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Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine

CHAPTER 1

Introduction
Wind result from air in motion. Air in motion arises from a pressure gradient.
On a global basis one primary forcing function causing surface winds from the poles
toward the equator is convective circulation. Solar radiation heats the air near the
equator, and this low density heated air is buoyed up. At the surface it is displaced by
cooler more dense higher pressure air flowing from the poles. In the upper atmosphere
near the equator the air thus tend to flow back toward the poles and away from the
equator. The net result is a global convective circulation with surface wins from north to
south in the northern hemisphere.
It is clear from the above over simplified model that the wind is basically caused
by the solar energy irradiating the earth. This is why wind utilization is considered a part
of solar technology.
It actuality the wind is much more complex. The above model ignores the earth’s
rotation which causes a coriolis force resulting in an easterly wind velocity component in
the northern hemisphere.
There is the further complication of boundary layer frictional effects between the
moving air and the earth’s rough surface.

Mountains, trees, buildings, and similar

obstructions impair stream line air flow. Turbulence results and the wind velocity in a
horizontal direction markedly increase with altitude near the surface.
Local winds are caused by two mechanisms. The first is differential hating of land
and water. Solar isolation during the day is readily converted to sensible energy of the
land surface but is partly absorbed in layers below the water surface and partly consume
in evaporating some of that water. The land mass becomes hotter than the water, which
causes the air above the land to heat up and become warmer than the air above water. The
warmer lighter air above the land rises and the cooler heavier air above the water moves
into replace it. This is the mechanism of shore breezes. At night, the direction of the
breezes is reversed because the land mass cools to the sky more rapidly than the water,
assuming a sky. The second mechanism is caused by hills and mountain sides. The air
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Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine

above the slopes heats up during the day and cools down at night, more rapidly than the
air above the low lands. This causes heated air the day to rise along the slopes and
relatively cool heavy air to flow down at night.
Wind turbines produce rotational motion; wind energy is readily converted into
electrical energy by connecting the turbine to an electric generator. The combination of
wind turbine and generator is sometimes referred as an aero generator. A step-up
transmission is usually required to match the relatively slow speed of the wind rotor to the
higher speed of an electric generator.
In Indian the interest in the windmills was shown in the last fifties and early
sixties. A part from importing a few from outside, new designs was also developed, but it
was not sustained. It is only in the last few years that development work is going on in
many institutions. An important reason for this lack of interest in wind energy must be
that wind, in India area relatively low and vary appreciably with the seasons. Data quoted
by some scientists that for India wind speed value lies between 5 km/hr to 15-20 km/hr.
these low and seasonal winds imply a high cost of exploitation of wind energy.
Calculations based on the performance of a typical windmill have indicated that a unit of
energy derived from a windmill will be at least several times more expensive than energy
derivable fro electric distribution lines at the standard rates, provided such electrical
energy is at all available at the windmill site.
The above argument is not fully applicable in rural areas for several reasons. First
electric power is not and will not be available in many such areas due to the high cost of
generation and distribution to small dispersed users. Secondly there is possibility of
reducing the cost of the windmills by suitable design. Lastly, on small scales, the total
first cost for serving a felt need and low maintenance costs are more important than the
unit cost of energy. The last point is illustrated easily: dry cells provide energy at the
astronomical cost of about Rs.300 per kWh and yet they are in common use in both rural
and urban areas.
Wind energy offers another source for pumping as well as electric power
generation. India has potential of over 20,000 MW for power generation and ranks as one
of the promising countries for tapping this source. The cost of power generation from
wind farms has now become lower than diesel power and comparable to thermal power in
several areas of our country especially near the coasts. Wind power projects of aggregate
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Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine

capacity of 8 MW including 7 wind farms projects of capacity 6.85 MW have been
established in different parts of the country of which 3 MW capacity has been completed
in 1989 by DNES. Wind farms are operating successfully and have already fed over 150
lakes units of electricity to the respective state grids. Over 25 MW of additional power
capacity from wind is under implementation. Under demonstration programmer 271
wind pumps have been installed up to February 1989. Sixty small wind battery charges
of capacities 300 watts to 4 kW are under installation. Likewise to stand-alone wind
electric generators of 10 to 25 kW are under installation.

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Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine

CHAPTER 2

Applications of Wind Energy
Wind power can also be used compress air for use in various applications,
including the operation of gas turbines for generating electricity during the peak-demand
periods of a public utility system. For this type of application, conventional gas turbines
can be modified to separate the compressor, generator, and power stages by clutches. In
one mode of operation, the motor generator operating as a motor and powered by a wind
machine drives the air compressor. The compressed air is fed into a storage tank or into a
large cavern, aquifer, or depleted natural gas well. Under this mode, the power turbine is
inoperative, and no fuel is consumed.
In a second mode of operation, when the demand for power exceeds the supply of
the base-load utility system, the compressor is disengaged, and the power turbine is
connected to the generator. The burner that drives the power turbine is fed fuel and
compressed air from storage to generate power for the utility system.
The temperature of air is raised when it is compressed without loss of heat (i.e.
adiabatic compression). In this case, less heat will need to be added to the air, when it is
eventually used to drive a turbine at a given efficiency, than if its heat has been allowed to
escape from the a given efficiency, than if its heat has been allowed to escape from the
storage container and the temperature of the air had been allowed to drop to the ambient
temperature (i.e. isothermal storage). Adiabatic storage is obviously better, from the
standpoint of energy conservation, than isothermal storage.
Wind powered pumps can be used to desalinate water, using reverse osmosis units.
Wind powered pumps can also be used to save fuel and electricity by compressing the
working fluids used in heat pumps for space heating applications.

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Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine

FIG 2.1: Wind turbine air compressor

Fig 2.2: Block diagram of wind turbine air compressor

2.1 Direct heat applications
Mechanical motion derived from wind power can be used to drive heat pumps or
to produce heat from the friction of solid materials, or by the churning of water or other
fluids, or in other cases, by the use of centrifugal or other types of pumps in combination
with restrictive orifices that produces heat from friction and turbulence when the working

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Under these conditions some of the water that would have been used by the hydroelectric plant to supply the load is saved in the reservoir and made available for later use when the wind is not blowing. In dispersed applications. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . Thus. stones.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine fluid flows through them. WECS units can be integrated with existing hydro electrical networks and used in a “water-saver” mode of operation. In such applications. etc.2 Electric Generation Applications Wind power can be used in centralized utility applications to drive synchronous A. eutectic salts. The energy is fed directly into power networks through voltage step-up transformers. in turn. electrical generators. thereby providing a firm generating capacity equal to the firm generating capacity of the hydro plant plus the average generating capacity of the windpowered plant. the energy can also be stored in the form of mechanical motion of a flywheel or as hydrogen and oxygen gases derived from the electrolytic dissociation of water.C. This heat may then be stored in materials having a high heat capacity. electrical an amount equal to the being can reduce generation at the hydroelectric plants in the network produced by the WECS units.C. the wind turbines supply part of the network load that is ordinarily produced by the hydroelectric generators. can be used for dc applications or space heaters.. 2. A home heating system that uses a wind powered pump and a restrictive orifice to derive direct heat for a building. loads. When the wind is blowing. without first generating electricity also has been developed. such as resistance heaters or can be stored in batteries and then inverted for used by A. Additional hydroelectric generating facilities are provided at the hydro plant to allow the water that was saved in the reservoir to be used at greater rate when the wind was not blowing. such as water. wind power can be used to generate dc electrical power that. In centralized or dispersed applications requiring constantly available sources of power.

