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Assessment facilitated and consolidated by: Sreng Sopheap With contributions and assistance from Mith Chanratha, Tania Heath, Mich Kosal, Pheaoun, Romam Yong , Sol Chan and Sol Pil All views written here do not necessarily reflect the views of Ockenden Cambodia Ockenden Cambodia: Village 5, Banlung Town, Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia 3rd Jan 2010 1
I would like to convey my sincere thanks to the cooperation and collaborations by all the village chiefs, deputy village chiefs and elderly respected community members of the eight villages who permitted us to engage with the villagers of all gender and classes of the society. I would like to extend my thanks to the Ockenden Cambodia Ratanakiri Office team who have made all necessity arrangements and logistics for the assessment to be conducted, particularly my most humble appreciation to Mr. Mich Kosal and Mith Chanratha who have been very helpful in all the assessment processes started from a very early to a very late night by 10pm. Their enormous commitments are greatly acknowledged. I also would like to extend my thanks to Tania Heath for her invaluable input and some proof checking. Last but not least, my greatest acknowledgement is also handed all men and women of community representative members as well as children who contributed their active participation in making the assessment a real possible of the actual needs from the bottom of their hearts. Without their most welcoming and allowing us to understand their situations, feeling their needs and be a part of their solutions by listening to their wishes and problems, the assessment would not have been able to accomplish. And I sincerely would like to dedicate this assessment for those women, men and children who have shared portion of their busy schedule to participate without any complaints or compensations. I really hope that this assessment can be a useful piece of document which can be used to identify further development programs reflected based on the needs and visions of those men, women and children who have been ready to participate. Yet, these must be carefully rethinking before adapting any programs requested.
Sreng Sopheap Assessment Coordinator Ockenden Cambodia-Ratanakiri Office
About Ratanakiri Province:
Ratanakiri province is located to the Northeast of Cambodia with approximately 588Km from the Capital City Phnom Penh. It is a home of many communities of 9 different ethnic minorities consists of 80% of the total population of 149.997 people, with distinct culture, tradition and languages (Asian Indigenous Peoples Pact Foundation, 2006; General Population Census, 2008). It is the remotest and isolated area with majority of the population does not have proper access to institutional support services, poor access to local transportation and information system as well as other development initiatives. Their solely livelihoods rely on the traditional subsistence farming of swidden cultivation and on natural resources such as gathering non-timber forest products, fishing, hunting and practicing their animism ritual beliefs. Besides, Ratanakiri is the most fertile land of red volcanic soils with great biodiversity of natural resources including mines and gold, which attract quite intensive investments from the outsiders (Suzuki, 2005). The province has been recently considered as one of the focuses for national economic development with great emphasis on timber production, agriculture development and tourism (ADB, 2001). To get this forward, the plan for infrastructure development has been established to improve road and highway from Phnom Penh to Ratanakiri and from Vietnam passing thought Ratanakiri to Steung Treng province and Laos. The economic development of Cambodia for Ratanakiri has quickly opened up the way for investments to the province for industrial plantation and immigration from lowland areas caused very serious issue facing the local communities of Ratanakiri with rapid of land losses and natural resources that they normally collect to support their living (ibid). Lowland Khmers and Khmer from other provinces, many of them came for gold mining and rubber plantation activities, saw economic development as opportunities and encouraged by the government to migrate to isolated areas or less populated such as Ratanakiri province (General Population Census, 2008). The Asian Indigenous Peoples Pact Foundation (2006) in its Indigenous People and Human Rights report that the migrants who came to Ratanakiri exploring big amount of land, which traditionally used by the ethnic communities, now given away by the government as concessions to individuals and commercial companies for exploitation. These exploitation and conversion of resources lead to environmental degradation and the denial of access by local communities to their resources that they have been reliance on centuries. During last decade, Ratanakiri has been so much affected by deforestation, illegal logging, land transformation and concession which threatens the people way of living as well as their only source of survival, which is forest and land, are at risk (Fox, McMahon, Poffenberger, Vogler, 2008). In additional, influential factors such as good soil quality for agriculture, infrastructure improvement and government economic development policy has encouraged influx of in-migration and establishment of small and large scale industrial plantation searching for better soil quality farming, investment, forest clearing and land encroachment (ADB, 2001; Bunthavin, 2000). From above factors, forests are being illegal logged or cleared and traditional lands for the subsistence farming are getting smaller and with prevalence of illegal land selling even has continued to threaten the local livelihoods as they are lesser and even further away from their settlements(John and Irwin, 2005). Besides, such rapidly changes in environmental settings, flood has been frequently identified as a major hazard (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 2009) that could pose a major 3
exposure to vulnerabilities (Abramovitz et aj, 2002) if the communities are badly affected by such external shocks (Chiwaka and Yates, 2004). Current publications by International Organization for Migration (2009) on natural hazard vulnerability mapping in Ratanakiri and the Indigenous Rights Active Members (2008) on the pressuring issues that the indigenous are facing possess serious concerns for the indigenous communities Ratanakiri such on inconsistency of flood, drought, pesticides, land concession on the traditional indigenous land and other land encroachments. This Se San river flood has severely affected communities living along the river such many as more than 18,000 people whose dependent on this resource as their mainly survival combine with other traditional farming (Sithirith, 2000). From the inception of this dam construction in 1993 in Vietnam, there have been irregular tragedies in the downstream such as flood, lost of properties and animals in the fluctuating water as it is no longer run its current speed in the way that it used to be (Baird, 2002). As result, various biodiversity that used to sustain people‟s living along the river is discovered to be more severe and posed serious health problems from the poor water quality (Ibid; Mekong Watch, 2007). Likewise, livelihood insecurity and food shortage has been a major cause of natural resources degradation in Cambodia (Scheuer, 2008) especially for whose survival are natural resources and agricultures dependent. Facing such livelihood situations in the time of flood and other natural resource related risks do not affect men and women equally, nor are impacts and vulnerabilities of such shocks undifferentiated (Denton, 2002). These sorts of natural and man-made factors are severely and can be negatively changing the way women and men have traditionally practiced and require some knowledge of certain measures to mitigate the impacts on their livelihoods as well as to address gender relations (Akerkar, 2007).
