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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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FORMULA SHEET

Exponents

xa · xb = xa+b , ax · bx = (ab)x , (xa )b = xab , x0 = 1.

Logarithms

ln xy = ln x + ln y, ln xa = a ln x, ln 1 = 0, eln x = x, ln ey = y,

ax = ex ln a .

Trigonometry

cos 0 = sin π2 = 1, sin 0 = cos π2 = 0,

cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1, cos(−θ) = cos θ, sin(−θ) = − sin θ,

cos(A + B) = cos A cos B − sin A sin B, cos 2θ = cos2 θ − sin2 θ,

sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B, sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ,

sin θ 1

tan θ = , sec θ = , 1 + tan2 θ = sec2 θ.

cos θ cos θ

Inverse Functions

y = sin−1 x means x = sin y and − π2 6 y 6 π2 .

y = cos−1 x means x = cos y and 0 6 y 6 π.

y = tan−1 x means x = tan y and − π2 < y < π2 .

y = x1/n means x = yn . y = ln x means x = ey .

Alternative Notation

arcsin x = sin−1 x, arccos x = cos−1 x, arctan x = tan−1 x, loge x = ln x.

Note: sin−1 x 6= (sin x)−1 , cos−1 x 6= (cos x)−1 , tan−1 x 6= (tan x)−1 .

However: sin2 x = (sin x)2 , cos2 x = (cos x)2 , tan2 x = (tan x)2 .

Lines

The line y = mx + c has slope m.

The line through (x1 , y1 ) with slope m has equation y − y1 = m(x − x1 ).

y2 − y1 y − y1 y2 − y1

The line through (x1 , y1 ) and (x2 , y2 ) has slope m = and equation = .

x2 − x1 x − x1 x2 − x1

The line y = mx + c is perpendicular to the line y = m0 x + c0 if mm0 = −1.

Circles

√

The distance between (x1 , y1 ) and (x2 , y2 ) is (x1 − x2 )2 + (y1 − y2 )2 .

The circle with centre (a, b) and radius r is given by (x − a)2 + (y − b)2 = r2 .

Triangles

In a triangle ABC:

a b c

(Sine Rule) = = ; (Cosine Rule) a2 = b2 + c2 − 2bc cos A.

sin A sin B sin C

4

Pascal’s Triangle

(x + y)2 = x2 + 2xy + y2 , (x + y)3 = x3 + 3x2 y + 3xy2 + y3 and so on.

The coefﬁcients in (x + y)n form the nth row of Pascal’s triangle:

1

1 1

1 2 1

1 3 3 1

1 4 6 4 1

.............

and so on.

Quadratics √

−b ± b2 − 4ac

If ax + bx + c = 0, with a 6= 0, then x =

2

.

2a

Calculus

dy du dv dy du dv

If y = u + v then = + . If y = uv then = v+u .

dx{ dx dx } / dx dx dx

u dy du dv

If y = then = v−u v2 .

v dx dx dx

∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

dv du

(u + v) dx = u dx + v dx. u dx = uv − v dx.

dx dx

If y is a function of u where u is a function of x, then

∫ ∫

dy dy du du

= and y dx = y du.

dx du dx dx

dy xa+1

a

If y = x then = a x ; and xa dx =

a−1

+ constant (a 6= −1).

dx ∫ a+1

dy

If y = sin x then = cos x; and sin x dx = − cos x + constant.

dx ∫

dy

If y = cos x then = − sin x; and cos x dx = sin x + constant.

dx ∫

dy

If y = tan x then = sec x; and tan x dx = ln | sec x| + constant.

2

dx ∫

dy

x

If y = e then = e ; and ex dx = ex + constant.

x

dx ∫

dy 1 1

If y = ln x then = ; and dx = ln |x| + constant.

dx x x ∫

dy 1 1

−1

If y = sin x then =√ ; and √ dx = sin−1 x + constant.

dx 1−x 2 1−x 2

dy −1

−1

If y = cos x then =√ .

dx 1 − x2 ∫

dy 1 1

−1

If y = tan x then = 2

; and 2

dx = tan−1 x + constant.

dx 1+x 1+x

5

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