Fig 2. The stored hydrogen can be used either as a fuel or direct space heating or industrial process heat. aquifers.4: Battery charger BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . depleted natural gas wells.3 Battery Charger The hydrogen and oxygen can be stored in liquid form in tanks. etc. or it can be reconverted to electricity through the use of fuel cells.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine Fig 2. gas turbine generators that burn hydrogen.3: Electric generation application 2. or in gaseous form in tanks. or by other means. caverns.

Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine CHAPTER 3 Literature Review 3. sawing. but it can also be used for many other purposes as grinding grain. all renewable energy. its most important usage probably being the propulsion of ships using sails before the invention of the steam engine and the internal combustion engine. ultimately comes from the sun.29%). a total of 8. Wind is the ongoing movement of this air. pushing a sailboat. people have harnessed this force peacefully. 3. Wind energy is relatively labor intensive and thus creates many jobs.1 Wind Power Wind is powered by the sun.10%). Actually. the "farm windmill" still seen in many rural areas of the U. In fact.3%) and hydro (473 MW . etc. The force of the wind can be very strong. Electricity produced from the wind produces no CO2 emissions and therefore does not contribute to the greenhouse effect.484 MW wind power capacity was installed in the EU in 2008. This puts wind energy ahead of any other power technology for the first time. Wind has also been used in windmills to grind grain or to pump water for irrigation. figure 1. The sun heats our planet to different temperatures in different places and at different times. Mechanical energy is most commonly used for pumping water in rural or remote locations. oil (2.932 MW .S. Historically. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . At the beginning of the twentieth century electricity came into use and windmills gradually became wind turbines as the rotor was connected to an electric generator. and even energy in fossil fuels. coal (762 MW .2%) . as a mechanical wind pumper. as can be seen after the passage of a hurricane or a typhoon. This unequal distribution of heat is what creates wind as warm air rises and cooler air descends to fill the void. A country or region where energy production is based on imported coal or oil will become more self-sufficient by using alternatives such as wind power.2 Wind Turbine The wind energy system transforms the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical or electrical energy that can be harnessed for practical use. The 36% of all new electricity producing capacity installed in the EU in 2008 was wind energy followed by natural gas (6.495 MW .

A single small turbine can be used to generate electricity for a water pump. �� is the wind speed. The utility grid works much in the same way as a conventional power plant. The largest turbine that was created to generate electricity has blades that are the length of a High School football field. the maximum power that can be obtained from a turbine can be measure as: �=12 � ��2=12 ����3 where � is the mass flow.1 Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) Today the HAWT is the most cost-effective means of capturing wind energy. which turns the low rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable to drive a generator. home or telecommunication devices. while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servo motor. The wind turbines are classified as the horizontal axis wind turbine and the vertical axis wind turbine based upon whether the axis of rotation is parallel or perpendicular to the ground. form a wind farm. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . It most have a gearbox. A wind farm is used to generate electricity in bulk. A wind turbine of this size is able to supply the electrical needs of a small business or home. HAWTs have the main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower. Several wind turbines.2. � the density of the air and A the area where the wind speed has been reduced. The electrical power that is generated from the turbines is distributed to customers from a utility grid. this can be seen in figure 2. A small turbine is capable of producing fifty kilowatts of power. Most horizontal axis turbines are built with two or three blades. grouped together. 3. The equation for the maximum power is very important to understand since it tells us that power increases with the cube of the wind speed and only linearly with density and area. There are a number of sizes and power ratings of different HAWTs. and must be pointed into the wind. The wind turbine stands an amazing twenty floors high and the rotors are up to twenty-five feet in diameter. They are positioned on land or at sea in a proven windy area. The available wind speed at a given site is therefore often first measured over a period of time before a project is initiated. Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine In addition.

VAWTs in addition to being simpler and cheaper to build have the following advantages:  VAWTs are not affected by the direction of the wind which is useful in areas where the wind changes direction frequently or quickly. they do not need the complicated head mechanisms of conventional horizontal axis turbines. making it simpler to install or maintain.2 Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) Vertical axis wind turbines are different from traditional wind turbines in that their main axis is perpendicular to the ground. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page .Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine Fig 3.  The generator or other devices can be installed at the ground level.2.  VAWTs are better able to harvest turbulent air flow found around buildings and other obstacles.  VAWTs are ideal for both rural and urban applications including roof top installations. This situation is more common in areas where people live. it is because the slow moving and highly visible.  VAWTs can be significantly less expensive to build. Their configuration makes them ideal for both rural and urban settings and offers the owner an opportunity to offset the rising cost of electricity and to preserve the environment. Besides.1: HAWT 3.  VAWTs do not kill birds and wild life.

In fact. H-rotor (right) BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . also called H-rotor.  VAWTs are more aesthetically pleasing. which is popular because of the simplicity of manufacture. The common Darrieus rotor has two or three blades. Other VAWT configurations include the Savonius.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine  They produce less noise compare with horizontal ones. Fig 3. The first aerodynamic vertical axis wind turbine was invented by Georges Darrieus in France and first patented in 1927. Another version of the Darrieus Wind Turbines is the. they have shaped like an eggbeater. and the straight bladed VAWTs. Canada. The main difference from the egg-beater shape is the straight aerodynamic profiles. All these turbines can be observed in figure 3. In the past the Darrieus rotor has been tested in different dimensions. one of the largest turbines ever built was the 96m high 64m diameter and it is located in Quebec.2: Darrieus Wind turbine (left).

Tip Speed Ratio ( λ) For Various Wind Turbines BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . Darrieus 4. Actually this turbine has been the starting point for further studies on VAWT.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine CHAPTER 4 Type of Vertical Wind Turbines 4. Fig 4.1: Power Coefficient (Cp) vs.1.1. to improve efficiency. the company went bankrupt in 1997. and there was also an attempt to implement the Darrieus wind turbine on a large scale effort in California by the FloWind Corporation.3. a narrow range of tip speed ratios around 6 and power coefficient Cp just above 0.1. and his previous patent (1927) covered practically any possible arrangement using vertical airfoils. however. It’s one of the most common VAWT.2 Use and operation The swept area on a Darrieus turbine is .1 Historical background French aeronautical engineer Georges Jean Marie Darrieus patented in 1931 a “Turbine having its shaft transverse to the flow of the current”. 4.

