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8/11/2015

Separation process - I

(Mass Transfer)

Classification of mass transfer operation- Direct
contact of two immiscible phases

• This category is most important and includes
almost all the mass transfer operations
• In a two phase system of several components at
equilibrium, with few exception, compositions of
the two phases are different.
• In most cases, neither equilibrium solutions
contain pure component – thus leads to partial
separation
• Exception – evaporation or condensation of salt
solution

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Three states of aggregations permits six possibility of
phase contact
• Gas – Gas: With a very few exception, all gases are
soluble in each other – this category is practically not
realized.
• Gas – Liquid:
– Fractional distillation: all components of the system
distributes between the phases at equilibrium, partial
evaporation of benzene – toluene or HAc – water system
– Gas absorption: Both phases are different in origin, each
having however one comp or gr of comp which distributes
between the phases. Ex. Mixture of (NH3+Air) in contact
with water
– Desorption/Stripping
– Humidification/ dehumidification

• Gas – Solid: Classification according to the no. of
components which appear in two phases
– Fractional sublimation: Theoretically feasible, but
practically not done because of inconvenience of
handling solid in this manner.
– Drying: if a moistened solid is exposed to relatively dry
gas, liquid will move from solid to gas phase.
– Adsorption: Mix. of water vap. and air in contact with
activated silica gel
– Fractional adsorption: if several components are
adsorbed on the solid, but with different proportion,
partial sep. can be achieved. Ex. mix. of propane &
propylene  activated carbon both are adsorbed
but in different extent

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• Liquid – Liquid:
– Extraction: Sep. involving contact of two
immiscible liquid phases. Mix of
(Acetone+H2O)+CCL4  rich phase (CCl4)
containing large amount of acetone and other is
lean phase.
– Fractional extraction:
• Sol. of (HAc+Acetone) + insoluble mix. of (CCl4+H2O) 
shaking & settling  two phases, each containing HAc
and Acetone, but in different proportion.
• Two liq. phase sol. may be produced from a single
phase sol. by cooling the later below critical sol. temp.
(CST). Two phases will have diff. comp.

• Liquid – solid:
– Fractional crystallization: all constituents are
present in both phases at equilibrium.
– Leaching: selective solution of a comp. from solid
mix. by a liq. solvent. Ex. leaching of gold from its
ore by cyanide sol. and of cottonseed oil from
seed by hexane.
– Adsorption: Removal of color material which
contaminate impure cane sugar can be removed
by contacting liq. sol. with activated carbon.

• Solid – solid: not practically realized because
of extremely slow diffusion rate.

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8/11/2015 Membrane Separation • Gas – Gas: – Gaseous diffusion/ Effusion: Microporous membrane is used. electrodialysis (ED). the diff. nano-filtration (NF). eng. Doff. reverse osmosis (RO). cond. forward osmosis. of the gas passes through pores by diffusion. ultrafiltration (UF). • Driving force: For all such combination not in equilibrium. 4 .)called equilibrium. in conc. in chem. of some property between one in existing condition and one that would exist at equil. Sep. is a driving force tending to alter the system toward equil. microfiltration (MF) Basic concept • Equilibrium: There exist for all combination of phases a condition of zero net interchange of properties (usually mass or energy. of He from natural gas by selective permeation through flourocarbon polymer membrane. state. • Gas – liquid: Permeation (pervaporization) – sep. of alcohol from water • Liquid – liquid: Dialysis. comp. the rate of which depends on molecular weight – Permeation: non-porous membrane – solute first dissolve in the membrane and then diffuses through it.

KT of gas provides a means of visualizing what occurs. • When small quantity of material are to be processed batch operation • Transient/ unsteady state operation: observed during start-up or shut-down of cont. • Diffusion rate is very low. Molecular diffusion in fluid • It is concerned with the movement of individual molecules through the substance. Cont.1mm thick stagnant air layer at 1std.  evaporation rate by 600 times – shows importance of molecular motion in diffusive movement • Example: dissolution of CuSO4 crystal in water. atm.m2. opn. and steady opn. but placing a 0. with min.  greater productivity & lower unit cost. disturbances and shutdown. or KMnO4 in water 5 . It  with T  or P • It can be calculated from KT that rate of evaporation of water into complete vacuum at 25C is 3.3kg/s.8/11/2015 • Flow pattern: – co-current – counter-current • Continuous/ batch operation: it is more economical to maintain cont. opn.

