You are on page 1of 8

Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 3, No 1 (2014)

ISSN 2305-9168

Green Marketing for Creating Awareness for

Green Consumerism
Mohammad Yunus1 & Mohammad Toufiqur Rahman2

Associate Professor, Dept. of Business Administration, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh
Asistant Professor, Dept. of Business Administration, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh

Green businesses are enterprises which consider environmental protection
as an essential component for their long-term business objectives, both by
promoting eco-efficient production activities and by marketing sustainable
products and services (Barnes, n.d.). Green products may be defined as
products or services that have a lesser or reduced bad effect on human
health and the environment when compared with competing products or
services that serve the same purpose (Website). The purposed of green
business are (i) to promote more socially inclusive development (ii) to
reduce environmental degradation (iii) to mitigate the effects of climate
change (iv) to deal with pressures of population growth (v) to manage,
issues of increased scarcity and volatile prices of raw materials effectively.
Examples of green product are compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), which
use 75% less energy than ordinary incandescent ones, organic foods, which
are grown and processed without antibiotics, pesticides, or synthetic
fertilizers, hybrid electric vehicles such as the Toyota Prius, which achieves
a fuel economy of 48 city-mpg and 45 highway-mpg (Website)., and green
hotels, which are trying to conserve water, energy, and materials usage
(Sharkey, 2008). Green business in practically existent everywhere around
us. Company such as Wal-mart and General Electric transforming their
business practices into green ones (Yeganeh & Glavas, 2008). In a study
conducted by MeKinsey of 4,238 business executives in 116 countries, 84%
believed that business should contribute to the public good; however, only
3% believe that their companies are currently doing a good job (McKinsey,
2006). Thus, green business is an enterprise that has no negative impact on
the (i) environment (ii) economy (iii) society (iv) community. Further, it
meets the requirement of the triple bottom line such as financial benefits of
the company, natural world betterment and social advantages for
employees and members of the local community. The triple bottom line
gives importance on initial value instead of the after effects.
Key words: Green Consumerism, Green products, Green business, volatile
prices, triple bottom line.
JEL Classification Code: M31; Q13; P46

Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | GDEB

Page 18

Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 3, No 1 (2014)

ISSN 2305-9168


The green business meets the following four criteria viz. (a) the business decisions of the
company incorporate sustainability principles (b) the company manufactures environmentally
friendly products/ services (c) it replaces demand for non-green products (d) it ensures
enduring commitment to implement environmental principles in all business operations
management (e) the company is totally different in concept as well as in practice. Thus, it is a
business that meets the needs of the present world without compromising the ability of the
future generations to meet their own needs. The green business with the supply chain try to
trade-off among the tree components of the triple bottom line concepts such as better impact
on the environment, high growth of business and social development. As such, it argued that
green business is a three legged stool of (i) people (ii) planet. However, the time line of key
events in green product consumerism from 1998 to 2010 has been show in Fig.1.

Few. Products carry environmental marketing messages.

But organic and natural foods gain popularity
Consumer awareness is heightened and more green choices arise :
homemade cleaning products and resource lists for shopping are


Green becomes a talk of the town only in the market but also in
Consumer willingness to pay for green features leads to a dramatic
increase in green consumerism.
92% European multinational companies rework product development
to reflect green concern; 85% alter production systems.
Green brands are niche markets. High levels of consumer concern are
not reflected in purchasing power.


Market shifts towards global business and affordable energy leading to

less spending on green products.
Green building rating systems, eco labels and certification programs
increase in number. These programs largely focus on reduction of
greenhouse gas emissions, conservation and wise use of natural
resources and building occupant productivity related to IEQ.
Research determines that protecting individual and family health is the
#1 motivator for consumers to actively work towards protecting the
environment. Chemical emissions and exposure to very small traces of
VOCs from common indoor materials and finishes are found to impact
human health.
Total number of green products in stores increase by an average of 79% .

Studies show that 60% of those surveyed look for minimally packaged
goods, 58% purchase green cleaning products and 31% buy green
personal care products.
2010 Green chemistry emerges and the federal government activity considers
integrating into legislation.
[Source: Air Quality Sciences, Inc. (2010), p.2]

Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | GDEB

Page 19

Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 3, No 1 (2014)

ISSN 2305-9168

Green business produces green products. The green business should consider the strategies like
water conservation, energy conversation, solid waste reduction and recycling, pollution,
prevention, etc. Data, thus, collected regarding green products in study areas have been shown in
the pie chart-1. The pie chart-1 shows that 27% respondents were sapling plantation; 17% poultry
farming; 15% fruits production; 11% manufacturing garments; 8% goat rearing; 7% rice
production; 5% dairy farming; 6% flower production and 4% furniture manufacturing.