1 Historical background Savonius wind turbines were invented by the Finnish engineer Sigurd J. so each blade generates its maximum torque at two points on its cycle (front and back of the turbine). BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . This leads to a sinusoidal power cycle that complicates design.2: Angle of attack One problem with the design is that the angle of attack changes as the turbine spins. so it cannot rotate faster than the wind speed.2. such as pumping water or grinding grain.2 Savonius 4. 4. so it can be employed for other uses. but Johann Ernst Elias Bessler (born 1680) was the first to attempt to build a horizontal windmill of the Savonius type in the town of Furstenburg in Germany in 1745.2. Fig 4.2 Use and operation The Savonius is a drag-type VAWT. the efficiency is very low compared to other types. making this turbine not very suitable for electricity generation. And the long VAWT blades have many natural frequencies of vibration which must be avoided during operation. 4. Moreover. This means that the tip speed ratio is equal to 1 or smaller.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine Each blade sees maximum lift (torque) only twice per revolution. Savonius in 1922. making for a huge torque (and power) sinusoidal output that is not present in HAWTs.

making the overall energy extraction less effective due to lower wind speed at lower heights. Fig 4. However the torque is not constant.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine Much of the swept area of a Savonius rotor is near the ground. Its best qualities are the simplicity. so often some improvements like helical shape are used.3: Savonius rotor BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . the reliability and the very low noise production. It can operate well also at low wind speed because the torque is very high especially in these conditions.

they are: (i) Latitude of the place. year and years. (ii) Altitude of the place. month or year. The holy means is the one averaged over a particular hour of the day.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine CHAPTER 5 Wind Data and Energy Estimation The seasonal as well as instantaneous changes in wind both with regard to magnitude and direction need to be well understood to make the best use of them in windmill designs. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . There are various ways the data on wind behaviour is collected depending on the use it is intended to be put into. the location height above ground level at which the wind is measured and the nature of the surface on earth have an influence on the velocity of wind at any given time. (iv) Scale of the ours. Since the winds near the surface of the earth are derived from large scale movements of atmospheric winds. (iii) Topography of the place. The data based on scale of the hour is useful for mechanical aspects of design. The hourly mean velocity (for many years) provides the data for establishing the potential of the place for tapping the wind energy. which affect the nature of the wind close to the surface of the earth. month. The scale of the month is useful to indicate whether it is going to be useful during particular periods of the year and what storage if necessary is to be provided for. The hourly mean wind velocity as collected by the meteorological observations is the basic data used in a windmill designs. This calls for a proper recording and analysis of the wind characteristics. over the day. the scale of the periods considered are an important set of date required in the design. The factors. Winds being an unsteady phenomenon. The wind velocity at a given height can be represented in terms of gradient height and velocity. keeping in mind the factors that influence its development. Winds are known to fluctuate by a factor of 2 or more within seconds (and thus causing the power to fluctuate by a factor of 8 or more). The winds near the surface of the earth are interpreted in terms of boundary layer concept.

Even if the WECS is to the a small generator not tied to the electric grid. is Pw=KV3 Where K is a constant. The wind velocity is the critical parameter. obviously. and other factors are examined before a decision is made to erect a generating plant on a specific site. High annual average wind speed. A fundamental requirement of the successful use of WECS. 1. the sitting must be carefully chosen if inordinately long break even times to the avoided. economic environmental. the scale of periods considered for this the temporal parameters (scale of our. high cost for wind generated electrical energy. two other information’s required are: - Spells of low wind speeds. month and year) is an important set of data required in the design. Some of the main considerations are discussed below. because of the cubic dependence on wind velocity that small increases in V markedly affect the power in the wind. Doubling V. It is evident. EX. The scale of the month is useful to indicate whether it is going to be useful during particular periods of the year and what storage if necessary is to be provided for as already mentioned above. In addition to the data on the hourly mean velocity. is an adequate supply of wind has stated above. and no returns on investment.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine In as much as the height of the windmill rotor depends on the design wind velocity and cost of supporting structure. it is obviously desirable to select a site for WECS with high wind velocity. The data based on scale of the hour is useful for mechanical aspects of design. Similarly. The power in the wind Pw. The above factors have a bearing on the design. While the hourly mean velocity (for many years) provides the data for establishing the potential of the place for tapping the wind energy. winds being an unsteady phenomenon. and - Gusts The site choice for a single or a spatial array of WECS (wind energy conversion system) is an important matter when wind electric is looked at from the systems points of view of aero turbine generators feeding power into a conventional electric grid. increases Pw by a factor of 8. Technical. through a given cross sectional area for a uniform wind velocity V. Thus a high average wind velocity is the principal fundamental parameter BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . social. If the WECS sites are wrongly or poorly chosen the net wind electric generated energy per year may be sub optimal with resulting high capital cost for the WECS apparatus.

Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine of concern in initially appraising a WECS site. but there are many practical difficulties with the instrumentation and measurement methods. icing inertia of rotor whether it measures the horizontal velocity component or vertical. The anemometry data should be available over some time period at the precise spot where any proposed able over some time period at the precise spot where any proposed WECS is to be built and that this should be accomplished before a sitting decision is made. Strategy for sifting is generally recognized to consists of 1. If there are long periods of calm the WECS reliability will be lower than if the calm periods are short. linearity. location on the support tower. The V (t) curve goes to zero there will be no generated power during that time.5m/sec) which is about the lower limit at which present large scale WECS generators ‘cut in’ i. and temperature effects are a few of the many difficulties encountered. 3. Potential sites are visited. Anemometer data is normally based on wind speed measurements from a height of 10m. Contour maps of terrain and wind are consulted. This important curve determines the maximum energy in the wind and hence is the principal initially controlling factor in predicting the electrical output and hence revenue returns of the WECS machines. which basically determines the WECS output power. Best sites are instrumental for approximately one year. In making such reliability estimates it is BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . It is another important sitting factor. Choose optimal site. The principal object is to measure the wind speed. Survey of historical wind data. The anemometer height above ground. 2. (2) Availability of anemometry data. It is desirable to have average wind speed V 12- 16km/hr(3. 5. start turning. For a more detailed estimate value. For the most accurate assessment of wind power potential it is absolutely essential that anemometer data be obtained at the precise site and hub height for any proposed WECS. (3) Availability of wind V(t) curve at the proposed site. one would like to have the average of the velocity cubed.e. accuracy. 4. shadowing and inaccurate readings there from.5_4.

This departure from homogeneous flow is collectively referred to as “the structure of the wind”. They are not the same except for a sea level WECS site. If trees or grass or vegetation are present. If the WECS is to be placed near the top but not on the top of a not too blunt hill facing the prevailing wind.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine desirable to have measured V(t) curve over about a 5 year period for the highest confidence level in the reliability estimate. One must be careful to distinguish altitude from height above ground. The ideal case for the WECS would be a site such that the V(t) curve was flat. as is well known. Wind especially near the ground is turbulent and gusty. It may be possible to make use of hills or mountains. One should know about terrain of the site to be chosen. all of which tent to restructure the wind. i. then higher hub heights will be needed resulting in large system costs than the bare ground case. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . It affects the air density and thus the power in the wind and hence the useful WECS electric power output. If the surface is bare rock it may mean lower hub heights hence lower structure cost. Also. (5) Altitude of the proposed site. One should know about terrain of the site to be chosen. Also the wind here may not flow horizontal making it necessary to tip the axis of the rotor so that the aero turbine is always perpendicular to the actual wind flow. If the WECS is to be placed near the top but not on the top of a not too blunt hill facing the prevailing wind. which channel the prevailing winds into a pass region. (6) Terrain and its aerodynamic. (7) Terrain and its aerodynamic.e. (4) Wind structure at the proposed site. and changes rapidly in direction and in velocity. then it may be possible to obtain a ‘speed up’ of the wind velocity over what it would otherwise be. a smooth steady wind that blows all the time. the winds tend to have higher velocities at higher altitudes. then it may be possible to obtain a ‘speed up’ of the wind velocity over what it would otherwise be. Also the wind here may not flow horizontal making it necessary to tip the axis of the rotor so that the aero turbine is always perpendicular to the actual wind flow. thereby obtaining higher wind power. but a typical site is always less than ideal. (8) Local Ecology.