Village Needs Assessment:
Methodologies The assessment was conducted through focus group discussions selected randomly in the eight previously selected villages. The team first met with the village chief and elderly community members. Next the team was introduced to the deputy chief (Anuk Phum) who also holds a leading role in various community mobilization initiatives and community public awareness. The active discussion composed of between eight and twelve members. Groups were asked separately men, women and children. A local interpreter was used to translate from Khmer into the indigenous languages and vice-versa, as which helped explain the questions we were asking. The research team asked the following questions; 1) What are you current problems and needs 2) What are your expectations for you and your village in the next five years 3) What are your expectations for you and your village in the next ten years These questions are hard to answer, as they require thinking into the future in which most of the villagers have expressed that they rare think of what would be the future. This was quite challenging for many of the villages as the massive migration into the province and the 4
interest in Ratanakiris‟ land is making the future lives of the indigenous population of Ratanikiri very vulnerable. So to think five and ten years into the future was a challenge. In addition, language and situation of the local communities which the translator provided to the team we would not have been able to extract the information clearly. Also the local translators were especially able to re-word our questions to seek out information. Asking the three questions above helps create simple understanding of the immediate issues and future plans and problems. By understanding this, it is possible to turn the needs and desires into five year village plans, which are relevant at the households and village level. Furthermore, the assessment also plays as a platform that offers chances for the team to assess group‟s situation and needs of the future that may not be possible to manage in the mixture of gender and ages. After each of the focus group discussion, short debriefing/summarization of the needs is recalled and clarification or additional points may be added as needed. It was also important that the assessment stages emphasized that “no promises” were being made to the communities. It was very clear to note that the discussion being taken is the commitment of the organization to understand the needs and pressuring issues from the villagers and seeking consultation with them to find a common solution which may be used for a strategic plan. It was made clear that the needs and problems are first needed to understand and realized the actual situation that the community is facing. The next step is to spend time with the community giving them the skills needed to develop their plan. The community members were clearly made aware of the no commitment to promise anything, still they gladly participated with no financial incentives.
Respondents Profile The women and men proportion is 40% to 60% with age ranging from early 20 to early 70 years old; while children is nearly equally in number composed of boys and girls under 17 years old. About 50% of all children we have talked to have not been able to attend school or have quitted due to various reasons. Among them, girls suffered more chances of dropout of school due to some cultural constraints such as farm works and household tasks which tend to keep them away from school. According to the discussion, main occupation of the respondents is subsistence rice farmers with NTFPs supplementary collections such as wild leaves, roots, meat and fishing. Seasonal soybeans, potatoes, cashew nuts are extra seasonal income earning while livestock such as chicken, ducks and pigs proven to be the social safety in time of sick or food shortages. However, great challenges of diseases outbreaks and inconsistency of rainfall and insufficient water supplies, these seasonal income earning activities are at risk. More are to be listed later on in each village below;
1- Sakrieng Village: Village Situation Sakrieng village is majority populated by indigenous people from the Tompoun ethnic city with a few households of Khmer families. The village is located in Ke Chong Commune, Angdongmeas District, Ratanakiri Province. It lies fifty kilometers north-east of Banlung town, the last 15km from the main road is hardly assessable in both the rainy and dry seasons. The village population is about 133 families with total of 680 people of 325 females. Their main occupation is subsistence farmers mainly focusing on rice field (chamkar) while two options of cash productions include soybeans and potatoes. While lacking of other diversified livelihoods and agriculture productions, the NTFPs products are the supplemental food over the years, yet remain of one of the most challenging as