Now camp. and of one person did a force so great. 1 And Suetonius thus mentions this ciryer. and affords throats \ not swords . amid the lamentations of all. Caesar himself is ap- prehensive lest weapons and right hands may be denied him for this dreadful deed their endurance surpasses the hopes of their stern leader. stand in awe . and learn how to strike. did he reinstate it.PHARSALIA. v. as though he could command the swords themselves. he never wishes to be on my side." Appian. how to The die. very probably. by whose strength alone my camp shall henceforth stand. Alas how vast a weight does Fortune now remove from my shoulders. and only with difficulty after many prayers and entreaties. After that battle. if. Whoever deserts my standards. and joined Scipio and Cato. He Pompey. able to make him a private man. after whose defeat at Thapsus he fled into Spain and joined Cneius. put them to death in the presence of the his overweening confidence he contributed to the disastrous issue of the battle of Pharsalia. fell By at the battle of Munda. who liavc been desirous only to intrust me to wars so mighty upon a change of my soldiers. flying from place to place. 346-370. whom he [B. in his Second Book on the Civil War. 370. which. says. raw recruits. Fall down upon the earth. in whom as the prompters this madness has raged. and not without punishing the guilty. for myself will I wage the war. wearied with the ! It is granted me to disarm right hands that hope burden for everything. was lost through his carelessness. cumstance affords " : He throats) . disbanded the entire ninth legion at Placentia. the son of torn for veterans to assembled troops. be witnesses of the punishment. at least. detains liere. with ignominy . not Cffisar. able to wield the weapons hi spite of soldiers. learn . run away. " A decimation being ordered of the ninth legion. But the few. base Quirites. the Praetors on their knees suppliantly asked pardon of him. 180 runaway. he at last arrived in Africa. Undoubtedly this camp is a care to the Gods. with the chief over land and sea. and extend your faithless heads and your necks to suffer the stroke and you. and does not deliver up his arms to Pompey's party. Caesar. but retribution. deliver up my standards to men. myself neither your foe nor your leader. for which this earth does not suffice. you do not carry on the war." motionless throng trembled beneath his stern voice as he threatened. has preferred he wanders " Nor more pleasing to me will be your fidelity.

It afterwards surrendered to the Romans. town the Sipus) ver. 374. and to call hi all the shipping. of Apulia. . which flowed past Hydrus. or Hydruntum. it was founded by Diomedes. Punic war it revolted to Hannibal after the battle of Cannse.B.Roman colony." in probably. 380. After ten encampments) ver. in the Daunian 7 And district. or Poseidon. famous for its forests of oak. which was built by M. . not imRatification so dire) ver. and. with a fetid spring.] 181 Nothing does he fear more than to lose spirits inured to crime. The original site was at some distance from the sea. which the 4 winding Hydrus'. 371-380. and the Sipus 7 situate below the mountains." 1 This is said sarcastically. It was a . Near its walls flowed a river named Taras. there is a play intended upon the use of the word " ictus " blows on the allusion to the resemblance between jugulorum. under the bed of which the Giants who were vanquished by Hercules were said to have been Tlie ancient buried. in Calabria. out of whom twelve were selected by the rest for punishment. AccordIn the second ing to the common tradition. and near a mountain called Hydrus." the "conclusion" or "ra" tification of the treaty. and delivered up to them its Carthaginian garrison. with a good harbour. with difficulty getting the better of his feelings of irritation. Leuca was a town at the extremity of the lapygian Promontory.C." meaning ten days' inarch. 377. Salapia was an ancient town of Apulia. 4 The town is now called Otranto. winding through the Ausonian alone. Garganus was the name of a mountain and promontory of Apulia. the youths return to their This force. 376. . and a place of considerable commercial importance. 375. " in ten " Decimis castris. appeased duty. granted that only one hundred and seventy of the seditious should be selected from the principal ones. but in consequence of its unhealthy situation it was removed to a new town on the sea-coast. 377. " ictus. It was said to have been founded by the lapygians and Cretans. by punishment. 200. who is said here to have indulged in the debaucheries of Campania. and. Hydrus was a winding river of Calabria. Hostilius. after ten encampments 2 he orders to reach Brundisium. 3 Winding Hydras) ver. Taras was the Greek name of the city of Taras) ver. 8 The fruitful Garganus) ver. where the fruitful 8 Garganus from Apulia. . Tarentum. situate on the western coast of the Peninsula of Calabria. encampments. It was frequently 3 a place of transit. and that they should be lost with ratifica1 tion so dire of the treaty is peace obtained. . an ancient town of that district." literally. 5 Shores of Leuca) ver. and to have derived its name from Taras. 372. about B. situate Sipus was the Grecian name of Sipuntum. and the "ictus feederis. v. 376. . PHARSALIA. 8 The Salapian fens) ver. and the ancient Taras and the secret shores of Leuca 6 which the Salapian fens receive. Its present name is Taranto. on a lake which was named after it. a between Mount Garganus and the sea-shore. a son of Neptune." the necks" of those punished.

enters into the Adriatic waves. opposed to the Dalmatian Boreas and the southern breeze of Calabria. land. ready to be enslaved by him while pretending to exercise the arts of peace.PHARSALIA. but only Pseudo-Consuls. In safety. he resigned See the Civil War. himself 3 Consul. ." country j" " author of " Fundator repose." " the ever venerable . but that he did not admit them to give their votes." quietis. This line must have been penned in R bitter spirit against Nero his meaning is. He means that Caesar. and divides the suffrages not and cites the tribes. that this year was the first one of the despotism of the Caesars. and Consul with P. He added the fasces." " the father of his " " the " Pater lord . 385. commonalty purpose turns the votes into the urn. to the eagles and. from which all those titles of honour which fear and adulation heaped upon the tyrant took their rise. 182 [R v. Ceesar was desirous to unite the Ausonian axes with his swords. too. " now said ironically. Some of these titles were " Divus. Servilius Vatia Isauricus . Caesar had himself appointed Dictator. days after. 383. without his soldiers. cited the tribes of the people to the election of the Consuls on the Campus Martius." This is Obey the requirements of peace) ver." 4 The Field of Mars feigns) ver. although. . stamped the sad times with a worthy mark." 2 As Dictator) ver. and. forsooth. and to no admitted. as to the order in which the tribes were to give their votes. for the Consulship were given by the tribes assembled on the Campus Martius. and although he drew lots (versabat) from the urn. he himself repairs to trembling Rome. " 1 Servire togae. in which example he was followed by the succeeding emperors. 380-394. iii. * Divides the suffrages) ver. 382." 1 All it in eleven the expressions) ver. " dirimebat." " Semper augustus. seizing the empty name of authority. the herald cited (decantabat) the tribes by name. renders joyous the annals. indulgent to the entreating people." Dominus." he distributed the pebbles or ballots among them as though for the purpose." patriae. peace as Dictator 2 he attains the highest honor. and that The votes Caesar and Servilius were not Consuls. : he means to say that the proceedings were spurious and illegal. now taught to obey the requirements of 1 and. . c. For all the expressions which of now for means we have lied to our rulers by long this age was the first to invent." " the divine . meaning. 393. but thinking that his continuing to hold the Dictatorship was likely to alienate the affections of many of his own party. B. For by what Consul will the Pharsalian year be better known? The Field of Man 4 5 of the feigns the solemnity. too. 392. By the use of the word "fingit. That in no way any legality in wielding weapons might be wanting to him. 2. although.

" It is not Wintry Constellation) ver. 6 arriving at the Minoian abodes of the winding Brundisium he finds the waves pent up by the winds of winter. PHARSALIA. 2 At Ilian Alba) ver. and in many instances to whim of a the the Suetonius speaks month. 2 not deBesides. 408. it thunders. ' " Hiberno sidere. and the birds are sworn From to be propitious. were the Consuls elected . 400.B. causes cold. 4 The Latin sacrifices) ver. the son of Jineas. 402. Claudius. precisely known to which of the heavenly bodies he refers as the "Hibernum sidus. stripped of its rights only. the Consul of the month distinguishes the ages in the annals.] 183 Nor is it allowed to prognosticate from the heavens the augur remaining deaf. He means that Jupiter Latialis was not worthy of this sacrifice being performed in his honor. only for of Caligula. the Trojan. still beholds the solemn rites. over whom Minos reigned. the Divinity who presides at Ilian Alba 3 Latium subdued. and the 6 fleets alarmed by the wintry Constellation Base does it seem to the chieftain for the moments for hurrying on the war to pass in slow delay. and has yielded up to slothful grass. and that only for the office of " Fasti Consulates. and Nero as acting thus. 1." or annals. He laments that from this time the Consul was entirely stripped of its authority. 401. as being the founders of the colony. 406. the ill-omened owl presenting itself. servedly . 399. 1 . 1. 395-412. according emperor." The Constellations of the Dolphin and the Pleiades have been suggested but it is not unlikely that he alludes to the wintry aspect of the sun. . even to those who are unsuccessful. 550. 4 the Latin sacrifices performed in the flaming night. Spirits unacquainted with the sea thus does he fill with courage . purpose of giving a name to the periods in the from their Consulships. Then he hurries on his course. 3 Not deservedly) ver. or lulus. Alba was said to have been founded by Ascanius. 613 Lucan calls them " Minoi'a" from the tradition which represented the Cretans. v. and speeds across the fields which the inactive Apulian has deserted with his harrows. in consequence of his neglect in having allowed Latium to be subjected to the tyranny of Caesar. lest time should be wanting an appellation. : 1 Consul of the month) ver. 5 Winding Brundisium) ver. As to the Latinae. and Tacitus mentions the same practice with regard to the Emperor Otho. Brundisium : . quicker than both the flames of heaven and the pregnant tigress and. . . . or rites of Jupiter Latialis. by reason of his absence during the prolonged nights of winter. See a description of the shores of in the Second Book. that time first fell a power once venerated. which. and the Note to the passage. . and to be kept in harbour while the sea is open in safety. see the First Book.

that he might give what orders he pleased." * Already are ice losing) ver. and the other seaports. lest the partisans of Pompey should come with impelled oars from all the shore of the Phseacians * upon our languid sails sever the cables . soon. c." The first stars of the sky y Phoebus concealing himself beneath the waves. and to embark without luggage. and expanding the . He accordingly set sail the fourth that they would cheerfully fulfil them. . This important period is thus referred First stars of the tky) ver. Caesar " says. 424. 5.' They cried out with one voice. which retain our conquering prows. 184 [B. that a greater number of men might be put on 1 board: that they might expect everything from victory and his liberality. day of January. as already remarked. slants the canvass to catch the wind. bend the head of our topmost mast. with seven legions on board. iii. and waft us to the Grecian walls. 420. which will hinder the enemy from obstructing their passage over. No windings are there of the sea. The Phaeacians were the ancient inhabitHis fear is lest the ships of ants of the island of Corcyra. and the moon had now spread her shadows. and for this purpose had stationed his fleet along the sea-coast. and the ropes unfurled the full sails and the sailor. a slight breeze has begun to move the sails. " When Cassar came to to by Caesar in his Civil War. and press on hi his fury. 413-432. than those which the perfidious inconstancy of the cloudy spring forbids to prevail with certainty. He means that they are losing the opportunity afforded them by the stormy weather.d baggage in Italy. and they swell a little. they should patiently submit to leave their slaves ar. The next day he reached Land. iii. between the Ceraunian rocks and other dangerous pots." . but straight onward are the waves to be cleaved. 423. B. first 1 Of the Pkceacians) ver. war of Pompey should be enabled to overtake his heavy transports. when they both unmoored the ships. had come forth. Apollonia. he made a speech now almost arrived at the termination of their toils and dangers. 6 : ' to the soldiers : That since they were Brundisium. returning to the mast. v. B. "More constantly do the wintry blasts possess the heavens and the main. that he would and by the aid of the north wind alone. in his Civil War. the end of the yard being bent by the rope towards the left. they loftiest When top-sail. to hinder Caesar from passing the sea.PHARSALIA. already are we losing 3 the clouds and the raging waves. when they have once begun. and no shores are there to be surveyed by us. c. catches the gales that might die away. now Corfu. Pompey had resolved to fix his winter quarters at Dyrrhachium.

Ovid mentions them in his Tristia. with the Black Sea. 3 The Bessi were a fierce people of extending from Mount Haemus to the Euxine. and the boundless sea is covered with ice . as though deserted by 1 stiffened nature the seas are still. names how unworthy of my genius to mention alludes to the custom of the migratory nations passing over the Palus Maeotia when frozen. 443-4. cessant. 10." . the Danube does not impel the deep. The migrating Bessan) Thrace. both and the exceeding might of the winds." uniting the Propontis. and. 432452. B. Scythian preventing. So stands the motionless Bosporus 1 that binds the the ice waves. The sea lies becalmed. ' 1. or Pontus Euxinus in general. a savage race. iii. Fearful is the calm of the sea. 2.cleaves the Mffiotis. the wind itself is not able to accompany the vessels which has brought them out. to dangers innumerable were the barks exposed.] 185 into the midst of the ship . The Thracian Bosporus. when. and the ocean. or sea of Azof. PHARSALIA. or sea of Marmora. with their waggons. or Lament. now the given by the ancients to two places " Straits of Constantinople. The motionless Bosporus) ver. which received its name. with the Euxine or Black Sea . v. and the Getse surround " The Poet here me. The Cimmerian Bosporus. and the wheel of the migrating Bessan . districts : ! " Veluti deserta rigente sequora though deserted by) ver. the land left behind. who dwelt in the ver. On the one side were fleets hostile and ready to move the on the other was famine sluggish waves with their oars threatening to come on them blockaded by the calm on the . a 1 be refers to the : nation supposed to live in the neighbourhood. nor dances beneath the reflection of the sun. to pray for the billows for unwonted fears. bound by a heavy torpor. and sluggish are the stagnant pools of becalmed water on the dismal deep. from lo. 436. Lemaire suggests that this is the proper translation of this " Just like frozen nature the sea rendered uninhabited passage places by 3 As natura. resounding with its waves lying concealed. More sluggish do the waves stand than unfall moved swamps. El. 5 The Sauromatae. Detained. Under this name it is probable that Black Sea. 441. the Bessi. It derived its name from the Cimmerii. whatever ships they have overtaken the waves keep fast . The name was 1. nor shudders with a ripple. which unites the Palus Mseotis. Unwonted vows were found deep. moves not with its tides. when changed by Jupiter into an heifer. forgetful to observe its ancient laws.B." : is still. according to the tradition. and the horseman breaks through the waters not pervious to sails. now the Straits of (Jaffa.

was in no great haste. which. and to winter in tents. and for the 2 mariners sets Ceraunia in motion . Amid the calm they may cause them the risk of shipwreck. * More gentle Apsus) ver. the day sends forth its beams obscured by clouds.PHARSALIA. did Fortune bring together two names of a fame so great. iii. 1. it empties. Probably this expression is reference to the optical illusion which appears to represent the ship tionary to those on board. 7-13. now This period of the War. 1 despair of a storm which 3 used in as sta- on the From a line coast of Chaonia. render of headlong course. 186 [u. c. iv. finding the road to Dyrrhachium already in War. 236. the fleet. and by degrees arouses the depths of the ocean. separated Dyrrhachium from Apollonia. and the furrowed waves to follow . which now moving on with pierces with its fair wind and anchors the sands of Palseste tide. which the swift Genusus and which the more gentle Apsus 5 surround with their banks. The town on its site at the present day is called Palasa. when the rivals first met each other. it would seem that the Furies had a temple at this place. 460. and the shore as though in motion. But the deceiving by its water slowly flowing. the night dispersed. a river of Illyria. to the south of the Acroceraunian Mountains. neither wearies itself by a long course. in the Fasti of Ovid. B. iii. and pitching his camp on the other side of the river Apsus. 462. is thus referred to in the Civil " Caesar. that . Then do the ships begin to be borne along. The Genusus is a river of Illyria. now dissolved by the sun. but. c. The region was the first to see the generals pitch their * adjoining camps. indications of waves are there nowhere the sky and the 1 sea languid. All hope of shipwreck departs) ver. snows. 462. Palaeste was a town of Epirus. 455. 15: the possession of Pompey. B. all hope of shipwreck departs But. The cause for the Apsus being able to carry ships is a fen. which It is now called the Iskumi. and there should be a sea. and the hopes of the wretched world were deceived." The transactions in Illyria. B. 457. Sets Ceraunia in motion) ver. * The smft Genvsus) ver. . * Sands of Palceste) ver. is acquainted with but very little land. v. that the states which had deserved his territory support might be certain of protection from his outposts and forts and there he resolved to await the arrival of his other legions from Italy. but encamped by the river in of the Apsus. The Apsus. Pompey did the same. flows into the Ionian Sea. from the time of Caesar's landing up to this period. : . Apollonia. the sea-shore being In this spot near. so long as the waves should release themselves from their Clouds and torpid stagnation. are related in the Civil War. 452-469. collected there all his troops and auxiliaries. Genusus. and now dissolved by showers. called the Crevasta. :l .

Does Libya. c. warfare. Him 3 training for Leucas . not personally did thy father-in-law. For they have the opportunity to see their countenances and to hear their voices and for many a year. v. and gave them orders that as soon as they found the wind to answer. they should at least stop the remainder of his army and they were expecting that the season for transporting troops would every day become more unfavorable. bello. aroused for mingling in the conflict. wrote in severe terms to his officers at Brundisium. civil war. A part of his forces 2 left behind compelled the mind of Ctesar. that as they had not prevented Caesar's arrival at the first. beloved by 1 of blood." 1 : . 479. parts principally were left unguarded by the enemy's fleet. with Pompey." This is said ironically. 470-485. " After pledges so great) ver. 25 commanded Pompey's fleet received frequent reproofs from him by letter. and in the word "soboles" he refers to the child of which she was delivered. when separated by the trifling distance of a plain. : .B. they should not let the opportunity of setting sail pass by. . He alludes to the several legions which he had left behind him at Brundisium. by engaging in civil warfare. even in then. 4 by Caesar By threats and by entreaties) ver. 473-4. This is thus expressed " Those who himself in his account of the Civil War. Pignora tanta" refers to the marriage of Julia. which he fought against Augustus off the Leucadian Promontory. except upon the sands of the Nile. the birth and the thee. to submit toAntony was the leader. daring in all delay in crime. Magnus. " Jam tune civili meditatus Leucada s Training for Leucas) ver. as the winds grew calmer. sundered with her shoaly quicksands.] 187 the chieftains might possibly. under the command of Marc Antony. because they dared not venture too far from the harbour. 480. feeling some trouble on this account. after pledges so great death of a luckless grandson. the daughter of Caesar. for the part he was totake at the battle of Actium. but which lived only for a very short period. if they were even to steer their course to the shore of That these Apollonia. PHAKSALIA. behold thee. 4 delaying full oft by threats and by entreaties doesCsesar summon forth " O cause of woes so mighty to the world. 477. iii. because there they might run their ships aground. Caesar. why dost thou retard the Gods of heaven and the Fates ? The rest has been effected by my speed Fortune demands thee as the finishing hand to the successes of the hastened warfare. 2 A part of his forces) ver. B. condemn the criminality now brought home. and the Poet means to say that even then Antony was practising. .

He silently complaining that he was able to elude them. That they were tasting of tranquil slumbers to which he himself was a stranger . not to go. Ceesar commands thee to come. Dost thou fear my camp ? I lament that the hours of fate are wasting. the first beginning at six o'clock in the evening. divide us with uncertain tides? Have I in any way entrusted thy arms to an untried deep. This would be from 11 to 12 o'clock nt night. I myself. of the Roman armies were divided into four. After he had gone through the tents. which they. . Csesar and the whole Senate occupy Epirus. having experienced that venturous deeds have prospered under a favoring Divinity and waves. and art thou dragged into dangers unknown ? Sluggard. . . the first. not on equal terms have we divided the world. he passed over the bodies of the sentinels which had yielded to sleep. 188 [B. the youths would be willing by shipwreck even to repair to the arms of Csesar. :t 1 Now had its third hour) ver." After he sees that he. Appian states that he sent three servants before to get ready the vessel. Plutarch says that Caesar disguised himself in the dress of a servant. 1 Hardly by his servants) ver." or watches. all left behind. 507. Now was the camp silent . as he believes that it is he himself who is wanting to the Gods. 51 2. worthy to be feared by fleets. as though for the use of a messenger from Csesar. now had its third hour l brought on the second watch . or perhaps it may mean that he was sorry to find the watch so badly kept. he hopes to pass over in a little bark. and not the Deities to him. is still delaying. summoned three or four times in this language. v. Caesar with anxious step amid the 2 vasty silence attempted things hardly by his servants to be dared and. amid the foe touched upon sands in the midst of them. . thou alone dost possess Ausonia. of three hours each. as the " vigiliae. Keep not those back who desire to go on the shifting deep . stand in fear of. Now must I employ the language of grief.PHAKSALIA. * Complaining that he was able) ver. 485 518. 509. Fortune alone pleased him as his companion. Night with its languor had noio relaxed the wearied care rest was obtained for the wretched. if I judge aright. commanded. and under the sway of others. of his accord amid the unsafe shades of night he dares to try the sea. upon the winds and the waves do I expend my prayers. into whose of arms breasts by sleep a more humble lot inspires strength.

In the present instance we find an old rope or piece of tow used for a similar purpose. Amyclas arose from the soft couch. cottages are no prey." The vessel which was called "phaselus" was long and narrow. the door being opened. 518. and by thy hands dragging on a needy old age. Appian mentions them as being a medium between ships of war and merchant vessels. 1. kind. but woven with barren rushes and the reeds of the marsh. free from all cares. Not far from thence a house. from that of a mere boat to a vessel suited for a long voyage. " " What shipwrecked person. they were more noted for their swiftness than their strength." were especially used by the Egyptians. v. youth. to be in readiness for cooking or giving a light when wanted. 2 The tow now raised) ver. and If. which the sea-weed afforded. that shook the roof. . course that can only refer to phaseli here mentioned was perhaps of this description. which was called They phaselus. speaks of them as being made of clay . to be alarmed with no tumult. and covered on its exposed side with a boat turned bottom upwards. and were of various sizes. and at the brink of the waves found a bark attached by a cable to the rocks eaten away. 513-537. free from care of the warfare.PHARSALIA. 2 raised from the dense heap of warm ashes. thou dost carry me to Hesperia. Among the poor it was the custom to keep a log of wood smouldering beneath a heap of embers on the hearth from day to day. Being built for speed.] 189 passed along the winding shore. the hand of Caesar the tow ! ! knocking ? Then. I wonder. no more wilt tliou be owing everything to thy bark." said he. mands." 1 With a boat) ver. 524. he knew that in civil strife O safe the lot of a poor man's life. Hesitate not to entrust thy fate to the God who wishes to fill thy humble abode with sudden : wealth. Juvenal. the chieftain says " Look for what is greater than thy moderate wishes. "Phaselo. xv. sheltered the pilot l and the owner of the bark. Sat. but of " " The one of the smallest. whom Fortune compelled abode ? Or has repairs to to hope for the aid of our cottage?" my now Thus having said. he nourished the small spark into kindled flames . propped up with no stout timbers. B. and probably received its name from its resem" blance to the shape of a kidney-bean. obeying my comgive scope to thy hopes. O gifts of the Deities not yet and his humble home understood What temples or what cities could this befall. 127. Csesar twice or thrice knocked with his hand at this threshold.

pallid. or. and rays of one hue invited the southern gales. sad with her face about to sink beneath the clouds. "But neither does the waving of the woods. . nor the lashings of the sea-shore." Thus having said and unmooring his craft. unable to be taught man. the seas and the winds " Amyclas. another. Dimmed. shall deny it. with his weakly light. as though it would forestall the rain. appear to shake. and languid hi the middle of his orb. ." which latter meaning is amplified in the succeeding words. . the northern. light. Either I will touch the commanded shore. 190 Thus he says. The moon. not only meteors gliding along the lofty ah*. he set. uncertain as to the impending blasts seas betoken the winds conceived. . trusting to its hovering wing sprinkling its head with the waves. or whether the east . : 1 Rays of one hue) ver. shining with slender horn." or " rays pointing in the same direction. or hollowed with clear cavities in her mid orb nor did she describe tapering points on her straitened horn. 652. he spreads the canvass to the winds at the motion of which. [B. 2 Challenga the tcaves) ver. but even the stars which are held fixed in the loftiest skies. 542. the crow paces the sea-shore with infirm But if the weight of great events demands. to speak as a private Tlien says the poor things indeed forbid me to trust the deep For the sun did not take down into the seas to-night. that the heron ventures and that. too. also. though clad in a plebeian garb. nor yet that the sea-gull loves the diy land the fact. did not rise. . describe tracks in all quarters of tJie heavens . and with the signs of wind she was red . please me . as they fall. 538-569. too. besides. Whether it presages the Zephyrs. nor the fitful dolphin. v. 1 one portion of Phoebus ruddy clouds. A dusky swell pervades the surface of the sea with many a heaving along their lengthened track the threatening waves the swelling boil up. she bears a livid aspect. on the other hand. "Concordes radii" may mean either "rays of like colour. Then says the master of the quivering bark " Behold. . how vast dangers the raging sea is preparing. with divided. I would step. not dazzling the eyes that looked on lu'm. to fly aloft. that 2 challenges the waves . not hesitate to lend my aid. Burmann remarks that the dolphins seem by their gambols to challenge the ocean to rise in waves. Many .PHAR3ALIA.

and spread sail to says. First. 191 On every side the fitful waves are In the clouds and in the heavens if we go by the murmurs of the In a storm thus sea. with thy sails. lest the nearest land should be too distant. heaven prompting thee. Corus." winds. of whom Fortune deserves badly then. This alone is thy reasonable cause for fear. and brings the flapping sails upon the frail mast. as thou dost lift it. and doubtful stands the deep. burst through the midst This is the labour of the heavens and of of the storms. No more having said. Secure in my protection. And Boreas does not carry the waves on to the rocks. . . gathered together from the whole universe. v. amid a tempest so great. and to turn from the forbidden course. Nor will long duration be granted to the raging fury of the winds this same bark will advantage the waves. If. the stern being struck. thou dost raise thy head from the Atlantic Ocean now. the joints Then rush on perils overstrained.] PHAESALIA. . and he . tears away the shrouds rent asunder. trod by Caesar." Csesar. not of our bark that.B. the raging winds. mighty neither will bark nor shipwrecked person reach the Hesperian shores. a furious whirlwind. . is preparing? Amid the tumult of the sea and sky. the neighbouring shores believe that then thou hast gained the Calabrian port. it is uncertain. and uplifts The cold Boreas meets it. . and beats back the ocean. Let it be allowed me to make for shore with the tossed bark. the freight will protect from the waves. the sea rages. all its billows upon the rocks. seek it. when no other land can be granted to the ship and to our safety. not to have known thy freight one whom the Deities never forsake. Corus is skimming along the deep. myself thy prompter. Turn not thy hands avoid. moving the tides. . and makes shallows of the sands entirely concealed. thou dost decline Italy. Art thou ignorant what. confident that all dangers will give way for him. Fortune is enquiring how she shall favour me. the vessel groans. beating against the bark. are the southern blasts . But the rage of the Scythian north wind conquers and hurls aloft the waves. when after his wishes expressed she comes. the sea. To despair of making our way. undecided which wind to obey. 569-605. is our only safety. " Despise the threats of the deep.

when Tethys was unwilling to submit to any shores. and. and the lightnings flash not with their brilliance. the structure strained. the realms of his brother Neptune. black with showers. The meaning is. O how often did that day overwhelm mountains before beaten in vain by the waves What lofty summits did the subdued earth permit to be overcome! Not on that shore do waves so tremendous rise. 636. are able to meet . even with the winds lulled. in conflict. and the waves that encircle the world speed on . I would surmise that the threats of Eurus were not withheld. have burst from their concordant repose. content to be bounded by the skies alone. that with storms like this Jupiter determined to punish the world for its wickedness. overspreading the heavens. rushing from their wonted quarters. with violent whirlwinds defended their own regions. Nor. and. in the sense of Chaos. but as though brought from the shades of hell. Then do the convex abodes of the Gods of heaven resound. oppressed with storms. and the waves received the s. ! their monstrous billows. No small seas do they speak of as having been carried along by the gales the Tyrrhenian runs into the ^Egean waves . and the lofty skies re-echo. and. the air lay concealed infected with the paleness of the infernal abodes. 192 [B. did not lie beneath the dungeons of the ^Eolian rocks that all. but the cloudy atmosphere obscurely divides for their flashes. 3 . and the earth was added to the secondary realms of Neptune. Even the light so dreadful is lost. 2 It was not a common darkness the heavens) ver." Night. . and that thus the ocean remained in its place. if the ruler of the Gods of heaven had not kept down the waves with clouds. rolling from another region of the earth. the elements seem to poles re-echo. Not a night of aloft. That was not a night of the heavens'. 605-636. the wandering Adriatic echoes in the Ionian sea. Now as well would the mass of sea so vast have increased to the stars.PHARSALIA. and that the winds of the South. was kept down.howers in the clouds. 627. the ruler of Olympus l aid his wearied lightnings against the world with his brother's trident. 620. from the vast ocean have they come. dashes his own seas against the billows of Corns and the aroused waves. v. the Nature dreads Chaos. both by means of his own lightnings and the seas. and night once more 1 Thus did 1 Did the ruler of Olympus) ver. " And Hiyht once more) ver.

The CerauPyrrhus. " the heights of thunder. who alone 1 The loicly Sason) ver. titles. sitting in a little bark. They dread not the lowly Sason * with its shallows. . The commonalty ordered by me. things great enough have I done. As far as from the Leucadian heights the calm deep is beheld below.B. king of Epirus. No Roman tress. " " with the Gods above Is it a labour so great. 636-665. 660. Fortune. to return about The heaven. does not conceal the sands and of all art. you send me. 1. be a danger worthy of his destiny. so far do the trembling mariners look down upon the headlong sea from the summits of the waves and when the swelling billows gape open once again. It was originally colonized by the Corinthians about B. to the north of the Ambracian Gulf. v. the coast of Epirus. PHARSALIA. nor yet the rocky shores of curving Thessaly. 2 The Ambracian. 652. coast) ver. . I have obtained by warfare the fasces which were denied unto me.of the summits of rocky Ceraunia Now does Caesar believe there to the sailors are in dread. . hardly does the mast stand above the surface. 650. ii. Although the day hurried on by the Fates should cut short my mighty exploits. Fears conquer the resources and the pilot knows not which to break. and I am denied to the warfare. and the dangerous harbours of the Ambracian coast . wave . The discord of the sea comes to then" aid in their disis not able to throw over the vessel against billows the resisting wave supports the yielding side. situate on the left bank of the river Aracthus. The clouds are touched by the sails. The nations of the north have I conquered hostile arms have I subdued with fear Home has beheld Magnus second to me. and the bark rises upright amid all the winds." says he. and For the sea. dignity will be wanting to " No one will know my this. See the Note to B. the waters are in waves.C. they have assaulted with seas so vast ? If the glory of my end has been granted to the deep. except thee." were precipitous rocks of nia. fearlessly will I receive whatever death. at rest. in the part where it is the earth by the keel. and billow . it arises in mountains. ye Deities. or Acroceraunia. . to overwhelm me. that not as yet have they perished amid ruin of the universe so great. whom.] 193 mingle the shades below with the Gods of hope of safety is. to which to give way. made it the capital of his dominions. 627. to sole . Ambracia was a town of Epirus.

valueless lives. cities so many. so long as I . having meaning is. in his Tristia. O Gods of heaven. violent than the others. having thus me let shall . by every land. Inasmuch as they attested their affection for him. realms so many." Him. The Did Ccesar. the land being touched. and casts it on dry land. a tenth bark on high frail . He also 'tis the one that comes after the ninth and before the eleventh." refers to the same belief in the Metamorphoses. and the world so great has made thee its head. where the narrow shore is free from rugged cliffs. 194 [B. has thy rash valour carried thee. tenth wave (probably reckoning from the beginning of the storm) was more Thus Ovid says. to the Stygian shades. Alas we are ashamed This was the cause of thy seeking Hesperia . or to what fate abandoning us. but thnt. 2 that ver. coming concealed from his army as his departure had been. die There is need. slothful slumber was in possession of our bodies. retain my tomb and mangled carcase in the funeral pile be wanting be always dreaded and looked for wave 1 wondrous to be said. 50 coming on o'ertops all the others . as on the occasion of his silent flight. 3 Not ditpleasing complaints) ver. didst thou give thy limbs to be scattered by the reluctant storm ? Since the existence and the safety of so many nations depend upon this life of thine. ! ! A 1 It was a notion among the ancients that every tenth icave) ver. . of as a private person. now returning) 678. B. it is cruelty to wish to die. 665-691. B. nor again does it hurl it down from the lofty heights of the sea. now returning 2 . but the wave bears it along. v. not to be able to be a survivor of thy fate? When the sea was hurrying thee along. or Lament. that I. At the same moment. 1. i. and his own lifts with the said. cruel Csesar. 672. while others complained to him aloud that be : had done what rather befitted a brave soldier than a considerate general. 681. xi. art conscious of my wishes. " The wave that is now El. Did no one of thy followers deserve. Thronging around their general the multitude wept. 11. it seemed cruel to commit any . But not so easily did Caesar. and accosted him with their lamenta" tions and not displeasing complaints 3 Whither. fortune does heTegain. landed at Brundisium he returned forthwith to his army in Epirus. although I go loaded with honors and Dictator and Consul. 2. . Appian says that on this occasion some expressed their admiration of Cajsar's boldness. 530. 49. of not be so ashore in the broad his return could easily light day. no funereal rites for midst of the waves to me.PHARSALIA. on the following day deceive his camp and his adherents.

who commanded the Ilhodian fleet at Dyrrhachium. having got a southerly wind. and declining no danger for Caesar's safety. the ships keeping kept mingled close together. 703. 2 The clearing Boreas) ver. which has impelled thee to our sands ? Has this service of the Deities pleased thee. but hoped by the labour and perseverance of his seamen to be able to bear up against the violence of the storm . in Thrace. This is contrary to Caesar's account. Posthumius. and at 3 their first flight describe various figures as chance directs ! . and although we were carried beyond Dyrrhachium by the violence of the wind. the night dispersed. Quintus Coponius. B. he nevertheless continued to chase us. when they beheld the sea weary of waves. plied with equal time. " now For one holding the rule of the world to have entrusted himself to the sea Why thus greatly dost thou tempt the Deities? Is this favour and effort of Fortune sufficient for the crisis of the war. and animated by the soldiers strongly encouraging them. Antony. namely. unmoored the barks. not chief of the state. Nile. The captains also) ver. the winter driving them away. However. V. in consequence of the breeze dying away. The captains also l in Hesperia. 1 who says that they passed over with a southerly wind. and the eyen course of the sails. the fleet united. the winds permitting. in the Civil War. about to drink of thee. But relentless night took away from the sailors the steadiness of the breeze. and Calenus. 26 officers exerting boldness and courage. the south wind sprang up afresh and rescued us. 692-713. he did not desist from his attempt. and the wearied deep lulled the swelling waves. but fortunate in shipwreck?" Uttering such things. not that thou shouldst be ruler of the world. and the clearing Boreas ~ rising in the heavens to subdue the deep. put out of port with his ships . Those chiefs of the Caesarian party who were at Brundisium. c. 705." 3 Describe various figrires) ver. and threw the barks out of their line. B. He thus relates the " Caesar's circumstance of their setting sail. and the next day were carried past Apollonia and Dyrrhachium. the day with its sunshine came upon them. and being seen from the main land. and when they had almost come up with us. leave the frozen Strymon.PHARSALIA. to precipitate men The 195 wont and the headlong last lot of events is into doubtful dangers perils of death. which the wind and the right hands. aided by the instructions of Antony and of Funus Calenus. do the cranes.] one to a sea so boisterous. just as a troop on land. He alludes to the straggling flight of crimes in winter from the banks of the Strymon. towards the : o 2 . Gabinius. iii. long and over the wide sea. Thus. 713. weighed anchor.

the day returning. in a safely lodged very secure harbour. Afterwards. The figures described by them in their flight are said to have been of the shape of V. a stronger breeze blew upon the ships. It was situate on a hill. mixed indiscriminately they are crowded into confused masses. was a town on the const of Epirus. Magnus. aroused at the rising of Phoebus. 8 The shores of Lissus) ver. others were taken by our men . Lucan from north to south. 720. 1 And the letter.P1I. Here one might observe the sudden turn of \Ve who. the south wind. by reason of which the ships were secure. 716." the Poet means the harbour of Nymphseum. now called Elisso. put into it (this port is protected from a south-west wind. sixteen in number. immediately after which the wind veered to the south. for they were still afraid of being attacked by the enemy's fleet. Caesar makes the wind to veer from south to southwest. wanner regions of the Nile. The figures alluded to in the last Note.f . taking advantage of the favour of fortune. and the letter. but is not secure against a south wind) . 196 [u. them. about three miles beyond Lissus. By " undas. and thus. His meaning is that the harbour was exposed to the north wind. or L." 3 Made for Nympltaeum) ver. is When rections. three Roman miles from Lissus. dis1 destroyed by their wings scattered in all difirst. and of the prodigious number of seamen and soldiers. 7H-725. determined to arranged . and damaged the Rhodian fleet to such a degree that all their decked ships. . 720. disarranged) ver. Lissus. 719. and they who had threatened ruin to our fleet were forced to be uneasy on their own account. and made for Nymphaeum Already had the south wind.VRSALIA. if the wind abated. and they thought less danger was to be apprehended from the storm than from the enemy." literally " waves. 26. in the Civil War. The waves exposed) ver. v. and had a strongly-fortified citadel. having come near a port called Nymphsum. A. The arms of Csesar being collected in strength from every side. by means of which Csesar's ships had entered it. c. by extraordinary good luck veered round to the south-west. 4 . but Ca:sar sent them all safe home. foundered without exception. B. by a change of circumstances. Caesar. made into a harbour the waves exposed to the north. : Illyricum. which had blown for two days. were Fortune. beholding the extreme dangers of the dreadful warfare now drawing near his own camp. But as soon as they were in harbour. Nymphaeum was the name of several The one here mentioned was a port and Promontory on the coast of places. some lost their lives by being dashed against the rocks. a moment before. suc4 ceeding Boreas. and were wrecked . thus relates the circumstances here " Our referred to men. they passed by the shores of Lissus attempted in vain. were alarmed for ourselves. at the mouth of the river Drilon. iii. the storm protected our ships. when the south wind prevailing more on high has impelled their spread wings. which was considered impregnable.

Cornelia. as he feels anxious to retain her with him in Epirus. He. : . the line of battle drawn up. if thou canst be witness of the civil war. . THARSALIA. beneath which was the world and the destiny of Rome. and were restored by him to the enjoyment of freedom after the Mithridatic war. Alas how greatly does virtuous passion prevail in Even thee. 744. 745. headlong speed. .B. nus with weeping. to have been enjoying tranquil slumbers together with my wife. and to snatch the moment from the Fates. inhabitants were greatly favoured by Pompey. and to conceal thee. not now when tired of the sad day is come. now called Metelin. already Thou wilt not have to endure a have I denied myself 2 3 Events will succeed with prolonged absence from me. 2 Have / denied myself) ver. to indulge a pleasing delay. and seeks the delightful kisses of her husband who turns away wondering at his moistened cheeks. Now do words forsake his mind. and to arise from thy bosom. in consideration of the sufferings they had undergone. Magnus. was the The largest of the islands of the . afar from the din of cruel warfare. but in joyous times which both too much and too little we have deferred now is Caesar at hand for battle with all his might. removed to Lesbos'. . the highest interests 'Tis enough to have heard of are downward speeding. and one life. and it pleases him. Lesbos. whife Cornelia cherishes in her embrace his breast weighed down with cares. gas" is supposed by some to It is more probable apply to the distance between Lesbos and Thessaly. putting off what is about to come. of slumber banished. that it relates to the duration of their separation. 1 Removed to Lesbos) ver. He exercises self-denial. did love render well-regulated minds doubtful and anxious as to the result of battles thy wife alone thou wast unwilling to be subject to the stroke of Fortune. v. however.] 197 deposit in safety the charge of wedlock. she dares not to arraign Mag! ! . : " . sighing. . the repose. says Wife. A 3 " Lor prolonged absence) ver. For I am ashamed now.ZEgean along the coast of Asia Minor. the dangers of Magnus and thy love has deceived me. dearer to me than life. made up. 725-752. and smitten with a secret wound. . Towards the close of the night. To war must we give way during which for thee Lesbos will be a Forbear making trial of entreaty safe retreat. 725. when the trumpet-call is shaking the distracted world. ruin hastening on.

and her senses fled from her astounded breast. By the use of the word "plebeia" she probably refers to the divorces or separations which were of every-day occurrence among the Roman people. plaints : " Nothing. sent away. thou being already the conqueror and I shall be dreading the ship which may be bringing destinies . At the approach of the foe let us appease let us sever the union of our marriage torch Has. by a ready death. far and wide." In her weakness hardly did she sustain grief so great. last of all will thy wife know the result of affairs.PHARSALIA. full of anxiety. 752-781. I shall follow thee to the shades until the sad report reaches the regions removed afar. and I am heard by the Gods. to be perishing with apprehension. the survivor of thee. I. More safe meantime than nations. absent. the fortune of thy husband may not overwhelm thee with all its If the Deities shall overthrow my ranks. and. nor the closing torch of the sad funereal l but. 198 [B. . to endure grief so great. when even now thou art entertaining hopes ? As I shall be reluctant to be the slave of the wicked. " Add this. and removed afar. whither I may desire to fly. if the Fates and the blood-stained victor shall overwhelm me. One of the Scholiasts thinks that Cornelia alludes to the life of rustics who separate themselves from their wives for the purpose of sending them to market or to work iu the fields. Magnus. . and more safe than every king. "I dread to engage Pompey in civil warfare sorrowing with no loss. that thou dost accustom me to my fate. relentless one. But if my prayers are realized. v. forsooth. let the weight. with difficulty was she able to utter her sorrowing com. my fidelity been thus exthy father-in-law. com. . by a common and too vulgar lot am pile I separated from my husband. Magnus. mand me. The rocks will be detaining me. fessing it I fear to be able to endure it. At length. is left me to say in complaint of the destiny of our union and of the Gods of heaven death does not divide our love. shall be living. to expose my life to lightnings and to ruin so mighty? Does my lot seem a tranquil one to thee. . . still. perienced by thee ? And dost thou believe that anything can be more safe to me than to thee? Have we not for long depended on one lot ? Dost thou. 1 Too vulgar lot) ver. Pardon me conin thy cruelty. 765. better part of me survive and let there be for me.