This is another factor the system engineer must consider for heavy machinery. or other obstacles. destroying the foundations for a WECS are secured. as they may affect aero turbine blades. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . materials. or environmental is generally adverse to machinery and electrical apparatus. This obvious criterion minimizes transmission line length and hence losses and costs. There should be no tall obstructions for a radius of 3 km. is also affected by the roughness of the earth’s surface in a given location. (10) Nearness of site to local centre/users. 4. 2. Erosion problem should not be there.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine (9) Distance to Roads or Railways. A site should have a high annual wind speed. The characteristics of a good wind power site may be summarized as follows: 1. enters into the total WECS system cost. (11) Nature of ground. blades and other apparatus will have to be moved into any chosen WECS site. (12) Favourable land cost. If the area contains buildings. Ground surface should be stable. hope fully as one narrows the proposed WECS sites to one or two they would be relatively near to the users of the generated electric energy. Land cost should be favourable as this along with other sitting costs. After applying all the previous sitting criteria. structures. 5. The wind shear. destroying the whole system. as it could possibly later wash out the foundations of a WECS. An open plain or an open shore line may be good location. salt spray or blowing dust should not present at the site. A mountain gap that produces to wind funnelling is good. trees. Ground condition should be such that the foundations for a WECS. and consequently the available wind power at a given altitude. the variation of the wind speed with altitude above ground level is usually greater for these obstructed areas than for the case of open water and flat plains. The top of a smooth. well rounded hill with gentle slopes lying on a flat plain or located on an island in a lake or sea is a good site. wind machines. (13) Other conditions such as icing problem. 3.

(ii) The wind-power rating of the turbine and (iii) The type of load demand e. Wind power ratings can be divided into three convenient grouping. either constant tip speed or constant tip speed ratio. The choice of an electrical generator and control method to be employed (if any) can be decided by consideration of the following three factors: (i) The basis of operation i. electrical faults and extra wind conditions. A mechanical interface. power output of the generator and other necessary performance quantities of the system and initiates appropriate control signals to take suitable corrective actions. wind speed. The output of this generator is connected to the load or system grid. medium to 50 kW and large 200 kW to megawatt frame size. consisting of a step-up gear and a suitable coupling transmits the energy to an electrical generator.1 Generating Systems 6.e.1 Introduction Aero turbines convert wind energy into rotary mechanical energy. The controller senses the wind direction. small to 1kW. battery connection.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine CHAPTER 6 Power Generation 6. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page .g. The system should be protected from excessive temperature raise of the generator.1.

1: Block diagram of wind turbine BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page .Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine Fig 6.

The electrical control strategy employed for any particular scheme can be designed to effect control of the generator. induction generator. synchronous generator. The pull out torque ™ condition should not be exceeded. generators. the machine becomes a generator and delivers constant line frequency power to the grid. The output power of wind drive n induction generator is uniquely determined by the operating speed.Per unit slip is 0 and 0. D. synchronous generator.permanent magnet. D. If the stator of an induction machine is connected to the power grid and if the rotor is driven above synchronous speed Ns (Ns=120f/p). When this happens the speed continues to increase and the system may ‘run away’. The torque-speed BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page .C generator. Constant speed drive has been used for large generators connected directly to the grid where constant frequency operation is essential. Synchronization of wind driven generator with power grid also will pose problems with gusty winds. These schemes can be broadly classified under three categories: (i) Constant – speed constant frequently systems (CSCF) (ii) Variable speed constant frequency systems (VSCF) (iii) Variable speed variable frequency systems (VSVF) (1) Constant speed constant frequency system (CSCF). (a) Synchronous Generator. (b) Induction Generator. For such machines the requirement of constant speed is very rigid and only minor fluctuations about 1% for short durations (fraction of second) could be allowed. the power transmission link or the load.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine Electrical generators types applicable to each of these ratings are: Small – permanent. magnet.C.2 Schemes for electric generation Several schemes for electric generation have been developed. Medium . Large – induction generator.(f=line frequency – and p=number of poles for which the stator winding is made).05. 6.

they are also known as synchronous inverters. source (power lines) which periodically reverses polarity and causes the commutation to occur naturally. (VSCF scheme).Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine characteristics of an induction machine in the motor and generating modes. The variable speed operation of wind-electric system yield higher outputs for both low and high wind speeds. They utilize an A. (ii) Variable speed constant frequency scheme. have no synchronization problems and are economical. output of the 3-phase alternator is rectified using a bridge rectifier and then converted back to A. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page .C. However. transmission systems.2: AC-DC-AC link (b) Double Output Induction Generator. control and maintain. using line commutated inverters. With the advent of high powered thyristors and high voltage D. Fig 6. The block diagram of the system. A. But static capacitors can be used to overcome this problem. Variable-speed drive is typical for most small wind generators used in autonomous applications. they draw their excitation from the grid and hence impose reactive volt ampere burden. generally producing variable frequency and variable voltage output.C. Since frequency is automatically fixed by the power line. The popular schemes to obtain constant frequency output are as follows: (a) AC-DC-AC link. This results in higher annual energy yields per rated installed kW capacity.C. They are easier to operate. Both horizontal axis and vertical axis turbines will exhibit this gain under variable speed operation. Induction generators are basically simpler than synchronous generators.C.

e.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine In this system a slip-ring induction motor is used. (c) A.C. Such an operation increases the operating speed range from N 3 to 2 N3.C.3: A. Rotor output power has the electrical equivalence of additional impedance in the rotor circuit. slip varying from 0 to 1. Communication generator BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . Rotor power output at slip frequency is converted to line frequency power by rectification and inversion output power is obtained both from stator and rotor and hence this device is called double output induction generator. increasing rotor outputs led to increasing slips and higher speeds. Communication generator. Basic problems in employing this device for wind energy conversion are the cost and care required by the commutator and the brush gear. Fig 6.0. This system is also known as Scherbius system employs two polyphone windings in the stator and a commutator winding on the rotor. i. Therefore.

The wind turbine will stop in few seconds by feathering the blades directly into the wind. (iv) Win Velocity. (ii) Emergency stop. The wind turbine is controlled by a computer which monitors the most important gauging instruments and compares the results. is released from the blade trip. the centrifugal force exceeding the force of the magnet pulling out the parachute. If a situation arises which calls for the wind turbine to be stopped immediately. which is activated if the rpm exceeds 28. Each blade tip has a parachute. two revolution counters have been mounted on the shaft. This decrease the speed of the wind turbine considerable enough to stop it from racing. the emergency stop is used. (v) The Parachutes. Then average wind speeds are measured over periods of 10 minutes.1 Safety systems of the wind turbines: (i) The computer. This is measured and controlled by the computer in two ways. It can not be stated again before what caused the emergency stop has been rectified. An iron plumb bob. The parachute is an extra safety device should other fail. otherwise held in place by a magnet. If errors are found the wind turbine is stopped. The tree blades and the mill or wind turbine cap are protected from lighting by these rods going from the tip of each blade to the ground. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . (iii) Revolution Counters. These operates quiet independently and activate the emergency stop if the revolutions of the turbine exceed 24 rpm which is maximum. and the wind turbine is also stopped if there are too high.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine CHAPTER 7 Safety Systems 7. Till now they never had been used. (v) Lightning Rods. First gusts of wind are registered and if they are too strong the turbine is stopped. To prevent the rotor from racing.