Figure- 1: Pie Chart-Green Products

It has been reported that the respondents are motivated to work hard for their livelihoods. The
research identified that there are two types of capital required to change the pattern of growth
of the study areas viz. human capital and social capital. Human capital may be defined as the
capabilities of an individual or group i.e. the knowledge, training and skills that contribute to
increase their productivity in their production system. Social capital may be defined as the
connections among different stake-holders within social networks that have a value for their
mutual benefits. It has been reported that the sample respondents of the study areas are in the
following vicious cycle in figure-2:

Figure-2: Vicious Cycle

Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | GDEB

Page 20

Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 3, No 1 (2014)

ISSN 2305-9168

Green consumers are the consumers who choose to purchase environmentally friendly
products. The development of green products whether in the context f human resources,
operations or marketing required new ideas while dealing with added constrained of
environmental and consumer pressures (Cronin, et. al., 2010). However, the activities of green
products are as follows (Amatruda, 2010):

Incorporate recycle content

Renewable resources

Local resources and manufactures

Employ sustainable harvesting practices wood or bio-based

Bio degradable

Easily reused either whole or through dissembling

Be able to readily recycle without significant deterioration of quality

Green jobs may be defined as activities that contribute substantially to preserving
environmental quality. These jobs are plumbers, electricians, general workers, environmental
specialist, etc. The literature review reveals that the sectors of economy can create new green
jobs. These sectors are sustainable agriculture, transportation, energy efficiency, renewable
energy, etc. It has been reported that the livelihoods of he sample respondents may be changed
through green business training. These are (i) to familiarize stakeholders with green business
and related concepts (ii) to illustrate the importance/interrelations among of green businesses
(iii) to identify possible policies and measure for implementation (iv) to make proactive
corporate marketing and active government intervention, etc. The mechanism of government
interventions are (a) regulations (b) to make reformation (c) re-consumption (d) reorientation
(e) reorganization (Dutta, 2009).
Further, it has been revealed that the steps to green business are as (i) learning what it means to
be a green business (ii) reduce consumption, waste and pollution (iii) re-use what ones have
(iv) recycle everything ones can (v) learn low going green can save money (vi) green ones
business from the ground up (vii) develop and implement a green checklist (viii) review ones
processes (ix) environmental education & networking, etc.

Green consumerism includes mainly 3 R like Reduce, Re-use and Recycle, Reduce
consumption means turn-off lights, recyclable packaging, reduce car use, etc. Re-use means
repurchase rechargeable batteries, washable towels, re-useable shopping bags, etc Recycle
means re-blending, reprocessing, and recyclable products, recycle papers, etc. It has been
observe that cans bottles, plastics, paper, cardboard can all be recycled easily. By analyzing
existing literature and based on our field survey, it may be concluded that green businesses aswell as green jobs may be explored for better livelihoods of the sample respondents of study
areas. As such, for creating fortune for the rural women especially for women the virtuous
cycle may be considered which has been show in figure-03.

Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | GDEB

Page 21

Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 3, No 1 (2014)


Quality of



ISSN 2305-9168

Figure-3: Virtuous Cycle

[1] Barnes, Ian (n.d), Greening Business, Green Growth Capacity Development Program, ESCAP.
[2] Amatruda J. (2010), Evaluation and Selecting Green products, Whole Building Design Guide
Website. Natonal Institute of Building Sciences. July 23, 2010. Washington, DC.
[3] Cronin, J. Joseph et. al. (2010), Green Marketing Strategies: An Examination of Stakeholders
and the Opportunities They Present, Academy of Marketing Science 2010.
[4] Dutta, B (2009), Sustainable Green Marketing The new Imperative quoted in APJRBM Vol. 1 Issue 2, P.5.
[5] J.Sharkey (2008), Hotels Struggle to Find the Right Eco-Message, The New Times, June 3,
[6] McKinsey, (2006, January). The McKinsey global survey of business executives: Business and
society [Electronic version]. McKinsey Quarterly.
[7] Yeganeh, Bauback and Glavas, Ante (2008), OD Practitioner Vol. 40 No.2,P.8

Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | GDEB

Page 22

Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 3, No 1 (2014)

ISSN 2305-9168

Global Disclosure of Economics and Business

(Peer reviewed international journal)

Open Access Philosophy


Under Open Access Philosophy,

GDEB will not charge for the access
of its journals. This will ensure that a
practitioners will be able to benefit
from the research published through
ABC journals. Moreover, this process
will also enable authors papers to
receive a higher ranking. A greater
number of people being able to
access and consequently refer to
papers will mean a higher citations
Impact Factor
journals. Following are advantages
of Open Access Philosophy:
Your research work will be indexed and abstracted in the internationally reputed databases and search
engines immediately after publication.
Open Access increases the number of downloads, page views, citations etc. increasing the rate of
dissemination of your research work manifold.
It is inferred from past researches that the
papers published under "Open Access
Philosophy" are four times more likely to
be cited than the papers published under
"Non-Open Access Philosophy"