199 Nor will the successes 'of the war. and wishes to defer her woes by no delay. She falls fainting in her wretchedness. heard of by me. 786. and embroiqered with beautiful figures in gold." has there been so sad. " 804. 802. and the silly remarks in 11. " They were called peripetasmata Attalica." or " peripetasmata. The next night that came to her was without sleep. and the last enjoyment of love so prolonged passes away. The faithful companion of Magnus now goes alone." Thus saying. when the arms of ruthless Coesar were pressing. seem to him to justify such a conclusion. ' the waves. Not thus unhappy 3 did she leave her country and the Hesperian harbours.B. nor yet his neck. and clings to the very shore. alone for the first time 1 Retreat of Mitylene) ver. the last thing do I entreat. the couch 2 abandoned. of "sibi" in 1. and at length is borne to the ship. and generally of a purple colour. to say. 791. when. the chieftain left behind. and throughout all their lives no day For other griefs with a mind now strengthened by woes. when thou hast entrusted thyself to so joyous. and. v. The shores will grow famous through the exile of a famous name. Its foundation was ascribed to the Carians and Pelasgians. 805. exposed in an undefended place. 807. and having two excellent harbours." In the houses of the wealthy Romans these were of a costly description. 12. 811. "Stratis:" literally " bed-clothes. and there prostrates herself. and from Pompey does she fly. distractedly she leaps forth. situate on a Promontory. to any quarter in preference turn thy unlucky bark on my shores thou wilt be sought for. "farewell. I may be taken by Caesar even in his flight. 781-807. Mitylene was the chief city of the isle of Lesbos.] PHAKSALIA." from having been first used at the court of King Attains. frigida quies" in 1. but an addition by some later hand." which consisted of blankets or counterpanes called " peristromata. In her sweet embrace she does not endure to clasp the breast of the sorrowing Magnus. " vadit" in 1. From the beginning of this line to the end of the Fifth Book is considered by Weise not to have been the compoThe use of the word sition of Lucan. and resolute. Then was her rest chilled and not as usual. the wife of Magnus abiding there. and their own sorrows they hasten on. and neither on withdrawing can endure . 3 Not thus unhappy) ver. if thy conquered arms shall leave thee nothing more safe than flight. received in the hands of her attendants. 2 The coiich) ver. and. end my fears. . did they submit to. is carried down to the sands of the sea. who will possibly be ignorant of the retreat of Mitylene ? This.

the it pleased her not to extend her body over all the bed one part of the couch was kept.200 I'll A US ALIA. her husband. .) ver. 1 With deceived hands) ver. :1 . in her widowed bed. 3 The one part of the concA. The meaning of this passage. catching at his body. 1. to act as though she were fully certain of the loss of Pompey and was. The hour was pressing 011 which was to restore Magnus to her in her wretchedl . ness. where Alcyone. overpowered with sleep. she kept to her own side of the sion that her couch when surrendering herself to sleep. seems to be. from habit and from a sort of impreshusband was still with her. and. There is a similar passage in the Metamorphoses of Ovid. 807-815. 813." 3 Although the flame) ver. She was afraid. on being sepa" rated from Ceyx. She was afraid of losing Pompey but the Gods above did not ordain things so joyous. when laying herself on her couch. for. and with no husband pressing her unprotected side. forgetful of her flight. 674. 811. tent of her bereavement. v. B. 809. [B. xi. unconsciously. grasps the air. with deceived hands did she embrace the empty couch. although the flame in silence pervaded her marrow. reluctant to acknowledge to herself the full ex. although penetrated by grief. groans aloud and moves her arms in her sleep. seek her husband in the ni^ht! For. that in her sleep she deceived herself by stretching out her arms to touch her hus- band. which has been censured by Weise as either spurious or corrupt. How often. and.

and his praises descanted upon. 507-569. 642-653. and arms were brought hand to hand. While bravely fighting. 278-289. 1. approach Pompey Caesar repairs to Thessaly. marches to seize Dyrrhim on his march. 299313. she reproaches the attendants of Sextus. 413-419. 314-332. is urged by awaiting the event. 149-165. the troops anxiously described. : . 247-262. 604-623. Scseva exhorts lies forth to interrupt in his army. 140-144. Erictho. Caesar prepares to renew the engagement. of Erictho is described. The events which happened after they left the camps at the river Apsus (B.201 BOOK THE SIXTH. 589-603. troops of Caesar are in alarm. and which are here omitted. The situation of the city is described. Sextus. By her incantations and magic skill she raises the dead body to life. are described. 240-246. 263-278. he is pierced by an his comrades. are " Caesar and Pomthus related by Caesar. The 235. 762-774. iii. 30 pey received intelligence [of the arrival of Antony] almost at the same time. Pompey sal- and the A the works. 775-820. in the Civil War. The Thessalian incantations are described. CONTENTS. 64-79. 481). 1 After the chieftains) ver. Caesar surrounds the city forces of Pompey with vast outworks. 333-412. A dead body is chosen for her to restore to life. 106117. 820-830. 667-761. cave. 80-105. to her The cave 624-641. 228arrow. famine and pestilence arise The army of Caesar also suffers from famine. v. Pompey Pompey intercepts to a battle. dragged Commencing her incantations. the son of Pompey. neglects to follow up his successes. 1-14. Aulus is slain by him. Sextus He addresses her. Whose praises are sung by the Poet. Pompey attacks the outworks nearer to the sea. 570-588. and is so. and is followed by Pompey. His wounds are described. words of Scseva. 654 666. She promises him that she will do disclose to him the future. 118-124. chieftains 1 now nearing each other with an intention of fighting. The body is then burned. 1. and her rites. fear to enquire into the destinies of futurity by means of magic arts. a Thcssalian enchantress. It discloses the woes of Rome. 420434. had pitched their camps on the hills. being unable to bring hachium. 29-63. and the Gods be- AFTER the . 166-227. 290-299. 15-18. B. He is But is driven back by Scaeva. At the the of Pompey. Caesar. 434-506. 145-148. and requests her to repairs to her at night. The situation of Thessaly is Both sides pitch their camps. 125-139. Pompey attempts to break through the outworks. at first successful in his attempts. 235-239. She requests it to disclose the future. c. and of the adherents of Pompey in particular. Deceived by his stratagem. He requests to be carried to the camp of Pompey. and Sextus returns to the camp. 19-28.

had seen the ships sail past Apollonia and Dyrrhachium. he offered Pompey battle. 1. He dispatched messengers The next day to Cajsar and confined himself in his camp." 1 Draws out all fiis troops) ver. 14. being : Asparagium. that his arrival might be the more secret. he reached Pompey in Macedonia on the third day. 41 Pompey was at Asparagium. quitted position. 3-15." 3 DyrrfMchium) ver. Pompey's route being clear. Pompey. and. and encamped beside him . to prevent his Caesar came up with him. 13. On learning his arrival. all his forces to camped in : . and there ena convenient situation. 264. where he posted his forces . to oppose Antony's forces on their march to to fall if Caesar. testifying that he is never wanting to the downfall of Latium. Pompey secretly by night. 8. iii. because he was not obliged to cross the river. Caesar openly by day.PHARSALIA. held their equals. in the territory of Dyrrhachium. to form a junction with Antony as soon as possible . and. having drawn out all his forces before his camp. but confides in his close entrenchments. in two his moved with hemmed between and armies. and the same day they both led out their armies from their winter encampment along the river Apsus. They directed their march after them by land j but at first they were ignorant to what part they had been carried . and kept his men close within camp and forbade fires to be An account of this was kindled. and being informed of his approach. possible. sheltered by a path through fields o'erspread with woods. Pompey. vi. to find a ford. Three times on the hills he draws out all his troops l and his standards that threaten battle. he moves his standards. against Antony. See the Note to that passage. immediately carried to Antony by the Greeks. but when they were informed of it. These circumstances are thus related " As soon as Caesar heard that by Caesar in the Civil War. The die of destiny sink the head of the one or the other alone pleases him. he advanced rapidly and by forced marches. and thought about pursuing some other plan. bring everything to a crisis. and that that is to is to . along the river. and having taken the capital of the Parthenians on his march. Coesar scorned to take all the towns of the Greeks. and on the day following. he set out for that place with his army. But Caesar had to march a longer distance round. where there was a garrison of Pompey's. c. they for they each adopted a different plan Caesar. upon them unexpectedly from ambush . 202 [u. But perceiving that he kept within his trenches he led his army back to the camp. This is the same city which is called Epidarnnai in the Second Book. In all his prayers he asks for the hour so fatal to the world. When he beholds that his son-in-law can be aroused by no alarms to battle. for one day. and now refused to be indebted to the Fates for any prosperous warfare except against his son-in-law. chose a convenient situation. with headlong haste he marches to seize the towers of Dyrrhachium 2 This march Magnus forestalls by following the sea-line.

one of their most powerful kings. and there he en1 Illyria in the vicinity of Civil War. or human labour. and from all the countries of which he kept possession. guards Uie walls) ver. encouraged his troops to submit cheerfully to the fatigue. because he imagined he had taken a route in a different direction from that country. 15. that he might surround the terrible to ships The native Taulantian) ver. waged war against Alexander the Great. 42 Pompey. took a new resolution. 16. Rocks it owes to a small hill that it is not an island. he decamped the day following. iii. B. and entrenched himself strongly on a rising ground which is called Petra. enclosed on every side by the deep sea and by rocks that discharge the waves. the hill -which upon with . where ships of a small size can come in. when the van of Pompey's army was visible at a distance. the ocean shakes temples and houses. and sends its foam to their summits. 10-31. the nature and the locality of the spot. being cut off from Dyrrhachium. and when the raging Ionian sea is raised by the boisterous south wind. The Taulantii were a people of Epidamnus or Dyrrhachium. without the aid of troops. hoping to prevent him by taking a shorter road by the sea shore . to but yield either to wars or to years that move everything it has fortifications able to be shaken by no iron. Caesar. support the walls. though it should elevate on high." " 4 Of JEphyre) ver. 5 He means to say that it was Kafe even in its towers alone) ver. but having afterwards got true intelligence from his scouts. and corn and provisions to be brought from Asia." 3 And " : . which was and the city of Corinth was called Ephyre. iii. sufficiently strong in its natural position and fortifications to resist an enemy camped. which Caesar suspecting might happen.PHAESALIA. B. thought that the scarcity of provisions had obliged him to shift his quarters . the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. From the present passage it would appear that Pompey was the first to arrive at Dyrrhachium. c. and having halted a very small part of the night. Hither did lawless hopes attract the mind of Csesar. not knowing Caesar's design. and be sheltered from some winds.] 203 1 the native Taulantian calls Petra he pitches 2 and guards the walls 3 of Ephyre 4 his camp a in its towers alone 5 No work safe even defending city of the ancients or bulwark erected defends this city. 2 He pitches upon with his camp) ver. For. says that he himself was the first to arrive. Here he ordered a part of his gallies to attend him. greedy of the warfare. . Glaucias. as he was unable to effect his purpose. B. 16. 17. in the Civil War. 18. originally a Corinthian colony from the nymph Ephyra. 41. . and that Pompsy was " cut off from the city. however. The walls of Dyrrhachium are called Ephyrean" because it was supposed to have been colonized from Corcyra. Caesar says. . liable. Pompey at first. vi. he arrived early in the morning at Dyrrhachium. c. .

which not the ruthless battering-ram. thickets. pastures are not wanting to Magnus. wearied. iii. Caesar. and with these views. Caesar thus relates these " Caesar. 3 Ancient story raise tlte Ilian vails) ver. and not content with frail turf alone to construct the walls so suddenly raised. he shifts Rivers so many rising there. c. and the walls torn asunder. and he opens fosses. surrounded by the bulwarks of Ctesor. let the flying Ilian walls . with a vast net he shuts them in. abides in the midst of the fields. he carries across vast rocks. A wall is built up. and Pompey was strong in cavalry. as he had but a small quantity of corn. exhaust their course and that he may revisit the most distant of the works. and the houses of the Greeks. when the report should Lave spread throughout the world. 30. surveys with his eyes. which were said to be forty miles in circumference. and forests and wild beasts. is able to throw down. that he might furnish his army with corn and other necessaries from all sides with less danger. and thirdly. and raised strong forts on them." meaning that he has the power or opportunity to change his camp. on being informed of operations in the Civil War. . although surrounded by Caasar's lines . and his camp at pleasure'-. . 31-50." literally " changes . 204 [a vi. 1 enemy unawares dispersed on the vast hills. and to have been built by the hands of Apollo and Neptune for King Laomedon. Now let ancient story raise the 3 and ascribe them to the Gods. and thereby render his horse ineffectual in the operations of the war . and Caesar draws the work on a level right through lofty hills." 8 He thifts his camp at pleasure) ver. 48. in allusion to the vast extent of space enclosed thereby. : Then drawing a fortification from one fort to the other. 44. with bulThe ground he warks of intrenchments described afar. and disposes towered castles on the highest ridges. Mountains are broken down. 1 That lie might surround tlte enemy) ver. that he was blockaded by Caesar and dared not hazard a battle. 43 these matters. on which he saw he depended greatly among foreign nations. to lessen his reputation. Fields are not wanting. pursued measures suggested by the nature of the country. nor any engine of destructive warfare. B. These he first of nil occupied with guards.THARSAL1A. he began to draw a line of circumvallation around Pompey . He alludes to the alleged extent of the walls of Ilium or Troy. as the nature of each position allowed. and with a great circuit enclosing boundaries. For around Pompey's camp there were several high and rugged hills. and. and stones dug up from quarries. and woody lonesome spots. secondly. ceasing there. to prevent Pompey from foraging. " Mutat .

. They were built of burnt brick. or to sever Ephyre from the wide realms of Pelops. does a work. however." he probably means by cutting through the promontory where it commences to project. and the Note to the passage. Ovid. by cutting through the Isthmus. as much as swift pottery Orontes surrounds 2 as much as suffices for their realms to the Assyrian nations in the eastern world.B. and thus save the necessity of going round it. as much as the Orontes surrounds at Antioch. that these lines were thrown Pompey. the passage round which was much dreaded by sailors. and fifty thick. "as much ground as the Tigris (into which the Euphrates discharges itself) surrounds at Babylon. surrounded with frail pottery) ver. . by heaping earth into it to exclude the sea of Phryxus'. He says that it would have been about an equal labour to cut off Corinth. suddenly formed and hurried on amid the tumult of warfare. frail . chadnezzar these walls surrounding the city. and as much as is required for the royal city of Nineveh. in the Metamorphoses." These lines were fifteen miles in circumference. which was in form of a square. . The meaning is. Malea was a Promontory on the south of Laconia. In allusion to Xerxes building up large mounds of earth in the Hellespont. Phryxus was the brother of See the Fourth Book. 3 "Periere" may either mean There perish labours as mighty) ver. were forty-eight miles in extent. which city. J. enclose. PHARSALIA. and to mean that the result of cutting through the . iv. extending many miles into the sea. 56." " meaning to save the passage of. surrounded with 1 Lo. 1. and two hundred cubits high. and the Note to the passage. See the Second Book. who gave her name to the Hellespont." or walls. 57. 4 He alludes to the bridges which Unite Sestos to Abydos) ver. In the time of Nebuwas. 57. He alludes Babylon . 55. takes the passage to be only an amplification of the last line. or Ephyre. Helle. or that away as failing in their object of hemming in destroyed in the sallies of Pompey's they were soon troops. There perish labours as mighty 3 Hands thus many had been able to unite Sestos to 4 Abyclos and. 51. Walls of Babylon. in the Poet's day. as much as Tigris. Famaby. 7 Circumnavigation of the lengthy Malea} ver. so much does Caesar on a sudden emergency surround with lines of circumvallation. in the hands of the Parthians." of Babylon. * As muck as swift Orontes surrounds) ver.] 205 Parthians admire the walls of Babylon. 68. B. vi. 50. . 58. 6 To cut short for shipping) ver. 1. Xerxes constructed across the Hellespont from Sestos to Abydos. speaks of the "coctiles 1 to the brick-built walls of " brick-built muri. 50-60. and to cut short for shipping the circumnavigation of the lengthy Malea 7 or to change any spot of the world. from the Peloponnesus. By the use of the word " donare. 54. 674. while some of the buildings in the city were only constructed with bricks sun-dried and cemented with bitumen or mortar. though in a ruinous state. * To exclude the sea of Phryxus) ver.

a Promontory of that island. for the better. 71. when roaming Tethys and the Rutupian shores are raging. " Here in this 1 Both. so the enemy were making a continued fortification in a circuit within ours. space are enclosed persons who are doomed to fall. knows not that ravening Pelorus is barking 2 or as. The civil fury rages on a narrow slip of sand. with his soldiers spread far and wide . . When first he beholds the earth enclosed with a vast 4 rampart. " B." 2 Knows not that ravening Pelorus is barking) ver. . and within this circuit there were several fields lately sown. the waves aroused escape the ears of the Caledonian Britons. Just as the person who lives in the interior of Sicily does not hear the howling of the whirlpools of Scylla and Charybdis. some at African Munda. pleted their wokrs first . iii. and taken in a compass of fifteen miles. to prevent us from But they combreaking in on any side. safe in the fields of mid Sicily. that he may weaken the arms of Ceesar. supposed to have been the present Richborough. 67.'' . some at Thessalian Pharsalia. "just as the native of Caledonia (now Scotland) does not hear the roaring of the ocean on the Rutupian shore (the coast of Kent). he got forage in this space. were afraid that Pompey '3 men would sally out from some part and attack us on the rear . and divide Caesar's forces as much as possible . on rising. or surrounding them in the rear. 62. who had completed their works by drawing lines of communication from one fort to another. c. Rutupiae. destined to flow in all lands the Libyan slaughters 1 are kept in store. namely. the structure of the works escapes Porapey just as he who. and as much of the land enclosed in the trenches does he . : * Isthmus of Corinth would be to save sailors the necessity of going round the Peloponnesus and rounding the Malean promontory. 60-73. was a Roman town on the coast of Kent. 44 Nothing was left to Pompey but to adopt the last resource. It was a place of transit for Haul. and cover as great an extent of country as possible with his troops. and extend his line. in which the cattle might feed in the : meantime. or Rutupac. as he hems him hi. the Thessalian and the Libyan slaughters) ver. These operations on the part of Pompey are thus fully explained in Csesar's narrative of the Civil War. [B. to possess himself of as many hills as he could. 3 And the Rutupian shores) ver. and was famed for the goodness of its The Poet's meanoysters. he himself also leading forth his troops from secure Petra scatters them over the different hills. both because they had a greater number of men. 206 although Nature should forbid it. And as our men. and so it happened . vi. and because they had a smaller compass to enclose. ing is." 4 Leading forth his troops) ver. First indeed. The quar- here is nourished blood here both the Thessalian and ters of the warfare are contracted . which were much prized by the Roman epicures.PHABSALIA. for having raised twenty-four forts. 66. which are in the vicinity of Pelorus.

88. 76. Aricia is distant from lofty Rome) ver. requiring for his mouth fresh grass. descends into the sea. and several of our men were wounded and Civil War. and the Note to that passage. " Culmos " " to while others take it to mean or else straw. The sedge that has been "brought) ver. . about sixteen miles. B. Greater anxieties deter the chieftains from engaging in arms.] 207 claim for himself. 78. that the extent is the same as that of the Tiber would be from Rome to Ostia. TI. or to come to a general engagement . the Mycenaean Diana. He says that the extent ground which Pompey enclosed within his lines was the same as the disIn speaking of tance from Aricia to Home . that although the racks are full of hay. the horses pine away for want of fresh grass. consecrated Diana of Mycene. See the Third Book. These circumstances are thus alluded to in Caesar's narrative of the Civil War. the darts roam and full oft. c. as little Aricia of the grove. and cuts short with faltering knees the exercises of the ring in the midst of them. the children of Agamemnon. 1. No trumpet-call re-echoes 3 and. yet he detached archers and slingers. or straw. namely. The warlike charger wearied in the fields cropped short. while the full racks are holding the sedge that has ' to . PHARSALIA. 4 While consumption wastes their bodies) ver. 46. and the constant selves . is a crime committed. generally said to be but fourteen miles from Home. " When Caesar attempted to gain any place.B." considerable discussion. B. This can hardly be correct. contrary to orders. he alludes to the worship of Diana. 86. the number of carcases. if it were not to wind in its course. though Pompey had resolved not to oppose him with his whole force. from their confinement within so narrow a compass. Pompey care deters by reason of the land being exhausted for affording fodder. 75. as the case may be. which was said to have been brought from Tauris to Aricia by Iphigenia and Orestes. "Modo" signifies "measure" or " distance " here. gliding by Rome. were filled with great dread of the arrows. and with quickened steps the horny hoof has beaten down the shooting field. 49 " Caesar's troops were often told by deserters. and that their other cattle were dead ." The passage has caused : were not in good health. from the noisome smell. king of Mycenae. but its meaning clearly is." some. 3 No trumpet call re-echoes) ver. for Ostia was if it flowed in a straight line. where it discharges itself into the sea. with which his army abounded." " * here signifies. been brought 4 falls dying. iii. 1 of 2 And the distance at which) ver. His meaning is. while the arm tries the javelin. which the horseman in his course has trodden down. 73-88. 85. is distant from lofty Rome and the distance at which 3 Tiber. While consumption wastes their bodies 5 and relaxes their . iii. that they them- according " sedge. or sedge. . hay. that they could scarcely maintain their horses. 1.

relieve But ranging upon the expansive hills the . while the bodies are lying unburied. He alludes to the sulphureous vapours of the isle of Inarime. fatigue to them. which the Romans called the Celsus mentions this malady as a foreniorbus. 101 see the Note to that passage. Fiery throughout the features) ver. limbs. hardens the entrails with mud collecting there. probably by reason of its volcanic origin. " The usual c. consider sacer morbus" " to mean 1. beneath which the giant Typhoeus. and the air stirred by the north winds. now called " Nisita. Nor could the wind blow from any quarter that would not be favourable to some of them. It is mentioned in the Fifth Book. Some authorities." runner of the plague. and labouring under a With such an exhalation does Nesis) ver. For to throw the wretched citizens outside of the tents is their burial.PHARSALIA.putt' forth his Thence do the multitudes perish. . These supplies are thus referred to in the Civil War. these woes. It was a favorite residence of some of the Roman nobles. 1 tion does Nesis send forth the Stygian air from its clouded rocks. vi. 2 The caves of (he deadly Typhon) ver. or Saint Anthony's fire. and the caves of the deadly Typhon. rage." : . 92. and the sea-shore and the 4 ships filled with foreign harvests." * Filled with foreign harvests. Cicero. Seneca. or Typhon. and the weary head refuses to support : 11 . but the weakness comes on with death and by itself. was enclosing troops sound and unhurt. and bursts the distended eyes fiery throughout the features and glowing with erysipelas tindisease breaks out." men unaccustomed to enemy is not work. more ready than the air to contract all infection. The elder Pliny speaks of 1 it as in certain places emitting fetid vapours. was said to be buried." is a small island on the coast of Campania. 208 [B. Probably because. 96. being great want of water. not far from Puteoli. the multitude of the perishing is the pestilence increased. Caesar. 88-106. and who had abundance of all things. On the contrary. the sea at their backs. 3 ' epilepsy. iii. They were attacked with " Sacer erysipelas. Nesis. which brought them provisions. the close atmosphere contracts the contagion of the With such an exhalaflouting pestilence in a dense cloud. mingled with the living. . and the water. nor do intervening diseases separate life and death. as one of the Scholiasts says. Now the blackened skin grows hard. however. Now more and more suddenly does destiny sweep away everything. relieve) ver. and Statius also make mention of it. that which grew on the spot was tainted with the plague. 105. B." or "Sacred disease. Still. 90. For there arrived every day a prodigious number of ships. 47 design of a siege is to cut off the enemy's supplies. with an inferior force.

grain. down) ver. and he disdained a march stolen by theft. B. PHARSALIA. in the Civil War. still besiege a well-fed foe. they frequently threw among them. whatever to pull asunder by biting. but his soldiers bore all with uncommon patience. and. He probably refers to the same root which is mentioned by Caesar." Caesar. Whatever they are able to soften with flames. ami tearing from unknown roots. amid swords. and it greatly contributed to relieve their want.' discovered by the troops which served under Valerius." falling flat on tho ground. This they mixed up with milk. acknowledges. he did not choose for himself the obscure hours of stealthy night. to damp their hopes. Hither. that. and where by slaughter a way must be However. manner of cattle. 110. whose exploits are afterwards recounted by the Poet. 3 They call the tower of Minutius) ver. the trenches attacked. as Suetonius calls the latter Cassius Scaeva. and .doubtful herbs that threaten death. and whose shield Caesar speaks of as being pierced in two hundred and thirty places. which they call the tower of Minutius all his made. Appian seems to consider this Minutius as the same person with the centurion Scaeva. shrubbery rough with trees thick set conceals. seems '. as though surrounded in strict siege. however. loaves made thereof. Having great plenty of it. in the Civil War. and the soldiers tearing asunder many a thing before this unknown to human tables. c. seem been the same persons. and gnawing the shrubs. he was in very great distress. 107-127. They 'hardly.] 209 distressed by pent-up air or stagnant water but he endures cruel famine. c. 113. the wretched multitude he sees falling down ' to the food of cattle. 48 : " There was a kind of root ' called chara. vi." having consumed all the corn far and near. . be- " Cecidisse . it pleased Pompey to escape. to have P . 47. They made it into a sort of bread. ' And tearing from unknown roots) ver. When first. 126. the barriers burst. B." It was on this occasion that Pompey. The blades not as yet rising to a crop. iii. the arms of his father-in-law delaying with ruin brought upon him he sought to come forth. and spoiling the grove of its leaves. 49 Csesar's army enjoyed perfect health and abundance of water. a part of the entrenchment close at hand and a fit. except corn and they had a prospect of better times approaching. to break down the towers. that they devour. while Appian mentions a hundred and twenty arrows as sticking in it. exclaimed that surely he must be fighting with wild beasts. This passage hardly corresponds with what " But we learn from Caesar. however. and whatever to put into their stomachs through their chafed throats. when Pompey 's men upbraided ours with want. and had plenty of all sorts of provision. on seeing the loaves. and to open to himself all lands. and saw greater hopes laid before them by the ripening " of the in c.B. 1 Sees falling after the : . iii.

a single man snatched from the victors and forbade to be captured and. 1 shine from the plain so many trumpets sound. 53 shield of the centurion Scaeva. Now over the heights of the lofty entrenchment had Pompey's eagles gone forth now was the rule of the world open to him. and suddenly comes At the same moment so many Latian birds to the walls. on the spot where they should be standing. he denied that Magnus was the conqueror. probably refers to the troop of a hundred men which was under his command. That place which not with a thousand troops together. 13. there. said " Whither does an unduteous fear 5 drive you and one un. and not yet laid prostrate. That victory might not be owing anything to the sword. when. himself wielding arms." the lengthened rank. in the Civil "War. By the Ready for all daring) " use of the word " nefas the Poet implies." negligent or disobedient soldiers. * He means that Scaeva Before tiie fierce nations of tJie Rhone) ver. . and the cloud that bore darts so many was of no avail. that military valour exerted in civil war is no better than criminality. as he says in the next line. who carried it for the purpose of punishing " " Longo ordine. 144. slain they lay. he speeds his band. Then did the hurled torches roll down pitchy fires then did the shaken towers nod and threaten their fall the bulwark groaned at the frequent blows of the oak battered against it. he beheld his companions seeking the safety of flight. the war now left behind.PHAKSALIA. . those to endure the wounds were now wanting. were counted A : . amid much bloodshed. c. What valour alone fear had stricken the astounded foe. . 146. * Whither does an unduteous fear) ver. during which he had promoted 3 vine sapling was one of the He melded the Latian vine) ver. . : 1 So many Latian birds shine from tlte plain.) ver. which was brought to Caesar. . nor with the whole force of Ccesar. minality is valour. . trayed by no dust. in the wars with the of centurion. iii. could effect." 4 ver. 210 [& vi. 129. he had served in the Scffiva was the name of the hero ranks of the camp before the fierce nations of the Rhone . he wielded the Latian vine ready for all daring and one who knew not in civil warfare how great criHe. had served as a common soldier in Caesar's army. Caesar thus refers to the ex" In the ploits of Scaeva on this occasion. 150. badges of office of the centurion. 127-151. '-' 1 . " Pronus ad omne nefas. He alludes to the eagles or standards of the legions. 147. Fortune had been able to take away. promoted in the lengthened 4 rank. been to the rank Gauls.

now with a sturdy threaten to the foe down he thrusts opposing breasts from the walls. and knocks out brains use- We . at the first signal." That voice arouses fury as great as the trumpet-call. inflames and eager to behold. 1 51 . 173. p 2 .PH ARS ALT A. happily before the face of Csesar could I seek the shades. " Seque ipse minntur. B. servile do you. can give anything more than death. turn your backs upon death? Are you not ashamed to be wanting in the heap of heroes. . and heavy masses. too. In reward for this man s services. conquer. hoth to himself and the public. servum pecus. clothing. pole. and the crash has broken upon the unsuspecting ears of Coesar. And himself does lie threaten to the foe) ver. and For it apdeclared him promoted from being eighth to first centurion. With cost More of no little blood to Magnus shall this day pass. . . carcases ? Will you not. through whom the enemy might sally forth. come to a stand ? Out of all. Break their weapons by opposing your Now breasts. On the falling rampart he takes his stand. duty set aside." of the commencement of this attack It is to by the be regretted that the account troops of Pompey is lost in the narrative of Caesar. and to be sought in vain for the tomb among the beasts to all the '. servile beasb) ver. youths. afford weapons to the hero both wood. companions he will come to avenge these towers while we die. through anger at least. and first of all rolls down carcases from the tower full of them. I shall fall. .] known 21 1 amis of Caesar? base slaves. and himself does he 2 Now with stakes. universally considered to be spurious." This line is 8 them. famuli turpes. and with your throats blunt the sword. without bloodshed. two hundred and thirty holes. vi. . the youths follow him to know whether valour. Him as a Avitness Fortune has denied. absque cruore. have we been chosen. and other military honors. not and wondering at the hero." meaning that he threatens that he himself will leap down upon base slaves. corn.1 78. peared that the fort had been in a great measure preserved by his exertions and he afterwards very amply rewarded the cohorts with double pay. exceeded in numbers and in position. Csesar presented him with a reward in money. and overwhelms the foes with dead bodies as they come on the whole of the ruins. Pompey praising me. does the dust reach him from afar. 7 " 1 52. . and with the sword he cuts off the hands that cling to heads and bones he the upper parts of the rampart dashes to pieces with stones. and the sound of the ruin.

and Fortune beholds a new pair of combatants meeting together. no frail wall .PHARSALIA. which. with javelins and light arrows do you waste wounds that will never attach to the vital parts ? Let either the wild-fire 4 hvfrled from the twisted cords overwhelm him. As to the "phalarica" see the Third Book. or masses of vast stone torn from the walls let the battering-ram with its iron head. no javelin not fortunately aimed. at him do all the weapons aim. The "tortiles nervi" are the cords used to give impetus to the balista. of another the flame lessly defended by a frail construction sets on fire the hair and the cheeks. bruises the smitten foe. except the darts that protrude on the surface of his bones. the point of the sword of Scfeva. that 3 Nor does anyUdng now protect) ver. 188. madmen. but are prevented from falling out by reason of the darts pinning his flesh to his bones. supply the place of his armour. a leap brought him down and threw him upon their arms in the midst of the troops. The meaning of this piece of bombast seems to be that the weapons of the enemy. the . 187. the heap increasing. and the Note to the passage. no hand is unerring. which was used to discharge the phalarica. and wounds him not The sword loses its use. The stout shield resounds with frequent blows. . The inelegant repetition of "frangit" in the next line. compressed amid the dense masses and hemmed in by all the war. 1 . 681. 1 Why now. fires crackle. sticking in his body in nil directions. the carcases made the wall level with the ground. not less nimble than that which hurries the swift leopard on the Then. He stands. but by the force of the blow broke the limb it struck. now * protect his exposed vitals. now leaves his body exposed. 1. and the compressed fragments of the hollow helmet bruise his temples nor does anything tops of the hunting spears. 178-201. 1 And wounds him not) ver. 198. broken to pieces. whatever foe he looks upon he conquers. vi. And now. . and the balista remove him from the threshold of the gate. 212 [B. which is also found in this. and breaks limbs without a wound-. 2 Breaks limbs iritliout a wound) ver. an army and a man. 194. Him does the entire mass aim at. blunted and through clotted blood no longer sharp. One of the Scholiasts suggests that the meaning is that his vitals are now exposed. As soon as. 4 Let eiilier the wild-fire) ver. their eyes burning. shows that most probably one of them is spurious. His word was so blunted it would no longer pierce and make wounds.

207. 4 Has hurled the javelin retained by the slender thong) ver. 214. 213 Now he no for Caesar's cause. and a part of Croatia and Bosnia. by javelins so many. ! hand'-. from the repetition of part of it in the next. the whole of Hungary between the Danube and the Save. Behold afar. which. thus the Libyan elephant. alone he submits to the wounds so many of the warfare. and he withstands Pompey. vi. 220. provinces. however. " Par pelagi monstris" is supposed by Farnaby to mean. The were renowned for their skill in the use of the bow. 1 Thus the he to the monsters of the deep the Libyan land. Pannonia was one of the Roman : . fearlessly plucking forth the arrow fastened in the eye-ball hanging to it. The Scholiast Sulpitius. wounds made by arrows so many.] PHAESALIA. and inferior only to Cnossus and under the dominion of the Romans became the capital. 1 Like u-as he to the monsters of the deep) ver. . longer covers his breast with amis. and moving his skin shakes forth the darts that stick there his entrails lie safe concealed within. and tramples upon the weapon together with his own eye. thinks that it alludes to the circumstance of trees being supposed to grow on the backs of whales. 2 A Gortynian shaft is aimed against Scceva ly a Dictcean ha7id) ver. bearing a dense thicket of darts on his breast. fearing to trust his shield and to be inactive with the left hand. Not otherwise does the Pannonian she-bear 3 more infuriate after a wound. He away the impediment of the weapon and the ligaments of the nerves. -or to live by his own remissness. what precedes. embracing the eastern part of the present Austria. if connected with rushing upon a ship and sinking it with its weight. It was the second city of the island. when the Libyan has hurled the javelin 4 retained by the slender thong wheel herself round upon the . breaks every missile as it bounds off from his rough back. a Gortynian shaft is aimed against Sca3va by a Dictcean Like beast u-as . Carinthia. "Parva . seems to be the right sense of the passage.B. 221. more unerring than all expectation. situate on the river Lethaeus. and. Gortyna or Gortyn was one of the most ancient cities of Crete. Slavonia. of . overwhelmed by dense arms. Styria. suffice not for a single death. and without blood do the darts stand in the pierced wild beast . 201 222. and. that he acts as the whale does in This. which cause them to resemble islands and rocks a meaning which may have possibly been intended if taken in connection with what follows. This is most probably a spurious line. Cretans 3 Pannonian she-bear) ver. Carniola. with now flagging steps he chooses an enemy on whom to fall. descends tears upon his head and into the ball of the left eye.

. and infuriate seek the dart she has received. This description is certainly not consistent with probability. His frantic valour had deformed his countenance by reason of his tearing out his eye together 3 As mean " it flies togetlier that the lance or dart with the arrow. he said me Lift breast. [a VL 222-241. however valorous. up. 223. His fury has now destroyed his features with the bloody stream his face stands disfigured a joyous shout of the conquerors re-echoes to the sky a wound beheld on Caesar would not have caused greater joyousness to the men by reason of a little blood. This " rendered more probable from the frequent use of the verb torquere. 222. Magnus this . concealing the pangs deeply seated in his mind.'' amentavit habena. and did not see him holding his sword with the point upright . whirl. wheels round and round. Fugientem may either is borne round by her. Spare me. He pretends that he It ready to abandon Caesar and join Pompey's party. 234. wound '." The unhappy Aulus believed these deceitful words. 224. than of a glorious death. 3 His fury has now destroyed his features) ver. about to bear away both the body of the prisoner and his arms. merits the reproof that is always due to treachery. " with herself) ver. let Scaeva be rather an instance of Ctesar deserted 4. fury from his features entirely removed. but rather torn away from my . it. and eludes her endeavours as she wheels round and round. or else that it flies with her as she flies. says " far hence avert the war.2U PHARSALIA. .'' use of the spear volution to is " to . : . he received his lightning blade in the middle of his throat." " Se rotat in vulnus " 1 Wheels herself round upon the wound) ver. and alive remove me to the camp of for your own general . 4 An instance of Casar deserted) ver. do : The spears of the ancients. His valour waxed hot. for whatever purpose employed. It is not known how the either to the force or the correctness of the aim in the "amentum" added but it has been suggested that it was through imparting and perhaps thereby giving it steadiness in its course." and was of assistance in throwing the spear. often had a thong of feather tied to the middle of the shaft. . and. and by the Romans "amentum. endeavouring with her mouth to pull out the arrow that sticks in her flanks. Wounds now will not contribute to my death that requires not weapons thrust in. and. fellow-citizens 11 . and by one slaughter refreshed. He. which was called iyxiiKn by the Greeks. with a mild air. and indeed the conduct of Scaeva. and run round after the weapon as it flies together with herself-. . both those used in war and in the chase.

that whole troops.B. thou canst Screva . dost sink. the Avarfare withdrawn. notwithstanding his valorous deeds." At the same moment he thxts says. l .] 215 " Let him pay the penalty. who of large stature. B. Ep. 257. . makes mention of the latter. let him. in conformity with the laws of the state. and are delighted to bear him exhausted on their shoulders and they adore as it were a Divinity enclosed in his pierced breast. From the account given does not mention the loss of his eye. 3 The Cantabrian with his small) ver. and famed Virgil. the combat gave thee strength. as one of the partisans of Caesar. :! . whoever has hoped that is subdued if Magnus seeks for peace from this sword. 259. vi. 662. * The Teutonian with his Inng weapons) ver." or bow and arrow. had fled from thee who. 23. By his reference to " " small their arms. The Teutones were by Happy Caesar. whose country was bounded on the east by the The name. lower his standards. than is the love of death to me. it appears that Scaeva recovered from his wounds. Coesar being entreated. He is made mention of by Cicero in his Epistles to Atticus. monly given to all the people in the north of Spain. 259. and the dust raised on high attests that Caesar's cohorts are at hand. The throng of his comrades raise him as he falls. xiv. which before was without one. Probably this means that they his arms in the Temples of the Gods. . and a living instance of transcendent valour and they adorn the Gods and Mars with his naked breast. and on the west by the Autrigones. B. Screva. about the period of his death. being engaged in civil war. or if the Cantabrian with his small or the Teutonian with his long weapons 4 had turned his back on thee. Ep." he perhaps refers to the use of the exigua anna. 260. He removed from Magnus the shame and the disgrace of the war. for while blood was being shed. . however. Thou canst not adorn with the spoils of warfare the Temples of the Thunderer. was comAstures. Sulpitius thinks it means that they erected statues of the Gods decorated with his arms in the tower or fort which he had so bravely defended. viii. the length of their spears and bucklers. and placed his coat of mail on the statue of Mars. PHARSALIA. . . 10. in the JEneid. Temple of Jupiter on the Capi- . he will never have the opportunity. The Cantabri were a people in the north of Spain. 1 hung up 8 in the glories of this fame) ver. And they adorn the Gods) ver. and B. Do you think me like yourselves. with thy weapons happy in the glories of this fame 2 if the hardy Iberian. xiii. 5 his general in his triumphal procession to the toline Hill. Scceva. 256. The Poet means that. 241-261. The Temples of the Thunderer) ver. and afraid of death? Less is the cause of Pompey and of the Senate to you. of accompanying for 1.

any more than the sea is wearied. repulsed from this part of the camp a did Magnus rest. or^ the wave eats away the side of the lofty mounOn the one side.PHARSALIA. and with its flood opens fields to itself unknown. swelling with full mouth. And shortly after. he altered his plan for conducting the war. attacking the fortresses adjacent to the placid deep with the onset of a twofold warfare y he seizes them and he 1 . These owners the land forsakes on these husbandmen are additional fields bestowed. * operations are Repulsed from this part of the camp) ver. the Padus bestowing the gift. and prepares a late ruin for itself. . and when he discovered the now cold marks. which was the usual signal on such occasions. 269. These " And now the thus related by Caesar. scatters his arms and wide. " Ululare. when. His arrival checked the Pompeians. . as his design had not succeeded." 1 two/old warfare) ver. word he refers to the cries of " lo triumphe " with which the soldiers saluted the victorious general. and confound whole fields if anywhere the land gives way and yields. ! . and encouraged our men to recover from their affright. run over its shores protected with embankments. tain." In the use of Shout aloud in the joyous triumph) ver. [a. c. with valour how great didst thou obtain a tyrant Nor yet. . in the Civil War. and had encamped along our coast. within the entrenchments. as though of ancient ruin. and perceiving that Pompey had forced our works. after great havoc of our troops. . 13. 261. were approaching the camp of Marcellinus. and had a communication with his shipping. Hardly was Caesar aware of the combat. 65 Pompeians. and ordered a strong encampment to be made near Pompey. By sea and land. 263. drafted off some cohorts from the outposts and proceeded to the scene of action. when Antony was observed descending from the rising ground with twelve cohorts. and had stmck no small terror into the cohorts. of which a The dust fire elevated from a look-out gave notice. now laid. the east winds arousing themselves. iii. and expands his tents upon and the liberty of changing their ground far the open plain delights them. : A . the war being deferred. 216 VL 261-281. And having there learned the loss he had sustained. so that he was at liberty to forage. having got notice by the smoke from all the forts. as they accompanied him in triumph to the 1 this Capitoline Hill. Caesar. not shout nloud in the joyous triumph Wretched man. not resisting the raging volume of water. he found the walls beaten down. Thus does the Padus. then with all its stream it passes on. the billows dash against the rock that breaks them.