but noise does not travel too far. Following are the main effects due to a wind turbine.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine 7. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . where existing reception is none too good due to the surrounding hills and where the wind turbine is exposed in good position to receive and scatter the signals. Dispensing with aerials and sending TV signals by cable in areas that would otherwise be affected can overcome interference. TV interference is most likely in areas where there is a weak signal because of the distance from the transmitter. (iii) Visual Effects. Variety characteristics such as co lour pattern. generating equipment and linkages and the second type of aerodynamic in nature produced by the movement of the turbine blades. The first type is a mechanical noise from the gearbox. shape. (ii) Noise. Interference with TV and other electromagnetic communication systems is a possibility with wind turbines as it is with other tall structures. Revolving blades generate noise which can be heard in the immediate vicinity of the installation. One component of the latter is the broad band noise which ranges upto several kilo hertz and the other is a low frequency noise of 15-20 Hz.2 Environmental Aspects Wind turbines are not without environmental impact and their operation is not entirely risk-free. (i) Electromagnetic interference. Megawatts power generating wind turbines are massive structures which would be quite visible over a wide area in some locations. The noise produced by wind farms falls into two categories. rotational speed and reflectance of blade materials can be adjusted to modify the visual effects of wind turbines including the land scape in which they are installed.

At the wake zone. They observed increased turbulent levels near the blade tips and around the hub height for various wind speeds. (1995). The characteristic values of turbulence velocity and length were calculated by algebraic combinations of ‘k’ and ‘ε’. Design and performance of wind turbine.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine CHAPTER 8 Literature Survey The literature survey presented are classified into three major domains namely Wind turbine airfoil aerodynamics. Some of the literature related to airfoil aerodynamics is presented briefly in this section.1 Wind Turbine Airfoil Aerodynamics The aerodynamics of airfoils of wind turbine was studied by various researchers with a view to optimizing the wind turbine performance. They evaluated turbulent kinetic energy (k) and its dissipation rate (ε) by experimental methods and numerical methods using CFD. They considered two wake regions one at near the hub and the other away from hub for their BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . The standard deviation of the axial velocity was used to measure the turbulence in wind turbine wakes. They have created power coefficient curve and assessed wake features due to variation of wind velocities and at stalled condition. they observed that there was no increase in turbulent energy and it was due to flat wake velocity profile and the absence of strong shear layers that produce turbulence. Optimization of wind turbine and simulation techniques. A limitation of this study is the terrain complexity in association with the fact that the prevailing wind velocity was particularly high. The parking conditions of wind turbine rotor in upstream and downstream velocities were analyzed and reported by Apadopoulos et al. 8. The evolution of turbulence characteristics in wind turbine wakes were studied by Crespo and Hernandez (1996). in order to validate the results of the numerical model. The spectrum of unperturbed basic flow was recovered for increasing turbulent kinetic energy by neglecting the effect of wake. it was necessary to make assumptions that relate ‘k’ to the standard deviation in the wind direction. Since turbulence was isotropic neither in the atmospheric surface layer nor in the wake zones. leading to a relatively weak wake.

which is lower than that of modern Danish wind turbines.1 × 104. Further. based on the singularities method. extreme wind loads and annual generation of energy. The region next to the downstream of the rotor. They considered design fatigue load. He developed an accurate lower order code for the analysis of airfoil in CFD software. The empirical approach saved substantial computing time. the 2D incompressible potential flow model was used. The aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbines which are closely related to the geometry of the blade profiles were studied by Kamoun Badreddine et al. The cost of energy was reduced compared to the traditional design with the same swept area. Roskilde.5 MW stall regulated rotor for optimization. The objective was to minimize the cost of generating energy. The optimum specific power was found to be 460 W/m2. They considered 1. A numerical multi-disciplinary optimization method for design of horizontal axis wind turbines was proposed by Fuglsang and Madsen (1999). displayed good agreement with the results estimated from the LDA-measured cross-flow distributions of velocities in the wake based on the momentum conservation. (2011) presented the measurements of mean and fluctuating forces on an NACA0012 airfoil over a large range of angle (α) of attack (0–90°) and low to small chord Reynolds numbers (Re) in the range of 5. where expansion occurs.3 × 103 to 5. in August 2001 and obtained good agreement. They developed an empirical approach to identify the sensitivities of the above parameters. was not considered in their analysis. occurs at Re 1. A theoretical analysis is developed to predict the dependence of mean lift and drag on α. Zhou et al. They suggested that airfoil sections should have a relatively high maximum lift at the entire span including the tip region for optimum characteristics. characterized by a drop in the lift force and a jump in the drag force. It has been found that the stall of an airfoil. Denmark. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . They optimized the shape of the rotor to withstand the maximum strain and for economical use of material. In this method. they suggested that an increase in the swept area can be achieved by increasing the length of the blade where as the tip section should not have minimum lift airfoils.05 × 104 and it is absent at Re = 5. (2005). source–vortex distributions over the airfoil contour were used to compute the flow characteristics. They measured forces using a load cell.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine analysis leaving the intermediate zone that had turbulence.3 × 103. The dependence of the forces on both and Re is determined. The accuracy and the validity of the results had been tested using experimental data obtained from Wind Turbine Airfoil Catalogue of Risø National Laboratory. In the analysis of the flow characteristics.

Pressure distributions were obtained over the surface of the airfoil and the lift and drag forces were measured with a dynamometer at different angles of attack. They considered the design parameters such as the rotor diameter. with the capacity of 100 KW. Badawy (2001). Singh et al. The cost of energy generation may be reduced up to 10% by properly choosing the wind turbines to suit the rated wind speed. They proposed a method to predict the performance of horizontal-axis wind turbines and applied to the existing machines of ERDA NASA MOD-0. the analysis of an existing turbine model was carried out and the results were compared with the findings of other investigators. 128. They used an ideal actuator disk model and obtained the optimum variations of the axial and rotational induction factors.000 and 205. They developed analytical equations for optimizing chord and twist distribution for an ideal windmill along with an exact trigonometric function method. 75.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine The airfoil with low Reynolds number was designed by Ronit K. In their case study. The optimum aerodynamic blade geometry as well as the trimmed-rotor solutions were BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . 8.000. They optimized wind turbine for the mean annual wind speed range of 6-8 m/s. The variation of the angle of attack along blade span relative wind velocity was obtained directly from unique equation with specific rotor size and blade geometry. A direct approach for the determination of aerodynamic performance characteristics of horizontal axis wind turbines was examined by Karam Y. The research and finding of the researchers related to the design and performance of wind turbine is briefly presented in this section.000. (2012) for applications in small horizontal axis wind turbines to achieve better start up and low wind speed performances. A CFD analysis was also performed to get additional information on the flow characteristics. rated power and tower height.S. They performed experiments on the improved airfoil (AF300) in an open circuit wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers of 38. Maalawi and Mahdy T. The optimum design parameters for horizontal axis wind turbines was developed and tested by Collecutt and Flay (1996).2 Design and Performance of Wind Turbine The understanding and study of design and performance of wind turbines is important in the course of optimization of its performance.000. The results of the study indicated that the cost of energy production reduces by the optimization of the relative combination of rotor diameter and rated power with respect to site mean annual wind speed.

