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9.1.

(a) The auxiliary equation is 2 + 16 = 0 and has solutions = 4i. (So the complementary function has terms in cos 4t and sin 4t.) The particular integral is therefore of the

form A sin 3t + B cos 3t.

(b) The auxiliary equation is again 2 + 16 = 0 and has solutions = 4i so the

complementary function has terms in cos 4t and sin 4t (like the right-hand side). This

is then a degenerate, or special, case and the particular integral is therefore of the form

At sin 4t + Bt cos 4t.

(c) The auxiliary equation is 2 25 = 0 and has solutions = 5. (So the complementary

function has terms in e5t and e5t .) The particular integral is therefore of the form Ae4t .

(d) The auxiliary equation is again 2 25 = 0 and has solutions = 5 so the complementary function has terms in e5t and e5t (like the right-hand side). This is then a

degenerate, or special, case and the particular integral is therefore of the form Ate5t .

9.2.

(a) AE (auxiliary equation): 2 + 4 = 0 so = 2i.

Therefore CF (complementary function) is yCF = C1 sin 2t + C2 cos 2t.

dyPI

= 3A cos 3t 3B sin 3t,

PI (particular integral), try yPI = A sin 3t + B cos 3t. Then

dt

2

d yPI

= 9A sin 3t 9B cos 3t, and we need

dt2

9A sin 3t 9B cos 3t + 4A sin 3t + 4B cos 3t = 5A sin 3t 5B cos 3t = sin 3t .

Comparing sin and cos terms, A = 51 and B = 0 so yPI = 51 sin 3t.

Therefore the general solution is

y(t) = yCF + yPI = C1 sin 2t + C2 cos 2t

1

sin 3t .

5

(b) AE: 2 9 = 0 so = 3.

Therefore the CF is yCF = C1 e3t + C2 e3t .

d2 yPI

dyPI

= Aet ,

= Aet , and we need

For the PI try yPI = Aet . Then

dt

dt2

Aet 9Aet = 8Aet = 16Aet .

It follows that A = 2 so yPI = 2et .

Therefore the general solution is

y(t) = yCF + yPI = C1 e3t + C2 e3t 2et .

1

Therefore the CF is yCF = C1 e3t + C2 e2t .

dyPI

For the PI try yPI = A sin 4t + B cos 4t. Then

= 4(A cos 4t B sin 4t) and

dt

2

d yPI

= 16(A sin 4t + B cos 4t),

dt2

and we need

16(A sin 4t + B cos 4t) 20(A cos 4t B sin 4t) + 6(A sin 4t + B cos 4t) =

(20B 10A) sin 4t(20A+10B) cos 4t = 10 ((2B A) sin 4t (2A + B) cos 4t) = 2 sin 4t .

Comparing cos and sin terms, B = 2A and 10(2B A) = 10(4A + A) = 50A = 2 so

1

2

2

1

A = 25

and B = 25

. Then yPI = 25

cos 4t 25

sin 4t.

Therefore the general solution is

y(t) = yCF + yPI = C1 e3t + C2 e2t +

2

1

cos 4t

sin 4t .

25

25

dyPI

d2 yPI

For the PI try yPI = Ae2t . Then

= 2Ae2t and

= 4Ae2t , and we need

dt

dt2

4Ae2t + 10Ae2t + 6Ae2t = e2t .

1

and yPI =

Hence 20A = 1, so A = 20

Therefore the general solution is

1 2t

e .

20

1 2t

e .

20

Then CF is yCF = (C1 + C2 t)et .

dyPI

d2 yPI

For the PI try yPI = At + B. Then

= A and

= 0, and we need

dt

dt2

2A + At + B = t .

Comparing constant and t terms, A = 1 and 2A + B = 0, so B = 2 and yPI = t 2.

Therefore the general solution is

y(t) = (C1 + C2 t)et + t 2 .

(f) AE: 2 + 4 = 0 so = 2i.

Then CF is yCF = C1 sin 2t + C2 cos 2t.

This is a special case so for the PI we try yPI = At sin 2t + Bt cos 2t.

dyPI

Then

= A sin 2t + B cos 2t + 2t(A cos 2t B sin 2t) and

dt

2

d2 yPI

= 4(A cos 2t B sin 2t) 4t(A sin 2t + B cos 2t), and we need

dt2

4(A cos 2tB sin 2t)4t(A sin 2t+B cos 2t)+4t(A sin 2t+B cos 2t) = 4(A cos 2tB sin 2t) = sin 2t .

Comparing cos and sin terms, A = 0 and 4B = 1, so B = 41 and yPI = 14 t cos 2t.