Sittius. left two cohorts employed in the works to make an appearance of entrenching himself. our men endeavouring to force their way in. which he afterwards abandoned . The moveiii. who dismissed him uninjured. After the defeat at Pharsalia he went to Africn. 282-292. which he . and by a different route. :( . he obliged the Pompeians to quit the barricade had been raised before the gates. c. by the great delay which this occasioned. too. Pompey. a short contest was maintained. ' . marched with the fifth legion. though the works were strong. with his other cohorts. iii. PHARSALIA. and the enemy to defend the camp. Caesar. hoping to surprise this legion. was taken P. He was a friend of Cicero and an ardent partisan of Pompey and the On the breaking out of the war he was Praetor. and was stationed at Alba. upon Torquatus 2 perceives the arms of Csesar. and him. they first forced the greater camp. he marched in two lines against Pompey 's legion and his lesser camp. when Magnus sent down his troops from all the hills 4 above. Lucius Manlius Torquatus) upon Torquatus) This is the same Lucius who is mentioned by Caesar 11. amounting to thirty-three. B. vi. B. better understood by a reference to Caesar's account of this attack. that in a small compass he may more densely dispose his arms. which he commanded in person. c. portion " This effect : place was half a mile distant from Pompey 's new camp. than does the sailor. being informed of what hud happened. iii. as the governor of Oricum. and put to death. and it was the custom on approaching it to lurl the sails and ply the oars with vigour. take in all his sails against the Circeian storm his troops. they slew several defending themselves there. and as the legion on its repulse had retired to this. threatening. yet having made the attack with the left wing. and the rest of the partisans of Pompey and their slumbers. on which he He was obliged to surrender Oricum to Caesar. so long as he may disturb their joyousness. But the valour of our men prevailed. War. 285. in the of which narrative a is to the following Civil War. 69 : the meantime. He hastens to speed on even into slaughter. ver. c. as the mast totters. 286.] 217 the very quietude of the spot inflamed him. Nor did this first opinion deceive For he reached the place before Pompey could have notice of it . and having cut down the barricade. Caesar had crossed the ramparts of the outer trenches. as privately as he could. Torquatus (or rather in his narrative of the Civil War. This passage will be not less speedily perceives) ver. at which rampart in disorder. The navigation round this point was considered dangerous. in the Civil 292. 287. Caesar overcome." 3 Circeium was a promontory of Arjaintt the Circeian storm) ver. aristocratic faction. 1 Threatening. and anxious to repair the loss sustained that day. Then does he who not less speedily rush. and after that the fort which was enclosed within it .B. Latium on which was the ancient town of Circeii. prisoner 2 by Who A 4 Maynus sent down his troops from all of Pompey to the rescue is thus related ment "In the hills) ver. B. and attempting to escape thence to Spain with Scipio. he withdraws within a more limited wall. 66-69. joined Pompey in Greece.

being apprehensive of their retreat. was the first to flee. c. the south wind blowing. as do the soldiers of Caesar. The soldiers of the left wing. who had mounted the rampart by a narrow breach. under thy laws. who had taken possession of the camp. nor did a single man fnce about. :t 4 all the blood have been shed for the civil wareven to the procuring of peace the chieftain himself restrained the raging swords.'' Dwells in the valleys of jEtna) ver. and flight . Caesar. 300. was said to have been buried under Mount vEtna. Enceladui) ver. Rome.PIIARSALIA. others. to support his troops . attempted to make a stand at the Decuand made a bold charge on our men. VL 292 302. were endeavouring to retreat by the same way as they burst in . encouraged the face of affairs was suddenly changed. and the first left. observing the terror of the cavalry. threw themselves down a rampart ten feet high into the trenches . mightst thou Then might fare. and who were exposed to danger from its eruptions. being trodden to death. and continued to run in the same manner . iii. He alludes to the inhabitants of the town of Catana. meet the enemy as they fly. away from their work. and their own friends flying. even threw away their standards. thus described this engagement so disastrous to his forces.fctim 1 upon dwells dread Enceladus-. through fear. which had been separated from the by the hope man gate. and at the same time his cavalry was advancing towards ours. which was situate at the foot of Mount 2Etna. in the valleys of . and most of them. when yKtna utterly empties its caverns. and. The right wing. or Catina. and by their alarm rush on to destruction itself. insomuch that. the rest procured their safety and escaped over their bodies. Enceladus the giant. having been struck by the thunderbolts of Jupiter. 296. being afraid that they should be enclosed between the two ramparts. strove to secure their retreat the same way they came. 218 and poured forth his Not thus does he who ranks [u. Happy and free. consternation. They were also sometimes attributed to the winds raging within its caverns. Caesar's cavalry. as they had an enemy both within and without. and desired them to stop. and alarmed beneath a* cloud of blinded fear. and an army in order of battle was seen at a distance by our men. 4 Then might all the blood have been shed) ver. B. flowing with jlrr. lest they should be engaged in the narrow passes. perceiving from the rampart that Pompey was advancing. 3 Conquered by the thickening dust) ver. 293. and For Pompey's legion. 294. some left their horses behind. the eruptions of which were occasioned by hia turning his sides. On seeing the clouds of dust raised by the troops of Pompey on their approach. conquered by the thickening dust already before the battle. in the Civil War. when Caesar laid hold of the standards of those who were running away. called . the blockaded foe. 69 " All wfis disorder. to prevent their being overpowered in the lines." 1 : . son of Tartarus and Terra. streams down upon the plains . of speedy support.

polluted with shameful Uood) ver. 303. PHARSALIA. nor would life 5 have been deprived of the hallowed Cato. Caesar tells us that after this battle " Pompey was saluted Imperator. Caesar. 1. suffered a loss in the death of Cato. The Nile would not then have borne on its waves the corpse of Pompey. The same thing. B. Metellus Scipio. assigns a different reason for the " In this the favourable circummoderation of Pompey calamity following stance occurred to prevent the ruin of our whole army. about to pursue) ver. c. and thenceforth 4 And . :s . to have fought with a Then Libya would not fate O have hewailed the slaughter of Utica. by their exhortations. if 219 on that occasion a Sulla lament. sad for thee. for the rampart drawn from the camp to the river interrupted the progress and certainty of Cxsar's victory." 2 The Nile. because the passes and gates were in possession of Caesar's soldiers. ii. had conquered for thee 1 . This might. flying from the camp). iii. alas! and ever We shall lament. that the greatest of thy crimes is successful duteous son-in-law. See the Note to B. namely. nor would the naked Juba have pressed the Marmaric sands. that Pompey. Nor would the naked Jula) ver. Thus a trifling circumstance proved of equal importance to each party. 311. nor would the Nile." which title he retained. and Scipio appeased the 4 ghosts of the Carthaginians by pouring forth his blood. 311. in the Civil War. ambuscade as I an his success had far exceeded (because. a moment before. Eome.] be. iii. that if he had been as fond of bloodshed as Sulla was." who. 307. 5 Nor would life) ver. 316. suppose. did not dare for some time to approach the fortification. The spot occupied against the will of the Divinities Csesar forsakes. 293. on that occasion. who fell at the same time as Juba. VL 302-318.B. polluted 2 with shameful blood have borne along a carcase more noble than the Pharian king. attempt to lands. he might. have put an end to the war. suspecting his hopes. dissuade Magnus. and Spain of Munda. See the Note to B. and says. as he had seen his men. 309. Burmann thinks that " vita " here means "mankind. 1. Pompey to pursue to his leniency cind humane disposition. by retarding the rapidity of the enemy's pursuit. by following up the victory. 6 Magnus. 70. and that his horse were retarded from pursuing. and thy own mistress. more noble than the body 3 of the Egyptian king himself. Fates. preserved our army. have been the last day of woe to thee Pharsalia might have been wrested from the midst of the ! . about to pursue 6 the arms of his A He attributes the forbearSulla had conquered for thee) ver. 472. however. after he had forced Pompey's 1 ance of : camp. and with his mangled troops seeks the Emathian His followers. He alludes to the death of Scipio appeased the ghosts) ver. according to the Poet.

and to fight in the midst of the Forum. and the burning tracks. 334. betake myself again to my country. may Caesar deem thee to be his own. and. on Olympus. and. is dweller. Othrys lies to the south. Candavia was a mountain range commenc- ately after this defeat are described in the Civil Where Candavia) ver. the war commencing. off the coast of Apulia. 4 lapyx The . passing over trackless regions of the earth. Pindus receives the opposing Zephyrs and . 36. Hesperia I was able. on the side on which Titan in the hours of winter brings in the day. that thou mayst suffer nothing in this warfare." said he. to hold. 220 [B. my forces dismissed. Rome. the sun rises to the northward of the east . he turns his course towards the rising of Phoebus. vr. that he may repair father-in-law." Thus having said. where Candavia opens her vast forest ranges. as the days lengthen. deprive thee of repose. allowed himself to be addressed by it. Pelion opposes his ! 1 shadow to the rising rays 3 But the midday fires of heaven and the solstitial hea'd of the raging Lion the woody Othrys averts. Lucan must be out in his geography. long as I could withdraw the war. too. Pindus to the west-south-west. took to flight? Oh rather. shall I. 818-841. The movements of Cresar immedi- War. for. The mountain rock of Ossa." 4 And lapyx) ver. " will " I. in the south of Italy. which the Fates destined for the warfare. which separated Illyricum from Macedonia. iii. evening hastening on. I would march on to the extreme regions of the Scythian frosts. When the summer with its higher rising brings Phoebus to the zenith of the sky. after the example of Caesar. * Mountain rock of Ossa) ver. c. who. Never. . and Olympus to the north. 339. if I hud been willing to entrust my troops in the temples of my S=> country. 3 Opposes his shadow to tie rising rays) ver. 73-75. " Howe has the following Note According to Cellaritis. that battles might not exhaust thee. 335. Victorious. whereas Cellarius places Pelion to the southward.PHARSALIA. the ancient : name of which was lapygia. except returning. For the rest. There is considerable doubt among the Commentators as to the meaning of this passage.bounds Thessaly. wherever he may fly to his native land and Ausonia now free from the enemy. not dreading Boreas. B. and never shall Rome behold me. 1 borrowed from Herodotus. He means that Ossa bounds ThesThe present description is supposed to have been ftaly on the north-east. lapyx was the wind which blew from the west-north-west. he reaches Emathia. . cuts short the light. 331. ing in Epirus. as well as astronomy.

Emathian Pharsalus. et sey. . 349. 'lying 'between Mounts Olympus and Ossa. Thessaly. on the northern side of Mount Othrys. Dorion. near Lake Bcebe.] unacquainted throughout all his 221 with nights shining Arctos. Thamyris challenged the Muses to a contest in song. was an ancient seaport And called. . 4 And Phylace) ver. Protesilaiis was its king. PHARSALIA. 345. an ancient king of Thrace. It was here that. Tempe. affording a passage) ver. through which the Peneus ran into the sea. or. that these waters had once covered the country with a vast lake. * And Nereus teas sensible of) ver. in the Phthiotian district in Thessaly. where they were first worshipped. and Phylace'' that touched with the first ship the Ehoetean shores". affording a passage through. 7 And town 8 Pteleos. 352. the son of the sea-goddess Thetis. salian plains ran to the sea.the 'onward rush of the water thus sudden better destined to remain beneath the waves. 4 Of the sea-descended Achilles) ver. The name of the sea-god Nereus is here used to signify the sea. or Pteleum. at the commencement of the Trojan war. gave no outlet to the sea and their course was as they filled a single standing water to increase it. which. which rent asunder the rocks of Tempe. which slope downwards with a valley between. rity if the plains of Pharsalia had remained under the waves. 124.B. :i . and Tempe. 3 More fortunate for posteBetter destined to remain beneath) ver. Phylace was a town of Phthiotis in Thessaly. in consequence of which he was deprived of his sight and his musical powers. 352. according to tradition. while the plains retained the rivers. the kingdom of the sea-descended Achilles 4 rose forth. notwithstanding the prediction that certain death awaited him that should do so. Meaning thereby the shores of Troy. Dorion lamenting) ver. east of the Enipeus. near which was the Promontory Rhosteum. near Mount Olympus. and Pteleus 7 and Dorion lamenting" 1 . as it was more generally Dotion or Dotium. -This was a valley in the north of Thessaly. the vast Ossa was divided from Olympus. It was famed among the ancients for its romantic It is the only channel through which the waters of the Thesbeauty. was an ancient town and plain of Thessaly. Pierides was a surname of the Muses. Between these mountains. 349. till an outlet was formed for them by a great convulsion of nature. or else from Pierus. was sensible of 1 the vast influx of waters. and was the first Greek who landed on the shores of Troy. p. 350. and the Poet here alludes to the common opinion of the ancients. 351. vi. 342-352. 352. who first established their worship. and Nereus was sensible of.. by the hand of Hercules. . 8 The Rhcetean shores) ver. once the realm of Achilles. See the Epistle of Laodamia to Prntesilaiis in the Heroides of Ovid. the Poet says. formerly the fields lay concealed amid marshes extending far and wide. which they derived either from Pieria. After that. in the Translation in Bohn's Classical Library. Pteleus) ver.

356. Trachyn belonged. fled thither in exile. This river is called by Pliny the Elder. in return for which. By the epithet nobile he probably alludes to the breed of high-spirited horses which were reared there for the to . situate on the . 359. divided into numerous streams. There were two rivers of the name of Inachus . the reward of the direful where they now and once-powerful Larissa 4 torch where story speaks of plough over Argos once renowned where once the exiled Agave ancient Thebes of Echion bearing the head and neck of Pentheus committed them to the closing fire. and discharging itself into the Ionian Sea.'a. . running through Epirus and Thessaly. was an important city of " Echionia. and the father of Sparti Pentheus. This was a town on the coast of Magnesia in Horace mentions it as belongThessaly. . Thebes. 1. '' . . to whom also 1 2 Trachyn) Melilicea) ver. . and it is uncertain which of the two in Thessaly is here referred was an important town of Pelasgiotis in Thessaly. he bestowed on Philoctetes his bow and arrows. ver.s thence flows 8 clear into the Ionian sea. was a river of Acarnan. in the district of Phthiotis. . and surnamed Cremaste. 222 [B. but with a small stream nor stronger with his waves does the father of ravished Isis 9 flow. 4 Once-powerful Larissa) ver. ing to the dominions of Philoctetes. between Mounts Ossa and Felion. at the request of Hercules. . CEneus. * ThesArgos once renowned) ver. the Poet probably calls it him that Agave. famed as the birthplace of Achilles. 8 JSas thence JUnrs) ver. in an extensive plain the other. See B. 3 The reward of Hie direful torch) ver. 357. 1 2 the wrath of the Plenties. in the range of Findus. and. Echion was one of the five surviving who remained of those who had sprung up from the dragon's teeth which Cadmus had sown. It was a small limpid stream. 574. iii. was in Phthiotis.) . burst asunder. 354. Philoctetes. 355. There were several Pelasgian places of this name. 362. the rest having been torn to pieces by the frantic Bacchanals. who is here alluded to. He was the husband of Agave. . contests at the Olympic games. This was a town of Pelasgian " " saly. after she had murdered her son. it was fated that Troy could not be taken. 1. which had long been in ruins. . 352-363. 7 She had recovered) ver. which rises in Mount Lacmon. 353. that on recovering her senses. one Peneus. without the presence of which at the siege. who had aided her in the murder. He seems to mean. 178. 354." for the reason stated by Thessaly. lighted the funereal pile on which that hero was burnt on Mount (Eta . ' The father of ravished Isis) ver. now called the Banitza.PHARSALIA. 361. Aous. the one here alluded to. On the west JEa. i. and the Note to the passage. complaining that this alone of her son she had recovered 7 The marsh then. * T/ieties of Echion) ver. See B. Agave complained that so small a portion of the limbs had been left for her to place on the funeral pile. vi. Trachyn and Meliboea hrave with tlie quiver of Hercules.

B. 1 Almost thy son-in-laiv) ver. 363-370-1 223 2 he. 364. Amphrysus was a small which flows into the Pagasaean Gulf. Mount (Eta. viii. falling into the Sinus Muliacus. and north of the present Straits of Negropont. with hastening course) ver. The river Evenus. et seq. on the banks of which the Centaur Nessus was slain by the arrow of Hercules. through the Malian districts. vi. now was more anand flows with a rapid called Fidhari. mainland. Ovid. the river Acheloiis hurled into the sea. This river. rises in Mount Tymphrestus. It risea in ciently called the Lycormas. He was fabled to be the father of lo. 6 The Spercheus. . by some considered to be the same as the Egyptian Goddess Isis. off the coast of the south of Thessaly. the city of Meleager. 364. 1. See the story of the death of Nessus related at length in Ovid's Metamorphoses. B. he was forced to The story of this contest is related at the comresign her to the hero. cuts through Calydon. mencement of the Ninth Book of the Metamorphoses. in a fit of jealousy.. The river Acheloiis had been promised the hiind of Deianira. five Naiad nymphs. PHARSALIA. * waters the pastures) ver. in the north of Thessaly. and and falls into carried the Acheloiis. the daughter of CEneus. the explanation in the Translation in Bohn's Classical Library. as the Poet here hints. 36. king of Calydon. when he had been banished from heaven by Jupiter. * Stained with the Mood of Nessus) ver. 367. They are now called and the largest. north-west of the Isle of Euboea. which. 570. in the guise of a shepherd. 366. pastures where Phoebus served as shepherd . opposite the Echinades. seems to imply that the Inachus of Argolis was the sire of lo. 261. but being conquered in single combat by Hercules. however. kept the flocks of King Admetus. a city of . and runs easterly. of Nessus 5 . with hastening course*1 cleaves the Malian Spercheus. and Thestius. i. whom. for slaving the Cyclops Amphrysus river of Thessaly. on the banks of wbiqh Apollo. 1. B. or Malian Gulf. which was formerly reigned over by Meleager. . With mud from his turbid waves) ver. . the lover of Atalanta. The Acheloiis. and who was slain through the jealousy of his own mother. Axenus. which was called Dulichium. more anciently called Thoas. in . is now united to the Curzolari. See their story related in the Metamorphoses of Ovid.u. almost thy son-in-law covers the Eckinades with mud from his turbid waves 3 and Evenus 4 stained with the blood 1 . on which they were transformed into islands. away by Jupiter. p. now called Spercheus.ZEtolia into the sea. is the largest river in Greece. Althea. et seq. 363.ZEtolia. the Elladha. who was and transformed by him into the shape of a cow. now called the Bay of Zeitun. 365.ZEtolia. 368. And Evenus) ver. . were amplified by the earth discharged 3 its by 4 waters. passes by Calydon. 2 The Echinades were said to have been Covers the Eckinades) ver. viii. stream through . It rises in Mount Pindus and falls into the Ionian Sea. See the story related at length in the Metamorphoses of Ovid. waters and with pure stream Aniphrysus waters the 7 Anauros.

. and the Titaresius. The Peneus here mentioned wns the chief for daring to raise 1 and is now called the Salambria. 376. 8 And Melas) ver. . rising in Phthiotis." which some take to mean "slow. i. too) ver. on the contrary. receives the Apidanus near Pharsalus. The Titaresos. the Letha^us. 370 -378. flows river of Thessaly. 13. " B. 1. vi. which Lucan. who neither breathes forth damp fogs. 4 Asopus takes his course) ver. exhalations probably originated from the resemblance of its name to the " Greek words anv. 7 Alone does Titaresos) ver. ." "restless" Enipeus. The one here alluded to rises in Mount (Eta. Ovid likewise speaks of the " irrequietus. called also Europus. or Titaresius.PIIAKSALIA. nor air moistened with dew." and aSgtt. without. in Phthiotis. who states that the Titaresius does not mingle with the Peneus. 224 [B. 752. gliding from above. and Phoenix. Anauros. 370. uses the stream of Peneus as though dry fields. 373. joining Ovid. and. ii? 1. The Anauros was a river of Thessaly which The story that it sent forth no mists or flows into the Pagasaean Gulf. a branch of the Pindus chain. a small stream of the south of Thessaly. It rises in Mount Lacmon. rising on Mount Titarus and falling into the Peneus. 372. The retoo l ." have been impregnated with an oily substance. the Enipeus near the and the ocean with violent flood flows the Apidanus 3 4 Enipeus never swift unless mingled. and." 8 In the Peneus) ver. 580. . one of which rising in the Malian district. and flows into the Sinus Maliacns. for it flows from the Its waters are supposed by physiologists to waters from Styx in Orcus. the chief of which are the Enipeus." whereas here the force of its current is spoken of. and flows into the Peneus. and that it disdained to mingle with the rivers of mortals. . 374. fell into the Sinus Maliacus. nor light breezes and whatever stream of itself not known presents its waves in the Peneus. pronounces to be sluggish until its confluence with the Apidanus. after its conjunction with the Phoenix. waters were of a dark colour. There were rivers in Elis and Macedonia of the same name. just like oil. 374. Melas was the name of several rivers whose There were two of this name in Thessaly. which joins it near Thermopylae. This was a river of Thessaly. through the vale of 3 Flows the Tempe Apidanus) into the sea. while the other. whence it was said to be a branch of the Styx. :'. fell into the Apidanus. who liail made the bolts with which his son JKsculupius was slain by Jupiter Hippolytus to life by his medical skill. " an exhalation. in the Metamorphoses. was a river of Thessaly. and Melas c Asopus takes his course Alone does Titaresos 7 where he comes into a stream of another name. flowing past Trachyn. keep distinct his waters. calli " senex it Apidanus. 373. 4 And the Enipeus) ver. There were several rivers of this name. . The Enipeus rises in Mount Othrys in Thessaly. but flows on the surface of it. Lucan here alludes to the words of Homer in the Iliad. and after receiving many streams." "the aged. ver.

B. 384. supThey were a warlike posed to have inhabited Greece before the Hellenes. the plough port is and that. These were the inhabitants of the country of Magnesia. Magnetes) ver. 384. 7 The Minyce) ver. 386. in Thessaly. The Leleges were an ancient people. 4 The ^Eolian) ver. wishes still to insure the same respect for the Deities. and the story was. Minyse by by did the pregnant cloud pour forth in the Pelethronian Caverns 8 the Centaurs sprung from Ixion 9 . Strabo says that they were the same people that Pindar calls 1 Centaurs. He means that the land which was cultivated by the people of the town of Brebe was then. Pelethronium. and preserves the venel ration of the Gods for himself . 3 then. sank deep. pressed by the right hand of the Lelegians. said to the foot of 6 Mount Pindus. half beasts . 383. 3 Of the Lelegians) ver. he is unwilling to endure the contact of an ignoble stream. like their neighbours. 378-387. the rich furrow divided beneath the Bcebycian ploughshare 2 . a name long given to all the inhabitants of Greece beyond the Peloponnesus. the son of Hellen. where the Lapithae dwelt. the Centaurs. Pliny mentions them as inhabitants of the country of the Locrians. the most easterly part of Thessaly. extending from the Peneus on the north to the Pagasaean Gulf on the south. The JEolian 4 and Dolopian husbandmen 5 6 a nation known cleared the ground. Pelethronium was a mountainous district of Thessaly. The Minyse were an ancient The greater part in Thessaly.] 225 that this river flows from the Stygian marshes. 380. and a migratory race. The . 385. the Magnetes were famed Both the for their skill in horsemanship. mindful of his rise. As soon as the fields were open to the rivers sent forth. * And Dolopian husbandmen) ver. on the first time. but. however. at saly. and from whose king.ZEolus. In the Pelethronian caverns) ver. left dry. western shore of Lake Bffibeis. it was said to have derived its name. or X/>runy from Ixion) ver. in later times. who probably were among the earliest to give attention to naval of the * people. adjacent to Thessaly. this river. 387. It war. 8 Ixion was king of the Lapithae. The veneration of the Gods for himself) ver. part of Mount Pelion. for the Boebe was a town of Pelasgiotis. were race. and including Mounts Ossa and Pelion . Phlegyans. The Dolopians were a people of Thessaly. Q . 385. There horses. both the Magnetes 7 and the thenthenoars. except the people of Athens and Megara. that being introduced to the table of Jupiter. in the vicinity of lolcos. as a branch of it. . 2 Beneath the Boebycian plougfohare) ver. PHARSALIA. Minyan affairs. .ZEolians were an ancient people of Thes^ have been descended from . 382. vi. who dwelt of the Argonauts. . but their origin is enveloped in the greatest obscurity. As the Gods fear to swear by the river Styx and break their oath. who dwelt on the banks of the Enipeus.

and he was an example to the rest. VL 388-396. the host of great Alcides . 1. Pholoe. Pholus was a Centaur who hospitably entertained Hercules in his travels. >ti-. which from that circumstance received its name. " the archer. The Centaur Chiron was famed for his After his death physic and music. and stituted a cloud in her form. 394. aged Chiron) ver. too. and was the tutor of Achilles. who on carrying Deianira across the river Evenus attempted to offer violence to her. 226 [B. From he fell in love with Juno. 499. which hardly Boreas could tear up . 2 The rugyed rocks of Pholoe) ver. and in a short time. as taking part in the battle " 'Heap upon against the Lapithne. who. and made one of the Zodiacal Constellations. Monychus breaking the rugged rocks of Pholoe 3 beneath the fierce Rhoetus of (Eta thee. Othrys. with Lernsean venom. Thee. mentioned by Virgil. being a south' . from whom offered violence to her. 4 Pholus. Monychus) ver. where he is represented as exclaiming. fierce Rhoetus) ver. was a mountain forming the boundary between Arcadia and Elis. under the name of Sagittarius. 7 The greater Scorpion) ver. ern continuation of the Erymanthian chain." which follows the sign of the skill in Scorpion. 306. He alludes to the fate of the Centaur Nessus. the host) ver. Caeneus stones and beams and entire mountains. The Constellation Scorpio occupies more space than any other one of the Zodiacal Constellations. where being phoses. 4 Phohis. on which Hercules buried him on Mount Pholoe. treacle T. 1. 2 and thee. 390. ." Monychus is also mentioned by Juvenal and Valerius Flnccus. aged Chiron". xii. and thee. destined to feel the arrows tipped ferryman 1 . thou wast bare of trees. xii. descended the Centaurs. 38.' Thus he said and by chance having got a tree thrown down by the power of the boisterous south wind. 3 Rhrctus was one of the Centaurs menThee. 392. 4 1. xii. breath by throwing whole woods upon him. and he died of the wound. on by which Ixion became the which Jupiter tubfather of Ceutaurus. B. too. B. hurling heights the mountain ashes. it fell upon his foot. 391. he was transferred to heaven. he hurled it against the powerful foe. He is mentioned by Ovid as being present at the battle with the Lapithre. shining with thy cold Constellation. wounded He is also 296. Having taken up one of the arrows tipped with the poison of the Hydra in order to examine it. In this londjirst shone the seeds of fierce warfare. 8 And thee. a people of Thessaly. 393. and thee. in the Metamorphoses. tioned by Ovid as present at the battle with the Lapithae. treacherous ferryman) ver. . and dash out his long-lived Let a wood press on his jaws . He was one of the Centaurs. on which he was slain by Hercules with an arrow tipped with the venom of the Lernasan Hydra. and weight shall be in place of wounds. . now called Olono. 5 over the river. in the Metamorhe takes to flight.PHARSALIA. dost drive away the 7 greater Scorpion with the Hsemonian bow. and Pelion had no shades. 388. and is mentioned by Ovid in the Metamorphoses. B.

and Ossa. 408. 5 Hence did Python) ver. struck with the trident. vi. who was beloved by Neptune. bit. He alludes to the sailing of the Argonautic expedition from Pagasse in Thessaly. meeting the constellations. the ruler) ver. exposed earthshore 3 horn man upon the unknown waves. that most huge serpent.] PIIARSALIA. and instituted the Pythian games as a memorial of his victory. Canace. ' Come to the Pythian games) ver. king was said to have been the inventor of the bridle and the of the Lapithae. 410. He Q 2 . was the first to hammer masses of heated metal into form. 2 First did he cJiamp the steel and the bit) ver. 400. When upon this land the chieftains have pitched the 1 First did the Thessalian charger) ver. the Temple of Apollo was adorned with laurel brought for the purpose from Thessaly. At the celebration of the Pythian games at Delphi. the ruler 4 of the Thessalian land. 408. . heaven. impeded their course. and to melt silver with the flames . 3 From the Pagascean shore) ver. spring forth did he champ the steel and the bit". Neptune caused at a blow of his trident to spring from out of the earth. first did the Thessalian first charger '. 397. where also he made a present of the famous horse to Peleus. 227 the rocks. of Apollo. at the age of nine years. which. and stamp gold into coin. Itonus. whence. He alludes to the horse. 398. . said to have been a son of Deucalion. and had by him the twin sons Otus and Ephialtes. a (hum which has urged on nations to accursed arms. The serpent Python was said to have been generated in Thessaly from the slime and putrescence left after the It was slain by the shafts of deluge of Deucalion had subsided. the daughter of Triops. according to some. Apollo. the Thessalian laurels come to the Pythian games 6 Hence the 7 impious Aloeus sent forth his progeny against the Gods of furnaces. and foam at the unwonted reins of the Lapithan subduer from the Pagasscan The first ship cleaving the ocean. Pelethronius. 7 The impious Aloeus) ver. Hence did Python *. Aloeus was the son of Neptune and married Iphimedia. Thessaly. and attempted to pile Ossa on Olympus and Pelion on Ossa. and liquefy copper in immense There was it fa-st granted to number riches. 4 Itonus was an ancient king of Itonus. in his contest with Minerva who should give name to the capital of Attica.B. too. where the Argo was built. and glide along the fields of Cyrrha. an omen of direful wars. or. According to most accounts he created the horse in Attica. giants who. 396-414. who covered the sacred tripod at Delphi with its skin. 409. when Pelion raised itself almost to the lofty stars. descend. threatened the Gods with war. but Lucan here says (in which statement he is supported by Homer and Apollodorus) that it took place in Thessaly.

which hung loose and were easily moved. feel both ponder on the worst. camps destined by the Fates. degenerate minds tremble. 228 [B. took the name of Dodona . engage all. on one there was placed a brazen vessel about the size of an ordinary cauldron." signifying * From the entrails can reveal the fates) ver. consults not the tripods of Delos. quaintly the which them. Because their fates are now close approaching. But mingled with the A multitude is Sextus 1 an offspring unworthy of Magnus for a parent. an exile. Sextus was the younger son of Pompey. both impatient of delay and fainthearted about all things to come. so that He was taken prisoner by neighbourhood of Miletus. 427. polluted his triumphs on the deep. and it is clear that the momentous hour of the great crisis is drawing nigh. upon primitive races of mankind were The nourislier on the woods of calls said to have fed. " a cauldron. by his Is Sexlus) ver. he for some time supported himself 1 by rapine and plunder in Spain. During the greater part. who held a brazen \Vhen whip with several thongs. roving. in his Translation. presaging the future warfare." The fruits of fruits) ver. "akehornes"). and on the other a little boy. 1 3 Sends forth from Hie Irassof Jove) ver. and was there put to famine seemed for a time inevitable at Rome. 414-429. of his father's camhe was in the island of Lesbos. Dodona were acorns (or as May. his brother Cneius at the battle of Munda. auguries derived he is . The meaning is. his fleets plundered all the supplies of corn which came from Egypt and the eastern provinces. . who. probably a piece of mechanism. 426. so that most probably there in Greece. the troops of death. fear spurring him on to know beforehand the events of fate. a Sicilian pirate. that not willing in a righteous manner to learn the decrees of fate by consulting the entrails of animals. who can obtimid . :t . there were two pillars erected at a small distance from each other. and few. who afterwards." in the ancient language of the vicinity. on the Scyllsean waves. vi. nor does he choose to enquire what sounds Dodona.PHAESALIA. . Sardinia. wife Mucia. courage preferred. 3 Antony in the " tlie first Frugibus. paign After the defeat of is not any foundation for the story here told by Lucan. having gained possession of Sicily. the nourisher on the first fruits 2 sends forth from the brass of Jove who from the entrails can reveal the fates 4 who can explain the birds. Stephanus Byzantinus informs us that in that part of the forest of Dodona where the oracle stood. the wind blew. 420. not the Pythian caves. if not the whole. 427. auspices derived from birds. their minds. hopes and fears as to the event. and Corsica. and occasioned a noise He says that it was from these that the forest while the wind continued. and many years afterwards. the lashes struck against the vessel. " dodo. It was said by some that in the oracles of Jupiter at Dodona the will of heaven was divulged by the ringing of certain cauldrons there suspended.

adjoining to the camp.] 229 serve the lightnings of heaven and search the stars with 1 Assyrian care. Weise. He alludes to the magical incantations of the Colchian Medea when she had arrived with Jason in Thessaly.B. ." For an account of the magic rites and spells of the sorceresses of antiquity the reader is referred to the Third Volume of the Translation of Ovid in Bohn's Classical Library. and the aid of the shades below and of Pluto and to him. nor yet the astrological art derived from the Chaldaeans of Assyria. she says. and. She endeavours to draw down the struggling moon from her chariot. 430. the Gods of heaven were not so likely to be acquainted with the future as the Infernal Deities and the shades of the dead. secret. 441. the Thessalian land produces on its crags both noxious herbs. 2 He had gained a. 1 Any method. To be able to gain power over the reluctant Gods was one of the pretensions of the sorceresses of Thus. but instead of resorting to these. and rocks that are sensible to the There spring 4 up many things destined to offer violence to the Deities and the Colchian stranger gathers 5 in the Heemonian lands magicians as they chaunt their deadly secrets. She bridles the waves and stops the winding rivers. secret. but lawful of He had gained a knowledge of the secrets the ruthless magicians detested by the Gods above. speaking of the enchantress Medea. and the altars sad with dreadful sacrifices. 442. Moreover. pages 56-7. and to envelop the horses of the sun in darkness. locality promotes. 432. and 278-9. from thunder and lightning. 3 That the Gods of heaven liiew too little) ver. He means those secret arts of divination which it was not unrighteous to use. 83. in the Epistle of Hypsipyle to antiquity. knowledge of) ver. " Jason. vi. " Noverat " does not necessarily mean that Sextus was skilled himself in the necromantic art. such as geomancy and astrology. whom no power over any prodigy that has been invented can surpass. lut lawful) ver. 1. however. wretched man. et seq. He believed that. those herbs which she has not brought. but that he was aware of its existence and of the cultivation of it by the sorceresses of Thessaly. or if there is any method. * The Colchian stranger galliers) ver. Gods of heaven knew too little The vain and direful frenzy the very that the :5 . in the Heroides of Ovid. and with her enchanted sickle does she reap the dreadful plants. 429-442. and says that she found no lack of plants there suited to aid her in her : . whose art is each thing that is not believed. Sextus employs the forbidden practices of the art of necromancy. the cities of the Haemonian women. 433-4. she moves the woods and the firm rocks from their spot. By her incantations has she influenced thee. PHARSALIA. it seemed clear . 4 To offer violence to the Deities) ver. thinks that it implies that Sextus had studied the art. .

magic art. . and of a black colour. B. It was there that by her magical arts she restored the aped and likewise contrived the death of his brother Pelias. was thought to be a poisonous excrescence of the size of a fig. and 1 The moilier about which the foal at its birth is in the habit of biting off. ^son to youth. says. Enipeus. vii. phis the Thessalian witch to foreign altars draws away the Gods of heaven. And mysUriout Memphis) ver. . VL 443-459." Thessalian herbs Tempe below is her. The impious charms of the accursed nation turn the ears of the inhabitants of heaven that are deaf to peoples so numerous. although Babylon of Perseus and mysterious Mem1 should open all the shrines of the ancient Magi. 1. too. which grows on the head of the mare. which if it neglects to not allowed by its mother to suck. See the Metamorphoses of Ovid. and the rushy shores of Boebe. then. polluted mother about to show her affection 2 by no corruption of imbibed poison. too. 223.. and stem old men have burned with illicit flames. perishes by force of 3 Those whom no unison of the bed jointly occuspells . or love potions. too. contributed something. Othrys too. And not only do noxious potions avail. * Perithet ly force of tpellt) ver. That voice alone goes forth amid the recesses of the heavens. and Pindus. has especially cultivated the to show her affection) ver. from which the care of the skies and of the floating heavens never calls them away. and the SpercheLin as well. When the accursed murmur has reached the stars. thus described: "She looked down upon Thessalian and guided her dragons towards the chalky regions . where her culling of the enchantments. et teq. that grew on the banks of Apidanus pleased her many. . She plucks. from the time of the magicians who endeavoured by their enchantments to compete with the miracles of Moses 1 Egypt down in general. it is .-PHABSALIA. on the banks of Amphrysus nor. Memphis is here used to signify which at all times. 457. or when they withdraw the pledges swelling with its juices from the forehead of the The mind. as Pliny the Elder tells us. but more generally. enlivening herbs by the Euboean Anthedon. however. and Olympus still greater than Pindus and part she tore up by the root gently worked. The Peneiau waters." which waa by some said to flow from mares when in a prurient state. . that hippomanes was a herb that produced madness in the horses that ate of it. 449. Through the charms of the Thessalian witches a love not induced by the Fates has entered into hardened hearts. Many a herb. to nations so many. 456. Hesiod. They are able by muttering charms alone to deprive men of their senses. and observed the herbs which Ossa and which the lofty Pelion bore. do. didst thou escape. to the present day. 230 [B. and bears the stringent words to the unwilling Deities. part she cut down with the bend of a brazen sickle. of the substance called hippomanes. He alludes to the use " in philtres.

