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F18SR1

Solutions 9: Inhomogeneous Linear ODEs

9.1.
(a) The auxiliary equation is 2 + 16 = 0 and has solutions = 4i. (So the complementary function has terms in cos 4t and sin 4t.) The particular integral is therefore of the
form A sin 3t + B cos 3t.
(b) The auxiliary equation is again 2 + 16 = 0 and has solutions = 4i so the
complementary function has terms in cos 4t and sin 4t (like the right-hand side). This
is then a degenerate, or special, case and the particular integral is therefore of the form
At sin 4t + Bt cos 4t.
(c) The auxiliary equation is 2 25 = 0 and has solutions = 5. (So the complementary
function has terms in e5t and e5t .) The particular integral is therefore of the form Ae4t .
(d) The auxiliary equation is again 2 25 = 0 and has solutions = 5 so the complementary function has terms in e5t and e5t (like the right-hand side). This is then a
degenerate, or special, case and the particular integral is therefore of the form Ate5t .

9.2.
(a) AE (auxiliary equation): 2 + 4 = 0 so = 2i.
Therefore CF (complementary function) is yCF = C1 sin 2t + C2 cos 2t.
dyPI
= 3A cos 3t 3B sin 3t,
PI (particular integral), try yPI = A sin 3t + B cos 3t. Then
dt
2
d yPI
= 9A sin 3t 9B cos 3t, and we need
dt2
9A sin 3t 9B cos 3t + 4A sin 3t + 4B cos 3t = 5A sin 3t 5B cos 3t = sin 3t .
Comparing sin and cos terms, A = 51 and B = 0 so yPI = 51 sin 3t.
Therefore the general solution is
y(t) = yCF + yPI = C1 sin 2t + C2 cos 2t

1
sin 3t .
5

(b) AE: 2 9 = 0 so = 3.
Therefore the CF is yCF = C1 e3t + C2 e3t .
d2 yPI
dyPI
= Aet ,
= Aet , and we need
For the PI try yPI = Aet . Then
dt
dt2
Aet 9Aet = 8Aet = 16Aet .
It follows that A = 2 so yPI = 2et .
Therefore the general solution is
y(t) = yCF + yPI = C1 e3t + C2 e3t 2et .
1

(c) AE: 2 5 + 6 = ( 3)( 2) = 0 so = 3 or 2.


Therefore the CF is yCF = C1 e3t + C2 e2t .
dyPI
For the PI try yPI = A sin 4t + B cos 4t. Then
= 4(A cos 4t B sin 4t) and
dt
2
d yPI
= 16(A sin 4t + B cos 4t),
dt2
and we need
16(A sin 4t + B cos 4t) 20(A cos 4t B sin 4t) + 6(A sin 4t + B cos 4t) =
(20B 10A) sin 4t(20A+10B) cos 4t = 10 ((2B A) sin 4t (2A + B) cos 4t) = 2 sin 4t .
Comparing cos and sin terms, B = 2A and 10(2B A) = 10(4A + A) = 50A = 2 so
1
2
2
1
A = 25
and B = 25
. Then yPI = 25
cos 4t 25
sin 4t.
Therefore the general solution is
y(t) = yCF + yPI = C1 e3t + C2 e2t +

2
1
cos 4t
sin 4t .
25
25

(d) AE and CF as for (c): yCF = C1 e3t + C2 e2t .


dyPI
d2 yPI
For the PI try yPI = Ae2t . Then
= 2Ae2t and
= 4Ae2t , and we need
dt
dt2
4Ae2t + 10Ae2t + 6Ae2t = e2t .
1
and yPI =
Hence 20A = 1, so A = 20
Therefore the general solution is

1 2t
e .
20

y(t) = yCF + yPI = C1 e3t + C2 e2t +

1 2t
e .
20

(e) AE: 2 + 2 + 1 = ( + 1)2 = 0 so the (single) solution is = 1.


Then CF is yCF = (C1 + C2 t)et .
dyPI
d2 yPI
For the PI try yPI = At + B. Then
= A and
= 0, and we need
dt
dt2
2A + At + B = t .
Comparing constant and t terms, A = 1 and 2A + B = 0, so B = 2 and yPI = t 2.
Therefore the general solution is
y(t) = (C1 + C2 t)et + t 2 .
(f) AE: 2 + 4 = 0 so = 2i.
Then CF is yCF = C1 sin 2t + C2 cos 2t.
This is a special case so for the PI we try yPI = At sin 2t + Bt cos 2t.
dyPI
Then
= A sin 2t + B cos 2t + 2t(A cos 2t B sin 2t) and
dt
2