the lands seem to be getting less productive and less availabilities. Besides the physical environment setting such as surrounded by external and few local families owned rubber trees, the village is situated on the food of a mountain (about 70 meter height) and protected forestry areas. Furthermore, a stream of 5 meters width well running water over the year around the village provide a rich water source for both agriculture and even a potential of 3 kilowatt hydro electricity development, which was once tested and operated on 1.5 kilowatt by local villagers provided 6 households (10 lamps). And as even within a 10 kilometers of walking distance where a 10 meters height waterfall and together with a well running stream over the year round have implied that the village has a rich water source that can be used for variety of purposes. Below are the key findings of their problems and needs to be addressed classified by current needs, 5 and 10 years needs plan. Key assessment findings: Women Group - Current needs/problems: Agriculture extension and seedling provision: Cucumbers, cabbages, beans, eggplants, pumpkin and corns. Gardening tools and techniques are also needed to ensure the sustainable of the vegetables and crops. Livestock Raising: Pig, chicken, cattle and duck raising and how to raise effectively are worth to implement. Without additional techniques or training, offering livestock raising can be a waste of resources and may even downgrade any potential animal raising programs Animal Health Support: For emergencies such as animal sickness or sudden death of animals. There are skill local villagers who can inject treatment but lacking the tools and drugs to be injected Next five years plans
Limited livelihoods and not enough capital: Off farm livelihoods are not available. Therefore skills and capital investment which allow further livelihoods developments are needed to supplement the household such as sewing cloth, small business skills and accessible to small fund/grant for livelihood investment. Some potential vegetable growing was also frequently commenting as local accessible to water is easy.
- 10 years vision Through an active discussion among women group, the following is the list key finding of the five years beyond dreams which women wish to see and achieve Rice milling machine: To lighten up the heavy work of women on rice pounding. Women occupied most of their time on rice pounding, firewood collecting, water fetching and other household tasks. Identifying the rice milling machine as the needed is hoping to reduce some burdens on women‟s shoulders. Water storage devices: Water containers that helped women better at carrying their water in a bigger amount of water in a time slot. The current water containers which women bring from the stream to their kitchen via the calabash/gourd are too small and not durable. Water Pumper/Generator: To help facilitate women in accessing to water in a closer distance with a less time spent. Water boiling tools: It is well understood that drinking fresh water is a habit of many indigenous communities; however, these Tompoun women are widely aware that boiling water is essential but not boiling port is available to do so. This may be the good start to introduce clean water via water storage, water pumper and eventually the use of boiling water. Key assessment findings: Men Group - Current needs/problems Water consumption: Water has not been filtered properly and their sources of water are not clean. It is important that existed non-operation well should be fixed and a possible of a water storage tank in the village to be built so that the villagers can access to better cleanse water. Schooling for kids: Children do not attend school regularly due to insufficient teachers. Teacher also charged each student 100 Riels per day or two cane of rice as a supplement support for teacher. Yet, frequent absent of teachers remain exist among weekdays. This has led to a further dropped off kids. Village Meeting House: Quite often that the meeting house is a point where all village ceremonies and discussions are taken place. With the absent of this house, the engagement or discussions among the villagers in various issues related to development or issues affecting themselves could not be hold publicly. Livestock raising and cash crop growing: As much as disease outbreak occurs every year, more animals such as pigs, cows and chickens would need to be replaced. Together, animal health experts and training is needed to ensure that these animals are survived. Similarly as growing cash crops which to provide village extra fruits, they can be additional cash earning in years to come. Community Forestry Recognition Formally: The community forestry is in need of urgent attention as outsiders may intrude any time destroying the forest. This can be a danger if the community forestry by-laws have not been draft and they are not formally recognized.