the freezing. PHARSALIA. by his or her Some think that charms. 1. in magical incantations. 1. ii. the The spinning-wheel object of which was to regain the affections when lost. not only among the people of Thessaly and Italy. 3 Olympus has looked upwards to the clouds. in a straight line the Moeander has urged on his waters . and. At another tune. their while the sun is fill hot. See the First Book. by the rapid axles. and influence of alluring beauty. 2 The Arar has impelled headlong) ver. pended . too. the south wind provoking it. 459-480. bring all >Zrtc<?s down tops lowered. The practice was probably founded on the supposition of the existence of the so-called threads of destiny. and bearing along the ship the sails have swelled against From the steep rock has the torrent hung susthe wind. charms of the Haemonian witches have driven Tetliys 1 He alludes to whirling of the hoisted threads) ver. they 1 by the magic whirling of the twisted threads The courses of things are stayed. by magical arts is brought beneath them. while the winter was Impelled by the stars. 477." or spinning-wheel. forbidden to be sensible of the storms. the Rhone for its rapidity.a vi.. urging them on. mountains have levelled their ridges. and. is astounded that the poles of heaven do not go on. * Olympus has looked upwards) ver.] 231 pied binds together. again. retarded by lengthened night. was much used in magical incantations. the day stops short. with hair hanging loose. the heavens thunder. the sea has swelled . . the use of the threads implied that the minds of individuals were to be influenced at the will of the enchanter or the person consulting him. 460. ' . and on hearing the spells the headlong world is benumbed Jupiter. Jupiter not knowing it. Olympus. The winds ceasing. but those of northern and western Europe. and the Arar has impelled headlong 2 the delaying Rhone . the clouds . to lengthen or shorten those threads as required. By the magic " the use of the rhombus. which towers above the clouds. B. and with no sun the Scythian snows have thawed. too. impelled attract . they with showers. 476. 572. the shores protected. have they scattered abroad far and wide soaking clouds and showers. See the use of the spinning wheel in magical incantations described in the Fasti of Ovid. By those same words. et seq. The summer has not raised the Nile . The sky obeys not the laws of iiature. and the river has run not in the direction in which it was descending. The Arar was noted for its slowness. it has held its peace . and it was the province of the wizard or sorceress. 434. and the Eighth Eclogue of Virgil.

and produced to do injury. she endures failing is after :t . too. Every animal back '. both fears tin: Hannonian arts and supplies them with its deadly qualities. accustomed to be aroused by the influence of the Moon and certain Constellations. or one to which it is not improbable that the Poet himself would have been unable to attach any very definite meaning. Howe has the following Note here: " The Poet seems to allude here to that God whom they called Demogorgon. to do ? There. This passage is either in a corrupt state. 3 Sway lufa certain Deity) ver. The earth. . as all the other Deities of what kind soever were to him. upon by human What poison. and ^nterposed its shade between the celestial flames and. though he himself was bound in chains in the lowest hell. vi. has oscillated in her nud regions-. who was the father and creator of all the other Gods . as appears towards the end of this Book. and the Hyades. 480-1. has gaped open. or do these imperious charms sway but a certain Deity who. breathed . this of the Gods of heaven in following enchantments and herbs. their bodies cut asunder. who. grew pale and burned with dusky and earthy fires. or by secret threats do they prevail ? power against all the Gods of heaven. not otherwise than if the earth hindered her from the reflection of her brother. 480-505. whatever he himself is compelled. and what this fear of disregarding them? Of what compact do the bonds keep the Deities thus bound ? Is it obligatory. The knots of the vipers unite. moved powerful for death. such as Arcturus. can compel the world. is no more influenced by them when the Thessalian sorceresses will otherwise. too. 232 [u. and has afforded a prospect through it of the surrounding heavens. 497. Him Lucan supposes to be subject to the power of magic." . inclining with the effort. 1 Have driven fethys lack) ver. . arrested by spells. and the snake dies. was yet so terrible to all the others that they could not bear the very mention of his name . beset by the dire influences of their words. Them do the ravening tigers and the magnanimous wrath of the lions fawn upon with gentle mouth for them does the serpent unfold his cold coils. The weight of a mass so vast smitten by their voice. 2 Has oscillated in Iter mid regions) ver. 479-80. or does it please them to obey ? For an unknown piety only do the witches deserve Have they this this. The sea. Orion. and is extended in the frosty field. and.PHAESAL1A. for the first time were the stars brought down from the headlong sky and serene Phoebe. has shaken the axle of her ionweight.

laden with uncombed locks. and by her breathing makes air noxious that was not deadly.B. In ordinary life it was deemed the height of disgrace to be guilty of taking away anything that had been placed on the funeral pile. and has applied the polluted art to new cere- monies. more nigh. paleness. not the Gods above. She of by Apuleius as skilled in sepulchral magic. in Ovid's Heroides. 2 The wild Erictho) ver. then does the Thessalian witch stalk forth from the spoiled piles. unknown to a clear sky. . is also spoken The name was probably used to signify an enchantress in general. These rites of criminality. and try to arrest the lightnings of the night. foul with filthiness. not a life on earth. these spells of the direful 2 race. is beset with Stygian If showers and black clouds obscure the stars. Erictho is mentioned as a famous enchantress in the Epistle from Sappho to Phaon. It was a belief among the ancients that the moon was arrested in her course and brought dosvn upon the earth by means of the Thessalian incantations. nor does she know of the propitiating entrails upon the altars she delights to place funereal flames. 505-531. and frankincense which she has carried off from the lighted pile 3 Her voice now first heard as she demands. 233 labours so great. suppliant prayer calls the Deity to her aid. and that at those times she shed a kind of venomous foam upon certain plants. and dread to hear a second address. the dead bodies . she sends her foam 1 upon the herbs situate beneath. until. 508. . Leanness has possession of the features of the hag. to know the Stygian abodes and the secrets of the concealed Pluto. vi. She neither prays to the Gods of heaven. nor with before. Souls that live. The seeds she treads on of the fruitful corn she burns up. . 139.] PHARSALIA. the deserted piles. her dreadful visage. takes possession of the tombs. 526. pleasing to the Gods of Erebus. 1 She sends her foam) ver. which were consequently much sought for. to be applied to magical purposes. . she buries in the tomb and dgath reluctantly creeps on upon those who owe lengthened years to the Fates the funeral procession turning back. and. For to her it is not permitted to place her deadly head within a roof or a home in the city and she haunts . 1. the Gods of heaven accede to all the wickedness. To hear the counsels of the dead. the ghosts expelled. and still rule their respective limbs. forbids. 506. 3 Carried off from the lighted pile) ver. and. the wild Erictho has condemned as being of piety too extreme.

and turn of a white hue. . too. 536. But when corpses are kept within stone a from which the moisture within is taken away. of the 2 funereal bier that fly about in the black smoke." but the bodies of the poorer classes. and. . and the embers that smell of the limbs. who were said to feast on the bodies of the dead. a practice frequently alluded Arabian Nights. It to the funeral pile of his children. by drawing the moisture out and then preserving them in tombs of stone. The smoking ashes of the young and the burning bones she snatches from the midst of the piles. the corruption withdrawn. and the slime . were borne on a common kind of bier called " The couches on which the bodies of the rich were carried sandapila. . 4 Scoop out the dried-up balls) ver. was the duty of the parent The corpse was to set fire carried to the funeral on a couch which was called "feretrum" or "capulus. after the eastern fashion. . . the sun's heat admitted thereto. 1 Parents have held) ver." were sometimes made of ivory and covered with gold and purple. are preserved as mummies. . . She scrapes off the clotted gore that scrapes the crosses) ver. Teart asunder the Italter) gnaws the knot of the noose to in the * And gnaw body that is hanging.PHAKSALIA. the marrow has grown hard then does she greedily raven upon all the limbs. 542. continue to grow after death. and tears out their entrails which have been long exposed to the drenching showers. and scrapes the crosses 7 the entrails. . 234 [B. The practices here imputed to the Thessalian enchantress are similar to those of the Ghouls of the East. On the top of the pile the corpse was laid upon the couch on which it had been carThe "vestes" here mentioned were probably the ried. 534. smitten by the showers she rends asunder. Iron fastened into the hands s and the black conniption of the filthy matter that distils upon the limbs. and delight to scoop out the dried-up balls 4 and gnaw with her mouth the pallid nails 5 of the shrunken hand she tears asunder the halter" and the murderous knots the bodies as they hang she gnaws. for the purposes of her incantations. She 543. and the very torch which the parents have held 1 the fragments. 545. to obtain the * And * Iron fastened into the hands) ver. and the parched marrow. adheres to the crosses on which malefactors hang. 538. . 1 He alludes to bodies which. Corpses are kept iriUiin. vi. 532-548- she rescues from the tomb corpses fly from death. 547. or of slaves. 543. and the flowing robes does she collect amid the ashes. * ver. pile coverings of the funeral couch. and bury her hands in the eyes. The nails of the human hand the pallid nails) ver. and burnt with it. 2 Of the funereal Her) ver. stone) ver. The iron nails driven through the hands and feet of those fastened to the cross. too.

as the sinews hold fast her bite. The blood deemed efficacious in enchantments. The faithful and wonted attendants upon his crimes. '* . Whatever carcase. wandering amid the ruined tombs and graves. she bears off. and imprinting kisses. To Sextus.u. about to be placed upon the glowing altars. has poured forth murmurs into the cold lips. and has dispatched accursed secrets to the Stygian shades. she will not scruple for the sake of obtaining 2 With her left hand) just drawn being to commit murder it. and was trying charms for unwonted purposes. beheld her afar. and about to tear the limbs from their parched jaws. before the beasts and the birds of the air does she sit nor does she wish to separate the joints with iron and with her hands.from the dying stripling cuts off the death . is the embryo torn out. When the rumours of the spot brought her to the notice of Pompey 3 amid the depths of the night of the sky. ver. and torn away the cheeks pressed with her teeth. at the time when Titan is bringing the midday beneath our earth. is lying upon the bare ground. 555. sitting upon a lofty crag. . And as often as she has need of grim and stalwart shades. extends the Pharsalian She was conning over spells unknown to the maridges. if she requires the life-blood. Full often. fearing lest the shifting warfare along the deserted 1 Which is the first to spring) ver. To the notice of Pompey) ver. and hangs to tlie bodies. Nor does she . The left hand was especially employed in magical operations. if her rites demand living gore. not the way in which nature invites. the son of Pompey. at her kinsman's pile has the dire Thessalian witch brooded over the dear limbs.] 236 that has collected. she awaits the bites of the wolves. Nor do her hands refrain from murder. gicians and the Gods of magic. through the wounds of the womb. where Ha3mus. too. shun slaughter. fields he takes his way. eveiy kind of among mankind is hi her employ. For. sloping down. 570. and biting off the end of the tongue as it cleaves to the dried throat. She from the youthful body tears the down of the cheek she with her left hand. which is the first to spring 1 from the divided throat. has both cut off the head. as also by thieves in the pursuit of their vocation. PHAESALIA. too. and her funereal tables demand the quivering entrails. 563. So. hair. she herself makes the ghosts . TL 548-579.

Not the lowest portion am I of the Roman multitude . called forth compel to confess whom of us it is that she demands. 1 ." The impious Thessalian witch rejoices at the mention of . 1. in confounding Philippi. : who art able to reveal their fates to nations. 236 [B. might remove to another region. 579-605. 4 Death herself. and the bones of nobles. they may . Divinity. and her sole study. 4 abodes. 3 Heir to a fall so great) ver. my mind is in alarm. called forth) ver. He speaks of Death here as a She was worshipped by the Greeks under the name of Thanatos. I pray thee that it may be permitted me to know the assured end which the fortune of war provides. see B. and to obtain ghosts so is her pursuit. to transfer the combats. Not mean is the task it is worthy for even thee to have a care to seek which way inclines the hazard of destinies so mighty. or heir to a fall so great 3 Smitten with doubts. and to turn to herself the ashes of the Hesperian race. the degenerate offspring of Pompey first address " O thou honor to the Hsemonian females.PHARSALIA. the most renowned offspring of Magnus. the same mistake as in B. 595. but no Temples of Death are mentioned by the ancient writers. and force the truth from the shades below. The Poet again commits Tlie sorceress has forbidden Philippi) ver. the sorceress has forbidden Philippi polluted with spells and sprinkled with 1 . and other places. 675. Sacrifice was probably offered to this Divinity. 584. either ruler of the world. that not rush on sudden and unseen either extort it from the Deities. 8 Corpses of slaughtered monarchs) ver. he would not improbably be guilty of misrepresentation. dreadful potions. and the Emathion land be deprived of slaughter so vast. i. is to tear what limbs of Caesar she is to Her does brood over. she hopes to maim the corpses of slaughtered monarchs 2 . This mighty. to thee . and again is prepared to endure tlie fears that spring from . 1. 227. and to enjoy the blood of the world . 582. Unlock the Elysian certainty. or do thou spare the Gods. vi. and who art able to turn them away from their course when about to come to pass. what she away from the corpse of Magnus when exposed. vii. and Death herself. about to claim so many deaths as her own. . with Pharsalia in Thessaly. Who had come to the assistance of Pompey . It must be remembered that Sextns was only a younger son but if he was a person of the character here depicted by Lucan. a town of Thrace. 601. This power do thou withdraw from events.

since there is a supply so vast of recent deaths. despite the Fates. PHARSALIA. and plains. examining the marrow cold in death. sepulchres being denied. 608-9. then do we. when with their beams the constellations have urged on death.B. it had been easy to force the reluctant Gods To my skill it is granted. which one she is to choose to If she had attempted to raise recall to the world above. 617. But it is easy. she wanders amid the bodies of the slain. with a clear voice. and. to any action thou mightst wish. a Standing wit/tout a wound) ver. finds the fibres of the stiffened lungs 3 and in the dead body standing without a wound seeks a voice. the shades of night redoubled by her art. Fortune has the greater might. the Thessalian throng. their talons loosened. . And 8 sky. She enumerates the different classes of magic arts : geomancy. Now stand in doubt destinies full many of men who have been slain. . in which the lungs are uninjured. may send forth indistinct screechings. necromancy. if thou wouldst have influenced more humhle destinies. . to raise and . the limbs scorched by the sun. exposed. confess. a single body from the Emathian plains. while the Thessalian witch selects her prophet. men at her pleasure. by drugs do we cut short his years in the But together does the chain of causes work downmidst. vi. the birds fly unfed. . that." Thus she says and. and no dismal ghost. and answers on the other hand " : O youth. paths easy and manifold will lie open to truth . man 2 and seas. but over the destinies of states she can exercise no influence. 630. and soothsaying derived from inspection of the entrails of animals. and the sky. and Chaos rocks of Rhodope. will converse with us. hydromancy. and Chaos) ver. if thou shouldst wish to change anything. and the human race stands subject to a single blow. l and although every star would make a to delays interpose aged. wrapped as to her direful head in a turbid cloud. the lips of a corpse just dead and warm may utter their sounds. 605-634. earth.] 237 her fame thus spread abroad. and all the fates are struggling. ward from the first origin of the world. aeromancy. or the place of departed spirits. But if thou art content to learn the events beforehand. 1 To interpose lives of individual She can cut short or lengthen the delays) ver. "Chaos" here means Tartarus. Forthwith the wolves take to flight. She seeks the body of a person recently slain.

the ground precipitately descends. would have mingled in fight. bristling. and to restore them to the war. A Destined to live once again) ver. A body selected at length with pierced throat she takes. or whether in inhabiting her cave she has not really descended to hell herself. and mouldiness pallid within the caves amid the lengthened gloom . sloping. does the air settle thus stagnant whither the sovereigns of Tartarus would not fear' to send forth the shades. Destined to live for the purpose of answering her questions as to the future. 648. it is matter of doubt whether she beholds the Stygian 4 ghosts because she has dragged them thither . it emitted powerful mephitic vapours. and a yew-tree shades. destined for her Downward rites. by her magic rites. Within is squalid darkness.PHARSAL1A. that the rulers of Tartarus would not object to the ghosts. If she evokes a ghost Because she has dragged them thither) ver. 640. When she perceives the . her features are revealed. and a people dragged forth by the powerful miscreant from Stygian Avernus. Taenarus was the name of a cavern at the foot of the Malean promontory in Laconia . pale with its drooping foliage. their subjects. Her cave is go gloomy. and through it Hercules was said to have dragged Cerberus from the 1 Infernal Regions. 4 The jaws of Tamarus) ver. with wreaths of vipers her hair is fastened round. 650. Not within the jaws of Teenarus 2 . taking up their abode there. it being no way prefer- able to their 4 own realms. and dismal. it is placed. which covers. and. 238 whole armies from the plains. the laws of Erebus would have yielded. over stones. is put on by her. not far from the black caverns of Pluto. a hook being inserted with funereal ropes. 3 The sovereigns of Tartarus vould not fear) Ter. 652. which the dire Erictho has ' . does it receive the light. destined to live once again and beneath the lofty crags of the hollowed mountain. and with a no wood lofty tops looking upwards to the heavens. unless produced by charms. it is matter of doubt whether she has really brought the spirit from hell. dress. never. the wretched carcase is dragged over rocks. fetid. the baleful limit of the hidden world. not pervious to the sun. For although the Thessalian witch uses violence against destiny. of various colours and fury-like with varied garb. or whether because she has descended to Tartarus. . and of our own. and her locks removed. and.

and. not the excrescence 5 of the direful hyaena is wanting. the back-bone of the hyaena. ver. opened by fresh wounds. and she bathes his marrow with gore. PHARSALIA. 413. the Eumenides 2 can be beheld. See the Note to 1. now in its genuine form shall life be restored. 3 4 by the court of the Areopagus. and was said to have been first given them after The Eumenides) " the signifies the acquittal of Orestes had become soothed. thinks that this was probably the jacinth or hyacinth. 662. Conquered India presented her lynxes to Bacchus crowned with clusters . she says " Banish the fears conceived in your timid mind . and that the stone has the name of "lyncurium. us that the neck is fastened to. while others suppose it to have : been tourmaline or transparent amber. The name "Eumenides. 672." Beckmann. by a monstrous the moon Not the foam of dogs generation." This word probably means the Pliny the Elder tells spine. or. and Cerberus shaking his necks shaggy with serpents. 669. to which water is an object of dread. that this becomes hard and turns into gems like the carbuncle. not the entrails of the :1 . and the shores that resound with flames . to behold the fright: ened ghosts?" Then hi the first place does she fill his breast. It is not improbable that the Scholiast rightly suggests that the popular superstition is here alluded to which believed that the urine of the lynx hardens into a precious stone. 673. It was a superstition among the an- . in the Metamorphoses. rather. Fed upon serpents) ver. casting down his eyes with looks struck with horror. 5 The excrescence) ver. that even tremblers may endure to hear him speak. and the marrow of the stag that has fed upon serpents". with reeking blood. 4 lynx ." Pliny says. whatever the bladder of these discharges is changed into stone and hardens by contact with the air. et seq. when their anger Venom from. forms part of. I being present. what dread is there. 506. xv. or the upper part of it which joins the neck." in the Greek. 1." This was a euphemism given to the Furies. the burning 1 Lake a of hell. as they tell. the moon) ver. 658-673. and himself trembling. nature has produced. vi. Not the entrails of the lynx) ver.] 239 youth's attendants alarmed. because the superstitious were afraid to mention them by their real names. B. 664. 672. now anew. if. cowards. But if I can show the Stygian lakes '. " Ovid says.B. being of a fiery tint. The Stygian lakes) ver. " Nodus. He alludes to Pyriphlegethon. and. and the Giants chained with their hands to their backs. literally well-meaning" or "propitiated Goddesses. in his History of Inventions. and plentifully supplies venom from Here is mingled whatever.

That holds lack t/ie ship) ver. 680. The cerastes or horned serpent of Africa is again mentioned in the Ninth Book. 3. eat. in the Me" The It Assyrians call it the Phoenix. which is destined to live as many years. and bruised cinnamon. 677. xxxvi." or sucking was supposed. 6 Slough of the horned serjtent) ver. It was supposed that there were serpents upon the shores of the Red Sea that watched the shells of the oysters in which the pearls are inclosed. tamorphoses. Not the winged serpent) ver. 674-681. lives not on corn or grass. 675. . " There i." . 1 their eyes anointed with a mixture made from serpents' eyes beaten honey were proof against the sight of nocturnal spectres. brooding bird not the winged 4 serpent of the Arabians. while the eastern breeze stretches the 2 and the stones that rethe eyes of dragons. c. with its crooked beak constructs for itself a nest in the branches of a its holm-oak. tho existence of which was currently believed in the East. B. in his Eighth Book. or on the top of a quivering palm. it lightens the branches of the lofty tree of the burden of the nest. to be Ovid says. vi. when it has completed the five ages of its life. . air. xv. 1. 23. He alludes to the Stone. but on drops of frankincense and the juices of the : amomum. too the '. and it is able to bear the weight. 3 The stones that resound) ver. too) ver. and dutifully carries both its own cradle and the sepulchre of its parent and having reached the city of Hyperion through the yielding . With after she this. c. old hare the power of drawing serpents from which they destroy with their horns. 678. 1. and then on which they become young again. The " echeneis remora. too. it lays it down before the sacred doors in the Temple of Hyperion. When time has given it strength." ' The eyes of dragons. He may either mean a winged serpent. cients that deer when grown their holes with their breath. from the body of its parent. that holds back the ship in the midst of the waves. 240 [u. called the Phoenix. . rigging . with yellow myrrh. 1 not the sucking fish. by sticking to the keel or rudder of a vessel in sail. able to stop its course. This allusion to the fabulous bird. 99. 679. and B. is reproduced a little Phoenix. which was said to be found in the nest of the eagle bation when wanned History. Se up with aetites or eagleby whose incu- Pliny's Natural 21. As soon as it has strewed on this cassia and ears of sweet spikenard. wondrous to tell a vast obstruction to ships. it exploded with a loud noise. ix. the guardian of the precious shell s . and finishes its life in the midst of odours. 676. B. the little sucking-fish. sound warmed beneath . the branches from 4 4 Guardian of tlie precious shell) ver. it lays itself down on it. et seq.PHARSALIA. It was a notion that those who had 1 fish. has mingled abominations. talons and This bird. 303. speaks of as darting upon passers-by of trees. will be best explained by the account of Ovid. or the 6 of Libya that still survives slough of the horned serpent 7 or the ashes of the Phoenix laid upon an eastern altar. and which Pliny. c." which he again mentions in the Ninth Book. They eay that thence. 7 Or t/ie ashes of tlie Phoenix) ver. in his Halieuticon. vile. and the viper produced in the Bad Sea. or may " allude to the jaculus. 674. .

in which wild beasts shriek and yell. she adds the bill and head of a crow that had susstag tained an existence of nine ages. a voice. and the entrails of a two-formed wolf that was wont to change its appearance of a wild beast into that of a man. hoar-frost gathered at night by the light of the moon. when shooting up. which no Thessalian sorceress is deserving of. and blends the lowest ingredients with the highest. :J . vii.] 241 and possessing no names she added leaves steeped in accursed spells. who dost detest heaven and thy mother : . in which the screech of the night. She preferred to remain with her husband Pluto in the Infernal Regions to returning to heaven and rejoining her mother Ceres . 1. and whatever poisons she herself gave unto the world then. and Persephone. and penalties of the guilty. J Detest heaven and thy mother) ver. on which it was agreed that she should spend six months in the year with Pluto and six months with Ceres. wolves she sends forth the voice in which the scared owl. 1 And possessing no names) ver. Euler of the earth ~. or that he is tired of the prolonged existence which he in common with the other Gods enjoys. and herbs upon which. does vex Styx. . Of objects so many there is the voice in one. in which the serpent hisses. long since driod up. Dis. There is a similar passage in the Metamorphoses of Ovid. and the Elysian fields. Ruler of the earth) ver. . and her voice penetrates to Tartarus " Eumenides. The story of the ' B . to whom was allotted the government of the Earth. deferred for lengthened ages. Nor is there wanting there the thin scaly slough of the Cinyphian water-snake and the liver of the long-lived to which. vi. things without a name. and differing much from the human The bark of dogs has she. discordant. Availing of the waves dashed upon the rocks too. Then after- wards in a Hsemonian chaunt she unfolds the rest. and the ill-boding wings of a screech-owl together with its flesh. " She ]?. when his brother The passage Jupiter received that of Heaven and Neptune that of the Sea. too. complain. 699. her direful mouth had spat. eager to confound innumerable worlds and thou. more potent than all drugs to charm the Gods of Lethe. 1 . of the woods. besides. may either mean that Pluto repines at the lengthened existence of the Deities who do not through death descend to his realms.B. 681. and the thunders of the bursting cloud. whom the wrath of the Gods. and the howling of tongue. where he is describing the incantations of Medea. and Chaos. or Pluto ." 2 Thou. and Stygian fiends. and the the sounds. PIIARSALIA. . the barbarian princess has completed the medicine prepared for the mortal body. with a branch of the peaceful olive. and the regions beneath. 270 adds. she stirs them all up. 681-700. first poured forth its murmurs. 697. . When with these and a hundred other : .

viL. I repeat these charms. vi. under the form of Hecate. but one just descending. O ferryman of the burning stream. if any infant. :| . on marrying her uncle.. who are over again for the person whose body the threads) ver. who. about to handle the threads 4 renewed. 700-714. whose office it was to deliver over the bodies of the dead to Cerberus. the mother of Circe. but it seems to imply that Proserpine is the third form or aspect of the Goddess called Hecate on earth. too entrails before the savage dog and you. and have smothered your offerings* with warm brains. and Absyrtus. 537. had been A soul we ask destined to live 6 listen to my entreaty. 709. 701. art the lowest form of our Hecate through whom the 3 ghosts and 1 have the intercourse of silent tongues thou of the spacious abodes. was considered the patroness of magic. and " prohably Diana in heaven. 1. if you sufficiently I invoke with mouth accui-sed and denied. B. 1 Lowest form of our Hecate) ver. tired with the ghosts returning to me listen to my prayers. who dost scatter our porter. was derived from xpiat Qefa. By the use of the word nostrae" the sorceress seems to imply that she worships the infernal Goddess Proserpine under the name of Hecate. was the son of Phcebus and the brother of Metes. have placed its head and entrails on your dishes. " feeding upon . 389-620.PHARSALIA. iv. for. the . that has not lain hid hi the caves of Tartarus." She means. rape of Proserpine is related in the Fasti of Ovid. too] ver. 702. aged man. v. This passage has caused much discussion " " but it seems most probable that the " janitor or " porter of hell here alluded to is Mercury. . flesh. 710. according to Diodonis Siculus. whose name. B. Those parts of the animals which were burnt on the altars of the Gods were called " prosicia. 242 [B. B." The meaning of this passage has caused much discussion. * Have smothered your offerings) ver. if she has torn away been destined to live) ver. represents her as the daughter of Perses. never fasting from human entrails.'' " prcor " secta. now. . . the three-headed dog. in the Metamorphoses. and thou. 703. and in the Metamorphoses. if. and as. if full oft I have given you the teeming breasts. 3 Thou porter. to spin the threads of existence is going to be restored to life. when I 1 who ." * About about to handle She addresses the Fates. however. " Pars ultima. Sisters. which otherwise might have infant Had lived. . stationed at the entrance of hell. 3 Through whom the ghosts and I) ver. Who aids her in receiving the secret communications from the ghosts of the dead. according to some. 700. from the womb for sacrifice to her. and accustomed long to darkness. This person. et seq. Ovid. can hardly be considered identical with the Goddess who. Medea. 1." * any ablegmina.

your watcher from the tombs will I expel you. . and I will forbid thee to conceal the visage of Erebus. having said these things. She will not call them Eumenides or Erinnys. if the civil warfare deserves well at your hands. to be able to die * Erictho is surprised that this delay has been permitted by the Fates. and. I will disclose. 1 Shall come to tJie shades once again) ver. She promises that the reanimated corpse shall have done what she wishes. 714-740. Stygian bitches. 1 Let these spells.] PHARSALIA. Tisiphone. with living serpents she beats the unmoved body and through the hollow clefts of the earth. 740. but will " call them by the titles used in incantations. 725. and breaks the silence of the realms 3 " heedless of my voice. and Megsera were the names of the three Eumenides or Furies. you hi the light of the upper world amid graves will I follow you. Ah wretch from whom unrighteously the last privilege of death is snatched. 730. The story was. 4 Under your real name) ver. by which names they were usually called among mortals." 5 Damsel of Enna) ver. vi. dreading the lifeless limbs and the hated place of its former confinement. . " Non posse mori. : . He calls Proserpine " Ennsea. squalid with thy will I drive you away. 243 and which still delays at the but lately withdrawn Although it may listen to very chasm of pallid Orcus." because she was carried off by Pluto on the plains of Enna in Sicily. Alecto. are ye Tisiphone." When. Hecate. and. from all the urns And thee. she beheld the ghost of the extended corpse standing by. she barks forth to the shades below. light . 3 Tisiphone." the "non" is redundant here. and Mtgcera) ver. which with her charms she opens. before whom in false shape with other features thou art wont to come. and Megsera not driving the wretched soul with your ruthless whips through the void space of Erebus ? This moment under 4 your real name will I summon you forth. Stygian will leave bitches. It was dreading to go into the gaping breasts. when 3 To be able to die) ver. .B. she lifted up her head and her foaming lips. amid funereal rites. 732. will I expose to the Gods. the spirit shall return to the shades once for all. enraged with death. pallid form. it shall come to the shades once again our the of one hut soldier destinies the ghost repeat lately of Pompey to the son of the chieftain. damsel of Enna 5 . ! ! . and the entrails torn with a deadly wound. 716. under the boundless bulk of the earth. E 2 .

497. beholds the Gorgon exposed to view". 699 and the passage of Ovid there referred to. spurned by the ground.I'lIARSALIA. Then does every joint throb the sinews are stretched. She calls Pluto the " pessimus arbiter mundi . J Will I send (he sun) ver." the most evil sharer in the world. and Cielus of Saturn. 748. by whom never. He probably alludes to the ter- mentioned in the Note to 1. and raised erect at the same it is that on arriving in the Infernal regions she ate the grains of a pomegranate. and with his stripes chastises the quailing Erinnys. upon what compact thou dost love the gloomy sovereign. " thy parent Ceres was unwilling (or. and runs into the veins and the extremities of the limbs. One of the Scholiasts says that he was the first and most powerful of the Gods. in allusion to the dismal regions of hell falling to his share. 749. 244 [B. 745. who ver. Literally " Titan. " Cujus vos estis. Was unwilling to call thee lack) ver." 8 Forthwith the clotted blood grows warm. . "Who is not afraid to swear falsely by the river Styx. 7 In wliose power you are) ver. . On the very mention of Who beholds the Gorgon exposed to view) ver. Or will he have to be addressed. the lungs palpitate and a new life creeping on is mingled with the marrow so lately disused. Omago of Ccelus. 746. who occupies depths of Tartarus by you unseen in whose power you are 7 ye Gods above who by the Stygian waves forswears. Demiurgus rible was another name 4 is of this mysterious Divinity. rather. thy parent was unwilling to call thee back 2 evil ruler of the world into "Against thee. and not by degrees throughout the limbs does the dead body lift itself from the earth. The shaken earth fails to tremble) whose name earthquakes ensue. 743. Why ' By whom 4 never. vi. 8 By the . unable) to procure thy return to the world above. a thing which the other Gods dread to do. Are you going . Smitten beneath the cold breast. what feasts are detaining thee. 740-757. and . 6 ver. ." one of the epithets of the Sun. . 742. It was the fate of looked upon the head of the Gorgon Medusa to be changed into stone from this the God here alluded to alone was exempt. : '. 746. Titana. to what corruption having l submitted. and nourishes the blackened wounds. tchfn named) God Demogorgon." Literally who all : " whose" or " of whom you are. ." 2 Most evil rider of the world) ver. See the Note to 1. on which Jupiter forbade her return from hell without the sanction of Pluto. most and with thy burst caverns will I send the sun sudden daylight thou shalt be smitten. 743." Stygian waves forswears) ver. . and was the father of Omago. when named 4 the shaken earth fails to tremble 5 who to obey ? .

" for a " Tell me. the waters of which being drunk induced forgetfulness. and some the gloomy Tartarus what fate is preparing these have disclosed. 1. See B. 1 Lethe was one of the rivers of Sleep of Letlie prolonged) ver. I pray. 2 fierce discord agitates the Koman ghosts and impious arms disturb the rest of hell. 786. 3 The Decii) ver. . that thy charmed ghost shall hearken to no magicians. Discord agitates the Roman ghosts) ver. both son and father. . But his sealed lips resound Avith no murmur. and. . by which she gave the ghost the power to know whatever she consulted him upon. See B. and the Note to the passage. brought back to the world.] 245 The eyes with their apertures distended wide are In it not as yet is there the face of one living. and boldly approaches the oracles of relentless death. 169.B. Of such great value be it to have lived once again neither charms nor drugs shall presume to take away from thee the sleep of Lethe prolonged 1 death being bestowed by me. 545. 769. some chieftains have left the Elysian abodes." She added a charm as well. i. * And Camillus weeping) ver. 787. what from all the shades it has been allowed me to learn. opened. instant. A voice and a tongue to answer alone are granted unto him. with such wood will I burn them with Stygian spells. the souls that 4 6 expiated the warfare. and the Note to the passage. sponses befit the tripods and the prophets of the Gods well assured he may depart whoever asks the truth of the shades. Even the shades of the Romans are at discord among themselves. great reward. give not. and Camillus weeping and the Curii . 780. Obscure re. vi." says the Thessalian witch. the tears running down. . The Decii 3 I beheld. by the Hsemonian arts I will set thee free in all ages of the world with such a sepulchre will I grace thy limbs. the words by which the Fates may converse with me. . 308. what I command tliee . 1. xi. : . the corpse thus said " Called back from the heights of the silent shores I surely have not seen the sad threads of the Destinies but. belonging to the different factions. 785. 757-787. having spoken the truth. 1. for. Sad was the countenance of the spirits of the blessed. See B. he is astounded. Sad. PHARSALIA. hell 2 . Spare Give things their names. give the places. His paleness and his stiffness rebut of one now dying. . main. And the Curii) ver. . Coming from different spots. ii. .

Note to the passage. the tyrants expelled alone rejoicing did I behold among the pious shades. and who dared such mighty exploits. and called his son Faustus and his daughter Fausta. and took the name of Felix after the death of the younger Marius. names beloved by Ute populace) ver. * L. their bared arms) ver. doomed to perish in the 3 beLibyan lands. Livius Drusus. and the guilty multitude demands the fields of the blessed. Fortune. 1. 791. is grieved for the destiny of his preat grandson Porcitis Cato. deplores the fate of his descendant Metellus Scipio. exorbitant with their laws. 1 He alludes to the successful Fortune. complaining of thee) ver. the Gracchi. exults. and in the dungeon of Dis. complaining of thee Scipio is deploring his hapless descendant-. 311. realms are preparing room for Pompey. He probably M. Cato. 788. and is preparing punishment for the conqueror. alludes to . clap in applause. bound with the eternal knots of iron. and for the assignment of the public lands. who is doomed to fall by the sword in Africa. his chains burst asunder and broken. 238. who. Hands. the foe of Carthage moans the destiny of his nephew who will not be a slave. names beloved by the populace". to conciliate the Roman populace. . Brutus. on the expulsion of the Tarquins. Junius Brutus. renewed several of the propositions and imitated the measures of the Gracchi. . O youth. He complains of Fortune because the Patrician faction which he had headed is being worsted by the anus of Csesar. Take back with thee. 6 The Drusi exulting. that in their placid retreat the shades await thy father and thy house. 1. and is sharpening rocks torn off. and the TJie Cetlteyi with. or the Elder. The possessor of the empty realms is opening the pallid abodes. ike foe of Carthage) ver. Consul. 794. is alone glad. 795. Utica." See the Note to 1. He proposed and carried laws for the distribution of corn. or for its sale at a low price. 1 Sulla. The elder Cato. who attributed his prosperity to the Goddess Fortuna. too. . * See B. 787. " * Scipio Africanus the elder Deploring his hapless descendant) ver. and the Cethegi with their bared arms 5 I beheld the Drusi exulting. the fierce Marii. and adamant hard with its chains. who is doomed to fall by his own sword at See 1. too. Threatening Catiline. the tyrants expelled) ver. the first First Consul. and in the serene quarter of the . ii. 789. 311 and B. this comfort. first Consul. inasmuch as the tyrant Caesar is destined to fall. 543. career of Sulla. the implacable enemy of Carthage. 248 [a VL 787-805. 3 Elder Cato. the Censor.PHARSALIA. ii. and in part by means of his descendants Marcus and Decius Brutus. 4 " Thee.

and demands death once again." 6 According to your triumphs) ver. whence warn thee away. the fires. and the Fates are unable to restore the soul to themselves. and for his successes in Egypt 6 More safe than Eniathia) ver. your brother at Munda in Spain. with plenteous wood she builds up a pile the dead man comes . and and Asia) ver. 811. 2 Is the combat among the chieftains as to) ver. 809. Egypt and you yourself at Miletus in Asia Minor. know thy own destiny . 805-826. " Your father shall die in Libya. Then. gloomy with speechless features he stands. nothing throughout the your sepulchres. and only is the combat among the ~ Seek not thou to chieftains as to their place of burial." . and proud with your high spirit go down though from humble graves. The meaning is. This line must certainly have been penned in a hostile spirit towards the Emperor Nero. He probably alludes to a future scene which was to have been depicted in his Poem. in the Sicilian field? Africa. the hour will come that is to mingle all chieftains alike. what regions to bid thee avoid. Pompey himself." somewhat : 3 Will declare all things to thee) ver." 8 After he has thus revealed the Fates. 818. PHAESALIA. what Constellations of the world. 814. whole earth wilt thou behold more safe than Emathia. and which that of the Tiber is to wash. Magic incantations are needed. This is similar to the line in Gray's Elegy " The paths of glory lead but to the grave. against Mithridates in Asia Minor. 817. ft wretched house. 819.] 247 "And let not the glory of a short life cause thee anxiety. uncertain whither he shall invite thee. and tread under 1 It is sought to know foot the ghosts of Romans deified which tomb the wave of the Nile. dread Europe. to ' the youth placed The ghosts of Romans deified) ver. a prophet more sure. while I am silent. will declare. Pompey the elder enjoyed triumphs for his campaign against Sertorius in Spain. will declare all things to thee too. Make ye haste to die. according to your triumphs does Fortune distribute . and Libya. and Asia 4 . thy sire. .B. vi. and drugs. and that of the Roman Emperors his successors. that the carcase may fall. from other regions you will not. Wretched men. the law of hell now once broken. " From Thessaly you will escape alive. Poem 4 Dread Europe. upon the He lighted heap alludes to the deification of Julius Caesar. in which Pompey was and warn him of being unfinished comes to an end to appear to his son Sextiis in his Sicilian campaign. the victorious opponent of Porapey.) . the Fates. his approaching destruction : the long antecedent to that period.

the night. vt 826-830. and she goes attending Sextus to his father's camp. that tho night was prolonged by Erictho. 1 Commanded to withhold the day) ver. . commanded to withhold the day 1 afforded its dense shades. The heavens wearing the aspect of light. 830.248 PHARSA. (B. . The meaning is. permitting him at length to die . Erictho leaves. until they brought their footsteps safe within the tents.LIA. that Sextus might have time to return to his father's camp unobserved.

It was the notion of some of the ancient philosophers. the last portion of fortunate existence Magnus. CONTENTS. The bodies of Pompey's troops lie unburied. and the cavalry is repulsed. They prepare for battle. the army of Pompey in flank. Cicero's 1-44. But the night.249 BOOK THE SEVENTH. address to Pompey on this occasion. Pompey's answer. and he attracted 1 but lest he might shine clouds. and particularly of Heraclitus and the Stoics. Caesar takes possession of the enemy's camp. 545-550. 597-616. Caesar's delight on 213. The army of Pompey is described. for 1 Not as food for his flames) ver. 235-249. Multitudes of the Patricians are slain. The them preparing for battle. 476-505. He was hoth ready to endure eclipse. vision of Pompey the night before the battle of Pharsalia is described. Portentous signs appear. Pompey harangues his army. commences the battle. 250-329. in the seat of the Pompects. 506-544. 586-596. Crastinus. a soldier in Caesar's army. of Brutus to slay Caesar. Pompey comes to Larissa. The Poet is averse to describe the scenes of horror there perpetrated. The Poet concludes with imprecations against the scene of such horrors. 85-123. It is the design Caesar exhorts his men to deeds of valour. His soldiers demand to be led forth to battle. 551-556. The soldiers prepare for battle. 5. and he checked his chariot. 214-234. 712-727. seeing NEVER more tardy from the ocean than the eternal laws demand. 557-585. 647-679. The soldiers hesitate on both sides on recognizing each other. He harangues his soldiers. the carnage. Pompey takes to flight. not as food for his flames the of serenely upon regions Thessaly. 787-846. The Poet apostrophizes Pompey. 124-150. 330-336. a prey to birds and wild beasts. 185184. 62-85. and the grievance of light withdrawn. 45-61. 680-711. 460-469. did mournful Titan speed on his steeds along the heavens. . 617among 646. as the skies whirled him along. 728-786. The Poet laments whom is Domitius. 337-384. where he is welcomed by the inhabitants. 385-459. 470-475. Caesar attacks The beginning of the battle is described. deceived his anxious slumhers with vain prosFor he seemed to himself. 847-872. The centre of Pompey's army offers a stronger resistance. 151Distant nations are made aware of the impending catastrophe. . The Poet laments the approaching slaughter. that the heat of the sun was nourished by the moisture of the clouds.