Therefore the general solution is

1

y(t) = C1 sin 2t + C2 cos 2t t cos 2t .

4

9.3.

AE: 2 1 = 0 so = 1 and CF is yCF = C1 et + C2 et .

dyPI

d2 yPI

For PI try yPI = Ae2t so

= 2Ae2t ,

= 4Ae2t , and we need

2

dt

dt

4Ae2t Ae2t = 3Ae2t = 12e2t .

Hence A = 4, yPI = 4e2t , and the general solution is

y(t) = C1 et + C2 et + 4e2t

and

Taking y(0) = 4,

dy

(t) = C1 et C2 et + 8e2t .

dt

dy

(0) = 10 gives

dt

C1 + C2 + 4 = 4

so

C1 + C2 = 0 ,

(S9.1)

C1 C2 + 8 = 10

so

C1 C2 = 2 .

(S9.2)

y(t) = et et + 4e2t .

9.4.

AE: 2 5 + 6 = ( 3)( 2) = 0 so = 3 or 2 and CF is yCF = C1 e3t + C2 e2t .

dyPI

For PI try yPI = A sin 3t + B cos 3t so

= 3A cos 3t 3B sin 3t,

dt

d2 yPI

= 9A sin 3t 9B cos 3t, and we need

dt2

9A sin 3t9B cos 3t15A cos 3t+15B sin 3t+6A sin 3t+6B cos 3t = (15B3A) sin 3t(15A+3B) cos 3t

= 3 ((5B A) sin 3t (5A + B) cos 3t) = cos 3t.

Comparing sin and cos terms gives 5B A = 0 so A = 5B then 3(5A+B) = 326B =

5

1

78B = 1 so B = 1/78 and A = 5/78. Hence yPI = 78

sin 3t 78

cos 3t, and the

general solution is

5

1

y(t) = C1 e3t + C2 e2t

sin 3t

cos 3t

78

78

3

and

dy

15

3

(t) = 3C1 e3t + 2C2 e2t

cos 3t +

sin 3t .

dt

78

78

Taking y(0) = 0,

dy

(0) = 5 gives

dt

C1 + C2

1

=0

78

so

C1 + C2 =

1

,

78

(S9.3)

15

405

=5

so

3C1 + 2C2 =

.

(S9.4)

78

78

1

Taking (S9.4) 2(S9.3) gives C1 = 403

= 31

, then C2 = 78

403

= 402

= 67

and

78

6

78

78

13

3C1 + 2C2

y(t) =

31 3t 67 2t

5

1

e e

sin 3t

cos 3t .

6

13

78

78

9.5.

With L = 1, R = 2 and C = 1/5, the differential equation is

d2 Q

dQ

+2

+ 5Q = V (t) ,

2

dt

dt

so AE is 2 + 2 + 5 = 0, giving = 21 (2 4 20 ) = 12 (2 16 ) = 12 (2 4i) =

1 2i, and CF is QCF = et (C1 cos 2t + C2 sin 2t).

For V (t) = et sin 3t, try PI QPI = q = et (A sin 3t + B cos 3t). Then

dq

= et (A sin 3t + B cos 3t) + 3et (A cos 3t B sin 3t)

dt

and

d2 q

= et (A sin 3t+B cos 3t)3et (A cos 3tB sin 3t)3et (A cos 3tB sin 3t)9et (A sin 3t+B cos 3t)

dt2

= 8et (A sin 3t + B cos 3t) 6et (A cos 3t B sin 3t) .

Then we need

8et (A sin 3t + B cos 3t) 6et (A cos 3t B sin 3t) 2et (A sin 3t + B cos 3t)

+ 6et (A cos 3t B sin 3t) + 5et (A sin 3t + B cos 3t)

= 5et (A sin 3t + B cos 3t)

= et sin 3t .

1

Comparing cos and sin terms, B = 0 and 5A = 1, giving QPI = q = et sin 3t and

5

the general solution to the ODE is

1

Q(t) = et (C1 cos 2t + C2 sin 2t) et sin 3t .

5

Using the condition Q(0) = Q0 tells us

C1 = Q0 .

4

Then

dQ

1

3

(t) = et (Q0 cos 2t + C2 sin 2t) + 2et (C2 cos 2t Q0 sin 2t) + et sin 3t et cos 3t

dt

5

5

so the condition

dQ

(0) = 0 gives

dt

5Q0 + 3

,

and

10

5Q0 + 3

1

t

Q(t) = e

Q0 cos 2t +

sin 2t et sin 3t .

10

5

Q0 + 2C2

3

= 0,

5

C2 =

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