Small grant for agriculture extension: There is potential where men group belief that soybeans and potatoes could be profitable, but there has not been enough capital to do so. It might be a thing to consider where small grant can be useful for such purposes. Small market in the village: The village is isolated from other village and public services. Though there is small shop runs by some local villagers, but the men group thinks that small market run by the community members as the community properties are more beneficiaries to the needs to the communities, rather than a private shop own by individual. Health centre: Sickness and urgent matter related to health become a major problem as infrastructure is bad and no service of health support is being made within the village. Health center is identified by the men group as a really need for the future of the people of the village. Fish raising and fish pond: As the village is well water sourced and other livestock is hard to sustain, the fish development farming is seen as a good livelihood option where men group members assume to have always food for family if there is fish pond. - Next five years plans Secondary school: Current primary school is hardly functioning due to limited number of teachers and their inactive in teaching. Even though, the village five years plans wish to have another secondary school as by that time the children would have grown up and that is needed to be considered. New road construction the protected forestry: Current walking distance to the protected areas is not easy to access and that discourages some men in patrolling the forest. Ecotourism: There is a small potential where local based tourism can be developed with a reachable to a water of 10 kilometers from the village. The need to develop the ecotourism is not just about income generation but also for the possible of increasing the number of protected areas. Hydro electric plant: With a very nearby stream where previous hydro power was once developed and implemented by the local villagers, this can be a continual of the power plant that meet the energy demand of this rural village. - Ten years vision Job employment for family members: The wish to have more permanent jobs rather than just rice farming is derived from the idea that as children grown up, educated and needed job in town as the children may no longer rely on agriculture. Irrigation and tractor: The swidden farming may not be longer available as forests and land became smaller. It is a dream where men wish to have an alternative source of permanent farming. This is possible only via a better access to water sources such as irrigation and techniques. Together, a tractor is a desired tool to supplement the heavy work of plowing replacement of the buffalos New skills in sewing cloth and sewing tools: It is no longer to useful to rely on second hand clothes or hand weaving clothes as more population increased. It is therefore needed that new skills in sewing and sewing machines are employed to help supply clothing. 8
Key assessment findings: Children Group Discussing with children in understanding their needs and issues are rather so obvious that they find the discussion a very strange and almost no comments. However, allowing enough time and with help of the interpreters, the children eventually expressed their desires as following. Teacher in primary education: The current teacher has quitted the teaching position and it is a need that new teacher must be replaced as soon as possible. By no means that if the teacher is not accessible within a given time frame, students would continue to drop off their classes. Uniforms and study materials: Uniforms and studies kits remain one of the most family expenditure for children. Given so little income or not at all put children and parents in a hard situation to afford primary education. Uniforms may be reduced or additional uniforms and materials are provided. The future of these children is likely to rely on this village schooling before moving to Brokeo district school or Banlung. Without a concrete foundation of their basic education, children potential to a higher level is invisible. Though their dreams becoming a doctor, teacher and cloth sewer is needed to ensure first schooling is met. Sv f…
2- La Ork Village: Village Situation La Ork village is one of the La Ork Commune administrative, O Chom District. It is located in the north of Banlung. With about 15 Kilometers from Banlung town, La Ork village is well positioned and aware of various development programs as most of the key administrative of the commune such as commune councilor and deputy councilors are based in La Ork village. The village population is about 139 families with total numbers of 568 village members. Among the total villagers, male composed of 311 persons and 140 children. Similar to other part of the indigenous communities, this Kreung ethnicity main occupation is rice cultivation with supplementary of cashew, soybeans, potatoes, NTFPs collection and livestock raising. A current community market being set by Ockenden Cambodia Small Grant is slowly running. Below are the key findings of their problems and needs to be addressed classified by current needs, 5 and 10 years needs plan. Key assessment findings: Women Group - Current needs/problems Raise food yield: At least most of the key focus group discussion members agreed on the idea that a lot of households did not have enough food over the years. In such cases, it is their most priority to improve their rice yield and boost other agriculture activities some techniques and trainings. Enhance elderly sense of respectable figures: Losing sense of solidarity and respected for elderly is often visible among both boys and girls of younger age. There have been some 9
increasingly numbers of young adolescents whom do not give respect or listen to elderly village members. These elderly who used to be very influential in the village now their roles are seen as not valued. Additional revolving fund: To support more livelihoods options especially to those who are much poorer than other village members. The fund must make sure not directly to the better off but for those need it the most. Improve health support for women mid wives: Modern medical and hospital delivery is expensive and far away from the village makes the delivery processes a very complicated among women and their household members. Training traditional midwives and supplies extra techniques as well as tools to help women delivery is seen as one of the main pressuring demands. Water consumption: Some of the current opening wells do not operate well due to limited maintenance or not at all. It is needed that the existed open wells are repaired, plus two new extra wells pumper to be built for other 125 family. Non-formal education for women and elderly: It is realized that women and elderly do not access to any educational support as heavy and busy schedule at fields and home during day time. Therefore, non-formal education at night time with a local teacher for women and elderly is needed to help these group accesses to literacy and numerical lessons. Animal health and livestock training: most of the livestock die over the period of months/years and so far there have had no any permanent actions taken yet. It is more important to establish a local based animal health trainer who is closely monitoring and provide training on how livestock raising. Teacher of 5th grade and teacher of traditional music: With increasing of more children enrolling into classes and some moved to upper class, teachers of those classes should be provided. At the same time, traditional music in which nearly lost must maintain. To do so, a teacher of traditional music should be provided to ensure the continual traditional music teams and instruments for the next generations. Next five years plans
Latrine Construction: Currently, nearly all of the villagers defecate their human waste in the bush behind or nearby their houses. This practice has been on for years. It is identified as not healthy but with limited ideas awareness, this latrine uses are not at all implemented. Develop eco-tourism site: A potential of ecotourism from a 4 meter waterfall height is about 30 minutes walk passing fields and valley. This could be an extra communal income earning if properly developed. Furthermore, this is seen as to strengthen the community ownership in working together. Traditional cloth weaving: the identification of this community is much strongly based on their cloth homemade weaving. The weaving outputs can be put on sales as well as allowing their existing skills to be developed and shared. There have seen some foreign tourists visiting the village and the long groom house, but there are no souvenirs. The good point that the villagers expect to develop this can be a complement with the ecotourism. 10