250 [B. rii. when formerly. by this dream but the latter feeling was predominant.000 persons. 11. will from every quarter bring the blood- peian Theatro . and saddened with the image of the day. " Cuneos. The rest of the morrow. and in Latin "cunei. who boasted of being descended from that Goddess through the line of lulus or Ascanius.I'lIARSALIA. as it was able to contain 40. Fortune in this fashion presented Rome. 8 And the resounding tiers or sets of seats in tiers) ver. a young man. the Senate giving applause. 4 In his white toga) ver. at the end of successes. after the nations which the rushing Iberus surrounds were subdued. resembled cones from which the tops are cut off . ye sentinels of the camp let no trumpet resound in his ears. 9-27. . inasmuch as he feared lest the adorning a place consecrated to Venus should be performed by Caesar . ." Rome were The divided into a number of compartments. revered as much in his white toga 4 as in that which adorned the chariot. Pompey erected the first It was of great magnifiStone Theatre at Rome. 9." with spoils. The family of Pompey was of the Equestrian order. which converging. things contrary to what is seen. and at the period of his first triumph. he sat. near the Campus Martius. 16. prophesying. or VictoHe was partly encouraged and partly disheartened rious. vn. while a robe of purple covered with embroidery was worn by the victorious general in the triumphal chariot." It was the custom for the populace to applaud such of the Plutarch great as were their favourites on their entrance into the theatre. hence they were termed **<5if." or " wedges. 3 The arms which tJte flying Sertorius) ver. Such were the looks and the shouts of the applauding populace. 1 In the seat of the P&mpeian T/ttatre) ver. 1 to behold forms innumerable of tbe commonalty of Rome. the West having been reduced to peace. or whether. direful. as yet but a Roman knight Whether." was worn by the Senators in the time of peace. and the resounding tiers'* contending in applause. and his own name raised with joyous voices to the stare. forbidden any more to behold thy paternal abodes. the leader of the Marian party in Spain. and the arms which the flying Sertorius a urged on. Break not his slumbers. and the Note to the passage. In allusion to his triumph over Sertorius. 1. relates that the night before the battle of Fharsalia Pompey dreamed that as he went into the theatre the people received him with great applause. 549. with the spoils taken from himself. sleep flew back to joyous times. anxious for the future. or the "toga pura. and " the that he himself was adorning the Temple of Venus Victrir. . See B. and the Note to B. 25. ii. 17. 1. The white toga." the theatres of Greece and " literally wedges. cence and was built after the model of that of Mitylene in the isle of Lesbos. but on a much larger scale. by its wonted perversions. it bore the omens of great woe or whether to thee.

33. PHARSALIA. the Gods of heaven had granted a single day to thy country and to thee. noctemque beatamV' is the meaning of this line. . taught. on which either. the Fates had granted one day on which you and the Boman populace might have bid each other an eternal farewell. whose groans devour their griefs who equally lament thee in the Theatre no longer full The sunbeams had conquered the stars. they will weep but. when. 4 As at the funeral of Brutvs) ver. and whether the sentence should be read with or without a note It seems. Whence canst thou 1 then obtain the slumbers of the populace and a happy Home could behold if even thus blessed. who expelled the Tarquins from the city. pey. vii. the avenger of Lucretia. ." 3 As That is. thy night? thee! Would that. which case the sentence may either mean " How. in of interrogation. and it is undecided whether "pares" is a verb or an adjective. however. They will now weep for you though forced to carry frankincense and garlands to the Capitol in honor of the triumph of the victorious Caesar. . Now as at the funeral of Brutus the darts of the unscrupulous fear even. ! ! 1 Obtain the slumbers of the populace) ver. " in your present dream. O assured of destiny. would. 42. although they may victor. Pompey. contrary to the laws of his country. has not believed that this evil ever existed in destiny. " Unde pares somnos The Commentators are at variance as to what populi. which expressly forbade it. while laurel wreaths to the Thunderer people. How. and the child unThe female throng. She. that thus she is to lose the tomb even of Magnus. their locks dishevelled. with the . aware of your approaching end. Thee. " * Laurel wreaths to the Thunderer) ver. are you to enjoy " Pomthe slumbers common to the lower classes in future placid V or. 4 have torn their breasts. while they are bringing frankin5 O wretched cense. from every side the war. 32. would both old men and youths have bewailed.B." though destined to die) ver. Magnus. with mingling griefs. " Would that. might have enjoyed the last blessing of 2 Thou goest as though destined to die 3 affection so great in the Ausonian city. 28. are yon to provide placid slumbers for your harassed country?" 2 The last blessing of affection so great) ver." The Poet covertly implies the lawlessness of which Caesar will be guilty in insisting upon a triumph for a victory gained in civil war. although Cffisar himself may bring word of thy death. 27-45. conscious to herself of her assured wishes in behalf of thee. 39. The matrons of Rome mourned a whole year for Lucius Junius Brutus. .] 251 stained ranks. most likely that "pares" is a verb .

[B. c. the greatest author of Roman eloquence. being thus augmented by the troops of Scipio. throng. and was delighted in having persons of Consular and Praetorian rank in the number of his slaves. Direful frenzy arises each one desires to precipitate his own destinies and those of the state. 45-66. when it is your purpose to overthrow all things. too. 64. vii. 59. to add to our errors this crime-? We rush on upon slaughter. In the camp of Pompey. Cicero. both the kings and the eastern nations. submitted to a silence ! . Caesar. Pharsalia is an object of desire Tullius." " The forces of confirms the present statement of Lucan. 82. and. having. increased. iii. mingled murmur of the camps the multitude resounded. murmurs around the very tent of the general. 1 . Pompey was accused of being too fond of his sway over monarchs gathered from all regions of the We learn from world. and unwilling to bring the contest to a conclusion. as a soldier. they used to exclaim that it was the business only of a single day. complain that the war is prolonged. and too sparing of his fatherin desiring in-law. Still more. then Consul. " Plutarch and Appian that on this occasion he was styled Agamemnon. B. their former expectations were conof whatever time and their so much that firmed. Pompey is called slothful and timorous. enraged with the warfare. inflamed." 2 To add to our errors this crime) ver. 54. and that they are detained at a distance from their native land. the Fates dragging on the world to ruin. took in quelling Catiline's conspiracy. Porapey. but that he had a passion for power. urges on the speeding hours of approaching death. . and arms that are to injure ourselves we demand. we shall be guilty of " perverseness amounting to criminality 1 3 He alludes to the part which Catiline trembled at the axes) ver. beneath whose rule and Consular toga the fierce Catiline trembled at the axes 3 producers of peace. with vast tumult. " Is it your determination that. and. and being in dread of peace. not destined to behold the day throughout. O Gods of heaven. while he longed for the Rostra and the Forum." and " of in his of the Civil the account War. in addition to the fatality which decrees our downfall. aud whenever Pompey was acting with slowness and caution. It was in a great measure by his prudence that it was suppressed. King kings. 1 And attached to his sway of the rorW) ver. Is it your pleasure. demanded the The greatest part of the wretched signal for combat. . and attached to his sway of the world to have at the same moment so many nations from every part under his own control.252 PHAKSALIA. hopes victory intervened was considered as so much delay to their return to Italy .

the cause of the Senate to the Deities ? " The troops themselves will tear up thy standards. 67. Magnus. or merely as fellow travellers. which seems " Do much more consistent with look the Senators as Magne.B. ungrateful man. but it is the fact that he really to represent inclination." This is the old interpretation. Lemaire suggests another. An : probability : you upon placed themselves under your mankind? With reason is it distasteful to nations subdued by thee when speeding past them. I'lIARSALIA. He cmise of vat) ver. if by us wars are waged. and giving way to the deepest by in declining health. 72. Whither has thy spirit fled. the nobles in thy camp. that Pompey should be slow in victory. ready to fight. 66-84. with the suppliant world pressing around thee. affected with despondency." This passage admits of two modes of interpretation "The Senate wishes to know whether you think that you have despotic sway over them. the learned that during Cicero's residence in the camp of Pompey he was low spirits. Shall Caesar for so long a time be cause of war. be it their right to meet they please. 84-5. . vii. that thou wilt be ready to make use of her both we. and that they are only your obedient soldiers. or whether you look upon them as your equals and sharers in the command. to was not present at that battle. and in the habit of inveighing against everything that was going on there. Why dost thou avert the swords of the whole world from the blood of Caesar ? Hands are brandishing weapons with difficulty does each await the delaying standards make haste that thy own trumpet-call 3 may not forsake thee. in return for favours so numerous. have conquered by compulsion. or where is thy confidence in destiny ? Dost thou have apprehensions. the Senate long to know upon whatever field . 1 It has been generally supposed Eloquence added its powers) ver. as to the Gods of heaven? And dost thou hesitate to trust l : . Magnus. Scire Senatus avet. seqiiatur. miles te. Lucan A knowledge that this was the case may possibly have caused him as one of those who urged Pompey. and thy kings. comes. entreat that thou wilt permit thy father-in-law to be overcome. " Bellum" has here the meaning of "a cause of warfare.] 253 so prolonged. reported the language of all. Eloquence added its powers to the feeble cause " Fortune requests this only of thee." 3 The Senate long " to Mow) ver. but. and Let it shame thee to will spring forward to the combat. forsooth. against his own fight the battle of Pharsalia. in your journey and flight from the arms of Caesar?" soldiers who have . If by thee as our appointed leader.

" ac" " to reduce to cording to some of the Commentators. to violated peace Do they dread to wage this in crimes. 3 " Tradere Delivered up the leader to violated peace) ver. He means that the war might have been prolonged so as to weary out the enemy without any bloodshed. not a general. Is it your pleasure to abandon this so pros- That Magnus lias received) ver. whether as companions. who." he said requires Magnus as a soldier. During the war in . He is the bravest man. The labour of the war might have cost thee no wound . 97. the crops) ver. if it impends close at hand. to follow thee as soldiers or vu. 94. To premature rapine of Epirus. if only under the excitement of valour and in the heat of resentment they demand the standards to be raised.PHARSALIA. 1 Might have cost thee no wound) ver. 84-108. so as not to conquer with blood ? The earth we have wrested from him 4 from the whole ocean we have . 254 whether they are [B. I call thee to witness. Rome. 99. ready to endure what is deserving of fear. and perceived that this was a subterfuge of the Gods. blind to fate ? a civil war. the day on which all tilings came to 2 ruin. defer it. and that the Destinies were opposed to his own feelings. simply means peace by " to immolate Caesar as him Burmann but thinks that it subduing signifies a victim to that peace which he has so wantonly violated. paci. can also . 92. " If this is the " if the occasion pleasure of all. 93. subdued without 3 What frenzy is slaughter and a captive. . by which it has been brought about that the raw recruit is in no dread of the combat. which were favouring 1 ." 4 The earth we have wrested from him) ver. the cause of 4 Pompey against Caesar. that 1 Magnus has received . excluded him. " A great part of the warfare has been accomplished hi those measures. his famishing troops we have compelled 5 and in the enemy have to premature rapine of the crops we wrought the wish to prefer to be slaughtered with swords. The very fear of an evil about to come has committed many a one to extreme dangers. Has had this fatal day forced upon him by necessity. In one ruin let Fortune involve the nations. He means the regions of the East. and to mingle the deaths of his partisans with my own. it might have delivered up the leader." The leader groaned. Still. ye. the richest part of the Roman provinces. . and has not sought it. and let this day be to a large portion of mankind the very last. no further will I delay the Fates.

To nations. . Who. if without the ruin of the state and the downfall of the party. this slaughter perpetrated. I myself am irretrievably ruined. 1.] perous state of things to the world to the sword ? to fight than to conquer. of warfare. Ctesar. who. On the countenances of many is the paleness of approaching and an aspect strongly indicating their destiny. and gives loose rein to them as they rage with anger and just as the mariner. 116. and bold hearts throb against their breasts with uncertain palpitations. " War will be neither the crime nor the glory of Pompey. It is clear that the :f . by thy hostile prayers. . B.PHARSALIA. thou hadst granted me They wish receive it still greater. What an amount of crimes. . beholding How the shores overwhelmed by sea. Whether it is destined to remain a free republic. See B. that in that combat it is sought what Rome is to be His own dangers each man knows not. turbid mil Enipeus run) ver." Thus he speaks. to leave the hazard of rather for their leader Fortune. Before the Gods of heaven. or is to become a monarchy under the sway of a 1 A tyrant." a Is sought what Rome is to be) ver. and protect . distracted with greater death. 373. fears. which is to bestow a fate for everlasting upon human affairs. day is come. skill abandoned. with an anxious murmuring the camp resounds. 108-135. the ship is borne along. leaves the rudder to the winds. vii. a sluggish burden. the Roman state to rule 255 Fortune. to the conqueror every crime. 2 " If I hated or a pitied name) ver. and the nations who entrust their fortunes to me . gain this victory it will only be through the slaughter of my fellow citizens. 132. Confused. thou dost conquer me. 120-1. and it is manifest. The battle is now fought. if I am conquered. Pompey will be this day either a hated or a pitied name 2 Every woe that the allotted destiny of things shall Magnus will victory prove. bring will belong to the conquered. vi. it were about to fall for not more joyous to amid the blindness it How ! . and of evils an extent how vast will this day bring upon nations! how many kingdoms will lie in ruin! turbid will Enipeus run * with Roman blood I could wish that the first dart of this lamentable warfare would strike this head. overpowered by the boisterous Cor us. and allows the combat to the nations. and.

4 The Pallenaan thunderbolts of Jove) ver. by the Scythians and Egyptians. did not forbear by various marks to disclose the woes about to ensue. Fortune. For while they were repairing to the Thessalian fields. 2 did the sword of Phlcgra supporting the furious Giants Mars grow warm upon the Sicilian anvils and a second time the trident of Neptune grew red with flames. however. the JEgis or shield of Minerva. Nor have they confidence in their swords. the arrows with which Paean. See B. and the sky. and Cretans. however. was used by most There they furbished the lance or sword (" ensis" may mean either) of Mars. of the ancient nations that excelled in archery. 145. Vulcan and the Cyclops made at the forge which they had at Mount 2Etna in Sicily. and fits on the thongs of the reins. where this battle was said to have taken place. 1. 256 [B. 2 Phlcgra supporting thefunous Giants) ver. Psean the Cyclops moulded Jove renewed his darts. Then is every javelin pointed against the rock. and was sometimes adorned cians. with better strings they tighten the hows it is a care to fill the quivers with chosen arrows 1 The horseman increases the spurs. back. previous to the battle of the Gods with the Giants. v. 4 . 597. . It had a lid. which connected it with the main land stood the town of Potidaea. So called because about to be employed at Pallene. . 150.lEgis. with gold and colours. among whom were the Scythians. It was a Peninsula On the Isthmus jutting out into the sea from Chalcidice in Macedonia. and the Note to the passage. and it was thus worn right shoulder. Pallas and anew the Pallensean thunderbolts of the locks of the Gorgon upon her . had slain the serpent Python. and was suspended by a belt from the Its usual position was on the left hip. which was more anciently called Phlegm. The Cretans. the whole sky opposed them The "pharetra. 135-153. Lyoians. and. not otherwise. ThraIt was made of leather. 142. could feel fear for himself? There is no leisure to have apprehensions for one's self. If it is lawful to compare the labours of men with the Gods of heaven. vir. the sun hurled down. He alludes to the preparations which.THAR3ALIA. on which was the head of the Gorgon Medusa. for the City and for Magnus is the alarm. ocean on the summits of mountains. the downfall of things so numerous." or arrow*) ver. unless the points shine shai-pened with the whetstone. :t . and the thunderbolts of Jupiter. 1 To quiver fill the quivers with chosen filled with arrows. Python lying scattered prostrate. seeing the . falling upon the earth. Persians. or Apollo. 146. 3 Grow icarm upon the Sicilian anvils) ver. wore it behind the and Diana in her statue is represented aa so doing. . the trident of Neptune.

even as far as Thessaly the standards of Koine and of the republic". . The standards stuck it was only with the utmost difficulty that they were withdrawn from it. " 1 Fythoras aquarum" Serpentine forms. 6. PHAESALIA. and his successors. Lucaa. 164. what heavenly Gods of criminality. The bull. 4 Covered with swarms innumerable) ver.] 257 as they come. Csesar. and with hurled lightnings dimmed their The crests it struck off from their helmets 2 and eyes. 160. but to distinguish the different centuries. greedy of the waves) ver. 6 The standards of Rome and of the republic) ver." but it is more probable that swarms of bees are meant.B. the standards. weighed down with an unusual burden. The word 4 With difficulty lorn so fast in the ground that "signa" is repeated in this line by the figura anaphora. 169. and liquefied the darts torn away 3 and made the hurtful weapon to smoke with sulphur from the skies. vn. 162. Most of these portentous by Valerius Maximus as having happened to Pompey march from Dyrrhachium to Thessaly . But thou. and then they were so weighty that the standardbearers were forced to incline their heads forwards in supporting them . which Valerius Maximus mentions on the same occasion as clinging occurrences are related in his to the standards of Pompey's troops. they were dripping. with water. Weise takes "examen" here to mean "flocks of birds . 158. B. c. 2 The crests it struck off from their helmets) ver. In the Roman army the crest was not only used for ornament. up from the ground) ver. too. 156. and the sky presented ser1 with fiery meteors pentine forms. . namely. " probably means water-spouts" assuming a serpentine shape. didst thou with due ceremonials invoke 7 ? intermingled. according to him. They grieved because hitherto they had been the standards of the whole Roman republic. urged onward for the Gods above. Moreover. and columns of immense flames. . and torches meeting them. each of which wore one of a different colour. 161. . and. covered with swarms innumerable 4 and with difficulty torn up from the ground 5 bowed the head of the standard-bearer. i. greedy of the waves . and throws himself headlong along the Emathian fields and for the sad rites no victim is found. flies from the spurned altar. 7 What Eumenides didst f/tow invoke) ver. 153-169. soaking with tears. The helmets of the ancients were very commonly surmounted by crests of horse-hair. they were so many warnings for him to avoid a battle with Caesar. and in the eyes of the men the lightnings rent asunder the clouds. dissolved the hilts of their melted swords. what Eumenides. . whereas in future they were doomed to serve in the cause of but one individual. 3 And liquefied the darts torn away) ver. with his usual hos- 8 . Caesar. as though weeping for the public calamities.

quos lux extrema manebat. tions who saw the light at the extremities of the world had apprehensions at * What wonder. Pindus seemed to many to meet with Olympus. Floras. and Haemus to sink in the deep valleys. . whom 3 the last day of liberty was awaiting. exulted in these portents and the tumultuous feelings of their minds. 169-188. 176. 2. L 382. for their readiness to enter upon the civil strife. who. But to their minds this was one consolation. who hoped for the throats of their fathers.PHABSALIA." This passage admits of three modes of interpreta" What wonder is it that tion people were alarmed who had now arrived " ^Yhat wonder if at the last day of their lives?" or. didst thou propitiate. B. on the night before the battle he sacrificed to the Infernal Deities . 177. Appian.eyes. and at the day growing at and over their helmets. 258 [a vn. he is censured by Bunnann for implying that the Goda of heaven might sanction criminality. flowing blood to run along Osssean and in turn they wondered at their features Boebeis 1 2 being concealed amid gloom . Lymphato trepidasse metn 1 prassaga malorum Si data mens homini est. so ruthlessly about to wage the impious warfare? Now (it is matter of doubt whether they believed the portents of the rods. thinks that the following remarks of Lucan here apply to the partisans of Caesar it is. See B. trembled with frantic fear. implies that performed sacrifice. Pharsalia to send forth by night the din of warfare. populos. and for not knowing that victory was never supposed to lie in the hands of the Infernal Deities. that nations. or their own excessive fears). conscious of their wicked intentions. however. pretty clear that he is censuring the Fompeian party . a fiends. whom) ver. " Quid mirum. 1 To run along Otscean Boebeis) ver. What wonder. and vowed a temple to Victory if he should gain the battle. and their night hovering pale. and Venus his ancestress. departed parents and all the ghosts of their kindred flitting before then. and invoked Mars. c. informs us that in the middle of the night before the battle Caesar tility to Caesar. c. mentions the Badiua Ascensius deep gloom that came over in the middle of the day. and deemed the sudden portents to be omens of their impious deeds. ii. in that the throng. and the Note to the passage. What Deities of the Stygian realms. and u-hat infernal and monsters steeped in night. 116. that nations. B. : V that time of the scene of horror then acting in Thessaly 1" . who longed for the breasts of their brothers. * Being concealed amid gloom) ver. if a mind foreknowing woes is granted to mankind ? The Roman. iv. 185-7. vi. they were alarmed when " What wonder if nathe waning light of liberty was forsaking them or.

forming the boundary between Istria and Venetia. ver. a combat most momentous is being waged. the mind of man had marked 7 : . . " lie suddenly sprang forward as though inspired. was said to have been the founder of Patavium. 194. which was said so people called the Euganei.PHARSALIA." 4 Sitting on tlte Euganean hill) now Padua. " Aponi Fons. vn. Antenor. 1 Adjacent to Tyrian Gades) ver. hast conquered. An stranger. the city of Patavium. in Spain." s 2 . lies adjacent to Tyrian Armenian Araxes 2 of . The Euganean Hills were near in the north of Italy." was a medicinal spring in the neighbourhood of Patavium. 188. have been founded by a s Where the steaming " ver. 3 is If there is implicit credit) related ver. The day of Thessaly undoubtedly did nature introduce unlike to all the days which she displays . if. that on the B. and the Note to the alludes to the story which c. 1. 19. Caesar. dowed with the augur's skill. 192. " If mankind had been en7 Tfie mind of man had marked) ver. xvi. 2 Of Armenian Araxes) See B." Whether it was that he marked the thunders and the presaging weapons of Jove. augur. 193. turning again to the signs. now Cadiz. 259 Gades 1 and he who drinks beneath whatever clime. Timavus is a stream now called Timavo or Friuli. was then at Patavium. He Gellius. . 187. was said to have been a Phrygian or Tyrian colony. The Aponus or Aponian Springs. who fled from Troy with some Trojans. relate if there is implicit credit 3 to be given to those who 4 it. Aponus ' where the sitting on the Euganean hill arises from the earth. and the waters of . 6 Timavus of Anterior) ver. he told those who were then standing by him that that very instant the battle was beginning and then. universally. the impious arms of Pompey and of Caesar are meeting.] B." Aponus) ver. Gades. beneath whatever Constellation of the universe he is. and falling into the Sinus Tergestinus in the Adriatic or Gulf of Venice. exclaimed " The critical day is come. and exclaimed. and chides his flagging spirits he knows not what he is losing on the Emathian plains. Cornelius. thou . by Plutarch and Aulus i. they might have known by the signs prevalent throughout the world the contest that was then going on at Pharsalia. is sad. or beheld the whole sky and the poles standing still in the discordant heavens or whether the saddening light in the sky pointed out the fight by the gloomy paleness of the sun. 18. steaming Timavus of An tenor" are dispersed in various channels. and is ignorant of the cause. 192. much valued for its healing qualities. with the experienced augur. day when the battle of Pharsalia was fought C. 203. 188-203. and that. passage. observing the portentous signs given by his science. a celebrated soothsayer.

. 1 To thee. on both of which occasions. vn. Domitiits) ver. were These Pompey considered his steadiest troops. with the The Cilician legion. singularly unfortunate. shall wish thee ! success. 2 To thee. 223. as. 220. commanded the centre. iii. which then was the best in war. The soldiers. Domitius 2 . they have covered all the hills with glittering brightness. c. and all. But Hie bravest troops redouble the strength of the centre of the battle. while he gives the left to Domitius. with the Spanish cohorts. " On the left B. and the fourth. 88 wing were the two legions delivered over by Caesar at the beginning of the disputes in compliance with the Senate's decree. and had opposed his arms at Massilia . the fatherScipio commands) ver. to thee. moved. is entrusted the care of the left whig . in the Civil YTar. in conjunction Syrian legions.PHARSALIA. and still. in the Civil War. together with the first legion. On the other hand. the unusual phenomena of the heavens. Caesar says. which we s:iid were brought over by Afranius. and wishes destined to be of no avail. drawn forth from the lands of the 3 the chief commander hi the Cilicians. who had arrived a few days before with eight legions " from Syria. is given the front of the army on the right. and Plutarch to Pompey. gleamed upon by the opposite rays of Phoebus. B. who had been taken and released by Cresar at Corfinium. shall read of thy fate as though approaching and not concluded. or whether the care of my labours is in any degree able as well to profit mighty names. both among future nations and the races of your descendants. 260 [B. in-law of Pompey. which. he had been tenth. is entrusted the care of the left wing) ver. This was L. the which was on his right. one of which was called the first. iii. Caesar says." disposed on the right wing. : they would probably be placed opposite to Caesar's strongest legion. Domitius Ahenobarbus. Magnus. to whose destinies all heaven had leisure to attend These deeds. whether by their own fame alone they shall come down to remote ages. 203-223. To 1 thee. when the wars shall be read of. Lentulus. the other the third. when. as here remarked. descending. in firm array stand the doomed ranks. c. will excite both hopes and fears. with the Deity adverse. 88 : Scipio. Scipio commands . Here Pompey commanded in person. valiant. 3 This was Metellus Scipio. Lentulus. Pharsalia might have been beheld by the whole world." This is the more likely. Appian assigns the right wing to Lentulus Spinther. 218. are not promiscuously sent forth upon the plains. O mightiest of men. from the strength of these legions. the indications of whom Fortune afforded throughout the earth.

A . iii. was one of the principal cities of the isle of Crete. The inhabitants were among the most skilful archers of Crete . a for there the thence was arrows of Itursea thence. and Crete her Cydonians . 225. and of warlike and predatory habits. 223. in the Civil War. most probably the former is the fact. and he had a hundred and ten complete cohorts . 9 And Crete far Cydonians) ver. on the north-west coast of which it was situate. these amounted to forty-five thousand men. It is not known whether the epithet 1. The country of Ituroea was situate on the north-eastern border of Palestine. and seem to have similarly excelled in horsemanship. flocked to his standard . But near the streams and the waters. 1 the In tJw Libyan command of the war land) ver. hence the word came to be applied to small potentates. loose reins But most of the positions on the diy plain 5 Tetrarchs and Kings and mighty potentates held. Its people were of the Arab race. 223-231. Tetrarch was originally one who had the fourth part of a kingdom to govern.of the flowing Enipeus. 229. 226. His right wing was secured by a river with steep banks. the mountain cohorts of the Cappadocians''. for which reason he placed all his cavalry. two cohorts of volunteers. did 8 Libya send her Numidians"'. these were dispersed through his whole army. s Positions on the dry plain) ver. too. . ii. The subjects of Juba." These were the ancestors of the Cossacks of the present day. 344." the old English name of the fruit. PHAESALIA. Thither. and the Note to the passage." 7 Libya send her Numidians) ver. 4 Pontic cavalry vnth their loose reins) ver. who. He had. 225." Hut near the : 3 Mountain cohorts of the Cappadocians) ver. Pompey had recently reduced them. 88 " The rest he had interspersed between the centre and the wing. The rest of the disposition of Pompey's forces is thus stated by Caesar. Scipio took in Africa. 230. or from their being encamped on the hills near Pharsalia . who. 229. The Cappadocians from Asia Minor were commanded by their king. archers." meaning that part of the plain which was at a distance from the river. ." or " King. which were thence called " mala Cydonia. having received favours from him in former wars. The seven remaining cohorts he had disposed to protect his camp and the neighbouring forts. besides. After the death of Pompey.B. streams and the waters) ver. "Sicci. " For tli# arrows of Tturcea) ver. B. "mon tana" is given to them from living in mountainous districts in their native country. Ariobarzanes. 6 Tetrarcks and Kings) ver. the ally of Pompey. were not considered worthy of the name of " Rex. Cydonis." afterwards corrupted into " Melicotone. vii. c. 224. and all the purple which is obedient to the Latian sword. See B. or Cydon.] 261 Libyan land a soldier in this. 227. "Largus habenae. though enjoying regal dignity and power. flight 1 . and the Pontic cavalry with their 4 take their stand. and slingers on his left wing. and it was the first place from which quinces were brought to Rome.

a great degree. made of the hide of a quadruped. to decamp from that post." " 3 Wield tier contending bucklers) ver. 231-242. Tear there did Iberia wield her contending bucklers-. iii. and. Caesar thus relates the " circumstances here alluded to. judged it the most expedient method of conducting the war. B. c. however. It is. leave none for Coesar to triumph over. by chance. fierce Gauls. so that come to an action on even ground. He says that they went over " with a great retinue." in the 1 that the Allobroges are alluded to. did you) ver. B. 262 [B. and the tents struck. Burmann thinks that the Galatians of Asia Minor are here referred to. he might be more conveniently supplied with corn. Magnus. vii. iii. however. c. and many of their warriors entered Roman army. from the victor the nations '. he had begun. Pompey's army had advanced further than usual from his entrenchments. a thousand times asked for in his prayers. Caesar before. * For foraging in the standing corn} ver. that by being in motion he might get some opportunity of forcing them to battle. reduced to complete subjection to Rome till after the Civil Wars. 236.PHARSALU. by constant marches. Thence. about to move his standards for foraging hi the standing corn 4 suddenly beholds the enemy descending into the level plains. and to be always in motion with this hope. mentions the "cetra" as being used by the Britons. 75 Caesar. under the Roman rule. in which they distinguished themselves by their skill in archery and horsemanship." had sent out three legions the night Pompey's advance. On that day. These matters being settled. to forage. sick of delay. 232. cut short for him all triumphs. on perceiving recalled. did . 1 you saDy forth against your wonted foe. The " cetra was a target or It was worn by the small round shield. and were aiding Pompey under their aged king Deiotarus. Caesar. Roscillus and JEgus. the blood of the world spilt at one moment. harass Pompey's army. and sees the opportunity presented to him. They were not. in the Civil War. For. and. 281. 5961. contrary to his daily practice. which was not accustomed to fatigue. By causing the blood to be shed of so many nations. . is mentioned by Caesar in the Civil War. upon which he is -to submit everything to the last chance. By the latter people of Spain (as here mentioned) and of Mauritania. As Tacitus people it was sometimes made from the skin of the elephant. his position being left. he forthwith it appeared possible to According to another account. who were said to be descendants of the people of Gaul. and burning with desire for rule. and also. more probable. which. 233. 3 Tear from the victw ike nations) ver. to condemn the civil war as slow-paced wickedness. the desertion of two of whom to Pompey. in this short space of time. fierce Gauls. from the allusion to their "wonted foe. it was observed that shortly before. that by shifting his camp and : : removing from place to place. when the signal for marching was given. it is probably the same " with the " target used by the Highlanders of Scotland. seeing no likelihood of being able to bring Pompey to an action.

on which. 2 suldmrs of the world) ver. in hope of which we took up arms. and his mind. 359. Conquerors of those regions comprehended under the names of Gaul. 3 The stay of my fortunes) ver. "The triumph over the conquered Gauls.' said he. and assented to by the shouts of the whole army. 250. : We let us. and will be the means of procuring for yon allotments of land. had hitherto allowed us to enjoy. 1.] After he saw the fates and the closing combat of the 263 chieftains drawing nigh. to which we deferred the return of our This is that same which is this day forbidden triumphs 5 to restore our pledges. bold to engage for a prosperous result. and. leiny promised me) ver. i. B. in the speech which he attributes to Csesar on the : makes him refer to the four hundred nations which he. your period of service completed. See B. 85. discharged from war (emeriti). and which is to give us back our household Gods. by added to the Roman sway. Hispania.' This betokens none of the hesitation which the Poet ascribes to Cassar on the present occasion. ' our march at present. 250.B. No need is there for prayers now hasten your destinies by the sword. vii. 255. which the jealousy of Pompey and the Senate has not present occasion. at hand. c. flagged in a slight degree. iii. and part of Britain and of Germany. you will be enabled to restore us settle. and 1. when they were ' must defer. and perceived the falling ruins of destiny tottering. gives the following account of the first of his two brief speeches " Caesar addressed himself to his on this occasion soldiers. 257-8. subduers of the world 2 the stay of my fortunes 3 the opportunity for the fight so oft desired is come. 4 }\'/rich I remember Promised by Laelius. this frenzy even. . 247-8. meet the foe with resolute minds." .. mised me 4 at the waves of Rubicon. 242-258. . is to . 256. We shall constant wish " not hereafter easily find such an opportunity. confidence sprang up. : . 1 Hesitated in suspense) ver. which his own fortunes did not permit to fear. then. PHARSALIA. 4 The return of our forbidden triumphs) ver. his victories. hesitated in suspense 1 Fear thrown aside. "This is the day which will who have been banished and declared the enemies of our country to our homes and our wives and children. ready to inarch out. Caesar. to which we have been forbidden to return. the Tribune. in the Civil War. Appian. . as cultivators. not allow him to despair. better suited for encouraging the ranks " O soldiers." 6 That same which is this day) ver. 388. while those of His own previous successes will Pompey will not allow him to hope for the victory. nor those of Magnus to hope. most eager for the sword. which has been our soldiers. et seq. You have in your own power how mighty Caesar This is that day which I remember being prois to prove. at the gates of the camp. and set our thoughts on battle. et seq.

So long as I obtain for you your rights. too. side Tlie is guiltless. 268. compared with the real hardships which his own veterans have " " " undergone. He is ready to resign " the Consulship. Not my fortunes are at stake. " Palaestrae. if it 2 '' 4 But few hands mlh them) ver. 267. means that. and assume the toga plebeia. private persons " Kihil esse recuso. 271. And with no great bloodshed do you 1 . probably intended for such as were about to contend in the " public games. and rendered effeminate J by the pursuits of the places of exercise will be before you. is. while the gymnasia" were for the use of the public iu general. and wielding their arms with difficulty the discordant barbarism. of a mingled multitude. two meanings suggested for these words. myself. 258-275. No hand.PHARSALIA. which seems the " In order that I may gain your liberty for you. 274. With the blame my own do you obtain the sway. e. been suggested that the "palaestra." The other." i. and absolve your swonls from blame. " If for me with sword and with flames you have attacked your country. to be trodden under foot by the Senate. the judge of the warfare being changed is guiltless. which. that will not be able to endure the trumpets." were for the use of the boys and youths. . however. 1 judge of the warfare beiny changed) ver. there is nothing that I would refuse to be. while the "gymnasia" were intended for the men. their own shouts. as it is solely by poetic licence that Lucan represents . Meaning that neither has its adversary as the judge of its conduct. This tlie day. refuse to be as nothing. It has. it is most probable that by far the greater part of Pompey's army consisted of Roman citizens. a band of youths selected aspire to the hope of the world from the Grecian wrestling schools. the exercises of the Grecian palaestrae and gymnasia" have but The *' palaestrae were tended to render the partisans of Pompey less hardy. nor. up arms vn." He 4 By tlie pursuits of tiie places of exercise) ver. and with it the toga pnctexta.. fate being the most righteously has taken destined to make the conquered the of the land. anxious to surrender myself to a private station. An humble citizen. But few hands with them* will be waging a : .in a plebeian toga) ver." or garment worn by time of in peace. [u. That adopted by Marmontel and " some of the Commentators is. who guilty one. but that you yourselves may be a free people do I pray. is to prove this battle is . 264 make you tillers the witness. that you may-hold sway over all nations. or to be treated like a private person." which was the garment worn " by the magistrates. Notwithstanding this remark. and to settle myself as an humble citizen in a plebeian toga 2 refuse to be nothing 3 until all this is granted to you. I do more probable. the army moving on. I. places of exercise." There have been 3 Refuse to be nothing) ver. now fight valiantly. . 263.

and both Kings trodden under foot.B. so numerous. by what star of heaven tumed back. 1 Are not worth a single triumph) ver. Pompey at his chariot led into the City. . double that number. the battle finished. and most do they hate the rulers whom they have known. " But I am delaying my own destinies in withholding you by these words from rushing upon the weapons. 275-303. and Plutarch. and the corpses of Senators scattered.] 265 civil war a great part of the combat will rid the earth of these nations. I am he who shall be empowered. ye Gods above. and nations swimming in boundless carnage. both stern faces and threatening Rivers of blood do eyes. who had no interest in underrating his numbers. I shah not be deceived in pronouncing by what arm it has been poised. to make donations of what nations and monarchs possess. do ye grant thus much to the Thes. By what commotion in the skies. are not worth a single triumph 1 " Does it concern the Armenians to what chieftain the Roman sway belongs ? Or does any barbarian wish to place Magnus over the Hesperian state. I seem to behold. salian land? " This day. and will break down the Roman foe. And if I behold the indications that never deceived your leader. 280. I exult in hopes . PHARSALIA. says that Caesar's army consisted Pompey 's army as such a vast multitude. and with the first movement of the sword lay prostrate the world and let it be known that the nations which. then have you proved the victors. 1 . Grant me pardon for procrastinating the combat. But me Fortune has entrusted to bands of whom Gaul has made me witness hi so many campaigns. " Show. for the conquest of whom Pompey has enjoyed so many triumphs. . vii. and Pompey's. purchased with -the least bloodshed ? All Romans they detest. of twenty-two thousand. by conquering them all united with ease. representing them as forty-five thousand men. either the reward of the warfare or the We find Caesar. Of which soldier shall I not recognize the sword ? And when a quivering javelin passes through the air. so close at hand for me of this plain are we removed from our wishes. Go onward amid dastard nations and realms known by report." . were not worthy of being the cause for a single triumph even. in the Life of Pompey. never have I beheld the Gods of heaven about to present at the slight distance gifts so great. that these nations.

' ! from care. 305. Cxsar especially requested his soldiers to aim at the faces of Pompey 's cavalry. It is generally related by the historians that. shall await myself. the foe not yet subdued. and the battles hi the enclosed Plain With a chieftain of Sulla's party are we waging of Mars. 322. For a lot. Ye Gods. and not pushing on his successes * there. 3 Exposed on Hie Rostra) ver. whose care the earth and the woes of Rome have drawn down from the skies. and my torn limbs. this do I ask of you. affect you mangle with the sword the venerated feafree ! . nor even parents beheld with adverse 6 front. ii. 197. that no one will be ready to smite the back of the foe he who flies. in consequence of his extreme unwillingness to shed the blood of his fellow-citizens. who. who does not deem it necessary to unsheathe against the conquered the ruthless sword. had declared that he should consider all such persons his enemies. 6 Mangle with the sword) ver. but with more prudence than either. have committed a crime. 305. behold the chains the Rostra 2 . . We have already seen Lucan representing Pompey as leaving Dyrrhachium. youths. Behold the crosses for Caesar's this head. let not any fiction of affection. shall look back. your valour forbidden to be employed. shall behold me piercing my own vitals. civil war. "Caesareas crucesj" meaning the crosses erected with which to punish the adherents of Caesar. Antony. on that occasion. let him be a fellow-citizen \ But while the darts are glittering. exposed on partisans . The criminal doings at the voting-places) ver. let him conquer. vn. Lucan would not miss the opportunity of putting an untruth in the mouth of Caesar. " Septorumque See this allusion explained in the Note to B. * Let him be a fellow-citizen) ver. had stated at Rome that he should treat those as his friends who should adopt neither party . 317. Cicero's head and hands were placed there subsequently 1 to this by his revengeful enemy. sought by my own hand. and who does not think that his own fellow-citizens. the heads of those who were slain were exposed by the dominant party at the Rostra. 303-322. 266 [u. on leaving Rome. punishment is awarded. Caesar. The crosses for Cottar's partisans) ver. because they have raised hostile standards. Of course. being in a great measure composed of . too. nefas. When he enclosed your troops in a blockaded place. It is care for you that moves me. he who. 1." 4 With how much Hood) ver. In the civil war between Marius and Sulla. and the criminal doings at the voting-places*. with how much blood 4 did Pompey glut the sword " Still. It is probably the fact that Pompey acted with neither any remarkable relentlessness nor humanity. on this occasion. whereas Pompey. 319.PHABSALIA. long before this. 306.