(2005) optimized various parameters for horizontal axis wind turbines using lifting line theory. type of airfoil section and the blade root offset from hub centre. The dimensionless chord and twist are calculated at equidistant stations along the blade for different values of blade number and TSR. They compared their finds with the existing results using blade element momentum theory.40 using NACA 2404 profiles as the blade profile at 3. Two families of NACA airfoils sections for horizontal-axis wind turbines were studied with the objective of increasing the power output and reported by Maalawi and Badr (2003).5 m/s. They predicted that substantial reduction in the power output occurs when the tower shadow or wind shear is taken into consideration.5 m/s speed rate using NACA profiles as the blade profile. (2005) obtained the power coefficient values varying between 0. At any desired value of the angle of attack for a specified Reynold’s number the lift and drag coefficients were determined. Kishinami et al.4 m/s and 10. The effects of wind shear and the effect of tower shadow were also reported. (2005) also found that the highest power coefficient was 0. Hirahara et al. The chord and rate of taper decreased with TSR for most of the selected airfoil types and number of blades. Further.49 on the NACA 23012 profile.41 at 4.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine obtained and investigated in detail. They considered the design parameters like number of blades.4 m/s speed stages.7 m/s and 21. In the program they varied the airfoil type along the blade and specific index number was assigned to each type. Ozdener (2005) used NACA 4415 profile as the wind turbine blade profile and reported rotation rates up to 2722 rpm and power coefficient up to 0. They determined maximum power output for specific airfoil type. number of blades.23 and 0. They refined the chord and twist distribution of the blade geometry by approximation of theoretical values. A mathematical model was developed and implemented by Lanzafame and Messina (2007) for improving wind turbine design based on the blade element BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . Maalawi and Badr (2003) had the highest power coefficient value of 0. They developed a computer program to automate the overall analysis procedures and predicted the variation of the power and thrust coefficients with the design tip speed ratio for various rotor configurations. Kamoun Badreddinne et al.275 at wind speed levels ranging between 5. the authors concluded that the proposed method of analysis eliminated the complications of other numerical methods. hub size and TSR. They developed a simplified model capable of improving the performance of wind turbines using wind velocities more than 10 m/s.

 Rotation rate of rotor and blade angle  Power coefficient and blade angle  Power coefficient and rotor blade number Best rotor models with high rotation rates were moderately effective in terms of power coefficient. the various shapes of scoops were incorporated and tested. They predicted and suggested the existence of following correlation. In their study. Using CFD a virtual wind tunnel was modelled to investigate the performance of the rotor with selected design options. physical and computational methods. They achieved a maximum power coefficient rate up to 0. Based on experimental results. they considered tangential flow factor and developed a model for the representation of the lift and drag coefficients to optimize rotor performance at low wind velocities occurring at start-up phase of the turbine. The turbine rotor performance was studied using the developed model and the results were compared with experimental findings. The power curves were drawn using CFD and annual power output was predicted using the new proposed method. In design. It is difficult to predict the correct lift and drag coefficient values and correct evaluation of the axial and tangential flow factors using BEM theory.425 with 3077 rpm. they performed simulations to evaluate the best lift and drag coefficient representation. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . a small wind turbine with scoop to grasp slow and turbulent wind flow in built up areas was designed. The models were tested in a wind tunnel and rotation rates of each rotor were determined based on wind speed. tested and optimized using the methodology with theoretical. The blades were modeled using BEM theory with FORTRAN code. From the model the chord and blade angle distribution along the radius were obtained.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine momentum theory and simulated for wide range of wind velocities in on design and off design conditions. (2008). Hence. The investigation of rotation rates and power coefficients correspond to rotor models of miniature wind turbine manufactured using NACA profiles by Ali Vardar and Ilknur Alibas (2007). Development of small domestic wind turbine for built up areas were studied by Wang et al. They used 180 rotor models of 310mm diameter prepared from Balsa wood with various design parameters.

It was evaluated for performance and Annual Energy Production (AEP) at both constant and variable standard rotational velocities with maximum power coefficient. 8. As the Reynolds numbers are increased. They used the iterative process for the convergence of speed interference factor and maximization of power coefficient. 8. (2009) proposed a new method based on analytical approach for performance study of wind turbines. 5.0 and 10.. It continuously was evaluated by a generated code based on Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory. the chord length. the angle of attack increases as the speed increases. The power output reached the maximum at pitch angles of 4. Mathematical simulation based on analytical approach of performance evaluation was compared with the experimental results of 10KW HAWT rotors. The CFD numerical solution was carried out by solving conservation equations in a rotating reference frame wherein the blades and grids were fixed in relation to the rotating frame. Numerical experiments were conducted by varying the pitch angles and the wind speeds. 6.5 m/s respectively.2. They registered 13% increase of AEP for a turbine operating at variable velocity. A computational result obtained with 12o pitch angle was compared favourably with the experimental data of the National Renewable Laboratory (USA). neural network etc. They highlighted that the power coefficient was maximum forspecific range of wind velocities.0. operating at its maximum power coefficient. for both in viscid and turbulent conditions.76o for the wind speeds 7.12o. They demonstrated the methodology for determining the law of governing the rotational velocity of the rotor. During analysis. The optimal angles of attack were also obtained. 80% span length of the blade from hub.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine Chalothorn Thumthae and Tawit Chitsomboon (2009) studied the numerical simulation of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) with untwisted blade to determine the optimal angle of attack that produces the highest power output.3 Optimization of Wind Turbine The development of evolutionary algorithms like Genetic. Ahmed et al. Lanzafame and Messina (2010) studied the performance of a horizontal axis wind turbine. it was observed that the optimal angle of attack were nearer to the maximum lift point. 9. In each element.28o. They divided a blade into 100 radial elements for designing rotor and predicting its peak performance. twist angle and power coefficient were determined. attracted the researchers in the area of wind turbine design to optimize its parameters.66o and 8. These algorithms use random scattered search with local optimum and global optimum BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page .

The optimization of wind turbine blades was proposed by Jureczko et al. They suggested that the Reynolds number had a negligible effect on power ratio than the tip speed ratio (TSR). They used Genetic algorithm based optimization process for optimizing the aerofoil and geometry. The various authors have attempted to optimize the parameters related to turbine and wind farms. They used their optimization tool for minimizing the vibrations of blades. noise generation and economical costs that are used to define an objective function as the ratio of the total cost of the turbine to the annual energy production. In the second method. Fuglsang and Madsen (1999) used a global methodology involving many aspects of blade design including aerodynamics. different tip speed ratios and different blade angles had been used for simulating the rotor’s power factor and torque. blade structure. he used a 3D panel method to obtain the force distributions. Benini and Toffolo (2002) used evolutionary methods to optimize wind turbines. the blade shape was modified to improve the stiffness and stability. (2005). In the first method. In their research. His optimization procedure includes changes in the airfoil shape. but to avoid the computational cost involved in obtaining lift and drag tables. The main input parameter was predicted using neural network. Moreover. Sargolzaei and Kianifar (2009) proposed artificial neural networks (ANNs) for estimating the power factor and torque of wind turbines. They fix the turbine power and include in the objective function economical costs. They worked both in structural and aerodynamic optimization. based on the experimental data gathered from seven prototype vertical Savonius rotors tested in wind tunnel. A very complete approach to blade optimization is realized by Hampsey (2002). the blade structure and the complete rotor system. This objective function is optimized by using gradient based methods.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine conditions. the dynamic and mechanical properties of wind turbine were modified. Some of the literatures related to the optimization of wind turbine parameters are discussed in this section. The simulated results provided reasonable BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . They developed a modified genetic algorithm and implemented it for optimizing various objective functions with various constraints. the rotors having diverse features that were situated in the wind tunnel had been tested repeatedly for 4–6 times in order to minimize the experimental errors. They used two methods for optimization. The performance of horizontal axis wind turbines by accurately modeled using the vortex lattice method was studied by Lanzafame and Messina (2007). fatigue loads.