Timbers planting: Various forested lands had been cleared and logged. The previous woods are now nearly gone. The next generation may no longer to recognize such woods. With the new timbers planting allow their younger generation to know how beautiful the previous woods are. Furthermore, the planting of extra fruit trees in which provide fruit for villagers would be also extra cash crops to be used in seasonal income generation. Ten years vision
Secondary school: There is no current secondary school within a close distance to the village. It would very hard if children have to walk in longer distance to attend their education in O Chom District as they need also to share some of their times for households and farm works. It makes sense that a secondary school building is needed to accommodate this demand of the increasing numbers of students and grade. Health post center and village health volunteer: When people get sick, a 5 kilometer health center does not operate well and poorly staffed. Within a local health center within the village distance would allow greater access to health and treatment services including delivery and other sickness. Together also with local village health volunteer may even encourage more visits to the hospital as well as the uses of health center in the event of sickness. Electricity and fence around the village: As most of the Ratanakiri province dose not access to reliable electricity and La Ork is in particular has not access to electricity, except their own firewood and batteries. With provision of electricity helps villager to utilize both for household needs and other purposes. At the same time, the current village has no fence to protect from any animal. It might be good that in the future the village would have fence and protect from other entries. Key assessment findings: Men Group - Current needs/problems Open well construction: With limited of clean water, extra open well construction would supply more water and reduce less burden on their wife‟s labor in fetching water. Health post center: Men identified of being so difficult in visiting health center due to the distance and the transportations. Providing health post support within a village allows more access to health treatment and consultation. Eco-tourism development site: As much as agreed among the women group, men group also expect to establish an ecotourism site of a water fall of 30 minute walk from the village may provide extra sources of income and enhance community access to financial capital. Trainings on moral and basic legal aspects: The way the community sense of respected to the elderly is lost as younger generation prefers modern way of living. In addition, overall understandings of some basic legal aspects are identified as the key principal to meet the current situation of abuses. By-law on youth governance: The current youth behaviors downgrade the community governance where elderly are the most respected in the village. Developing local 11
appropriate governance by-law where elderly still have the power to lead the village is needed to have a longer community ownership where youth respect the key principal of their elderly. Establish arts group: Traditional arts have long been an identity of their culture. With a current development of modern music, their traditional arts are slowly lost. To restore them, group of arts committees who would be set up and teach the younger generations about their own culture and traditions through arts. Make the community forestry legalized by the ministry: The community forestry is long process to achieve the complete ownership of the community. If this continues to be much longer, the forest maybe in a great danger from outsiders who are intruding every day since there is no particular recognized bylaws in which the community can exercise their complete rights on forest management. Fish and livestock raising: Pigs and chickens die every year due unknown diseases. If this continues so, it is a threat to the community income and burden on the current existing poverty since these livestock provide additional safety during the emergencies or lack of food. This also applies to fishing pond raising. Water tank storage: In the time of water scarcity and non-availability of cleanse water, the identification having a water tank stores in the middle of village where every household can connect their pipe and use appropriately to meet their basic needs and reduce time constraints in collecting the water. Next five years plans
Cow Bank/Cow Raising: On top of their livestock, cow seems to be facing more diseases resistance and less die than other animals. Therefore, cow is more preferred than other livestock for also the more income than others. Machineries: Generally, La Ork villagers pound their rice by hands, especially women. Men don‟t accept in doing this. This puts women in a more busier and heavy task. In recognizing such effort, men are aware that this rice milling machine is surely a great need in the next five years. Similarity, a generator where sources of energy can supply to the entire village household at night time would help better villagers organize other important social events or use it for household needs. Teacher of English: A potential of tourism development into the village shows a greater demand in language skill like English which can be used to communicate with tourists or be a guide showing tourists around. Cash crops: As cashew is proven to be one of the main cash crop plants, these men realize also that diversify other eatable crops would be useful for the village as well as provide nice shadows for the children. - Ten years vision Non-formal education: The members of the discussion agreed that non-formal education for both children and middle age/elderly are needed to ensure that knowledge and general understanding are up to date like other Khmer. Reliance the formal education is not 12
sufficient due to the current lacking teachers and the busy schedule of the villagers. For example, in the wet seasons most of the villagers would spend their times in the field and only come back to the village at night in at least few days. Timbers planting: Various forested lands had been logged and these logs destroyed almost all of the previous woods. The generation may not longer to recognize such woods. With the new trees planting allow their younger generation to testify the previous woods and as lesson learned that the young ones understand such important of these woods Tractor (Kour Yorn): Increase rice production reliance on the traditional farming alone may not be sufficient to the current soil erosion or fertility degradation. Also this collective Kour Yorn would add additional rice farming improvement and possible also a different rice farming techniques, for example paddy fields. Ten years is too long to predict the shift of agriculture, but if the current threat of forest clearing, the traditional farming would no longer adaptable. New roads to Kam and Pie villages: As La Ork village is closely located nearby Kam and Pei village but has no direct road links to these villages. The discussion revealed that this new road can be a new opportunity to increase business and livelihood diversifications and communication interactions such on rice harvest ceremony invitation, drinking and other socializations. Key assessment findings: Children Group Insufficient Teacher: Over 140 children who usually attend classes of primary school but with insufficient teachers in the village/school remains a great obstacle for children whose dreams to have achieved education foundations which are the key success for further grades. Study materials and tool kits: Children are concern over their uniforms and study materials which require fulfilling the class requirements. To meet this, the major expenses are on the parents which are quite expensive among those whose income mostly reliance on limited agriculture outputs.