B. making a total of twenty-two thousand men. and in what manner he had exerted himself at Oricum to gain permission from Libo to send ambassadors . in battle. observing his former following account of his line of battle custom. and ordered them to support one another. Swiftly they forestall the presage of the war and. or whether with his wound he shall violate no ties of relationship. and purely an invention of the Poet. Sulla. 4 In no order) ver. c. 329. 89. although it was very much weakened by the battles at Dyrrhachium. to gain a conference [with Labienus].] 26r tures." Appian represents Caesar as saying on this occa" As sion. gain camp. that in full maniples. the ninth on the left. posed on us. At the same time. 331. 90. cohorts to guard the camp. PHARSALIA. Spare not the camp within those lines shall you pitch your tents. fill up the trenches with the ruins. 332. They swiftly obey Caesar's command. the young Patricians of than death itself. of the right to P. Caesar. would dread a scar on the face even more " 1 You shall pitch your next tents within Within those lines) ver." 2 Caesar having hardly said all this) ver. pull down the ramparts and level the outLet the works. they rush on in no order 4 do they : '. just the same as incurring the criminality of Forthwith lay the ramparts low. Domituis . . that he had been always reluctant to shed the blood of his soldiers. and likewise. : deprive the republic of either of her armies. you go forth to battle. and slaughtering a relative. to show the determination with which the troops of Caesar began the engagement Caesar. let him attack the throat of an unknown foe. Whether one shall rush with hostile weapon against a kinsman's breast. enemy themselves behold us destitute of a camp. and instantly their arms are taken up by the men. 322-332. not straggling. 328. he gave the command of the left wing to Antony. c. fearing. He drew up on the field He left two eighty cohorts. the efforts that he had made. iii. had placed the tenth legion on the right. vii. and. and of the centre to Cn. the army may move on. through Vatinius. and know that it is imas a matter of either to their or to die necessity. from the disposition . which the army is coming doomed to perish." 3 Forestall the presage of ike war) ver. in his Civil War.B. their camp trodden under foot. destroying their lines and ramparts. his duties attract each one. to treat with Scipio . " He could call his soldiers to witness the earnestjust before the onset ness with which he had sought peace. the lines of the enemy. from l . mentions that he addressed his soldiers in the following terms. Rome. gives the " Caesar. in his Civil War. adopt it as an omen of victory. This is not the truth. iii. and did not wish to B." Csesar having hardly said all this -. that we may he in possession of nothing but as conquerors. he himself took : his post opposite Pompey. through Claudius. He placed the eighth legion so close to the ninth as to almost make one of the two.

" of the . If they . At the same time he ordered the third line. Show forth all your might the last work of the sword is at hand. the end of the civil warfare which you have looked for. . lest his right wing might be surrounded by their numerous cavalry. formed of them a fourth line. vn. and one hour drags on nations to their fate. admonished them that the success of that day depended on their courage. 268 [n. Illustrious men have of their own accord submitted to dangers. and so many aspiring to the sway of their own city. but that the day was pleasing to the Gods of heaven. Then he repressed his fears. and. and. If the Fates at these troublous times would permit the Curii and the Camilli to come back. acquainting them with his wishes. not to charge without his command . of heaven as favouring they themselves will direct the darts through the vitals of Caesar they themselves will be desirous with this blood to ratify the Eoman laws. everything has the Deity set at stake in the midst of the Our cause the better one bids us hope for the Gods plain. on this side would they take their stand. and conjugal endearments. and allowing no respite for the war. he rapidly drafted a single cohort from each of the legions of the third line. and cet them opposite to Pompey 's cavalry. with frozen heart he stood astounded and for a chieftain so great thus to dread arms was ominous. he said " The day which your valour demands.PHARSALIA. : . 332-360. It is not the part of the Gods. to hurry on my old age. and the entire army. " Everything that could possibly conquer have we contributed. angered at nations and the City. If in the direful combat you had placed so many fathers-in-law of Magnus. and his deserted pledges of affection. is at hand. . Nations collected from the enemy which we have previously mentioned. and the veteran soldier. by fatality. who devoted their lives to death. . with no disposition made by their general everything they leave to destiny. and the Decii. . they were able. had been ready to grant to my father-in-law kingly sway and the world. Whoever looks for his country and his dear household Gods who looks for his offspring. When Pompey beheld the hostile troops coming forth straight on. let him seek them with the sword . borne on a stately steed along all the ranks. that he would give them the signal whenever he wished them to do so. not with course so precipitate would they have rushed to the combat. to preserve Pompey as their leader. stand. with his holy resemblance to the heroes of old.

here are we. the fear of rule arouses the one. same moment the whole world do we employ. titude wish to be born free does that wish to die. for us to slay each one his man. Caesar suffices only wage the warfare with their shouts. dreading a tyrant. warfare shall overwhelm future nations. an exile. do earnestly deprecate my closing destinies. nor the human race throughout all ages This repair. beneath Notus and Boreas. Magnus. are encouraging you to battle. arras do we wield. I. Think that that which now is the people. and that which shall be the people. learn to be a slave. even though it should be free from the sword. and the disastrous years of the latest period of my life. 368. Shall we not with our wings extended around place the collected foe in the midst of tis? Few and many troops will right hands does victory require . and that Home herself. and it inflamed. the scorn of my father-in-law. 363. if with the majesty of command preserved it were possible. unless you conquer. after . pledges so great. Think that a Senate. Therefore on either side do the armies meet with a like impulse of anger. ver. an aged man. Caesar suffices not for our arms) ver. These right hands shall do what no age can supply. comes to meet you. and forbidden by years to follow arms. there is any room for Pompey. are prostrating at your feet their hallowed hoary locks. the hope of it the other. and the them to die if pleases Roman he is valoiir is in fear of the truth. . that I may not. not for our arms 2 " Think that your mothers. and cities innumerable. aged. I would throw myself before your feet.B. suppliant with my offspring and my wife. 360-390. hanging over the summits of the walls of the City. have aroused bands to At the battle so mighty as they never sent forth be/ore. Whatever men there are included within the limits of the heavens l that bear the Constellations. your own disgrace. PHAESALIA." " Limite " cceli probably " Caesar's numbers are too few . vii." At the voice of their general uttering words so sad their are spirits aroused. Free does this mulare offering their mingled prayers. with their dishevelled hair.] 269 remote East. and shall cut short 1 Within the means the circle * limits of the lieavvis) of the Zodiac. If.

B. near the Gabinian Lake. 394. Burmann thinks that he alludes to some other rites now unknown.PHARSALIA. 399. in the mountains of the Volsci. 29. 3 And Cora) ver. except upon the night ordained'. near the present town of Casticity of Latium. historically speaking. vi. Veil) ver. 392. iv. the night ordained) ver. Coraz. and Cora'. cities so many deserted 6 . He means that. 395. 402. too. 24. Tibullus mentions the chained slave singing at his work. in hi legs rattle with the iron. and the show the homes of Alba and the deserted fields shall hardly 4 household Gods of Laurentum . inasmuch as Tarquinius Superbus. one City receives us all. ii. said to have been founded by an Argive named It is mentioned by Virgil in the 2Eneid. By the chained delver 7 are To point out Gabii) ver. situate on a high ground between Ostia and Ardea. which the Senator would . slaves in chains will have to till the lands of Italy. . the crime of civil war we behold. These monuments of things devouring time has not mentions the chained "fossor" (though " " there the word may possibly mean a miner ") : This. 392. to the world the people of ages to come. 4 Household Gods of Laurentum) ver. Romulus was brought up there. 1. Gabii. El. Laurentum was one of the most ancient towns of Latium. ii. [B. 1. and complaining that Numa has so ordained. and. instituted that festival in honor of the confederate towns of Latium. and said to have been surrounded by a grove of laurels. which was celebrated at Alba Longa by night. To what has the multitude of the human race been reduced ? We nations who are born throughout the whole world arc able to fill neither the fortified places nor the fields with men . not far from the sea. as we learn from Horace. B. i. 1. 690. in the time of Augustus. * deserted) ver. with reluctance." Tristia. 1. said to have been founded by a colony from Alba Longa . was a by Tarquinins Superbus (see the Fasti of Ovid. B. This was an ancient town of Latium. . ii. See B. it was the residence of King Latinus. it appears to have been a place of some importance in stratagem et seq). or Lament. 3 the time of the * Roman Except upon kings. 1 glione. but he sings at his work. and not Numa. name be a fable the ruins concealed in dnst shall hardly 1 be able to point out Gabii Veii-'." or Latin festival. See B. v. and the capital of Latium. in consequence of the scarcity of freemen. 776. and has left still crumbling away. 1. and. 5. B. not inhabit. 2TO VIL 390-402. between Rome and Praeneste. whence it was supposed to have derived its name. El. et seq. 392. and the Note to the passage. and has been alluded to in a preceding Note. the day of their Then shall all the Latin birth being torn away from them. It was taken by according to tradition. and was in rains. the many chained delver) ver. According to Virgil. is the reason 7 Cities so By . 26: " His Ovid also. 1. He is supposed obscurely " Latinac to allude here to the ferize.

Roman Fasti 3 This day she longs to ignore) ver. plains through whom she may. the more swiftly through her prospering destinies has she run.] 2T1 the corn-fields of Hesperia tilled . ii. 408. from Rome. 416-17. had been destined as the gift of a . disclose to thee. did we surrender to that extent of slaughter that thenceforth for a period so long no Of woes so great was civil war could possibly be waged. Borne has marked these as occasions of lighter woes. See B. this day she . was ever after set down as "ater. whom from every side Fortune has dragged to a wretched death. near which the Roman army was cut to "The of 17th day the Calends of July. and the Note to Allia was a river the Roman annals) ver. 402-420. as thou dost come to ruin. 408. pieces by or the 16th of that month." " 8 Dum munera longi explicat Tearing away the gifts) ver." of the in such a lapse of years which she has pose withdrawing them. The ! ah* pestilential hi its course. many. but filled with the dregs of the world. While the Calendar records the defeats of the Allia and Cannae. she disand both nations and chieftains upon the ranges plays them. 1. TII. those men might have repaired." or "unlucky. tearing away the gifts of lengthened ages. thronged with no citizens of her own. and shifting diseases. on which this defeat happened. One of the Scholiasts remarks that Caesar ordered that no notice should be taken of this battle. why the miner sings chained with the fetter. long condemned hi the Eoman annals-. Rome. Throughout all ages. and Allia." " Fortified cities. in the Fasti Con2 Long condemned in about fifteen miles the Gauls under Brennus. " Moenia plena. about to fall upon none and Rome. . how mighty thou dost fall. and cities abandoned to flames." 1 Cannae yield. Let Cannte yield. 1 . to life. 414. when he lightens his heavy labour with his untaught numbers. a fatal name) ver. 411. mouldering with its ancestorial roofs stands the house. and maddening famine. 4 Populous cities) ver." in the. 46.B. for the pureripiens <evi. has every war given subdued nations unto thee ." Burmann understands this as meaning that Fortune is prolonged cutting short what. and earthquakes about to hurl popu4 lous cities headlong. 6 while. " While Fortune is now ranging in battle array. probably. gifts bestowed on all-powerful Rome. The more widely she has possessed the world. a fatal name Phursalia the cause. it will not endure to take any notice of the disaster of Fharsalia. full of inhabitants. PHAKSALIA. 3 longs to ignoi-e Oh shocking destinies . sulares.

"at the hazard of our lives. and that she does not lead the Dahte 4 into walled cities forbidden to wander. * No tightly-girt Consul presses on) ver. This disaster has cut short the victorious progress of Rome. 434." victories approached to both the northern 3 its annis. and." 7 Of the Bruti do I complain) ver. results to overthrow the work of so many ages. thee has Titan beheld advancing towards the two poles 1 Not much space was there remaining of the eastern earth. and the Note to the passage. But the fatal day of Emathia bore back thy destinies. Liberty has withdrawn beyond the Tigris and the Rhine. even unto the Thessalian downfall. 422. See the Second Book. 6 At hazard of our throats) ver. . ." seems to forbid such a construction being previous line. and never to return. 429." "With the throat presented to the sword." or. 296. in the Gabinian habit. 4 She does not lead tf<* Dakce) ver. 428. had introduced liberty into Borne. or why made the years to . for thee the whole heavens should speed on. of the Bruti do I complain Why have we framed the periods of our laws." " Able in 3 Caused that India does not shudder) ver. that she had been unknown to our people. Burmann thinks that the passage bears reference to the custom of ploughing over the surface of conto which had been razed the cities quered ground. 272 [a vii. 7 Fortune. 426. a blessing to Germany and Would Scythia. 1. marking out with a plough drawn by a cow and a bull the trenches for the foundations of the walls of a new city in the subjugated country. so oft sought by us at hazard of our throats 6 still wanders abroad. by the expulsion of the Tarquins. put upon the passage. for thee the entire day. and no further looks back upon Ausonia. and India needs not fear being subjugated. He probably refers to the custom of the Roman Consul. who. and the wandering stars behold all things belonging to Rome. but what for thee the night.PHARSALIA. 1 Advancing towards the two poles) ver. 420-441. and that thou. 440. hadst re. . but the expression in the " in moenia ducat. equal to all these years 2 On this blood-stained morn was it caused that India does not shudder 3 at the Latian fasces. mained enslaved. 430. In her and southern poles. " Par omnibus Equal to all these years) ver. from the time when first Romulus filled the walls founded at the left-hand flight of the vultures from the guilty grove. He complains of Lucius Junius Brutus. Rome. . thee a cruel retribution that flying from civil strife. " Jugulo. and that no tightly-girt Consul presses on 5 a Sarmatian This is the cause that Parthia is ever owing to plough.

one violent partisan of the Pompeian fac- was a and was forgiven by Coesar. as much as it is proper The civil wars will for the Deities to give to the earth. however. 266. Did Jupiter hurry on the night at Argos on beholding the crime committed by Atreus against Thyestes ] See B. 3 Shall Cassius. of the murderers of Caesar. i. 458. who are ashamed to be slaves. hurl at Pholoe. He says that one result of the Civil War. of the guiltless Rhodope. Of the nations which endure rule our lot is the last. ii. while he is wielding the 1 lightnings ? Will he. in 3 preferThe stars against Thyestes did he ence. hurl at (Eta with his flames. and the Note to the passage. and indeed a just punishment of the Gods. It is. Still for this slaughter do we obtain satisfaction. in B. Jupiter will rather hurl his thunders against these mountains than against the Pharsalian plains or the guilty head of Caesar?" 2 The pine-woods of Mimas) ver. 457.B. as leaving Rome to tion.. * The civil wars will create Divinities) ver. smite this head? 4 urge on. 1. and the Medes. who is mentioned. and the pine-woods of Mimas ~. chus. and as wearing rays in resemblance of the sun. Assuredly we have no Divinities . upon the Thessalian carnage. vii. shall Cassius. the groves. which began with Julius Caesar. 1. the man whom he afterwards murdered : he must not be confounded with his cousin Quintus Cassius Longinus. and opposite to the Isle of Chios. in allusion to the practice of deifying the Roman emperors. 451-2. and condemn Argos to sudden night . who He alludes to Caius Cassius Longinus. " Is it credible that 1 While Tie is wielding the lightnings) ver. too.] PHAKSALIA. in) ver. is the deification of mortals. and which were supposed to signify his deification. 8 The shades will Rome adorn) ver. shall he afford the light of day to Thessaly that wields the kindred swords so numerous of brothers and of parents ? Mortal affairs are cared for by no God. Mimas was a mountain of Ionia. join Caesar. forsooth. whereas ages are hurried along by blind chance. 451. 447-8. v T . 5 create Divinities equal to the Gods of heaven. The shades will Rome adorn with lightnings and with rays and stars. 544. which the Fates have kept under continued tyrants. the tribune of the people. One of the Scholiasts says that Ca?sar was represented in his Temple arrayed in the habit of Jove. we falsely allege that Will he look down from the lofty skies Jupiter reigns. 4 Condemn Argot to sudden night) ver. It was sacred to Bacnear Colophon. 450. 441-459. 273 take their name from the Consul ? Happy the Arabians. more probable that Lucan refers to the lightnings and the comet which appeared at the time of the death of Caesar. This is probably said in a spirit of sarcasm against Nero. and the Eastern lands.

bravery. a man of distinguished spirit of Caesar received into the heavens. but was now serving as a volunteer in his army. was supposed to be the See the History of Suetonius. and when it shall have been won. their feelings of affection smitten. vii. 1 and thought him most deserving of his approbation. where their javelins are to fall. said. xv. Caesar says. B. When with a rapid step they have now passed over the space that delays the closing moments of destiny. when the signal was given. ' General. iii. which appeared for seven days. and about one hundred and twenty chosen volunteers of the same century followed." * This Crastinus was an May 'the Gods send thee. who the year before had been first centurion of the tenth legion. for Caesar entertained the highest opinion of his behaviour in that battle. 91. thence do they look upon the bands and seek to recognise their features.^74 PHAliSALIA. not the death which is prepared as a punishment for all. 1. 2 May the Gods send thee. what monstrous deeds they are to perpetrate. 1 Nor do they choose to change their positions) ver. and whole cohorts for a long time hold the javelins hi readiness with outstretched arms. that you will feel grateful to me. 1. Caesar. 466. Crastinus. the comet. old soldier of Caesar. the Epistles of Horace. he will recover his dignity. Still.' At the same time he looked back towards Caesar. I will act in such a manner to-day. 470-1. [B. living or dead. and the cold blood. c. Crasttnus . battle. May seems to be " nee libuit mutare wrong in his translation of this passage. and the arms of brothers in hostile array. 88 . et seq. 1. nor was that* false which he declared when marching to battle. and thereby avoid collision with a parent or a brother. as he renders " locum. 47 . of whom mention was made before. So bent on each other's destruction are they that no one is desirous to change his place. Crastinus) ver. and the Metamorphoses of Ovid. and said. but after thy end sensation in thy death. hurled by whose hand the Indeed." . : ' Follow me. comrades. 16 ." or discharged from service. the Eclogues of Virgil. c. Ep." yet would not change their side. 459-471. fighting most courageously. who had been " emeritus. After uttering these words he was the first to charge on the right wing." In " In this c. congeals hi their vitals . B. Parents they behold with faces fronting them. separated by a small strip of ground. ix. L 841. nor do they choose to change their positions *. this is our last battle. a numbness binds all their breasts. my old He. lost his life by the wound of a sword in the mouth. ii. Caesar. in the Civil " There War. and in the temples of the Gods will she swear by the shades of men. B. and display such exertions in behalf of your general as you have resolved to display . thus relates the circumstance here alluded to was in Caesar's army a volunteer of the name of Crastinus. 94. and we our liberty. or what fate is threatening themselves.

Darts innumerable are scattered abroad with various intents. ii. and gave it to the caves of Pelion again to redouble . and whither no light- javelin ! . Some wish for wounds. was there found any hand more forward Then was the resounding air rent by clarions 1 and the battle call given by the cornet then did the trumpets presume to give the signal. having acquired experience by custom. that they might not come up with the their strength was exhausted. iii. 275 commenced the battle. and after a short respite. had recourse to their swords." the "cornn. ." and the " tuba " or " trumpet. whom she chooses." "cornet " or " horn. and the crags of (Eta groaned. from which the clouds are far removed. 471-401. 1. In these two lines he makes mention of the " lituus" or "clarion. and being practised in former battles. and burst upon the arched top of loftiest Olympus. was employed by Komulus when he proclaimed the title of his Aero says that it was peculiar to the cavalry. 3 But how small a part) ver. stood our charge. sage. and uncertain Fortune makes those But how small a part 2 of the guilty. they of their own accord repressed their speed. 489. 476-7. c. 93 men. with the Note to the pasThe "tuba" was a while the " lituus" assumed a straight trumpet." T 2 . 689. and guides right ! The resounding air rent by clarions) ver. in the Civil War." " Cornu " seems to have been a general name for the horn or trumpet. as Caesar had ordered them. and maintained their ranks . while newly-founded city.] e. and the sounds of their own fury did they dread re-echoed throughout all the land. Pindus sent forth the uproar. and first stained Thessaly with Roman blood. when the signal was given. some to fix the javelins in the earth. but here it probably means the same as the " buccina " mentioned in B. and. nings last slaughter For 1 civil is perpetrated with javelins and flying weapons hatred the sword alone suffices. and threw their javelins. Nor did Pompey's men fail at this critical moment. Caesar says. PHARSALIA. the " tuba" belonged to the infantry. and instantly drew their swords. which see. but perceiving that Pompey's men did not run to meet their charge. and that it : their javelins ready to be launched. to Chance hurries everything on. for they received our javelins. Lydus says that the "lituus" was the sacerdotal trumpet. and halted almost midway. when Ceesar withheld the darts. then did a crash reach the skies. and to keep their hands hi purity. With its re-echoing valleys Heemus received die noise. rushed forward with spiral shape. and the rocks of Pangoeum resounded. " Our B. they enemy when again renewed their course. having launched their javelins. headlong frenzy. The notes of the " lituus" are usually described as being harsh and shrill.

493. melting in the tract of air and liquefied with their heated masses*. vn. 506. 4 W/tere the tiristed coat of mail) ver. This part of the battle " At the same time is thus described by Caesar. they stood close. There. and his whole host of archers poured after them. a " Their shields closed together in a line) ver. upon which Pompey's horse pressed them more vigorously. blood is sought by all. through the foe do they seek a passage.PHAKSALIA. Then do both Iturseans. Where the twisted coat of mail. through arms. lies concealed. and poured them forth along the extremities of the battle. " Nexis umbonibus probably does not mean that their shields were fastened together. followed. B. and Medians. 513. but that they stood in close and serried ranks in one continued line. but pave ground a little. It was a notion of the ancients that the stones or metal plummets discharged from their slings became redhot in their course. densely to Roman vitals. overthrowing the weight of tinies so vast. rushed forth at once from his left wing. linked or hooked into one another. the other wage hands . joined their arms. in sweeping away the mighty ruins. each nation is mingling in the combat with weapons its own Roman . and began to file off in troops and flank our army. chilled. 93 Pompey's horse. according to their orders. even here do they reach the entrails. iii. disposed in deep bodies. He alludes to the flexible cuirasses or hauberks of chain mail which were worn by the Roman " hastati " or such as are mentioned spearmen . from the swiftness of their motion.presents its links. the light-armed soldiers. for moving their right hands and their darts. and they occasionally 1 : . With headlong course the furious troops of Caesar are impelled against the dense masses. scattered along the exterior of the maniples." 4 Liquejied with their heated masses) ver. and the breast. The ranks of Pompey. hot. When first the cavalry of Pompey 3 extended his wings over the whole plain. wedged together. on Caesar's side every guilty weapon waxes Nor is Fortune long. beneath a safe covering. and amid so many arms it is the vitals which each one pierces. and plummets. c. desfate rushing on. and. on the other torches and stones are flying. and. and sent forth their ruthless bands against the foe. hardly able to find room. 491-515. 276 [B. 3 Where first the cavalry of Pompey) ver. and Arabians. Civil war does the one army on the one hand the sword stands suffer. 498. their shields 1 closed together in a line and. On the one side arrows. kept their swords sheathed. Our cavalry did not withstand their charge. . probably by Virgil as made of rings.

were called in Greek. B. PHARSALIA. went so far as to assert that they melted and disappeared entirely. et seq. is wont to dissolve itself in mid-air. pursuing their success. but the ah. was betaking himself. discharged from the broad sling. c. 515-528. They have been frequently dug up in various parts of Greece. Hut with no criminality of foreign nations are 2 Stands collected all the guiltiness) ver. 93 perceived this. iii." or the javelin used especially by the llojnan soldiers. he suddenly sent forth a column. and not in extended line. exempt from the criminality of destroying fellow-citizens. the archers and slingers. 519. that not stantly charged Pompey's . By : their retreat. only quitted ground. keep in reserve 3 some cohorts in an oblique position behind the standards and on the sides of his line. that they might take the cavalry of Pompey by surprise. and to be feared by reason of no sense of shame. never aim their arrows. The account given by Lucan is not easy to be understood.plains of Marathon. wheeled about upon Pompey's left wing. whither the enemy. around the javeWith weapons lins stands collected all the guiltiness-. hovers over the fields. " As when the BaOvid says in the Metamorphoses. by the onset. they openly took to flight. B. They inrushed forward and horse with such fury. and a night. xiv." The " glandes. scattered about. Unmindful of the fight. : 5s|a<. were all cut to pieces. " take this. 7. 727. 3 In an It appears from oblique position behind the standards) ver. wheeling round and flanking them. 826 plummet. of guilt 1 do they stain the foreign steel.B.a man of them stood his not but all.] 277 multitude threatening with loosened bow. cast in moulds. 1. vii. 1 The weapons used by the yuilt) ver. All the wickedness of the warfare is confined to the " pilum. and were of a form between acorns and almonds. he gave the ." are inscribed with : .signal to his fourth b'ne. learic sling throws forth the plummet of lead it flies and becomes red-hot in " its course. ii." that Caesar had placed these reserved cohorts at right angles to his other three lines . and finds beneath the clouds the fires which it had not before " Just as the leaden and B. Thus. See the Note to B. his own wings unmoved. which he had formed of the six cohorts. and the same may be said of that of Caesar. in " When Caesar the Civil War. the expression " obliqua. not well icas As soon civil warfare ever entrusted to barbarian troops. wrought by the darts. . being left destitute and defenceless. The cohorts. 1. probably keeping them in the background." or " " plummets mentioned by Lucan. their post. i.alone is sought which impends over the But with no criminality plain thence fall various deaths. Then did Caesar. . but galloped forward to seek a refuge in the highest grounds. fearing lest his front rank mightbe shaken . ^Ay/JS/Ssf." his infantry still continued to make buttle. 517. whilst and attacked them in the rear. wheeling about. the heaven is concealed. while others . 1. and particularly on the Some have the device of a thunderbolt. 522. .

Rogntae Pompeians stand only meaning mercenary or foreign . " " * 1 No alien hands) ver. It is singular that in a Fly from portion of manner Caesar omits to give any further particulars of the battle after the charge made on the cavalry by his fourth line. Pompey's men were not able to maintain their ground. and others having made an attack on their rear. side. Pharsalia. aid of kings are waging the war. here frantic rage here. the Cappadocians and the Gauls. My soul. this the tear/ore) ver. Here is frenzy. here paused. similar : which till then had not been engaged. new and fresh troops having come to the assistance of the fatigued. . the youths rushed on upon their own ranks. They had now come to the strength of Magnus and the mid ranks. Would that. 549. but on the one hand with their throats on the other with the sword. and it was no battle that 1 ensued. as the charger. are 3 thy crimes. in its wandering course. myself the Poet of : . troops enlisted. The war. and the Iberians from the extremity of the world. must have its beginning with those sue cohorts. the Armenians and the Cilicians . for thy plains that blood which barbarian breasts pour forth would suffice that the streams might be changed by no other gore. for after the civil wars these will form the Roman people. but had kept their post Thus. each horseman fled from the field. The to be killed. trod upon the limbs of the rider hurled upon his head. c. 3 552. the war was waged nor was the one army able to lay low as many as were able to perish on the other . that this throng nii^lit for thee cover whole fields with bones or if thou dost prefer to be glutted with Roman blood. On the one hand iritA their throats) ver. Caesar. his breast pierced with the weapon. and. Once commenced. this spot their fathers. . turning Then bridle. and no alien hands* wield the sword this spot contains their brothers. bnt all fled nor was Caesar deceived in his opinion that the victory. m 328-553. crowded together.PHARSALIA. which he had placed as a fourth line to : . the people of Caesar fight only to slay. 533. except the following few " At the same time Caesar ordered his third line to words. . and to the Fates is an impulse given in favour of Caesar. did the carnage lose all bounds. had strayed over whole fields. spare the others. and. fly from this portion of the warfare and leave it to the shades of night. 94 advance. . which. 278 [B. the panic reaches all. . as he had declared in his speech to his soldiers. and the fortune of On this spot no youths collected by the Ccesar delayed. I entreat let the Galatians and Syrians li ve.

568. exciter of their rage. just as Bellona shaking her blood. who takes a pleasure in fighting. Bellona. 1. He himself with Ins own hand supplies falchions. oppose the horse. 569. about to pour forth all their blood. the wife or sister of Mars. who with alacrity wages the war at command. let civil warfare. done.] 279 no age learn how great is the licence in Perish rather these tears. a witness to the martial prowess of his soldiers. too 1 . Wherever he roves. was the " Mars. which ones are shining stained with blood just at the point only. Rome. if with severe lashes he urges on his chariot steeds frightened by the ^Egis of Pallas. He stanches the blood of his men. by them the left wing of Pompey's army was surrounded. or Mavors. 565. Here Caesar. and arms resound with the weight of the falling breast. he himself stanches 2 by placing his hand against them. by pressing down the severed vein with his fingers. and obliged to be the first to fly. i. vii. he surveys the carcases strewed over the wide plains. goes to and fro around the troops and adds flames to their fired hearts. 3 Just as Bellona) ver. as brandishing a blood-stained See B. too) ver. stained whip. by them the archers and slingers were cut to pieces . It is probable that he here obscurely refers to the order given by Caesar to his men to aim at the faces of the Eo- . upon it I will be silent. which hand falters in pressing home the sword. 4 Or Mars inciting) ver. 4 The opposing faces) ver. 2 He himself stanches) ver. scourge. and bids them mangle the opposing faces For by them the cavalry was routed . he examines the swords. All this is only an invidious way of informing us that Caesar was everywhere. a vast night of crimes and slaughters ensues. and 5 provides darts. 553-575. and the Note to the passage. lest upon any side his guilt may prove unavailing. Mars was especially an object of worship with the Bistonian or Thracian nations. " Mavors. the prompting fury of his people. in this battle thou hast complaints. who it is that bears his weapons but languidly. or Mars inciting 4 the Bistonians." Havers. is represented also by Horace and Virgil." 1 He examines the swords. 560-65. and swords shivered against swords. :i . who changes countenance on a fellow-citizen being slain ." Varro says that Manners was the Sabine original form of the name name of the God . and groans like one immense cry. and the woes so great. and perish these Whatever. who tightly grasped. but the word is more generally thought to have belonged to the Oscan dialect. The wounds of many. which ones are dripping all over with gore. PHARSALIA. 567.B. 575.

He forbids their hands to be directed against the common people. Brutus thou didst wield! O honor to the state. the meaning is. Brutus) ver. thinks that that Caesar. Metelli. Magnus. being afraid that the spirits of his men might be damped on beholding the countenances of their relatives and friends. " a sword intended i'or what a purpose. they slay. 3 There. 4 And those teith the names of Torquatus) ver. . it certainly contrasts unfavourably with the fact that at this battle Cx-sar had given orders to his men not to slay Brutus. 320 and 627. 1 . and He knows well which is the blood points out the Senators of the state. which are the vitals of the republic in which 2 in which spot stands direction he is to speed on to Home to be smitten the final liberty of the world. probably for the sake of his mother Servilia. . . on which. and unknown to the foe. It does not appear that the names have come down to us of any of the Lepidi. " Quod ferrum. had given an order that aim should be taken at the faces of all indiscriminately. according to Plutarch. 586. 584. who fell at the battle of Pharsalia. to spare him. which was generously granted by the conqueror without hesitation . for the purpose of slaying Caesar if he could find the opportunity. pressed upon by the sword Lepidi they slay. 5S7.PHARSALIA." * . man One of the Commentators. 57S. 280 [B. with their weapons. He himself urges on the ranks and onward drives the backs of his own men those slackening he forces on with blows of his. 5 There. Brutus informed Caesar of Pompey's to Egypt. Here he wrote a letter to Caesar entreating his pardon. lance reversed. 2 He is to speed on to Rome) ver. and the chiefs of men. If this story is true. . 581. :i . and those with the names of Tor4 quatus often the rulers of kings. excepted. 3 Mingled irlt/i the eecond rank) ver. Corvini as well. . Patricians are slaughtered indiscriminately with those of the Equestrian order. 575-591. or Torquati. last name of a race for ages so renowned. Through the shedding of whose blood he will arrive at the sovereignty of Rome. this conjecture 1 is supported by what is Points out the Senators) ver. concealing thy features in a plebeian helmet. thee. rush not too rashly through the midst of the foe. too. final hope of the Senate. concealing tJty features) ver. vii. so that they might not be able to recognize individuals. and that patricians. points out the patricians as the especial objects of attack. said in He 11. flight What a veapon. 580. He means that Brutus was disguised as a common soldier. what a weapon." meaning. but did not accompany Pompey any further. Janus Rutgersius. Metelli. Mingled with the second rank the nobles and the venerated bodies are . and hasten not for . Corvini. who had implored Caesar After the battle Brutus escaped to Larissa.

604." : * Through every reverse) ver. he fall amid a thousand wounds. intermingled. and having surpassed that human elevation. He alludes to the ill success which always attended Domitius in his campaigns against Caesar. c. .] 281 thyself too soon the fatal Philippi. valiant officers . There is no doubt that this passage is the pure result of Lmcan's malevolent feelings against the memory of Caesar. 591-607. in large . 99 fleeing from the camp to the mountains. B. doomed to perish in a 1 Thessaly of thy own Nothing there dost thou' avail by aiming at Caesar's throat not yet has he arrived at the summit of power. 6 My successor. his liberty saved. . surrendered to Sulla. 99 battle. he dies. a the vulgar not heaps patrician corpses lay on the plain amid the Still. by which all things are swayed. and he rejoiced to have been 5 Caesar beheld him rolling his spared a second pardon limbs amid the clotted blood. See B. . in the Civil War. See 1. Domitius"." 3 Death of the valiant Domitius) ver. and. but Caesar lost about thirty centurions. The Poet here falls into his usual error of confounding Thessaly with Thrace. slaughter of illustrious men the death of the valiant Domitius 3 was distinguished. In allusion to the pardon which he received from Caesar at Cornnium. 592. iii. let him reign.B. his strength being exhausted by fatigue. without thee now is the warfare . Several others took shelter in the neighbouring states. Domitius) ver. thou dost abandon the arms of Magnus. ii. "Now. however. exclaimed. 4 To have been spared a second pardon) ver. Here perished all the glory of thy native land . and that he may fall the victim of Brutus. waged. 607. Let him live. 598. as it is pretty clear that Caesar was not even present at his death. and the Note to the passage. was slain by the cavalry. 600. of Pompey's army there fell about fifteen thousand . 512-522. 2 Patrician corpses lay on the plain) ver. my successor. upbraiding him. whom the Destinies led through every reverse 4 Never did the fortunes of Magnus fail without him conquered by Then joyously did Csesar so oft. but upwards of twenty-four thousand were made prisoners . Because in especial Caesar of patrician rank to be slain. c." 1 In a Thessaly of thy own} ver. Caesar thus recounts the " In that losses of boih sides in this battle . . . had ordered those : no more than two hundred privates were missing. 1. has by the Fates been made deserving of so noble a death. Civil War. Caesar says. for even the cohorts which were stationed in the forts. PHARSALIA. " Lucius Domitius B. vii. Domitius was designed by Ponipey and the Senate to be Caesar's successor in the province of Gaul. 600. jii. 479.

the veins being severed. and to be about to pay a heavy penalty to Pompey and to us. to all ages of the world are we laid prostrate these swords is every generation conquered which shall be I upon deaths innumerable. . Greater wounds do nations receive from this battle-field than their own times can endure . who it was that trod upon entrails scattered on the ground . 633. Pharsalia had not those features of combat which other slaughters lutd there did Home perish by the fates of individuals. I go to the shades free and void of care. and by his extreme fury would prove to lookers-on that he whom he stabbed was not his father. but doubtful of thy fate. and : : dense shades pressed upon his eyes. who. or whom the lance pinned to the plain whose blood. . other slaughters had) ver. dying. Pontic and Assyrian . lopped off. who pierced the breast of his brother. while his limbs dropped down. and that he might be able to spoil the well-known carcase. that which perishes is more than life and by safety . and no individuals have we the leisure to mourn. ' . Magnus being my leader for thee to be subdued in the ruthless warfare. there flowed Achaean blood. to enquire into individual fates through whose vitals the deadly wound made its way . No death is deserving of a lament its own. and fell upon the arms of his foe . who received the darts right through the breast. who mangled the features of a parent. tracing them out. gushed through the air. . He spoke. Allia." Life fled from him having said no more. scruple to expend tears at the downfall of the world and. and he thus opened his dying " Beholding thee. stood upright.PHARSALIA. that which was there the death of a soldier. not yet in possession of the lips direful reward of thy crimes. while I die. Tieinum. who fell down at the blow who. the hostile sword being thrust into his jaws. but the breath of Domitius struggling in his breast sufficed him for a voice. TIL 608-641. breathed forth his soul . and Cannae. was here that of a nation . Caesar. the gore of all did the Roman torrent forbid to remain and stagnate upon the plain. threw afar the head cut off. . Trebia. 1 Which Such as the Roman defeats at Thrasymenus. here by multitudes . 282 [u. it is allowed me to hope. and less mighty than thy son-in-law. .

Nor to the chieftain is courage wanting to rush upon the swords. Magnus can possibly be wretched. the unfortunate. I have sons so many pledges have I given to the Fates. vn. the wretched Magnus perceived that the Gods Now had and the destinies of Eome had forsaken him . and over the chieftain the earth may fall or else from Csesar's eyes he . as is the way of rishing with bloodshed so great. together with himself. so many bodies lying prostrate. If still more wounds of mine please you. I have a wife. on tune. Eevolves in his mind appeals to the clemency of the Gods. . . by way of some consolation for this solace the magnitude of his calamities. while the battle hindered.B. why dost thou strive to destroy all things? . and denies that he is of value so great. lay With weapons so many he beheld his destinies concealed. thou shouldst have given warfare as well.] 283 How have the succeeding race. attacked. Fortune. which. the world still existing and Eome surviving. Fortune. he endures even yet to deem the inhabitants of heaven worthy of his prayers. does he take pleasure in dragging. PHARSALU. lay all nations prostrate . and he rides around the arms and the standards and the smitten troops on every side. 1 Reflects upon of his misfortune) ver. whence he could behold all the carnage scattered over the Thessalian fields. high. arms with fear? Or did we cover up our throats? The punishment of others' fears sits heavy upon our necks. . hardly prevailed upon by the whole slaughter to rebuke his own forHe stood upon a rising ground of the plain. If. 641-673. deserved to be born to thraldom? a slave. the body of Magnus laid low. and himself peNor yet. the world being exempted? Why dost thou rend everything. and to submit to death with throat or with breast but he fears lest." Thus he speaks. 653. by involving nations in his own ruin that after himself the greatest part of the Latian multitude may survive. and he calls them back as they rush upon a speedy death. Now. . Is it too little for a civil war if myself and mine thou dost overwhelm ? Is our downfall a trifle. to those born after the battle thou dost give a tyrant. ye Gods of heaven." he says. nothing is my own. or how the grandDid we wield children. and reflects 1 this solace of his misfortune upon " to " Forbear. the soldiers may not fly. everything to sink.

: . 690. ." 3 Not one vJw continues in arms) ver. attended by only thirty horse. and went on board a victualling ship. Nor could the troops who were posted on the battlements long withstand the immense number of our darts. free from care thou dost depart . Magnus. witness of thy death. " 1 It is fated that Crcsar must be the Willing to lehold it) ver. and by the Fates flight. its dignity preserved. but. collecting a few of his flying troops. in the Civil War.PHARSALIA. Caesar. no is there. as they began the flight. his wife. . and call the Gods to witness. went hastily with all speed to Larissa nor did he stop there. 673-691. that he was almost persuaded that he had been betrayed by those from whom he expected victory. and showing 1 . nor its losses see thee dejected and weeping. but. the weight of fate laid aside. c. He alludes to the battle which continued at the camp of Pompey after he himself had fled we find " The it thus mentioned in the Civil AYar. wishes to remove his death. dies as . 96. and stripping out of the back gate of the camp and off his general's habit. what thou wast thou now hast the opportunity to know. 13. 3 that not one who continues in arms now. as we have been told. 677. No sighing." a The charger bears Magnus away) ver. 2 Then. " B. so well remembered. and halting neither day nor night. and thy features. Magnus. iii. had their thoughts more engaged on their further escape than on the defence of the camp. the charger bears Magnus away from the combat. now thou hast leisure to look back upon joyous times hopes never to be fulfilled have gone . that he had been so deceived in his expectation. iii. For the soldiers who had fled for refuge to it from the field of battle affrighted and exhausted by fatigue. often complaining. Unhappy man. and his grief is deserving of respect. he arrived at the sea-side. art the cause of his in some place. which he will willingly be. c. willing to behold it But thou. . with the galloped same dispatch. too. to thy must the head be shown father-in-law. 675. much as faithless Fortune has proved below thee when exulting in three triumphs. vii. fainting under their wounds. not fearing the darts at his back. as soon as our men had forced the trenches. it becomes thee to show "With countenance not changed for the woes of Home. Fly from direful battles. such as. has it been decided that he shall die in thy presence. mounting his horse. Now. In vain. 284 [u. but with much more spirit by the Thracians and foreign auxiliaries. spurred on. thus records the flight of Pompey after the battle : Pompey. magnanimity amid this extremity of fate. having thrown away their arms and military standards. 97 camp of Pompey was bravely defended by the cohorts which had been left to guard it. so much has she when unfortunate. thou dost look upon Emathia neither shall the successes of war behold thee proud.

and thyself expelled thence. as the first witness of thy downfall. the other in Phthiotis. and the carnage on the Pharian so too. PHARSALIA. the latter is probably the one to which Pompey fled. 3 With all her citizens) ver. unconquered by the Fates. and not to have beheld those horrors. 1 Tke carnage on tfce Pharian stream) ver. have left the warfare. 692. fought by the Egyptians against Caesar. and -/Egypt behold cities by thee. near the Maliun Gulf. resound. and Libya. nor yet the battle of Munda fought by Cneius and Sextus. battle commenced waged in Africa at Pharsalia after the flight of Pompey. prevent the people from weeping. will be Liberty and Cfesar . the dying Senate shows that it was for itself Driven afar. one in Pelasgiotis. nor yet the Alexandrian war. and kingdoms bestowed. and just stream '. but rather in a struggle where Caesar and Liberty were the antagonists." 2 Larissa. 285 just as Africa to be lamented with her reverses. as fatal Munda. believe the Gods. and have pity upon thy father-in-law. can be said to have been engaged in for the cause of Pompey. won pliant features behold potentates . nor yet the war by Scipio. forego tears and mourning. to the high mountains which joined the camp. 691-714. beholds thy noble and With all her head. See the Note to 1. 714. does it not give thee pleasure to it fought. thou shalt endure. the troops drenched hi gore ? Look back upon the rivers clouded by the influx of blood." In quitted the place. with no sup. an exile alone in unknown regions. select a re- gion for thy death. name be revered by nations throughout the world. He probably means the Alexandrian war. ~ Larissa. This does not agree with the account given by Caesar of the flight of Pompey through Larissa without staying there. a sequel to the Civil War.B. fled. 98 we learn that these capitulated to Caesar. There were several places of this name. citizens 3 does she pour forth her entire strength through and under the conduct of their centurions and tribunes without stopping.] for thee . " Neither the c. placed in the power of the Pharian tyrant. With what breast shall he enter Eome. and Julia. and two in Thessaly. the sons of Pompey. vii. to conquer was still worse. Cato. 712. as the first witness) ver. whatever. The meaning is. believe the lasting favour of the Forbid lamentations to Fates. Free from care. 677- . nor be the prompter of the war but the pair of rivals which we always have. made more happy by these fields ? Whatever. As much shall the world venerate the woes of Pornpey as his successes. after thy departure is the greatest portion No longer now shall Pompey's of the Thessalian fight.