d2 yPI
= 4(A cos 2t B sin 2t) 4t(A sin 2t + B cos 2t), and we need
dt2
4(A cos 2tB sin 2t)4t(A sin 2t+B cos 2t)+4t(A sin 2t+B cos 2t) = 4(A cos 2tB sin 2t) = sin 2t .
Comparing cos and sin terms, A = 0 and 4B = 1, so B = 41 and yPI = 14 t cos 2t.
Therefore the general solution is
1
y(t) = C1 sin 2t + C2 cos 2t t cos 2t .
4
9.3.
AE: 2 1 = 0 so = 1 and CF is yCF = C1 et + C2 et .
dyPI
d2 yPI
For PI try yPI = Ae2t so
= 2Ae2t ,
= 4Ae2t , and we need
2
dt
dt
4Ae2t Ae2t = 3Ae2t = 12e2t .
Hence A = 4, yPI = 4e2t , and the general solution is
y(t) = C1 et + C2 et + 4e2t
and

Taking y(0) = 4,

dy
(t) = C1 et C2 et + 8e2t .
dt
dy
(0) = 10 gives
dt
C1 + C2 + 4 = 4

so

C1 + C2 = 0 ,

(S9.1)

C1 C2 + 8 = 10

so

C1 C2 = 2 .

(S9.2)

Adding (S9.1) and (S9.2) gives C1 = 1, then C2 = 1 and


y(t) = et et + 4e2t .

9.4.
AE: 2 5 + 6 = ( 3)( 2) = 0 so = 3 or 2 and CF is yCF = C1 e3t + C2 e2t .
dyPI
For PI try yPI = A sin 3t + B cos 3t so
= 3A cos 3t 3B sin 3t,
dt
d2 yPI
= 9A sin 3t 9B cos 3t, and we need
dt2
9A sin 3t9B cos 3t15A cos 3t+15B sin 3t+6A sin 3t+6B cos 3t = (15B3A) sin 3t(15A+3B) cos 3t
= 3 ((5B A) sin 3t (5A + B) cos 3t) = cos 3t.
Comparing sin and cos terms gives 5B A = 0 so A = 5B then 3(5A+B) = 326B =
5
1
78B = 1 so B = 1/78 and A = 5/78. Hence yPI = 78
sin 3t 78
cos 3t, and the
general solution is
5
1
y(t) = C1 e3t + C2 e2t
sin 3t
cos 3t
78
78
3

and

dy
15
3
(t) = 3C1 e3t + 2C2 e2t
cos 3t +
sin 3t .
dt
78
78

Taking y(0) = 0,

dy
(0) = 5 gives
dt
C1 + C2

1
=0
78

so

C1 + C2 =

1
,
78

(S9.3)

15
405
=5
so
3C1 + 2C2 =
.
(S9.4)
78
78
1
Taking (S9.4) 2(S9.3) gives C1 = 403
= 31
, then C2 = 78
403
= 402
= 67
and
78
6
78
78
13
3C1 + 2C2

y(t) =

31 3t 67 2t
5
1
e e
sin 3t
cos 3t .
6
13
78
78

9.5.
With L = 1, R = 2 and C = 1/5, the differential equation is
d2 Q
dQ
+2
+ 5Q = V (t) ,
2
dt
dt

so AE is 2 + 2 + 5 = 0, giving = 21 (2 4 20 ) = 12 (2 16 ) = 12 (2 4i) =
1 2i, and CF is QCF = et (C1 cos 2t + C2 sin 2t).
For V (t) = et sin 3t, try PI QPI = q = et (A sin 3t + B cos 3t). Then
dq
= et (A sin 3t + B cos 3t) + 3et (A cos 3t B sin 3t)
dt

and

d2 q
= et (A sin 3t+B cos 3t)3et (A cos 3tB sin 3t)3et (A cos 3tB sin 3t)9et (A sin 3t+B cos 3t)
dt2
= 8et (A sin 3t + B cos 3t) 6et (A cos 3t B sin 3t) .
Then we need
8et (A sin 3t + B cos 3t) 6et (A cos 3t B sin 3t) 2et (A sin 3t + B cos 3t)
+ 6et (A cos 3t B sin 3t) + 5et (A sin 3t + B cos 3t)
= 5et (A sin 3t + B cos 3t)
= et sin 3t .
1
Comparing cos and sin terms, B = 0 and 5A = 1, giving QPI = q = et sin 3t and
5
the general solution to the ODE is
1
Q(t) = et (C1 cos 2t + C2 sin 2t) et sin 3t .
5
Using the condition Q(0) = Q0 tells us
C1 = Q0 .
4

Then
dQ
1
3
(t) = et (Q0 cos 2t + C2 sin 2t) + 2et (C2 cos 2t Q0 sin 2t) + et sin 3t et cos 3t
dt
5
5
so the condition

dQ
(0) = 0 gives
dt

5Q0 + 3
,
and
10

5Q0 + 3
1
t
Q(t) = e
Q0 cos 2t +
sin 2t et sin 3t .
10
5
Q0 + 2C2

3
= 0,
5

C2 =