3- Kmeng Village: Village Situation Kmeng village is about 30 kilometers to the north of Banlung town, O Chum District. It is among other isolated village from other main road and public services such as schooling and health service supports. The approximate total population is 330 people of Kreung ethnicity, among in which 180 are females. Totally makes up of 66 families with about 30 children in the age of schooling. The main occupation of these Kreung populations is rice farmer in combination with other cash crops such as cashew nut and livestock raising. Below are the key findings of their problems and needs to be addressed classified by current needs, 5 and 10 years needs plan.
Key assessment findings: Women Group - Current needs/problems Well pumper: The water collection is a heavy work and time consuming. It is better if a well pumper can be available within the village distance and a proper maintenance procedure must be developed to avoid non-operation of the well. Provide additional revolving funds for weaving groups. Lot of potential where weaving can be developed, but limited access could not allow further chances weaving groups to establish more than the current groups Training on how to raise fish: Some families really want to take into fish pound as extra income activities or livelihood options, due to limited understanding of how to feed and raise them, this cannot be well started. Food shortage: Rice is the main food. But as farm lands are being less productive, the yield is also not sufficient. Looking at how rice growing can be improved would be an extremely important case. Education for children: Children do not attend class regularly. It is not about the children but mostly as the teacher is not regularly present. The absent of teacher was identified because of the low salary and the teacher is not a local indigenous person. Training local indigenous community to be a community teacher is a key to improve better access to education and language preservation. - Five needs plans: Need more teachers for night education: Education is seen currently as only the need for children but adult and elderly are not included in to the education plan. It is likely that an extra curriculum for elderly should be developed and a teacher is provided. Village school: A current village school is poorly maintenance. A repairing is needed to ensure full operation of the classrooms. The repairing can be done via the support (labor, food, etc… voluntarily) of the community, rather the complete support of the organization. Build fence around the village: Lot of issues surrounding the animal roaming into the village and defecate their waste everywhere. With the fence protecting the entry help keep the village keep and nice. Ten years vision:
Electricity in the village: Having connected into the village with electricity is a sign of development and provides conveniences for the household consumptions. Clean village: The current village status is occupied by animal waste and brings bad smell to the entire village. This some time has caused sickness among the villagers. Road Construction around the community forestry: this road helps better access to forestry and taking various NTFPs. At the same time, also provide more quick and convenience for visiting the forests.
Key assessment findings: Men Group - Current needs//problems Well pumper: Having not enough water supplies in the village remains not just an issue among women but for me who usually use the water for their own needs neglecting the burden on women works in collecting water. It is well understood that additional well pumper would help both women and men. Open well maintenance: The existed open well is not function due to the dryness and broken down. It can be useful to fix it rather than digging a new one. The village has no capacity to dig it deeper nor repair it. It would be a usable source of water if this well can be restored. Water filter: Many villagers drink fresh water from a stream or well without boiling. The tradition of boiling water is rarely used, while some households did practicing water boiling. Though, the water filters would at least help those families who do not like boiling water access to clean water filtered. Forest demarcation pole: The likelihood of forest being illegal logged remain among a great threat to the villagers. With the current support of Ockenden Cambodia to demarcate the community forestry is a good step in ensuring the sustainable use of natural resources. However, the demarcation poles provided are too heavy if village men have to carry them to every forestry boundaries. The requests would be to have a carrier (truck) brought these poles (currently keep at the village) to the last point entrance into the forest, and then carry by villagers to demarcate in respective areas. Village boundary conflict with Kourn village: Not just as the community forestry which is at risk, the Kmeng village boundaries are also at danger from other intrusion by Kourn village. Without focusing on agreement in which both (Kmeng and Kourn village) accept a common village boundaries, the conflict of natural resources uses maybe continue to occurs as community forests and communal lands become smaller and smaller. Support the most vulnerable families (10 families): Even in such a small village of 66 families, at least 10 of them are identified by men group as the most vulnerable to poverty having no dependencies and supports. Improving these 10 families living conditions to meet some of their basic needs are essential for the current needs. School maintenance: About 15 children attend schooling at the communal school while other 15 attend the village schooling assisted by DPA. However, the village school building condition is quite poorly maintenance and therefore some rebuilding and construction is needed. Village health volunteer and health and medical support for livestock: There used to be a village volunteer support in the village but this has no longer operated. It is found to be very hard to have access to health services if no local village health volunteers as assistance. Similarity, animal diseases outbreaks threatening the household livestock badly as previously example showed that no animal health support for their livestock led to a disastrous death among most of their chickens. In this case, the village health volunteer is needed not just for villagers but also for the livestock raising techniques/maintenances that are among the income generation in time of shocks and food shortages. 15