But. urged his soldiers not to be too intent on plunder. [u. to thee is against the relentless Gods. and the tents are covering the treasures 1 Present the nations unto thee) vcr. Caesar. present the nations unto thee *. 727. thou canst again It is clear that less all nations to arms. Pompey. the walls .PHARSALIA. granted real experience of the love which thou didst seek. B. While prosperous one knows not that he is beloved ~. and about to perish for no purpose. Because he might suppose that regard was had rather to his elevated position than to himself. cessful. and much of thy illustrious name than thy former self alone. conquered man of nations or of cities?" he says. Behold. But. c. filled with all kinds of metal. the camp." says he blood the reward is now remaining 3 which it is my office to point out for I will not call it bestowing that which each one will give unto himself. not fearing lest this command may prove harsh to soldiers wearied and overpowered with the battle. while Fortune waxes hot. and again resort to the fatality of " What need has a war. weeping they send before to thee. * Knows not that lie is beloved) ver. 723. 286 vn. Caesar. 7H-742. thy reverses. . hi. surrenders unto thee the mastery of nations. . Caesar says the contrary in " Caesar his Civil War. when he beheld that the fields had sufficiently overflowed with Hesperian blood. is open here lies the gold torn from the : . and rest by night dispel their fears. 97 having possessed himself of Pompey's camp. . while terror effects everything. 3 The reward is now remaining) yer. left the troops to live as though worthless lives. gifts to . that the camp may not invite them . now thinking that he ought to spare the swords and the hands of his men. Magnus. and lose the opportunity of completing their conquest" : . as though sucmeet thee on thy way tlieir temples. in his hatred of bloodshed. is left. and many a rebuke of the multitude Now. we have an abundant victory. "put faith in the conqueror. and its reward. still on the high heap of carnage art wading amid but now does thy son-in-law the entrails of thy country urge . The charger bears Pompey away from there sighs and tears follow him. back when routed. their houses they open themselves they wish to be partners in. forthwith he resolves to attack the entrenchments of the enemy. Through no great exhortation are the soldiers to be led to the plunder " " for our Men. . 738." Thou. Hesperian nations.

The Tagus. 761." 2 Whatever gold the Iberian digs up) ver. The unscrupulous commonalty take their slumbers upon the Patrician sods 5 the worthless private soldier presses the couches left empty by kings and on the beds of fathers. 758. and the Note to the passage. . . its 3 See B. he is deceived in hopes thing . 1 Full many a mass of lullion heaped up) ver. and to tread under foot the slaughWhat trench. to get before those whom you pursue . Take 753. PHARSALIA. 756. to rush over swords. who had always been in want of common necessaries. iii. -'. a large quantity of plate set out. 1. was noted in the times of the Romans for 1. iv. J3. When the victor has bespoken for himself 4 when he has promised himself everythe Tarpeian towers in of the spoil of Rome. their slumbers upon the Patrician sods) ver.] 287 The collected wealth of so many kings and of together. Magnus be torn from the conquered which Pharsalia has made your own. 298.B. and many other things which were proofs of excessive luxury. he urged them on frantic and blinded with greed for gold. golden sands. and let the wealth. 96 : " In Pompey's camp you might see arbours in which tents were laid. . and upon the carcases of parents. plundering a camp alone. They found indeed. Not content with hopes were fixed upon sacking the Capitol (in which was the spoil. what rampart could withtered chieftains. See the Note . stand them seeking the reward of war and of crimes ? Onward they flew to know for how great wages they had been been spoiled." And no more having said. Though they should seize whatever gold the Ibewhatever the Tagus yields. the world having guilty. Caesar gives the following short account of what was found in Pompey's camp. 755. they will think that this criminality has been sold at a trifling price. c. 4 the Bespoken for himself the Tarpeian towers) ver. * for the expenses full many a mass of bullion heaped up of the wars but it did not satisfy minds craving for everything. iii. so that it might readily be inferred that they had no apprehensions of the issue of the day. in Portugal. the tents of Lucius Lentulus and others shaded with ivy. and yet upbraided with luxury Caesar's army. waits for possessors. 281. of the East. Tlie enriched Arimaspian) ver. their public treasury) of 4 to 1. 753. and a confidence of victory . vn. make haste. the floors of the tents covered with fresh sods. See the Note to B. soldiers. whatever the rian digs up enriched Arimaspian 3 gathers from the surface of the sands. distressed and suffering troops. Rome. 742-763. as they indulged themselves in unnecessary pleasures.

that one the figures of youths . from which circumstance the Furies were said to have received. 763-784. . and that the whole air was teeming with ghosts. Him do all the swords. This one sees the features of aged men. him do the monsters of hell scourge. No otherwise. Alas ! how vast a punishment does his conscience. his own image of terror weighs heavy upon each. until his sister Iphigenia. their name of Eumenides. wretched men. and in all their thoughts they brandish arms. had killed his mother Clytemnestra. when Pentheus raved. when Agave raged or when she ceased to rage. and frantic slumbers agitate wretched. " This line. and sleep presents hissings and flames ." 3 Not purified Agamemnon and When Orestes. " Each one sees the 2 ver. in this breast is a father . not purified as yet at the Scythian altar 3 . Of them. Probably the contempt with which Pentheus regarded the rites of Bacchus (for which he was torn to pieces by hia mother and the Bacchanalian women) is the madness or frenzy here alluded to by the Poet . and on . descendant of Pelops." " When Pentheus raged. punctuated. descendant of Pelops. With Caesar are the ghosts of all) 776. 777. is probably the correct translation. spirit of some slain relative. he was haunted by the Furies. the son of at ike Scythian altar) ver. vn. as a Euphemism. they revolve the Thessalian combat in their breasts. though not adopted by Grotius. ant quum desisset. behold the features of the Eumenides nor. Agave. of whom she was the priestess. " or when Agave ceased to rage. their hands are hi motion. . 1 The hissings of the Furies as Presents hissings and flames) ver. does victory demand a sad retribution. which either Pharsalia has beheld or the day of vengeance is destined to behold. and the night above with Stygian horrors. 4 When Pentheus raved. Pentheus. may be translated two different ways. those of brothers the guilty men lay their limbs whom a frenzied rest. and that the guilty earth had exhaled spirits." The former. 772. or when Agave had ceased to rave 4 were they more sensible of astounding tumults in their minds. had purified him . You would suppose that the plains were groaning. at the altar of the Tauric Diana in Scythia. the Senate unsheathing them. differently Quum fureret. did Orestes. 288 [B. The ruthless bloodshed stands before them all in their sleep." or Than Penthens did. upon that night oppress . 780. and.PHABSAMA. or when Agave had ceased to rave) ver. the shade of the slaughtered fellow-citizen is there . with Caesar are the ghosts of all ~. but Caesar is haunted by the ghosts of all. they shake their burning brands and viperous locks.stricken mind ' . another one do the carcases of brothers affright throughout all his slumbers. the hilt away.

] upon him inflict l 289 in his wretchedness. and exposes Emathia to a noisome atmo3 sphere. . He beholds rivers swollen with gore. having suffered all these things. it matters . and piles flattened down hi corrupted gore. counts Ike people of How great pangs does his conscience cause Magnus) ver. " Donat " . from which he may recognize their features and He is delighted not to see the Emathian faces as they lie. his wrath not yet satiated with slaughter. Not him do the Carthaginian burier of the Consul and Cannae. the Roman Consul. 792. PHAKSALIA. instruct how but to observe the customs of men with regard to his foes he remembers. hold the Thessalian flames. heap up the groves of Pindus pile up the woods raised aloft with the oaks of (Eta let Pompey from the mam be. having its origin in the Poet's imagination. hi that he beholds the shades below. ! the aspect of the place call away his eyes riveted upon the fatal fields. or whether the pile destroys the carcases. ground. Pompey being yet alive. and Tartarus heaped upon him in his slumbers Still. and separate funeral piles do we ask grant but one fire to and in no distinct flames let the bodies be Avhole nations burned. banquet." &c. had the body of Paulus JEmilins. Not individual graves. 3 Hannibal Carthaginian burier of the Consul) ver. whereas on his death : they will be increased?" while seeing. burned. 784-810. with funeral all the honours due to his rank. than most of the conquerors of ancient times. And that ha his fury he may not lose the joyous spectacle of his crimes. 1 Inflict upon him) " ver.B. after the bright day has unveiled to him the losses of Pharsalia. Pompey sur- he beholds Styx. . No him is an unmore humane doubt this Caesar was truth. . 784. and he looks upon bodies equalling in heaps the lofty hills. not at all does viving. who was slain at the battle of Cannae. 799. own they were his fellow-citizens. U . 1 He " or. . in that. and he counts the 2 and that spot is made ready for a people of Magnus . vii. that . this How word may admit of two much punishment does his conscience remit to him. lighted up with the Libyan torch. Or if vengeance on thy son-in-law pleases thee. Nought by this wrath dost thou avail whether putrefaction. interpretations by seeing the horrors of hell. and to survey with his eyes the plains lying hid beneath the carnage. in the blood does he behold Fortune and the Gods of heaven his own. he denies the fires of the pile to the wretched slain.

Csesar . and the lions left Pholoe. and. Death is secure from Fortune the earth receives everything which she has produced he who has no urn is covered by the heavens. in the by a universal of the on the Nature Gods. One pile in common is left for the world destined to mingle the stars with its bones. 2 One pile in common is left for the world) ver. 826. if ? thou canst. why dost thou fly from this slaughter ? Why dost thou desert not . and the laboriously-wrought fabric of the universe should be in danger of Lactantius also mentions that the Sibyls predicted that the perishing. Not only the Htemonian. Seneca. And now the to the direful 1 With the earih it mill consume) ver. the carnage-smelling fields Quaff these waters. Not higher than they shalt thou ascend into the air. " Hoc utere cffilo." 3 ver. this heaven . with the earth it will consume *. bears desert their dens." world should perish by fire. to whom nations are paying the penalty by a death xmgraced with burial. with the waters of the deep it will consume. at which the sea. '-'. 200 [u. Ovid " He remembers. seized by the flames. expresses a belief that the world will be destroyed Plato. . this air :J . thou this : Inhale. Thou. vn. that it says. obscene dogs their abodes and homes. mentions the same destined termination of the It was a doctrine of the Stoic philosophers presen* state of the universe. the victor put to flight. possess the plains. . should be burned. Cfesar. . Cicero. 810-831* nature receives back everything into her placid bosom. At the time when the world shall burn in the universal conflagration. that a time should come. 814.PHARSALU. i. 813. but the Bistonian wolves 4 came inhale. Then did scenting the carnage of the bloody combat. if "use 4 " canst. the earth. and whatever besides with acute scent was sensible of the air impure and tainted by carrion. B. These nations. and that on the cessation of this nourishment the conflagration of the universe would ensue. air) Literally. Bistonian wolves) ver. in his Treatise world being subjected in cycles to the action of fire and water. and an end of themselves to themselves do the bodies owe. in the Metamorphoses. But from thee do the putrefying nations snatch the Pharsalian fields. if now the fire does not consume ///<//(. L 256-7 was in the decrees of Fate. that the stars were nurtured with moisture. thither these souls as well are wending. banquet of the war. too. alluding to the air being tainted by the bodies of the dead. and the palace of heaven. in his Consolation to Marcia and his Quaestiones Naturales. not in a more favoured spot shalt thou lie beneath Stygian night. 822. Timaeus. speaks of the conflagration. Whithersoever Fortune shall summon thine own. The wolves scented the dead even from distant Thrace.

with the fatal results of crimes so numerous.B. v. l flocked together. as already mentioned. departed later than usual 2 for the balmy south. 512. which the sun. torn to pieces. 1. who are wont to change) ver. and every tree dripped with gouts of gore from the blood-stained birds. the greatest part of the Latian multitude lay. B. and for a second crime shalt thou afford the fields not yet Should it be allowed us to overdry from this bloodshed. 4 Beneath the ancient roots) ver. He uses the licence of the Poet in making the Thracian cranes scent the dead and hasten to feed upon them. who are wont to change the Thracian winters for the Nile. and small reptiles. You. v-n. a mistake. Never with vultures so numerous did the heavens cover themselves. And thus. and from its now weary talons the bird threw down the limbs. disappeared in the beasts of prey the entrails within they cared not for. and the showers. 1 You. 833. 1. iii. Loathed. and. 831-857.] PHAESALIA. and B. nor were they greedy to suck out all the marrow they lightly tasted of the limbs. with what guilt so great hast thou offended the Gods of heaven. Every grove sent forth its fowls. and those which beneath the ancient roots 4 . 199. when decomposed. Thessaly. on their way to the banks of the Nile. mingled. with the Emathian earth. both the sepulchres that stand. throw all the tombs of our ancestors. and lapse of time. not all the people were reduced to bones. . that long had followed the civic warfare. 856. " Radice vetusta. common to him with others of the Latin poets. 853. but See only to the extent of feeding upon worms. 832. 3 Shalt fresh combats ensue) ver. Inasmuch as they stopped short in Thessaly. or did wings more numerous beat the air. hirds. and thinks that fig-trees U 2 . insects. lirds. unhappy land. Buffon admits that they are carnivorous as well as granivorous. 2 Departed later than usual) ver." One of the Scholiasts takes "radice" here to mean the roots of the trees which had taken fast hold of the foundation of the tombs. that thee alone with deaths so numerous. The Poet commits his usual error of taking Philippi to be identical with Pharsalia . Full oft upon the features of the victor and the impious standards did either blood or corrupt matter flow down from the lofty sky. 291 fowls of the air. they should afflict ? What length of time is sufficient for forgetful antiquity to pardon thee the calamities of the warfare ? What crop of corn will not rise discoloured with its tinted blade ? With what ploughshare wilt thou not wound a Roman ghost ? First shall fresh combats ensue 3 .

defeated Sextus. as though uninhabitable by men either by reason of the tract of unendurable heat. and Leucas. 1. . and the Note to the passage . the younger son of Pompey. . 870. it shows itself equally guilty. 857-872. have emptied their urns. bare and unknown thou wouldst have lain. their structures burst asunder. 292 [B. ashes more numerous are ploughed up in the furrows of the Hamionian earth. and are " Lemaire thinks that " radice vetusta merely means the lowest foundations of the tombs themselves worn out with old age. . " By setting the example of bloodshed you lead the world to be guilty. and Mutina. 41. have rendered Philippi free from guilt. and more bones are struck against by the harrows that cultivate the fields. . where the Consuls Hirtius and Pansa were defeated . at least of the more Juvenal and Martial mention a superstition that these trees sible to penetrate even through rocks. Gods of heaven. Agrippa. by the readiness with which it follows your example. the lieutenant of Augustus. 871-2. nor any ploughman have moved the the husbandmen. or of freezing. why The carnage of Hesperia 2 and the the whole world ? tearful wave of Pachynus. ! . 1 Why do ye render guilty) ver. . be it allowed us to hate this hurtful 1 absolve land Why do ye render guilty the whole. i. vii. Munda in Spain. where the forces of Pompey were defeated. grow from the liver of the dead. near the Leucadian Promontory and of Naulochus and Mylae off the coast of Sicily (of which Pachynus was a Promontory). which was fought by Augustus and Antony. would have fled from the fields of the ghosts and no shepthickets would have been without flocks herd would have dared to allow to the cattle the grass springing up from our bones and. earth. been guilty of the criminality of the warfare. (see B. if thou hadst not only first. the grave of the Roman race the too. classes. but alone.) of Actium. of Mutina. No mariner would have loosened the cable from the Emathian shore. and destroyed his naval supremacy. Vipsanius are alluded humble to. where M"." * The He alludes to the battle of carnage of Hesperia) ver. . which were planted near the graves.PHARSALIA.

159-201. for 35-49. the king of Parthia. By whose order it is embalmed. 345-8. He swer. At night he addresses the pilot of the ship and orders him to avoid the coasts of Italy The people to leave to fortune the course of the ship. indignation. Pompey. 4 Of tlie Hcemonian wood) ver. and the Note to the passage. 687-691. 621-636. who carries it to Ptolemy. and buryattendant of burns Cordus. His last words. an the on the shore. and deliberate what steps to take. Arriving in Cilicia he addresses his companions. 1-34. He is there murdered in the sight of Cornelia by Septimius and Achillas. 1. seeking the desert hy-paths of the Hsemonian wood 2 Magnus. Pompey join Cornelia. 50-71. 244-255. vi. Now. as he suspects the fidelity of the EgypHe is opposed by Lentulus. 202-243. 328-455. Pompey goes on board a small boat for the shore. B. Samos. The Poet deplores the fete of Pompey. 692-711. and concludes with imprecations against treacherous Egypt. and refusing the spur. taking Cornelia with him. Pamphylia. . 1. He flight 1 Beyond the vales of Hercules) ver. to apprehensions He are He embarks described.BOOK THE EIGHTH. Achillas is commisThe Poet expresses his grief and sioned by Ptolemy to do so. 128-146. 106-127. through which the Peneus running. The Poet again laments his fate. He follows the advice of Lentulus. Pothinus urges the King to slay Pompey. consoles his wife. in the vicinity of Lake Nassonis. 86-105. He despatches Deiotarus to seek aid for his cause. him to take refuge with Ptolemy. 663-686. whose arrives at Lesbos. 467-475. 256-327. 476-535. 596-620. commends their fidelity. These were ihe woods that lay at the foot of Mount Ossa. 712-793. CONTENTS. 536-538. 637-662. and gives it to Achillas. And then sails past Ephesus. in his wanderings confuses the uncertain traces of his flight and the intricate paths. 539-560. amid the regrets of the inhabitants. and Taurus. Khodes. the king of Egypt. and recommends them to take refuge with Fhraates. who advises tians and Numidians. The lamentations of Cornelia. urging on the steed exhausted with the . 147-158. and proceeds to Pelusium. 794-872. See discharges itself into the Thermaic Gulf. He leaves Lesbos. Septimius cuts off his head. arrives at the sea-shore in his flight. and of Ptolemy are in trepidation. The ministers and Thessaly. Leshos He Cornelia's an- of Hitylene welcome Pompey. 2. 72-85. This was the valley that lay between Mounts Ossa and Olympus. body ing the bones places over them a stone with an inscription. not far from Thermopylae. beyond the vales of Hercules * and the woody Tempe. 456-466. 561-595.

from his abject condition. on comparing the passage and this together. Eowe has the following " This is one of Note relative to this description of the flight of Pompey the passages which. by Martin : Lasso de Oropesa. " the neck wrenched asunder.. Many. ' . on occasion of his flight. I The fear that he gives to Pompey cannot but think he would have altered. the sudden revolution pression. " 1 He Credit. which was the occasion of his resolution to leave the field. 16. rumour not as yet having disclosed his downfall. and the Poet lie lelieves that) ver. vm. probably alludes He . 12. 294 [B. 11. at the mutations of events 4 and hardly was he himself a trustworthy informGrievous is it to Magnus. Although fallen from" his lofty summit." lelieves go only.PHABSALIA. and hi safety to pass through the world with an obscure name but Fortune demands from him in his affliction the punishment of her prolonged favours. fearful and afraid that the enemy is at his side. that the desire of seeing his wife. he knows that not yet is the price of his blood valueless. 25. " Avnlsti cervke. seems 3 For the torn-off head) Ter. is very unlike the character he himself. the Spanish Translator. He would prefer to be unknown to all nations. in the Seventh Book. mindful of his destiny. 5-25. whoever is ant on his own ruin. which reaches him from behind. and he condemns the exploits in Sulla's day* of his . starts with fear at the sound of the groves moved by the winds and that of his own attendants. strong of his fortunes. to imply. might in this place likewise be the reason for the fear and anxiety which he showed in his flight. he himself and. and survive such a loss as that battle was. . passage in the latter end of the foregoing Book. Now is he sensible that honors were too much hastened for him. signifying * Condemns the exploitt in Sulla's day) ver. and only flatters himself in thinking so. startles him. . 16. from a given any writer. where he is said to leave the battle with great bravery and constancy of mind. Thotigh it is very judiciously observed. a At the mutations rerum ex" of events) Vertigine " ." " " 4 ver. be himself would give for the torn-off head ~ of Caesar. he believes that still possesses a life of value as great as tliat which." Literally. if Lucan had lived to give the last hand to this work. As he followed the desert tracks the noble features of the hero did not allow him to conceal his station in a safe retreat. were astounded on meeting the chieftain 3. as they were repairing to the Pharsaliun camp. that he is mistaken." 3 Astounded on meeting the chieftain) ver. and burdens him with his former lot. It something the more remarkable. or indeed is has him. the witness of his woes. who presses hard upon his adversity with the weight of a fame so great.

1. Plutarch gives a similar account. upon the deep. a timid passenger.] . more sad than if thou wast Prestanding hi the midst of the plains of Emathia. and the Liburninus. ! to the triumph of Pompey over Hiarbas. Calycadnus. 25-43. bore him. " Who can 3 Except on having prepared for death) ver. Now hurled down it grieves him recollect both the Corycian fleets 1 and the Pontic Thus does an age too lengthened destroy standards a Unless the great spirits. however." is meant. . presume to look for prosperity." a second . the Cilicians. or Weise. 1. 37. The victories which he gained over Mithridates. fortune is the prelude to Does any one dare to surrender himself to a disgrace. oars even yet Corcyra shakes the master of the Cilicians and of the Liburnian land.PHARSALIA. thou didst bid him turn his sails towards the hi which land at that time thou secret shores of Lesbos didst lie concealed. ^ Poet . viii. 295 laurel-crowned youth. He alludes to Pompey's victories The Corycus here named was a city of Cilicia over the Cilician pirates. iii. 3 prosperous lot. in trepidation. 5 Even yet Corcyra shakes) ver. are those here alluded to. discharged From there a bark. in a little boat. in which he coasted along till he met with a ship of greater burden. He whose fleet was then master of Corcyra. where he mentions the triumph over Sertorius as the first of Pompey 's triumphs. took him on board. 1 Both the Corycian fleets) ver. who. the Leucadian coast. with a capacious harbour. his cares. king of Pontus. thinks that by " The passage is obscure. between the mouths of the Lamus and the Near it was the Corycian cave mentioned B. Partner of stole away. The is guilty of an error in the Seventh Book. and conveyed him to Lesbos. wind and waves. . now red with the Emathian carnage. Aspera. Cornelia. no means its agreed upon meaning. . which. recognizing Pompey.B. 226. 26. with whose 3 and the Leucadian bays. He. 33. contrary to the wishes of Sulla. in the morning he embarked in a little boat. king of Numidia. 32. We learn from Appian that on the sea-shore reaching Pompey lodged that night in the cottage of a fisherman .pates sorrows by a speedy death. and a life that survives empire. and the Commentators are * He had reached the shore) ver. 14. was at that moment obliged to take refuge iii a little boat. hardly safe on the shallows of a river. of which an officer named Petilius was captain. last day comes with the end of our blessings. and antici. 2 And the Pontic standards) ver. he gained when only in his twenty-fifth year. . some of the most skilful among the naval powers. unsuited for the itself into the sea. 26. except on having prepared for death ? He had reached the shore 4 through which the river Peneus. unless he is ready to meet death in case of failure?" " secundis fatis.

Why dost thou lose the moments for grief ? When now thou couldst be weeping. the ship drawing nigh. and in a few days arrived at Mitylene. . looking out upon the waves. and thence to Cyprus. coming over her. after he had of Pharsalia. or to endeavour to keep possession of Macedonia by new levies. 296 [a VHL 43-65. c. and grief besets her soul. and long does she lie deceived with the hope of death. that they should not come to Antioch: that if they did. Pompey surveys the vacant sands. that by consent of all the inhabitants of Antioch and the Roman citizens who traded there. if nobody pursued him. in the Civil War. he went to Cilicia.PHARSALIA. lay at anchor one night. the chieftain disfigured with paleness. Thy vanquished husband is come. and to conceal as long as possible his design of fleeing thither. Here he was detained two days. totter. and his garments squalid with black dust. and calling together his friends at Amphipolis. Lo a bark. the cable fastened to the shore. " B. should take the military oath . that all the young men of that province. a sad messenger of arms is come. Then. Grecians and Roman citizens. and now. no further than silent sighs do they allow them. the sum of thy fears. . There he was informed. fluttering afar thou art always the first to behold the sails of the approaching ship. nor dost thou venture to make any enquiries about thy husband's fate. but whether h( issued it with an intention of pre- left the field : A venting suspicion. forsaken by their smews. and ill-boding report. After the faithful handmaids behold him close at hand. trembling fears the shades departed. the castle had been seized in order to shut him out of the town . which spreads its canvas towards your harbours what it is bringing thou knowest not . Pompey 's movements. Now. afflicted. she leaps forward. it would be attended with imminent danger to their lives. and that messengers had been dispatched to all those who were reported to have taken refuge in the neighbouring states. and having added a few galleys to his fleet. 102 proclamation was issued by Pompey at Amphipolis. 50. thou dost run along the crags of steep rocks and the verge of the shore. with its shades. ' ! ! 1 Which spreads its canvas) ver. set sail from that place. and having his countenance overhung with white Darkness hairs. and marks the cruel judgment of the Gods." . upon advice of Caesar's approach. thou art stricken with fear. iii. sages arouse sad anxieties thy slumber is convulsed by Thessaly does each night present and. takes away the heavens and the light. and collecting a sum of money He for his necessary expenses. it is impossible to judge. all her limbs. are thus described by Caesar. her heart grows contracted.

4 Erinnys has conducted me as my bridal attendant) ver. and forbidden is it to increase. and because the virtuous throng of Senators. struggle with destiny. she had begun to feel the hands of Pompey. 297 selves with which to rebuke the Fates. Erinnys. Avith lamentations breaking forth into such complaints " O would that I had entered the marriage bed of hated : 3 Twice Caesar. woman. . but his fortunes have perished . is extreme. In my warfare thou hast borne no losses.B. both of whom were slain in the Parthian war. whom Magnus clasps to his breast. " Fasces . Now am I a still greater glory to thee." Kebuked by these words of her husband. 89. her second husband. ! . nor yet arms. while thy husband survives. because the emblems of state 2 . 90. an unhappy wife. Misplaced the grief. 1 J the titles Joyous in no husband) ver. and in vain do they attempt to raise their lifeless mistress from the ground. and troops so vast of Kings. that which thou dost bewail.] PHARSALIA. which. that alone hast thou loved. " the fasces. In this sex of thine the sole ground for praise is not the enactment of laws. l of ancestors so great ? Thou hast a road to a fame destined to endure for ages. and joyous in no husband have I proved injurious to the world Erinnys has conducted 4 me as my bridal attendant and the shades of the Crassi ." The "pronubae" were also tfce women who directed . but an : Elevate thy mind. and let thy dutyunfortunate husband. or one of the Furies. Begin to be the only one to follow Magnus. The blood now recalled to the surface of her body. 79. It ought to be thy last token of fidelity to mourn for thy husband. 73. nor yet in the unfortunate Pompey. Crassus Juno " Pronuba. literally." would be inauspiciously occupying the the son of place of M. Magnus forbids her to yield to fate. being " Pronuba. the Triumvir. have departed from me. P. and with his voice reproves her immoderate grief " Why. 65-91. and to be able to meet the sad looks of her husband. vni. dost thou fail in thy rendered illustrious by the titles high-born courage. at the first wound of Fortune. He alludes to her descent By from the family of the Scipios. After the battles Magnus still lives." the emblems of the Consular dignity. and love myself because I have been conquered. Neither in her first husband. Crassus. and with his embraces warms her enervated limbs. " 8 The emblems of state) ver. with difficulty she raised her weak limbs from the ground. of ancestors so great] ver.

hurl me. this has already committed a crime. v. most famous husband. no walls ought hi preference to be entered. 92. do thou come hither and exact the penalty. more Now take revenge. 1. deign to grace for even one night the walls devoted to thee by a sacred treaty." Thus having said. and the solitary bird uttered its mournful notes. howl. the inhabitants of suffered in their campaigns against ancient Assyria. 109. ii. if I was doomed to make thee long. we entreat. All places are able to hope for the favour of the conqueror. into the sea. vin. &1-118. a place which all : . See the Note to the passage." Ovid the marriage ceremony on the part of the bride." 1 had Borne the disasters Disasters such as the Romans of Assyria) ver. and the light waa waved with the : eepulchral torch. having by civil strife taken vengeance upon my nuptials. 3 Tkt rn. The heart of stern Magnus relents. and the Note to the passage. unworthy of my marriage bed. thou dost lie. Magnus. and appeased. 298 [B. expiate thy overthrow.. and again sinking into the bosom of her husband. And ages shall revisit. Ep. " Pellice. "Wherever ruthless Julia. O thou. the Parthians. thy rival slain 2 spare thy Magnus. ver. and have scared all the O v retched? submit to thee. More do I wish that I had laid down this life for the fortune of arms now at last. " the bridewomen." "Pellex" is here a Appeased. she melts the eyes of all to tears. See B. and eyes that were dry in Thessaly does Lesbos fill.PHABSALIA. and the whole world to. or has a similar passage to this in the Epistle of Phyllis to Demophoon. in the " Over that match did Heroides. and our household Gods thy allies make this.Uude of Mitylene) ver. . hospitable.uU. thy rival *Zat) ver. and have hurled nations head- 1 Assyria Gods from the better cause. thy partner. but such as I shall willingly In order that the ocean may be more propitious the fidelity of kings assured. 104. her hair wreathed with short serpents. used in the same sense as in B. . . Then does the multitude of Mitylene 3 upon the thronged shore thus address Magnus " If it shall always prove to us the greatest glory to have preserved the precious pledge of a husband so mighty. as well. which the Roman stranger on coming shall venerate. 786. By thee vanquished. do thou. 117-120 presiding Tisiphone Alecto was there. and devoted to those ghosts I have borne the disasters of to the civil warfare. L 23. had Fortune this control over a head so mighty ? Why impiously did I marry thee. iii. Magnus.

as I knew that Lesbos had already earned the wrath of Caesar. subdued in war. to enter then harbours. . vanquished. here was Home to me. is it to . I have shown to you by no slight pledge. asof ships. by his betrayal. he says " That there is no land 1 in all the world more dear to me.B. Plutarch informs us that when the people of Mitylene entreated Pompey to enter their city. and rejoicing for the sake of the world that fidelity still exists. if these youths are better suited for the land. sured of thy locality. so far as it is of service. if still thou art in any degree favourable to me. although. do thou. what lands there is righteousness. with everlasting fame.." He spoke. He means to say that he did not hesitate to put himself in their power. : 1 1 There is no land) ver. that thou mayst not appeal* both to have obtained our alliance when fortunate.] 299 what if this lies. my wife being sheltered there. . O renewed." Glad in his adversity at such affection in these men. 118-148. nor yet to leave them. and he placed his sorrowing partner on board the ship. . You would have supposed that all were changing you so great a ground to for pardon . accept them. : . he declined to do BO. Take them. 136. the extreme of my prayers grant me nations like to Lesbos who will not forbid me. sufficient have rendered you guilty. and where is guilt. lest Caesar should seize them. whether thou dost teach nations and kings to receive Magnus. over the whole world my destinies must be pursued by me. Take the wealth of the Temples and the gold of the Gods . Caesar my foe. a very different account from that here given. viii. they had the opportunity of easily making their peace with^ Caesar. take them make use of all Lesbos. not having feared to entrust 2 But now. Upon a known shore must the war . PHARSALIA. an island. This charge alone do thou remove from a land that deserves well of thee. or whether thou alone For I am resolved to seek hi (dost show fidelity to me. Alas! too happy Lesbos.if for ships. and to have repudiated it when unsuccessful. 129. To no shores in my flight have I before this turned my ship. By this hostage did Lesbos retain my affection here was my hallowed home and my dear household Gods. . and entreated them to be of good heart. and submit to Caesar. on the sea ? Caesar is in want A great part of thy nohles will collect here. 3 So great a ground for pardon) ver. Be-ceive. who was full of goodness and clemency .

humble in the extreme. he discloses his orb the watchful anxieties in 1 . but rather for her." This Con" stellation was called plaustrum. 1 To Aw mid fires) ver. it It is clear that the in steering for Syria. if any. nor to those to whom. 168-9. He means sun was above the horizon. he traverses the sea. 170. " Which star in the Constellation of Wain) ver. observed in steering for the coast of Africa. and misplaced in the extreme. 159. vra. and reproaching right hands were extended to the skies and less for Pompey. All this astronomical parade of the Poet has been generally deemed frigid. the allied cities of the Roman confederacy and the varying dispositions of kings. that half of the orb of the so as to be seen in its en- tirety neither by those to whom it was setting. and what stars he watches because existed. whom. cause of offence to not one of the multitude. . in which quarter he marks the land a what is his method of dividing the sea by the heavens . By us it is sometimes 4 Which fire in the Greater Bear the is . nor to their antipodes (if He expresses some doubt as to the antipodes. . and he consults the 2 pilot of the ship about all the stars . Now Titan. sinking to his mid fires in the sea. just as though her husband had been conquered. 300 [B. now to the remote regions of the world beyond oppressive suns extending. He enquires how. did the people lament on beholding her depart . 2 About all the stars) ver. they had looked on as their own fellow-citizen. by means of what Constellation he makes for 4 Syria. whom hardly. Wain. whose fortunes had aroused their grief. 3 In which quarter he marks the land) ver. throughout the whole period of the war. her fortunes still erect. some her integrity and the mo'desty of her chaste features. Full oft the sad struggle of cares and a distrust in the future cast aside the wearying fluctuations of his undecided breast. in such a manner did their land and their paternal soil they lament throughout all the shore. . she lived. inasmuch as. but Howe translates the passage as though describing the break of day.PHAESALIA. and half below it. or which fire in the Wain rightly points to Libya. by means of observing the stars. and the south. To Pompey 's now revert to breast . a sojourner. was not entire to those from whom he conceals. was a matter of discussion among the ancients whether they Poet here alludes to the setting sun . 167. could the matrons have now supposed to depart with dry eyes with so great love had her virtue attached to her some." from its fancied resemblance to a waggon a team called Charles's and of horses. to whom it was rising. 148-171. any). if she had been repairing to the camp of a victorious husband.

beyond PhaBut ros. and is the Cynosure brought nearer to the sea." or " Beenice's Hair. 4 Summit of the ropes of the mainmast yards) ver. with doubting breast Magnus answered: "Observe this alone throughout the whole ocean. 181. ' Then does Canopus receive us) ver. 218. and 1. now Fortune will provide a harbour. 177. unknown to northern climes. 1 " Servator Observer oftJie silent heavens) ver. we observe Canopus. deceiving wretched mariners. or Bootes. it declines." This star was also called " Coma Berenices. most still. 1. vni. we do not follow 2 Here. or Helice and Cynosura. steers towards the Bosporus and the North. or the Lesser Bear. 722 ." Literally. dreading Boreas speed onward with it also to the left. and leave Hesperia to the sea and sky leave the rest to the winds. 2 Most bright with the twofold Arcti) ver. " After passing Syria southward. ir. Then does Canopus receive us 6 a star content to wander in the southern sky. the Lesser Bear rises towards the zenith. in what direction dost thou command the sails to be set. towards Syria. ." Some have been the extremity of the sailyard. . " in what the canvas to be now spread with the sheet ? To him. " Ceruchi. and B. The Greater and Lesser Bears. 1. 3 the Lesser Bear rises before me and vertically ways when 4 stands over the summit of the ropes of the mainmast yards then do we look towards the Bosporus and the sea that winds Is Arctophylax descending 5 along the shores of Scythia. the heavens never standing but that pole which never sets. Olympi." It is not well ascertained what consider it to is the meaning of the word " ceruchus. : . that thy bark is always afar from the Emathian shores. while others have been the name of the rope which ran from the end of the Commentators take it to sailyard to the top of the mast. at all from the summit of the mast. a star of the south. on the other hand. As to Arctophylax. albright with the twofold Arcti guides the ships. 180. 176-7. then is the bark making towards the harbours of Syria. 171-192.] these words the skilled 301 observer of the silent heavens 1 makes answer: " The Constellations which fleet on in the star-bearing sky. 171. B. iii. .B. 540. 3 He means that when he The Lesser Bear rises vertically) ver. 4 Is Arctophylax descending) ver. but when he steers southwards." of a pilot." . PHAKSALIA. ii." . the bark in the mid sea will touch the Syrtes. " a rather periphrastic description or " keeper of Olympus " the watcher. My partner and deposited pledge have I regained then was I assured what shores I desired . 1. 252 . see B. 175. and Cynosura.

who had been in Lesbos during the Pharsalian campaign. those he tightens) ver. the Poet represents him as consulting the Thessalian enchantress. He was probably in another part of the island during his father's short stay there." description in B. and the bark not lookNot so dextering the same way. Weise seems to under" " stand " dedit and " tenet as meaning the same thing . has Fortune taken kings as his attend. those he tightens l at the stern. his younger son. seems not to be the case. 428. and tightens them at the stern. This was Sextus. follows after Magnus 4 and first from the shores of Lesbos his son comes to meet him s and then a faithful band of nobles. 8 Close to the turning-place iintotiched) ver. et seq." or wall in the midst of the Circus. but he turns the sails hanging hi equal degree from the level ends of the sailyards. Those who have escaped the Thessalian catastrophe." without touching it. they change their sound. at the time when. force the chariot to keep close to the turning-place untouched 3 Titan has now disclosed the earth and concealed the stars. at each end of which was the "meta" or " goal. in his fervent imagination. and to draw in the others. ously does the guide of the horses. end of the axle) ver. 1. 192-209. The meaning apparently is. however. he may not have felt any regard or sympathy for Cornefin. his object being to open out one angle of the sail See the (these being generally three-cornered). and that he may cleave the waves which the Samian rocks and which Chios renders rugged.PHARSALIA." or rather. " Dexteriore rota laevum quum circuit axem. For not from Magnus when hurled down by the Fates and worsted in fight. 200. and guides the ship to the left. when he sweeps round the left end of the axle 2 with the right-hand wheel. . Each one dispersed by the Emathian storms. 196. 5 His son comes to meet him) ver. 4 Follows after Magnus) ver. 302 [B- vm. that lie draws tight the sailyards both at stem and stern . 1 Loosens at the prow. The seas are sensible of the change. 201. 204. the beak in another direction cleaving the deep." When turning sharply round the turning-place the outer or right-hand wheel takes a circuit round the other end of the 2 Sweeps round the left axle-tree. This is the more probable as his mother Miicia having been Pompey's divorced wife. the chariot-race consisted of seven circuits of the " spina. that he loosens or lets out the ropes at the prow. . Among the Unmans. 204. by getting the inside place and turning close to the much " meta. for the purpose of running in a south-easterly course. hasten to follow him. on learning the direction in which Pompey has sailed. the inner or left-hand wheel standing almost still. these ropes he loosens at the prow. " Of course it was the object of the charioteers to save as turning-place. which." space as possible. and now. who was then at Mitylene. v. . Thus he speaks .

the earth. and at the time when Lucan wrote were probably dwelling to the east of the Caucasus. but probably a branch of the Massagetse. kings. ratified by your ma3 fill your quivers. 209-229. . for various reasons. and the nations that drink of Euphrates. to the passage. Beyond the realms of Cyrus. wherever it is lloman. The royal family of Partliia were descended from Arsaces. l who follows the flying track of his leader.] 303 ants an exile. 3 " He means confirmed and Ratified by your magicians) ver. 2 Proud descendant of Arsaces) ver. and to change the entire clime. 1 passage. seeking the destinies of Magnus. 227. the Punjaub of the present day. and pursued the hardy Alani 4 with their eternal wars. was in the country of Goryaea. when I sought the Caspian strongholds. and the Note plains) ver. TUT. and the confines of the Chaldsean sway. to penetrate to the remote abodes of the Medians and the Scythian retreats. 218. 55. It was situate at the confluence of the rivers Cophen and Choaspes. the Kaggar of the present day. where the rapid 6 Ganges and where the Nysaean Hydaspes approach the sea. * Pursued the hardy Alani) ver. and was probably the same place as Dionysopolis. nearer was I then to the fires of rising Phoebus than . 1. ii. 220. which is here alluded to. you. 210. . Deiotarus had made his escape from the coast of Thessaly in the same ship with Pompey. 1. O Parthians. and the Note to the lids Deiotarus) ver. 224. 1. and Tigris still safe from Csesar. has been lost by the Emathian defeat. . and to 2 carry my words to the proud descendant of Arsaces " If with me are still in force. i. included under the general name of Scythians. go to the remote regions " most faithful of " Since. or Nagara. 108. see B. permitting you to range at large in the Achsemenian plains 5 I never drove trembling in flight to well-defended Babylon. Object not. v. by the Chaldaean priesthood. * In the Achcemenian See B. he has the rulers of the earth and those who He wield the sceptres of the East as his companions. 223. He See B. They excelled in horsemanship. They finally became absorbed with the Hnns and the Vandals. 6 The Nysccan Hydaspes) ver. and stretch the Armenian bows gicians with Getan strings if. .B." who also aspired to the credit of ratified being deemed magicians. . bids Deiotarus of the world. were held sacred to Bacchus. PHAKSALIA." says he. it remains for us to try the fidelity of the East. sworn ancient treaties your unto me by the Thunderer of Latium. < . The name Nysa was given to several The Indian places which. 49. The Alani were a warlike people of Asia. Nysa.