They produced reasonably agreeable results by their proposed approach.4 Research Gap The various airfoils are tested using experimental procedures and the results are presented by various researchers in the literature. it is BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . Andrew Kusiak and Haiyang Zheng (2010) studied the power optimization by computing optimal control settings of wind turbines using data mining and evolutionary strategy algorithms. They used minimum neuron numbers associated with quicker learning process and exact wind speed prediction. The artificial neural networks simulations and the experimental results indicated that the increase in tip speed ratio enhanced power ratio and torque. The efficiency of Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) was maximized by operating the wind turbine generator with variable rotor speed in proportion to the wind speed. They provided better precision for wind speed forecasting than conventional methods. An evolutionary algorithm was applied to determine control settings for maximizing the power output of a turbine based on the identified model. Data mining algorithms identified functional mapping between power output and controllable and non-controllable variables of a wind turbine. Mohammad Monfared et al. (2009) proposed a novel fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks based approach for wind speed forecasting. (2010) presented a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control algorithm for variable speed wind turbine driven using a permanent magnet generator. There are no generalized correlations that could be applied to predict the coefficient of lift and drag for various NACA airfoils. Bharanikumar et al. The effect of Reynolds number on coefficient of lift and drag has been attempted by some of the researchers using experimental set-up.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine predictions and estimations of maximum power of rotors and increasing the effectiveness of Savonius turbines. the permanent-magnet generator (PMG). The wind-turbine. Maximum and minimum amount of torque occurred for all the tested rotors at an angle of 60o and 120° respectively. the three-phase rectifier. 8. The simulation was made using MATLAB / SIMULINK and the results were compared with those of the laboratory set-up. It can be performed using the proposed modified correlation of the coefficient of lift and drag. From the literature. In their algorithm. The maximum wind power was determined by adjusting the rotating speed of the permanent-magnet generator in the real time. they used tracing of point at which maximum power occurs for every speed. the boost chopper and the inverter were considered in the system.

It is shown that the approach used in this study is efficient and saves much of the computational time compared with the commonly used iterative procedures. an iterative approach for computing the performance of the horizontal axis wind turbine is proposed and mathematical code is developed to compute the axial and tangential flow factors. In this research work. It is not used for the optimization of power coefficient. These difficulties are rectified in this research work by developing the correlation for coefficient of lift and coefficient of drag and the evaluation of axial and tangential flow factors by Iterative method. In the literature it is found that Genetic Algorithm is used for the optimization of chord and twist angle. A case study was made including the design of wind turbine. BEM method is combined with Iterative method and Genetic Algorithm and it is used to optimize the wind turbine power coefficient. it is stated that the most difficult issues for the BEM theory are mathematical representation of the correct lift and drag coefficient values and correct evaluation of the axial and tangential flow factors. In the present study. Genetic Algorithm code is developed for the computation of optimum power coefficient at various wind velocities. In the literature survey on performance of wind turbine system. in the present research work. This study also considered the effect of drag and tip loss correction factor are considered for calculating the axial. In the literature. The results are discussed and compared with those obtained by other investigators.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine understood that the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method used for maximising the power coefficient needs improvement. Therefore. angle of attack and tip speed ratio. tangential flow factors and power coefficient. The airfoils NACA 4410 and NACA 2415 were taken into consideration for evaluating this proposed approach. angle of attack and tip speed ratio of wind turbine blade at various wind velocities. performance analysis with various assumptions and CFD analysis of airfoils. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . The use of computational simulation can therefore be particularly useful for the optimization of wind turbine blade. The results of power coefficient is compared with the effect of drag and tip loss correction factor. the convergence of axial and tangential flow factors are very limited and deals with optimizing the wind turbine parameters without considering convergence of flow factors. In the present work. Genetic Algorithm is used to optimize the power coefficient.

angles of attack and tip speed ratio of wind turbine with NACA airfoils at various wind velocities using Genetic Algorithm. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page .  To optimize the power coefficient of horizontal axis wind turbine rotor using iterative approach and to develop an iterative method to identify the convergence of axial and tangential flow factors.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine 8.  To analyze the effect of Reynolds number on the coefficient of lift and drag of various airfoils using the modified correlations for coefficient of lift and drag on NACA airfoils.  To optimize the coefficient lift.5 Objective of Research Work The objectives of the research are:  To develop the correlations for predicting coefficient of lift and drag of NACA 4 series airfoils and validate with experimental results.  To optimize the power coefficient. To propose the modified correlation that can be applied for various NACA airfoils of different thickness. drag and pressure using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method for various angles of attack of airfoil and validation with experimental results.

2 Power and power coefficient The power available from wind for a vertical axis wind turbine can be found from the following formula: Pw = ½ ρ S VO3 BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page .1 Swept area The swept area is the section of air that encloses the turbine in its movement. R is the rotor radius [m]. the shape of the swept area depends on the rotor configuration. 9.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine CHAPTER 9 Wind turbine design parameters The wind turbine parameters considered in the design process are: · Swept area · Power and power coefficient · Tip speed ratio · Blade chord · Number of blades · Solidity · Initial angle of attack 9. bigger power output in the same wind conditions. The swept area limits the volume of air passing by the turbine. this way the swept area of an HAWT is circular shaped while for a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine the swept area has a rectangular shape and is calculated using: S=2RL where S is the swept area [m2]. The rotor converts the energy contained in the wind in rotational movement so as bigger the area. and L is the blade length [m].

9.4 Blade chord The chord is the length between leading edge and trailing edge of the blade profile. The blade thickness and shape is determined by the airfoil used. thus Power of wind rotor Power coefficient Cp = Power available in the wind Cp value represents the part of the total available power that is actually taken from wind.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine Where Vo is the velocity of the wind [m/s] and ρ is the air density [kg/m3]. R the rotor radius [m] and Vo the ambient wind speed [m/s]. where the blade curvature and maximum thickness are defined as percentage of the chord. the reference density used its standard sea level value (1. in this case it will be a NACA airfoil. 9. Each rotor design has an optimal tip speed ratio at which the maximum power extraction is achieved. TSR = Tangential speed at blade tip/actual wind speed =Rω/Vo where ω is the angular speed [rad/s].225 kg/m^3 at 15ºC) The power the turbine takes from wind is calculated using the power coefficient: The faction of the free-flow wind power that can be extracted by a rotor is called the power-coefficient.3 Tip Speed Ratio The power coefficient is strongly dependent on tip speed ratio. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . which can be understood as its efficiency. defined as the ratio between the tangential speed at blade tip and the actual wind speed.