Village fence: Constructing fences around the village to protect animal entries are some of the key to keep village clean. As the way of raising cattle among the villagers, these cattle are let free roaming everywhere. And in most cases, they come into the village and defecate badly. With the fence to protect these entries help keep village in good environment and clean. Finding ways to raise their cattle differently would be also good to ensure the closely monitoring of their cattle sickness and symptom in cases of some disease outbreaks. Meeting house maintenance: For long time, the village meeting plays a role to bridge the gap among the villagers who usually share and debate on various issues related to the community. However, the village meeting house is needed some restoration/fixing in order to accommodate more work of either among the communities, NGOs or the government development meetings. Road construction to the village: Road connecting the village to the main public area such as health center and primary education remain quite poor. The village is most reliance on this road to reach to the public services where livelihoods and other necessity provisions. Five years plan
Finalization of the community forestry with complete by-law: The long running of the current community forestry finalization is still pressuring the community sense of ownership to their natural resources. By the next five years, this community forestry should be well recognized legally to ensure well protection and sustainably used among the villagers. Natural resources mapping (protected area, cemetery, and farm lands): Using natural resources among the villagers have not been well allocated as external threats continue to take place. Involving long discussion among each man emphasized that the resources mapping should be locally developed and managed properly among the members. To do so, the resources mapping cover the reserved farm lands, community forestry protected areas and cemeteries must visibly display as the villagers need to be aware of such plans. Currently, no proper plan has been made regarding natural resources mapping. - Ten years plans Village kindergarten for children (don‟t let kids walk afraid of accident): The idea of keeping children at school seems no longer a practice among this Kreung male. In fact, due to the likelihood of accident for the children who decided to walk to school in a distance, the better idea would be to have village kindergarten where kids and parents always feel secured. Village meeting house: It is not really well possible to hold development works meeting in the next 5 to 10 years as the meeting has been poorly maintenance. Much previous NGOs works included meeting and community debates took place here. For better meeting and supporting these activities, the meeting house is requested for the community continual services and development activities. Village fencing around the village: The village has no specific fence protecting from entries of cattle. These cattle enter village and create chaotic and mess up everywhere from their defecated waste. Keeping the way it is does not keep the village clean as the villagers 16
always want to achieve is clean village and sanitation/hygienic environment among their members. Key assessment findings: Children Group Children of both boys and girls usually walk or being accompanied by their siblings or parents to attend class in the commune compound area where primary education is offered. Facing a longer distance may discourage children from taking class regularly, though a village schooling maybe an option where children can be sure to attend the class with close watch of their parents. Most children engaged in the discussion expressed way to have better access to their education, education tools and supports as well as the vision to go higher if possible of becoming a teacher, health staff and village chief. These visions of the children can only be sustained if the foundation of primary education is maintained and provision of necessary tools and supports are given over the period of their primary education.
4- Pril village: Village Situation Pril village is a Jarai ethnicity of about 86 families with total population of 337, consisted of 169 females and nearly 50 children during the age of schooling. The village located easternsouth of Banlung with approximately over 50 kilometers on a paved new road, when additional around 5 kilometer into the village compound. It is based in Borkam commune, O Ya Dao district. Pril is like other part of the village in the commune where most wooden houses are built on still with a road running in the middle to meet other villages. Beside the village chief who is the most direct contact to every villager, the village is also a station of commune council chief and the commune clerk who are among the key dominant in commune administrative functions but their main roles in community developments tend to hand over to the existed community based organization which has been established by local NGOs such as RDCNRM and Ockenden Cambodia. The village is mostly surrounded by newly planted private industrial rubber tree. Yet, the villagers do not seem to benefit from such rubber tree plantations as most of their laborers are taken from outsiders. In the case, the villagers still remain to continue on their existing agriculture practices of rice farming that poorly harvested, potatoes and soybeans are recently adopted while cashew nuts have long been the main cash contribution. As part of additional income beside these potatoes, soybeans and rice; the NTFPs collections together with livestock raising and few cases of wage labor are the key to supplement their incomes. Below are the key findings of their problems and needs to be addressed classified by current needs, 5 and 10 years needs plan. Key assessment findings: Women Group Current needs//problems
Revolving fund for agriculture: Women expressed that their insufficient credit/cash did not allow her to really diversify their agriculture outputs. Those such as the potential of