Peer Review Policy

Paperless, web-based peer review system,
professional and helpful suggestions from
reviewers. Articles in this journal have
undergone a rigorous blind peer review system,
based on initial editor screening and involving
in-country and international refereeing, ensures that articles meet the highest standards of quality. Most
ABC journals have ISSN with Global Indexation. It facilitates our scholars, researchers, scientists,
professors, corporates, governmental research agencies, librarians etc., in a more positive way in their
research proceedings.
Faster Turnaround Time
Many journals take many months, even years to publish research. By the time papers are published, often
they become outdated. GDEB publishes papers in the shortest possible time, without compromising on
quality. This will ensure that the latest research is published, allowing readers to gain maximum benefit.
We provide feedback instantaneously and furnish details of the outcome within about 5 - 6 working days of
submission of your research paper. This enables research scholars to use their time effectively on the
actual research rather than on the follow ups.
Strong International network & Collaboration
We have exposure to wide range of industries across geographies and worldwide connect through
international colleagues and thereby the recognition. We work in collaboration with extremely creditable
companies, academic institutions, reputed publication units, government bodies and research firms. By
publishing with us, you join ABC Global Research Community of 50,000 scientists / researchers.

For Details- go through the link:

Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | GDEB

Page 23

Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 3, No 1 (2014)

ISSN 2305-9168

It gives us immense pleasure to forward the link of the current issue of our Journal Asian Accounting and Auditing
Advancement (4A Journal) circulated all over the world 141 countries/territories (Japan; United Kingdom; United
States; Russia; Australia; China; Canada; France; Germany; Hong Kong; Italy; Mexico; New Zealand; Singapore; Spain;
Swaziland; Switzerland; Taiwan; Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Argentina; Armenia; Austria; Bahrain; Bangladesh;
Barbados; Belgium; Benin; Bhutan; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei; Bulgaria; Cameroon; Chile;
Colombia; Congo [DRC]; Costa Rica; Cte dIvoire; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea;
Ethiopia; Fiji; Finland; Gambia; Georgia; Ghana; Greece; Guatemala; Guyana; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran;
Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Jamaica; Jersey; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Latvia; Lebanon; Lesotho;
Liberia; Libya; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macau; Macedonia [FYROM]; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Malta; Mauritius; Moldova;
Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar [Burma]; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Pakistan;
Palestinian Territories; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania;
Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia; Sierra Leone; Slovakia; Slovenia; South Africa; South Korea; Sri Lanka; Sudan;
Suriname; Sweden; Syria; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab
Emirates; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Vietnam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe), for your kind reference and record.

Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | GDEB

Page 24

Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 3, No 1 (2014)

ISSN 2305-9168

3900 Woodhue Place, Alexandria, VA 22309, USA

Pantidalam, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia
Rd 4, Shyamoli, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh / / /

Asian Business Consortium (ABC) is a multi-disciplinary research, training, publishing, digital library
supporting and service house. Though founded in 2010 as the Business and Computing organization of
Asia, it was reconstituted as the ABC in 2011. It has been working for creating and nurturing talents in
USA, Malaysia and Bangladesh since its inception. As ABC is going global, it intends to open offices in
Australia, Germany, Japan, Pakistan, and other Asian countries in near future. The objectives of
consortium are solely centered round the welfare and humane attitude of the founders who
enthusiastically took up this noble cause and materialized it with a view to promote research and
educational activities for the encouragement of scholars to develop their knowledge, to publish their
analysis oriented scientific researches in international Journals, books, the task of organizing workshops,
seminars, conferences, training, personality development programs and allied services.
In addition to research activities, ABC provides a good number of scholarships to the poor and
meritorious students at various levels of education throughout the world. It plays an important role
in the field of research by funding research projects and publishing the research papers. This
consortium will unquestionably become the mouth-piece of the dark horses and unacknowledged
scholar whose endowed and commendable contributions shall be provided an outlet keeping in
mind the greater good of the larger society of the world.
ABC runs the following international referred journals for creating a platform to share the thoughts
of professionals, scholars and academicians throughout the world.
Bangladesh Publications
Asian Accounting and Auditing Advancement (4A Journal); ICV 5.09
Asian Business Review (ABR); UIF 0.1809
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering (AJASE); UIF 0.6351
Global Disclosure of Economics and Business (GDEB)
USA Publications
ABC Journal of Advanced Research (ABC JAR)
International Journal of Reciprocal Symmetry and Theoretical Physics (IJRSTP)
Engineering International (EI)
American Journal of Trade and Policy (AJTP)
Malaysia Publications
ABC Research Alert (Online)
Asian Journal of Humanity, Art and Literature (AJHAL)
ABC Journal of Medical and Biological Research (ABC-JMBR)
Asia Pacific Journal of Energy and Environment (APJEE)
Each journal home page provides specific information for potential authors and subscribers. Open
access policy, the quick review process, rich editorial boards and quality publications have already
made ABC Journals unique. ABC Journals are published under the direct supervisions of renowned
academicians of the world.
Collaboration in Conference: ABC considers high-quality conference papers for publication. Please
contact us for detailed information.
Collaboration in Publishing: If you like to start writing a book, propose a new journal or advertise
in ABC journals, please feel free to contact us.

Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | GDEB

Page 25