driving force is described in terms of concentration difference. • Molecular diffusion – Concentration difference or chemical potential difference • Pressure diffusion – Motion of solute resulting from pressure difference • Thermal diffusion – Motion of a solute due to thermal (temperature) gradient • Forced diffusion: – Motion of A due to unequal external forces on A and B 6 . each phase is treated separately and within each phase.8/11/2015 • Difference between molecular diffusion and eddy diffusion • True driving force in molecular diffusion – Concentration difference – Chemical potential • In multi-phase system.

r. This velocity can be measured by pitot tube. velocities and fluxes • =Mass flux. • Note: ∗ ∗ = ∑ ∑ =∑ =Molar flux 7 .t. stationery coordinate system • Then for a mixture of n-species. = ∑ ∑ =∑ Definition of concentrations. = . velocities and fluxes • Mass concentration. ci ( = / ) • Mass fraction. i • Molar concentration. = . • = velocity of i-th species w.8/11/2015 Definition of concentrations. ℎ =∑ • Mole fraction. • Local mass average velocity. local rate at which mass pass = through a unit CS placed perpendicular to velocity . different species are moving with different velocities. • Molar average velocity. ℎ =∑ • In a diffusing system.

• − = Diffusion velocity w. = ∗ • − ∗ = Diffusion velocity w.t.8/11/2015 Definition of concentrations.t. ∗ = • Example: swimming fish against a flowing current Some relationship: • • • + + =1 =1 + • + • = = = = = = ∗ + + + 8 .r. velocities and fluxes • Diffusive ability of a molecule is related to diffusion velocity which is related to moving coordinate axis fixed in the liquid rather than the stationery axis.r.

Heat and Momentum transfer: • =− 9 . Heat and Momentum transfer • General molecular transport equation: • Rate of a transport process = • General equation for molecular diffusion of Mass.8/11/2015 Mass/ Molar flux Concentrations Velocities − − = = = − = − ∗ ∗ = − ∗ ∗ = − ∗ Similarity between Mass.

8/11/2015 Similarity between Mass. ∗ =− 10 . Heat and Momentum transfer • Newton’s law of viscosity for constant density =− • Fourier’s law of heat conduction for constant and : =− • Fick’s law of diffusion for constant total concentration (c).

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The partial pressure of O2 at two planes 2mm apart is respectively 13000 and 6500 N/m2. = 0. = 6500 .s. = 13000 = 10 .8/11/2015 Problem: O2 (A) is diffusing through CO (AB) under s. . The diffusivity for the mixture is 1. = − = 1. = 93500 = − = 90200 = 2. Calculate the diffusion flux of O2.00 = − . . . Total pressure is 1×105 N/m2 and temperature 0oC. condition with CO non-diffusing. Solution: Here.87×10-5 m2/s. = 8314 = 87000 .97 × 10 19 .87 × 10 = 27 . .

The diffusivities are estimated to be = 1. If this gas bulb is left open as such. 20 . find the ammonia concentration in the bulb after 15 minutes.86 × 10 & Solution: Here.0mm.91 × 10 Problem: Water at 25oC is flowing in a covered irrigation ditch below ground. Calculate the total evaporation loss of water in kg/day.26 cm2/s. Problem: A spherical gas bulb of volume 500cc contains air – NH3 mixture in the volume ratio of 4:1 at 40oC and 1atm pressure.8/11/2015 Problem: Recalculate the diffusion of O2 (A) assuming that non-diffusing gas is a mixture of CH4 (B) and H2 (C) in the volume ratio 2:1. − = 3. Vapor pressure of water at 25oC is 23.198×10-4 m2/s. = 90200 = 6. = .76mm Hg and diffusivity of water vapor through air at 25oC is 0.46 × 10 .99 × 10 . 2 = = 0.333 2+1 1 = 2. The outside air can be assumed to be dry.667 & = 1 − 0. = + So. there is a vent line 2. where ‘i’ denotes inert.667 = 0. Given: DAB for air – NH3 at 0oC and 1atm pressure is 0. (as per the earlier problem).5cm inside diameter and 30cm long to the outside atmosphere at 25oC. There are 10 vents in 300m ditch. It is exposed to the atmosphere at the same temperature and pressure through a capillary of length 5cm and diameter 1. Every 30m.

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