7 Initial angle of attack The initial angle of attack is the angle the blade has regarding its trajectory.5 Number of blades The number of blades has a direct effect in the smoothness of rotor operation as they can compensate cycled aerodynamic loads.6 Solidity The solidity σ is defined as the ratio between the total blade area and the projected turbine area. Solidity determines when the assumptions of the momentum models are applicable. This formula is not applicable for HAWT as they have different shape of swept area. and only when using high σ ≥ 0. For easiness of building. L is the blade length and S is the swept area. considering negative the angle that locates the blade’s leading edge inside the circumference described by the blade path.4 a self starting turbine is achieved 9. it is considered that each blade sweeps the area twice.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine 9. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . c is the blade chord. four and three blades have been contemplated 9. It is an important non dimensional parameter which affects self-starting capabilities and for straight bladed VAWTs is calculated with σ =Nc/R where N is the number of blades.

Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine Chapter 10 Design of the Project 10.1: Square plate BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page .1 Square plate: Fig 10.

2 Gear Wheel: Fig 10.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine 10.3 Shaft: Fig 10.3: Shaft BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page .2: Gear wheel 10.

Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine 10.4: Bearing BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page .4 Bearing 6204 Fig 10.

1: Fabricated model 11. of blades  Darrieus – 3  Savonius – 4 BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page .Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine Chapter 11 Fabrication Fig 11.1. Specification    Height = 6 feet Width = 3 feet No.

2 Components Used Fig 11. 5. 2.5 amps Shaft – 15mm diameter Gear – 1:3 gear teeth ratio Ball bearing – 15 mm inner diameter and 40 mm outer diameter Inerter MS square hollow pipe 18 gauge Led bulb BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . 6. Battery – 12 volts 7. 3. 4.2: Components used 1. 7.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine 11.

1 Darrieus – Swept area = 2RL = 2 x 0.1.457 = 0.2 Savonius – Swept area = 2RL = 2 x 0.457 = 0.083 Pw = 0.1 Theoretical Output 12.225 x 0.305 x 0.5575 x1.225 x .64 W BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page .21 W Total Output = 0.2787 m2 – Power available from wind Pw = ½ ρ S Vo3 Pw = ½ x 1.5575 m2 – Power available from wind Pw = ½ ρ S Vo3 Pw = ½ x1.2787 x 1.21 W – Power Output = 0.61 x .Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine CHAPTER 12 Experimentation 12.43 W 12.083 Pw = .1.43 W – Power output = 0.

5 9.5 44.9 4.144 .225 .2 Experimental Observation Velocity Km/hr 3.06 4.336 .32 26.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine 12.45 30 32 Average Efficiency η = 27.5 8.19 27.59% BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page .192 .425 Efficiency η% 22.5 30 39.5 Current mA 24 27.22 4.7 5 Voltage V 6 7 7.8 Power W .

wind power systems are non-polluting. it eliminates yaw control requirement for is rotor to capture wind energy.1 Advantages of Wind Energy  It is a renewable source of energy  Like all forms of solar energy.e.  The absence of pitch control requirements are synchronous operation may yield additional cost savings. allow easier access and serviceability.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine CHAPTER 13 Advantages and Disadvantages 13. it can be operated close to the ground level. so it has no adverse influence on the environment.  Since this machine has vertical axis symmetry. On a large-scale costs can be competitive with conventional electricity and lower costs could be achieved by mass production.  Another added advantage is that the machine can be mounted on the ground eliminating tower structures and lifting of huge weight of machine assembly.  The tip speed ratio and power coefficient are considerably better than those of the S-rotor but are still below the values for a modern horizontal-axis.  Wind energy systems avoid fuel provision and transport. two-bladed propeller rotor.  Airfoil rotor fabrication costs are expected to be reduced over conventional rotor blade costs. i.  On a small-scale up to a few kilowatt system is less costly. 13.2 Advantages of Vertical Wind Turbine  The major advantage of this design is that the rotor blades can accept the wind from any compass. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . This may in turn. A dual purpose and relatively simple shaft axis support is anticipated as well as ground level power output delivery due to presence of vertical shaft.

Because a Darrieus rotor is generally situated near ground proximity.  Wind energy systems are noisy in operation.  Wind power systems have a relatively high overall weight.  Unlike water energy wind energy needs storage capacity because of its irregularity. This may yield  less energy output. deliver power in the 30 to 300 W ranges.  Large areas are needed.  Present systems are neither maintenance free not-practically reliable. because they involve the construction of a high tower and include also a gearbox. it may also experience lower velocity wind compared to a tower mounted conventional wind energy conversion system of comparable projected rotor disc area. propellers 1 to 3 m in diameter. Because a Darrieus rotor encounters greatly varied local flow conditions per revolution. the fact that highly reliable propeller engines are built for aircraft suggest that the present troubles could be overcome by industrial development work. for large systems a weight of 110 kg/kW (rated) has been estimated. However.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine 13. greater vibratory stresses are encountered which will affect rotor system life BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . 13. a generator coupling shaft etc. Rotor power output efficiency of a Darrieus wind energy conversion system is  also somewhat lower than that of a conventional horizontal rotor. stalling occurs and the rotation stops automatically.4 Disadvantages of Vertical Wind Turbine   At very high speeds.3 Disadvantages of Wind Energy  Wind energy available in dilute and fluctuating in nature. a hub and pitch changer. a large unit can be heard may kilometres away. typically.

small scale Vertical Axis Wind Turbine is fabricated using aluminium sheet and mild steel materials etc. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . From test results of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine over a wide range of wind speeds.    Optimizing the design of blades so as to give better aerodynamics. Structural fabrication should be more accurate in order to have proper functions of  windmill. it is noted that this turbine produces 2. Using fixed base system to reduce the weight of the whole system. Using gear mechanisms to increase rpm for alternator input and hence can have  higher power output. Using a best alternator which produces more voltage for low rpm.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine CHAPTER 14 Scope of Future Work An economical.5 watts for a wind speed of 5 km/hr and which can be even increased by following measures.

Hans Bernhoff. retrieved 2010-04-26  Sandra Eriksson.05. Dale E.Design and Fabrication of Vertical Wind Turbine Reference  Jha. Canada: New Society Pub. Retrieved 19 September 2014. Christian Masson. "A Retrospective of VAWT Technology" (PDF). BC. Herbert J. (2012). researchers say. Thomas D. Mats Leijon.rser. (2010). Another Approach to Wind. Wind-turbine placement produces tenfold power increase. Ashwill. Issue 1. "Evaluation of different turbine concepts for wind power". Sandia National Laboratories.. retrieved 2012-07-31  Chiras. (2010).01.D.1016/j. FL: CRC Press  Amina El Kasmi. retrieved 2010-04-26  Steven Peace. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics.R. Gabriola Island. A. ISSN 1364-0321.  Sutherland.doi:10. Berg. retrieved 2010-04-26  Kathy Svitil. January 2008. Ph. BMSIT&M Department of Mechanical Engineering Page . Boca Raton. Wind power basics: a green energy guide.2006. D. (June 2008). Volume 96. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (5): 1419–1434. An extended k-epsilon model for turbulent flow through horizontal-axis wind turbines. Wind turbine technology. Pages 103-122.