Nor once do the descendants of Arsaces stand saved by the favour of Magnus. Pompey. as the treaty had been only recently made. it was situate on the western bank of the Euphrates. 236. Pompey dissuaded the Senate from continuing the Parthian warfare while they were engaged in the Gallic war." Its foundation is. that cannot be the meaning of the passage. in not following up the war with the Parthians and finally triumphing over them. the limits burst open 3 pass beyond the banks forbidden for ages. according to some. as already remarked. where a bridge of boats had been constructed by " Alexander. of Latium) ver. here But. and. See B. disguising himself. who was it that. quered. unless we agree with Burmann that per saecula means " for future ages. agreed upon between Pompey and King " " Phraates. After the defeat of the Crassi. 3 The limits burst open) ver. places.'" The King does not hesitate to obey him commanding an enterprise so difficult. that the Euphrates is alluded to as the boundary assigned. to the Parthian Empire. 237. however. I endured that * should be wanting to my triumphs yourselves alone and alone in the number of kings of Eastern lands does the Parthian approach me on equal terms. 1. . adopt. by Alexander the Great. 234. and we must adopt the suggestion of one of the Scholiasts. now let Parthia. If we may judge from the circumstances of the utter overthrow of the army of the Crassi. Zeugma was a city built. 1 . ! / endured that yourselves alone) ver. He lays aside the robes of a monarch. Rome will be ready to be con. [u. who is truly poor pass his life than the The king having been dismissed upon needy man. a Greek word signifying the Pella in Macedon. ye Parthians .PHARSALIA. 239. and. This passage has been generally thought to refer to the boundaries of the Parthian Empire (which were considered to be the line of the Euphrates). he goes forth. by Alexander the Great. does the man rulers of the world How much more securely." having a prospective signification. together with the city of Zeugma. all vm. In doubtful enterprises it is safe for the monarch to counterfeit the then. assumes the dress of a servant. from his using the epithet more generally attributed to Scleucus Nicator . 230. 5 The insignia of the palace laid aside) ver. clad in the assumed garb of a menial. 2 Restrained iliejust wrath. made a virtue of necessity." Alexander the Great. 4 The Zeugma of him of Pella) ver. restrained the just wrath of Latium ? Bound by so many obligations to me. after the wounds of the * Assyrian slaughter. and the Zeugma of him of Pella 4 Conquer for Pompey. 304 Persia was. i. subduing still. . which opinion Lucan seems to " Pellaeus. 104. was the birthplace of junction. 229-243. the insignia of the palace 5 laid aside . For. from which it received its name.

made illustrious by the sun and by the mid-sea 7 he cuts short the great bays of the . It was " the also called Doliche. and Colophon) ver. 1 Amid the rocks of Icaria) ver. and pottery. and the Note to the passage. he himself amid the rocks of Icaria 1 . 4 Fly past Cnidos) ver. The Pamphylian land and presents itself to the ship not as yet venturing to entrust himself to any walls.] 305 the shore. was one of the twelve Ionian cities of Asia Minor. 3 The foaming rocks of little Samos) ver. 6 Rhodes behind. Samos. architecture. viii. 243-252. Phaselis was a seaport of Lycia.B. X . 247-8. 246. was a celebrated city of Asia Minor. on the Pamphylian Gulf. led thither by curiosity to behold the statue of Venus by Praxiteles. " Pythagoras 4 From the shores of Cos) ver. the mouth of the river Halesus. now called Stance. It lies off the coast of Ancient Ionia. which stood in her Temple there. Long Island. 247. near the borders of Caria. now called Samo by the Greeks." It was famed for its rich pastures. Becoming the head-quarters of the pirates enjoyed an extensive commerce. 2 Both Ephesus. and received its name from the adjacent Icarian Sea. made illustrioris by the sun) ver. from which it is only separated by a narrow It was famed for its was a native of this island. painting. It was much resorted to by travellers. . on a gulf called Telmessicus Sinus. 245. See B. strait. at the extremities of the bay. Cos. leaving behind both Ephesus. 1. 249. near the It was at one period a borders of Pamphylia. is an island of the JEgean Sea. There were two cities of the name of Telmessus. Telmessian waves 8 . when flying with his father from Crete. and. Compensat medio pelago. . the son of Daedalus. PHARSALIA. having the command of three harbours. Icaria. 9 Little Phaselis) ver. now called Nicaria. Colophon. 50. at It claimed to be the birth-place of Homer. 246." He probably means by this expression that Pompey did not coast along the Telmessian but stood out to sea Gulf. 251. or Gnidus. skims 3 past the foaming rocks of little Samos . on the coast of Caria. The one here referred to was a city of Lycia. It was the birthplace of the famous painter Apelles. v. Cnidos. like Ephesus. 248. the floating breeze 4 blows off from the shores of Cos next does he fly past Cnidos 5 and leave Khodes behind. and stood on the sea-coast. to 9 does Magnus first repair. 8 Of the Telmessian waves) ver. lying off the coast of Caria. which was so called from the fabled fall there of Icarus. For thee thee. one of the Sporades. in Asia Minor. was one of the Sporades. pliice of considerable importance. and Colophon 2 with its tranquil seas. 244. " 7 By the mid-sea) ver. and close to the Promontory Telmessis. li ttle Phaselis . A small village now stands on its site. and west of Samos. straight in his course from point to point. was one of the principal islands in the JEgean Sea.

" " or Dipsas. and surrounded by no arms. 256. and shake off the ruins of Libya able Were infested the coasts of Asia Minor. which indeed." forbidden by the Romans to surround it with walls." "little. It is said by some that " the light vessels. Servilius IsauIt was rebuilt. and dear as native land. although on a naked shore. all . perhaps. and thy of their people and greater is the multitude in the ship than thine. * Could Magnus hate believed this) ver. am not able to raise reverse I have sustained. but never recovered its former importance. in the region of the Cilicians. " Could Pompey have fore- seen. at length does Magnus open his sorrowing :t . ricus. at the time when he defeated the Cilician pirates. at which port Selinus both sends forth and receives its ships. lips. that he should one day as a fugitive have to seek a refuge there!" Celendrae was a town founded by Celendra) ver." were first built here. It had a harbour of the same name at the month of the river Selinus. . it falls into the sea to the east of Attalia. in a vast broken waterfall. whence it received its name. magnitude " it . overtakes the flying chieftain and at little Celendra3 . in his little bark he flies along the shores of the Cili- homes exhausted . or. and Dipsus. or Syedrae. and made the southern coasts of Asia Minor secure from piracy. in some of the Editions. perhaps. 3 And at little . Not utterly have I fallen on the fields of Emathia. in these " words : war and in my flight. means in 1. After flowing beneath the earth in a portion of its coarse. do you bring courageous spirits.lJtal flow* down from Taurus) ver. nor so far are my destinies depressed Companions hi the my that . collected. that the inhabitants of this place had deserted it for the standards of Pompey. 253. Hence.' ? Under the name DipstiSf. again spreading the canvas. 806 [B. 'the who my head again. tyle The Poet. and consider of a commencement for a new career. and was probably the same place as Syedra. Attalia was the first place in Ask Minor at which Fompey touched. I take counsel. and this is probably the reason which prompts the Poet to It is not improbable that the inhabitants were parva. 255.1. tarch. VIIL 252-269. now he beholds Taurus." Burmann thinks that the river Catarrhactei is Dipsus. A cians. 259. thy scanty inhabitants forbid to be distrusted. great part of the Senate. in an assembly of the nobles. that flows 1 down from Taurus Could Magnus have believed this 2 that -when he gave peace to the waves provision was made for himself as well ? Safe. called According to Pluphaseli.PHABSALIA. it was destroyed by P." This is a river of ancient Pamphylia. . is the reading here. still. the Saraians in Cilicia. which descends from the alluded to. mountain chain of Taurus.

who was but thirteen years of age at this period . and the neighbourhood of Corcyra. The age of the monarch of the Nile is suspected by me. who are all allies of the Roman people. of which you are the representatives. " 2 To the Consular dignity) ver. will disclose the secrets of my cares. This was Ptolemy XII. " In fasces . " that by the words obliquo sanguine" he hints that Juba is of illegitimate birth.. for. and his being found sitting amid the ruins of Carthage. a . 1. On the other hand the two-faced subtlety of the doubtful Moor alarms me . 307 2 1 to elevate Marius to the Consular dignity and restore him and me shall Fortune keep depressed to the filled annals thousand ships of mine * are tossed by a lighter hand ? ''\ A thousand captains rather does Pharsalia disperse our resources. by it he intends to denote the kind of relationship which existed between Hannibal ana Juba . " Take into consideration the comparative resources and fidelity of Juba. the ruthless descendant of Carthage longs for is hi his fickle breast. " But me even the fame alone of my exploits is able to protect. a number never before equalled by any person. lares. He 89. * and entered Rome once more as. king 'of Parthia. king of Numidia. 4 A thousand ships of mine) ver. and much of Hannibal Hesperia. he regained his lost position. and the Note. 281. His large fleet was at this time in the Adriatic Sea. But I. probably mean* 6 ' The age of tiie x 2 . 284. But it is much more probable that. and Pharos which of them ought to succour the Roman state. Phraates. .THAKSALIA. One of the Scholiasts asserts that Juba was descended from a sister of Hannibal. and a name which the world loves. which Marius appeared as Consul seven times. In allusion to the " Fasti Consufilled . Do you weigh these realms 5 both as to their strength and their fidelity Libya. 269-287. and the Parthians. and in which direction the preponderance of my thoughts inclines. 286. nobles. 272. Marius) alludes to the downfall of Marius. ." monarch of tlie Nile) ver. after which. " to the 1 Able fasces. 276. 270. 7 The ruthless descendant of CartlMge) ver. * It has been suggested Defiles his kingdom with collateral blood) ver. than subvert them." 3 To to elevate ver.] TJ. He who defiles his kingdom with collateral blood 8 and upon the Grecian seas. and Ptolemy. mindful 7 :of his race. vnr. The result proved how well founded were these doubts. See B. ii.annals) ver." tfie in 5 Do you weigh these realmt) ver. literally. because strict fidelity demands ripened years. with the aid of China. 269. king of Egypt. king of Egypt. a conqueror. which throughout the whole earth I have achieved. 270. on account of which Pompey doubts whether he will have sufficient strength of mind to adhere with fidelity to his allies.

vni. thinks that Hannibal may have descended from a daughter or sister of one of the former kings of Numidin. my companions.Persian kings. having made trial of the Scythian arrows. 1. here alluded to. and the Note to the . A sea of different colour) ver. man and from no arrow They were the 4 to repulse the lances of Pella first is is is and slow death with the bow and Bactria. iii. No doubt he here alludes to the Sea. and they dare to engage in war. plains. that come overweening and arrogant. and the Caspian strongholds set apart boundless retreats. which was ultimately subdued by the 4 to Parthians. Bactria was a province occupying It was inhabited by pretty nearly that part of Asia now called Bokhara. more to stretch the deadly string. 4 And Bactria. its walls) ver. and thus through his maternal ancestors have been relied to the forefathers of Juba. and a sea of different colour in its waves is severed . and therefore will not be traitors to us ." later Medo. when Crassus died. who were subjugated by either Cyrus or one of the " It afterwards Aledi. 298. 233. 715. . and Babylon. then. vi. They are not greedy for wealth. He thinks that he may have being. Euphrates with his tide divides the vast earth. of the Assyrians. Their ordinary length was twenty-one feet. 293. reaches up to Numidion forefathers. 50. and an ocean their own. 1 Bed et seq. 308 [B. on seeing Varus appealing to him for assistand then having conquered Curio and his troops. proud of its walls 6 the home . Nor do they scatter Oudendorp though not lineally they were collaterally related. As to the Eastern expedition of Alexander the Great. upon the destinies of Rome " Come. from ours. 299. but those used by the phalanx were twenty-four feet in length. neither boy nor aged . . " Their sole desire w rule) ver. " Nor yet are our javelins much feared by the Parthians . and another pole measures the Assyrian nights and 2 days. the abode 5 of the Medians. See B. iv. has now become puffed 1 up with pride. on Varus being a suppliant and has looked in a secondary rank. matter of uncertainty." The " sarissa" is supposed have been a kind of pike with which the soldiers of the Macedonian phalanx were armed. let us hasten to the Eastern climes. 299. See B.PHARSALIA. 668- ance. 6 Proud of passage. rule Their sole desire More 1 lofty is the war-horse in the strong their bow . the abode) ver. who are here spoken of as formed the Greek kingdom of Bactria. while their love of conquest will aid 3 our cause. see B." The lances of Pella) ver. 1. 1 Varus leing a suppliant) ver. 1. a rude and warlike race. 287-303." Sarissas. 287. 294.

but the whizzing shafts are steeped in plenteous venom. but I shall enjoy a great realms which I have created solace in my death. how1 Deorum ever. . and greatly do 1 Hie Gods favour the race " Nations will I pour forth summoned from other lands and the East will I send against him. or whence with greater triumphs did it return ? " Rome. retreats. 2 would be a very Beyond Mceotis frigid translation of the passage. Tin. and to overthrow a nation so mighty. .] 309 darts that trust in iron alone. and Oh there is death in the blood on the surface of the skin. 308. and to confound it with our woes ? When the arms of Caesar shall engage with the Medians. as I lie in another clime. if racies betray us. Small wounds are fatal." to have extended " Tanais" or river . favour my purpose for what could Jhe Gods of heaven ever grant to thee more welcome than for thee to wage the civil war with Parthian troops. would that I had not dependence so great upon the ruthless Destinies too strongly rivalling descendants of Arsaces our own destinies influence the Medians. Consul " : Have the Thessalian reverses so far impaired thy mind ? " Greatly do Hie Gods favour the race) ver." which. Multumqne in gente est. 303-331.B. But Eastern faith and barbarian confedeFortune bear our wreck beyond the I will not go suing to intercourse of the ordinary world." literally. nothing with pious intent. it follows that Fortune must avenge either me or the Crassi. awakened from its ! ! . One of the Scholiasts thinks that it means that " the Chaldaeans worship many Gods. But revolving all the destinies of my Belife. 319. he supposes the fame of them " sea of beyond the "palus Mseotis" or Azof. in the Into what lands did my name make its way with deeds more glorious." Thus having said." aift the " Don." " Lis datur." meaning that they were clearly highly favoured by the Gods. ver. and uttered words worthy of one so late a 2 yond Mceotis how mighty ! sight of the whole East! . he perceives by the murmurs that the men disapprove of his plans all of whom Lentulus exceeded in his incentives to valour and in the dignity of his grief. How mighty at Tanais. let . always was I venerated in that part of the world. Alluding to his victories over how mighty) Tigranes and Mithridates. PHARSALIA. that nothing to these limbs my father-in-law has done with bloody. "and much of the Gods is in the race .

Pompey his suppliant. signified pronounce sentence. and madly raise his aspirations for the Latian world. 338. Why the love of liberty 5 the pretext alleged for our anns? Why dost thou deceive the wretched world. the fed of the Partfdans alone) ver. the feet of the Farthians alone ? 1 flying through the world. in allusion to the Parthian and Syrian campaigns of Pompey. dost thou seek the opposite poles and remote stars. 334-5. humble and abject. Magne. swiftness of foot of the Parthian troops?" a quality for which they were especially famed. . 4 See 1. " J Tlie entire regions of our earth) ver. 339. 336. 4 And barbarian of the Chaldacans and sent day. which has descended " Why pretend that love of liberty lF7iy is the love of liberty) ver. Magnus." meaning "our regions of the earth. 292. Are we to endure this wound on our shame. if thou canst be a slave? Thee. Terrarum. about to venerate Chaldooan (luds. 833. abhorring the entire regions of our earth/' and our sky. he will demand. influences us. that thou shouldst ask him by tears. " Has Fortune left it as your only resource to trust in the is." and was especially applied to the Roman Praetor " The meaning is. a servant of the Parthians ? Why. shall he behold cast down by the Fates. " Litem dare " to /* a contest so -mighty decided) ver. "Solos tibi. Has a single day sealed the destinies of the world ? Is a contest so mighty decided by Emathia? Does all aid Has Fortune lie prostrate for this blood-stained wound? 8 left to thee. 810 [a vin. measuring himself and Pvome is together ? " Thou be able to say nothing worthy of thy spirit Ignorant of converse in the Latin tongue. He says this with the licence of the poet. Magnus. reliquit Parthorum Fortuna pedes?" This has been generally taken to mean. whom he dreaded to hear of when ruling the Roman state. and from the Indian shores. Is the Thessalian disaster so entirely to giving judgment. and thy wilt destiny. "Has Fortune left it as your only resource to go and kiss the feet of the Parthians while imploring their aid <" and in that sense the Scholiasts have understood the passage. rites) ver. 332-350. whom he beheld leading captured kings from the Hyrcanian woods . It is much more probable that L(ft to thee. pronounce judgment upon and influence our future destinies?" " 1 4 Magnus. if it is only a desire to serve the Parthians that prompts us to the continue warfare?" ' From the Hyrcanian woods) ver. He probably alludes to the fire worship to the Parsees of the pre- Magi ." in contradistinction to the distant climes of the Parthe meaning thians and Assyrians.PHARSALIA. and barbarian rites 4 . 343.

i. before Rome was she chose as her chieftain dost tlioxi spread our wounds and our slaughters that at present that Parthia shall avenge the own ? does her in the civil Thyself strife. to unite his fortunes with thee ? Not this trustworthiness is there in the race. vni. general. who did not send forces to Thessaly to the aid of Pompey. thou Parthian. lie concealed? ' beyond ? in bringing in dost thou teach the Parthians to come loses thereby the solace of woes so great kings. the token of honor in warfare . the standards when recovered recognized their friends. in alliance with the Roman people. but becoming the slave of her own Why Rome no citizen. their horses. v. which had been previously Ovid. by the treaty made with yourself. . 1. 350-362. . THARSALIA. and the Note to the passage. and their arrows. captured with the Crassi*? He who alone among the kings. et seq. " Nor is it following interesting passage relative to these circumstances for Mars to have once but merited this epithet of avenger. who. is their limit?" ' Why Standards captured with the Cram) ver. or be ready. What then. and suggests that his object was to see who would prove the victor.B. This was a nation protected both by their plains. " give the Parthians an excuse for passing the Euphrates. which. The standards here alluded to were eventually restored by Phraates to Augustus. and following standards from the Euphrates. it Why among the Scythian tribes. had not the empire of Ausonia been protected by the valiant arms of Caesar. B. thou dost extend! Now no pledges of our disgrace hast thou. has tho promised. and an enemy was the bearer of the Roman eagle.. on hearing that the Romans were preparing an expedition to obtain their restitution. 1. Magnus. Thy conquered bows. He reminds Pompey that Phraates was the only monarch. while Fortune concealed her preference. And still would that disgrace have been remaining. 10. 578. 354. availed thee the arrows wont to be discharged behind thy back I What thy inaccessible ? What the of places management thy fleet steed ? Parthian. in the Fasti. The slaughter of the Crassi imparted daring to the nation. 360-61. and inaccessible from the rivers that surrounded them. was wanting to Emathia 3 will he now challenge the resources so mighty of him heard of as the conqueror. by force of arms. 'T was he that removed the ancient stains and the disgrace of such long duration. too. he pursues enough the standards detained in the hands of the Parthians. when soldiers. " Does it give thee delight to go throughout the world leading savage nations against the walls of Rome. thou dost restore the eagles. ' Teach the Partiiians to come l/eyond) ver.] 311 woes of Hesperia. See B. The Parthian was in possession of the Roman standards. and standards were lost together. and aide with the strongest." : 3 Wat wanting to Emathia) ver. 358.

Whatever glides towards the Eastern lands and the warm regions of the world. confidence have they in their hands. . nor by swimming cleave the current with its strong eddies nor. but rather to stretch the strings of their bows from afar. and flying their fights. and straggling their squadrons. wherever they choose to carry them.PIIARSALIA. is conquerable by no enemy hi his powers of flight but where the earth swells he will not ascend the rugged mountain ridges nor will he wage the warfare in darkening shades. " Dost thou. the Parthian pursuing. . strength. . Meaning that by their arrows alone they are formidable. but the Medians the first onset No disarms. no engines of war they are not able to fill up trenches and. whatever shall be able to resist the arrow. that same shall prove a wall -. thou mayst die ? Is barbarian earth to press upon thee ? Is a little and a homely tomb to cover thee. 867-8. hi poison is it all. matter of envy still. and more skilled are the troops at giving way than at repulsing. Magnus. . weak with his uncertain bow. 1 . In the later times of the Empire the use of this kind of dress was much affected by the more fashionable Romans. 379. and probably the loose trowsers of the Eastern nations. that. . nor have they valour ever to endure the combat hand to hand. 812 [B. VHL 363-394. " Skirmishing are their battles. and their emptied quivers bid them retreat. He regards the flowing vestments. ments l and the loose coverings of the men. upon the Sarmatian plains and the lands of Tigris extending with level track. and every nation that The sword exists of requires the men wages warfare with the sword. deem those to be men for whom it is too little to come to the hazard of the battle with the sword? Is it so greatly worth thy while to try a disgraceful aid. and to leave their wounds to the winds. The Parthian amid the Median fields. " Every nation which is born amid the Arctoan frosts is unsubdued hi war and a lover of death. 2 That same shall prove a wall) ver. will he endure the summer's sun beneath the heated dust. as so many symptoms of luxury and effeminacy. Steeped are their weapons with treachery. besprinkled in battle over all his limbs with blood. Both the floicing vestments) ver. No battering-rams have they. separated from thy country by the whole world. the mildness of the climate makes the nations There do you behold both the flowing vesteffeminate.

! cruelty stimulates it.PHARSALIA. of the unrighteous bed lie there ex- Amid posed. as well. descended from Arsaces. 4 ver. will be inflamed the P. pollutes the laws and the compacts of the marriage tie with wives innumerable? The secrets. 407. Crassus . Cornelia. " But Cornelia dreads not death 2 alone under a wicked Is the barbarian lust unknown to us. what can I deem to be unlawful? 'The progeny 5 so illustrious of Metellus will be standing. when speaksepulti. He now speaks of the numerous wives and concubines of the Eastern kings. born of blood thus mixed To him to whom it is lawful to unite with a parent. and Valerius Maximus confirm the account given by Plutarch. and suggests that if Pompey places himself in the power of the Parthians. by remembering who her husbands were whom had fought against Parthia. 3 Ab/iors not any intercourse) ver. ." 4 He says that Thebes was disThebes. And the titles of her husbands) ver. feared by men. Sisters lie hi the . he will know that she was the wife of Crassus . the grandson of Augustus. and the titles of her husbands " For. will royal lust more readily devote itself than to her when . 394-415. revelry dicted a thousand wives. the thousandth at a barbarian couch. i. the sacred ties of mothers. too. maddened with and with wine. body of Crassus was thrown into the Euphrates." or 1 ing of the expedition of Caius Caesar. 180. Plutarch informs us that the Crassus wants a sepulchre) ver. The woful story among nations condemns Thebes. beds of brothers. Magnus.VIII. who married his mother Jocasta . 413. the wife of 6 He more and Pompey. however. against the Farthians. Ovid calls the Crassi " " entombed. abhors not any intercourse 3 interamid the embraces of women so by the laws many one night wearies not one man. after the manner of wild beasts. both of The progeny so illustrious of Metellus) Pompey. 394. although. 410. while Crassus wants a sepulchre since death is the extreme punishment. 3 But Cornelia dreads not death) ver. 402. graced by the incest of CEdipus. B. Cornelia may be torn away from him to grace the harem of the tyrant. though that was comparatively pardonable. Seneca. which blindly." in his Art of Love. "Concubinage with no female relations whatever is forbidden by the laws of the Parthians. B. royalty. the daughter of Metellus Scipio. and one not to be .] 318 l But lighter is thy lot. 1. stained by (Edipus) ver. in order that still more portents may delight the Parthian. to no woman wife. king. 397. as it happened unknowingly. stained by 4 CEdipus for a crime not voluntarily committed how often is the Parthian ruler.

" Sate thyself now with that metal of which in lifer thou wast so greedy. inasmuch as on the body being reduced to ashes. An end.not only to have asked aid from the ruthless king. had " lain prostrate. The word "cinerum. come for treaties and for peace ?' and if 1 "As though owing to the Captive of the former overthrow) ver. 432. 3 Until perfidious Susa) ver. 416. or Arsaces XIV." 3 To the Dacians) ver. that was considered tantamount to a burial. as though owed already to the Assyrian destinies. even to laying bare the northern sides of s innempire to the Dacians and the bands of the lUiinr. against tho Parthians let him. must here have the more extended meaning of " bones" or " dead body. For what crime among nations of thy father-in-law and of thyself will be greater. go. 425. Of Crassus . to the Assyrian peace . Will not. 426. and the Note " Virum to the " j meaning those of Upon the tombs of the heroes) ver. 434. utter these words to thee : ' Dost thou. the captive of the former overthrow the woful wound to our eastern destinies be impressed /"" thee. the shade of the sorrowing old man 5. the civil war of Thessaly has terminated." * Ashes f>f our unburied ghosts) ver. vengeance for the Crassi has been lost ? All the chieftains ought to have rushed to attack Bactria and no arms should have been spared. the soldiers of Crassus. 424." which is almost tantamount to a blander ." It was the belief that the souls of those who remained nnburied were doomed wander for a hundred years on the banks of the Styz. r king of Parthia. transfixed with the Scythian arrows. too . is . . Orodes.. * See B. exclaiming. in order to employ the troops in dealing vengeance against the perfidious Parthians. to . she 1 Let dragged along.PHARSALIA. It is the only nation of the world at a triumph over whom by Caesar I could rejoice. who at the time of his death had passed his sixtieth year. \<m to have waged civil war before that thou wilt be ashamed." therefore. caused melted gold to be poured in his head. He means that it is the duty of all even to leave the extremities of the Empire exposed to the attacks of the Dacians and Germans of the Rhine. Fortune. you engaging in arms. ii. "Cinerum nudce umbrae." literally "to the nnked" or "unbnried shade of my ashes. who has proved the victor. until perfidious Susa 3 falling upon the tombs of the heroes 4 . and Babylon. whom we hoped for as the avenger of the ashes of our unburied ghosts". * The shade of the sorrowing old man) ver. which had been cut off. she will be considered as a part of the spoil which fell to the on Parthians their victory gained at Carrhae. than that. L 49. do we pray for. 814 [u. when first thou shalt pass over the cold Araxes. VIIL 415-485. . fortune of war.

or Auletes. where Euphrates overwhelmed names so mighty. Not improbably the report was that the heads of the Crassi were exposed on the walls of we are informed by Plutarch that the head of the elder Parthian cities Crassus was sent by Surenas to Orodes at Seleucia. 436. the island at the mouth of the in general ." which latter is most likely the rejxl signification. 443. the founder of the then royal house of Ptolemy. owed to thee) ver. and Tigris threw our carcases on shore.B. Ptolemy XL. to thy guardianship. who had slain himself on being unable to escape. PHARSALIA. : ." literally "of Jupiter. in the Nile alone is its trust. and the head of the younger one." or portraving the vivifying principle. them away is 3 We repair to Pharos) Nile. 435-451." signifying "rain. He alludes to the youthful age of the present monarch of Egypt. owed to thee '. 447. Magnus. He alludes to the violence of the Tigris in sometimes throwing the bodies ashore. Why dost thou not look upon the Roman world ? If thou dost dread the realms situate beneath 3 the south. Jovis. the walls which the decapitated chieftains surveyed '. or. when thrown there. and considers him as holding only " the shadow of the title of king. who was influenced by the request of Pompey. Egypt " 4 Or of shotcert) ver. tliou art able to submit to these things. The more placid nature of the tide of the Euphrates " obrnit.] 315 Then will many a memorial of the slaughter meet thee . Pharos. Gabinius the Proconsul of by his subjects. was Syria. the son of Lafna. thou art able also to appease thy father-in-law. was exultingly shown to his father on the end of a spear. in its tide. 2 Took them back to himself) ver. paramount in the midst of Thessaly. entrusted should dread the mere shadow of from guile 6 hope for neither jus- Ptolemy wields a sceptre. vni. Magmis. not standing in need of merchan4 dize or of showers . and a bribe of ten A thousand talents from Ptolemy. The word "lustrarunt" is " the walls which the heads of the chieftains "the walls which the heads surveyed" or " looked upon . * His aye is free from guile) ver. after having been expelled from the Egyptian throne reseated on his throne by A. on the other. Libyan Syrtes then. were not carried away by the tide. and then again sweeping capable of two significations here purified" with their blood. and the faithless Juba." . 440. It is a land contented with its own blessings. The boy If. . Magnus. chieftains surveyed) ver. 439. but sank at once. we repair to Pharos and On the one side Egypt is safe in the the fields of Lagus. here signifies which was ver. 5 He alludes to the fact that sceptre. 448. and then took them back to 2 himself " ." well expressed by the use of the verb The bodies. a name? His age is free Who 1 Decapitated . the rapid stream disturbs the sea by its seven mouths.

" Whereas the Poet alludes to the high rocks of the isle of Pharos. Those used to the sceptre are ashamed of nothing mildest is the lot of realms under a youthful lung. remembering the Paphian waves 1 tice . freedom does the last hope of success obtain The opinion of Magnus was overruled. to which no altars has the Goddess preferred. or Philadelphia.. 466. * Thence it he turned aside) ver. and urge on their hastening barks to Cyprus. 316 [B.) of which it received its name. probably in cressets or fire-pans. coasting along all the rocks of Cyprus. and honor. Then did they leave the territory of the Cilicians. ver. 462. montem. He coasts along the rocky shores of Cyprus to the south of the island.PHARSALIA. consisting of several stories. which was situate at the entrance to the port of Alexandria. and constructed of white stone. the seventh 4 channel. off the coast of Egypt. or it is right to suppose that any one of the Gods has had a beginning. square. modern Tineh. vni. he inclined their minds in that direction. 451-466. ! . in the midst of marshes. and. where the largest portion of the divided Nile. with struggling cheering at night with its light sails. diminishing in width from below upwards. as giving them timely warning against danger. at the expense of Ptolemy II. In Liter times it was the capital of the district of Augustamnica. stood the most easterly mouth of the Nile. Torches or fires. thence is he turned aside by the obliquely-flowing tides of the vast ocean nor does he make for the mountain if . nor reverence for the Gods in an aged court. and which was also on the eastern side of from the sea. Here was the most celebrated of the light-houses of antiquity. . 458. 1 Remembering Paphian waves) According to some accounts Venus rose from the sea in the vicinity of Paphos. we are to believe that the Deities have birth. from the mud (<rXo. about two miles Into the Pelusian fords) ver. Hie " Nee tenuit The mountain cheering at night with its light) ver. on the site of which is more anciently called Abaris. in which it projects towards the 2 south. flows into the Pelusian fords :) . were kept burning during the night." No more having How much said. When Pompey has departed from these shores. 463. pleasing (gratum) to sailors. It was erected by Sostratus of Cnidos. and was strongly fortified. ." This is one of the few instances in which May gives"a wrong translation. He renders it Nor by the night's weak light could he attain 3 erratum nocturno lumine Mount Casius. It was of vast dimensions. whence he is carried along transversely by the tide. It was the frontier city of Egypt towards Syria and Arabia. 4 the Pelusium. with difficulty he reaches the lower shores of Egypt.

nor did the sails flag*." i be the same . " Monstra. and Achillas an Egyptian. nee carbasa languent. PHARSALIA. with a temple of Jupiter on the summit. He alludes to the superstitious worship by the Egyptians of bulls.B. All the historians agree that the king was informed by a deputation of Pompey's arrival. cats. 1. 1 Was staying at Mount Casius) ver. 335-6. ix. 4 Along the shore the horsemen scouts) ver. * All All 6 ' Most probably this Achoreus is Achoreus) ver. and not by scouts or spies. 3 Neither was Phoelus gone down. connected with the river Nile. 478. Phcebes" mean the periods allotted for the existence of the sacred bull. nor the sails grow weak . He alludes to the well which existed at Memphis. Now with rapid speed 4 along the shore the horsemen scouts had filled the trembling court with the arrival of the stranger. 471. 467. et seq. 477. 1 At which the Balance poises) ver. See the story of Iphis and lanthe related in the Metamorphoses of Ovid. during whose priesthood more than one Apis had died. which was especially cultivated at Memphis. " Suae. which were measured by the course of the moon." the miscreants of the Pellcean household) ver. or Casium. Theodotus of Chios. and then the decreasing light pays back to the winter nights a consolation for their losses in the spring. the rhetorician. not one Apis only had lived 9 laean household 3 . 9 Not one Apis only had lived) ver. Achoreus ".. 7 Frivolous in her rites) ver. . Among whom. nor the wind going down. 470. pp. " Lustra suse Phoebes non unus He means hereby to denote the extreme old age of Achovexerat Apis. used in referente to the worship of Apis. vm." meaning. B. x. founded by Alexander of Pella ." " Lustra suae reus. 175. Hardly was there time for counsel . yet. 475. entirely a fictitious character. 1. as here mentioned. that the sun was not setting. 467-479. all the miscreants of the Pel- met together among whom. the principal of whom were Pothinus the eunuch. now calmed by old age and more moderate through bending 7 years (to him Memphis gave birth." Literally. See B. When he understood that the King was staying at Mount Casius 2 he changed his course. 8 T/te observer of the Nile) ver. frivolous in her rites the observer of the Nile 8 increasing upon the fields. he the worshipper of the Gods. The time of the Autumnal Equinox. At its foot stood the town of Casium. and other objects. 479. 666. 474. was a mountain on the coast of Egypt.] 317 1 the level It was the time at which the Balance poises hours. east of Felusium." who was supposed " his to own. by the rise or fall of the waters of which the height of the waters in the river was denoted. the iniquitous counsellors of 'the court of Alexandria. dogs. as yet neither was Phoebus gone down. still. " Nee " neither does Phoebus as Phoebus adhuc. but equal on not more than a single day. Casius. 472. nor did the sails flag) ver. and the Notes in Bohn's Translation.

The entire power of sceptres perishes if it begins . fly from the wretched. 1 And the sacred ties of the deceased parent) ver. 479-502. so is the profitable from the right. whom she was to marry. and there collected an army with which to compel her brother to reinstate her. Let him who wishes to be Goodness and supreme virtuous remove from a court. she had been expelled from the throne about a year before this period. Everything may you do in cruelty with no impunity. Pothinus. He alleged the obligations which the father of Ptolemy lay under to Pompey. TIJI. Phoebe or the moon. 481. human and divine. 500. and had retreated into Syria. which was recognized by certain marks on the forehead. Ptolemy. and pay court to the fortunate . was the -first speaker in the council and he alleged the merits and the fidelity of 1 Pompey. often makes persona appear guilty in the eyes of those who are thwarted thereby. bepraised as it is. and in understanding tyrants. have rendered many a one Fidelity. who. by the will of Ptolemy Auletes. was to share the throne with her younger brother Ptolemy. He alludes to Cleopatra. who thinks that thou art not able to drive away even the vanquished from our shores. It was the rule with the priesthood not to allow the "Apis" to live beyond a certain time. 484. . "Nor let a stranger deprive thee of thy sceptre. despised thy years. Concur with it upholds those whom Fortune depresses. . thus said " Justice and right. to . except when you dare to do it. presuming to condemn Pompey to death. yield up Nile and Pharos to thy condemned sister 3 Let us at least Whatever has not beprotect Egypt from Latian arms. the sister of Ptolemy. It is the liberty to commit crimes which and all restraint removed from the protects a hated sway. pays the penalty uli. through the artifices of Achillas and Pothinus.-n guilty-. But more skilled hi persuading the ill-disposed. : weigh what is just and regard for what is honorable overthrows citadels. sword. if thou art tired of reigning. the Fates and the Gods. " Scrupulous attention to the laws. power do not agree together he will be always afraid whom Not with impunity let Magnus have cruolty shall shame. and then amid tears and lamentations sought another to substitute in his place . 818 [B. nearer pledges hast thou. through the changes of his moon). As different as are the stars from the earth. When his allotted period had expired they drowned him in the sacred well. 2 Have rendered many a one guilty) ver. and the sacred ties of the deceased parent of 1 'toiciny. . and of whom probably the sacred bull called Deity with " Apis was the symbol.P-HAK&ALIA. as the flames from the sea." " 3 To thy condemned titter) ver.

. 3 thou ver. " Dost thou have a doubt whether it is necessary for me What confidence in our to destroy thee while yet I may ? kingdom brings thee hither. has been 3 given to us against Magnus. 502-527. He here dost 513. war was being waged) ver. which the Fates bid us unsheathe. the Senate conferred the sceptre. 502. 831. and." pliant purposes . crime only to be expiated by the sword of Caesar. while the war was being waged will not belong to the conqueror. "A more just cause of complaint. whom. and the Note to the passage. . too. . . 522. on thy fall. also. . He alludes to the circumstance of Egypt having given no assistance to Pompey during his campaign in Thessaly. too. Whither everything is being borne) ver. Now from the whole world expelled. mingled in one carnage. upon which to bring the fortunes of Pharsalia and thy own punishment ? 4 Already do we incur a blame to be wiped away with the sword. " " for the ver. and to confess one's strength. of husThe softened fields) bandry." 5 To the side of Cseear. not for thee. all of whose . vii. and the u-Ju/ make our lands suspected by the conqueror? Why has this region alone pleased thee. he appeals to our land. he dreads the nations. This sword. I have provided. he has abandoned kings. hurried on. See B. vm. of whom a great part is gorging the Thessalian birds-." Mollia. but for the conquered one. in no land received. 6 hardly able to dig the softened fields ? It is right to take measure of one's kingdom. . of Thessaly. the Nile receding. he seeks a nation with which to fall he is distracted by the ghosts of fellow-citizens.] 319 1 longed to Magnus. . Magnus. thy those of thy father-in-law I could have vitals I will pierce Whither everything is being borne \ we are preferred.fortunes he has ruined guilty. PHAESALIA. in having been indebted for the kingdom to the Roman senate influenced by Pompey. Ptolemy. And not only from the arms of his father-in-law does he fly from the faces of the Senate he is flying. 8 /* gorging the Thessalian birds) ver. 517. unhappy man? Dost thou not behold our people unarmed. 1 While UK. at thy persuasion. By our wishes we have encouraged thy arms. 626. 507.B. in that on us. after there is no confidence remaining in his fortunes. stain) apostrophizes Pompey. Why " 4 Already we are guilty of a Already do we incur a blame) ver. does he fear. which not as yet he has betrayed. Why dost thou stain with war Pharos distant crimes of and ever at repose. 1.

beneath which Rome lies prostrate ? Dost thou presume and the ashes of Thessaly. that now his servants allow matters of such befits those importance to be entrusted to him. informs us that there was a temple there d