exploring potatoes, soybeans and improving soil quality. These are the expenses that they must fulfill. Reliance on such chamkar alone does not ensure sufficient food over the year. Agriculture training and small grant for pesticide management: The notion challenges on how many years the indigenous farming has been developed. Yet, such techniques are only useful if no external factors influence/involve. Such factors in continuing illegal logging, forestry clearing, pesticides and insufficient/too much rain fall do not tend to meet the maximum output in which the current needs must be fulfilled. As environmental factors evolved, some training techniques on agriculture productions (rice, livestock, soybeans, potatoes) should be required to cope with such changes. Yet, carefully analysis on how these changes affect them and their responding solutions must be first studied. Sign post around community forestry: The current community forestry under support by RDCNRM/Ockenden Cambodia are limited. The worries are so much as that the forest maybe gone so soon. Rice milling machine: Women burden on household works remain existence in most part of the village studied. Rice milling machine is seen as a tool to reduce their burden from heavy rice pounding and time constraint which may have been use for their leisure or business opportunities. Animal health support staff, training and animal health treatment: Disease outbreak and insufficient medical treatment for animal is agreed to derive from limited animal health staff and local training. As most families‟ assets include such chickens, cattle, pigs, dogs etc.. Therefore these animals must get as much attention as the people who are quite often rely on them for their livelihoods. Community market development: The village is a quite far distance from other market and facilitating to establish a local market where local women can manage would seen as an extra opportunity for the communities to cut off their expenses on travelling. Well pumper and water storage tank: Water scarcity and water management within the village is poor. Few wells are accommodated by the entire village. Some villagers decide to use and consume water from the stream in a far distance. As women‟ most roles to collect water, it make senses that whatever means such as well pumpers and water tanks available would help women and general villagers to better access to clean and sufficient water for varieties of purposes. Supporting women in delivery and injection services: Every delivery if is not seen as happiness but worries come along due to inaccessible to reliable health post center and midwife. In addition, vaccinations are poorly implemented. Non-formal education and extra teacher: Women complaint of their innocence in understanding some basic reading and numerical calculation. In such their busy schedules, non-formal education is realized to be needed as some interactions with local Khmers being associated. Extra teachers for their children are another key in which the kids would continue to the last available grade.
Five years plans
Supporting fund to the poorest villagers: Some villagers identified by the women groups as “too poor”. In the next five years expectation is to support and bring these “too poor” out of their current status. This requires some financial supports which means directly towards these families. Provide additional fund for weaving traditional clothes: Fund for extra businesses such as weaving and maintain traditional practice would prove to be another step for not just skills to be practiced, but income and traditions which to be enhanced. Provide training to women on sewing skills and revolving fund for livelihood purposes: Together with traditional means of weaving may see far beyond output based business. Adopting modern sewing skills and fund for its development would work hand in hands for such demand of sewing, weaving and perhaps basic income earning. Ten years vision
Secondary school: Current school compound will not be able to support the growing demands of the education by current population growth. A secondary education and teacher should be prepared. Water storage tank for the community: Water tank for common use among the villagers would not just allow better utilization of household but possibly for the other agriculture purposes such vegetable gardening and home crops. Tractor for land preparation and plowing: By the ten years to come, traditional farming may no longer acceptable due to land degradation; insufficient land and possibly those modern tools must be employed to cope with such modern problems. Key assessment findings: Men Group - Current needs/problems New well, water storage tanks and generator: As water is limited especially in the dried season, the current needs of identifying water tank and generator to pump the water and use for the village are seen as needed. Like an example from Takok Chraiy, these men explained how the similar water tank can be developed in their village. Additional fund for potatoes and soybeans growing: As an extra of income generation which has seen among some village households, this drives further needs that some cash investment into the soybeans and potatoes are needed to really increase their economic status and improve food supplies. Demarcate more poles around the protected forests: Community forestry can be any time at risk of exploitation from outsiders. Continue to immediately demarcate the boundaries would help ensure greater local management where so much of their livelihoods and traditions are based on these forests.
Village meeting house: Currently, the meeting between various NGOs and development workers take place either at a CBOs house or commune chief‟s house. The sense of community participation is limited and can be a failure if meeting house is neglected. Non-formal education for both elderly and children: Non-formal education for elderly such as basic reading, numerical and calculation are needed as they engage quite often with other traders. Fish pond: Great interests in fish development but limited access to skills and techniques on how to do so. These men give great priorities to food through fish as they think the fish will not die easily. Rice milling machine: As similar as to women expectation, the rice milling has been several times proposed and given. However, with lacking of management, the rice millings lose its stance and resulted in malfunction. Now the current propose and expectation by the village men on this manner “rice milling machine” must be properly assessed. Disease outbreak among animals: Every year, there are number of death chickens, pigs and cow due to some diseases and improper way of raising. Making sure there are less diseases attacking animal will really help balance the income as well as food security. - Five years plan Night time education: Committing to day time education may not so possible as most villagers are busy at field. Yet, at night time non formal education is a key to provide them with basic education. Their dreams of being able to read and write basic Khmer strongly agreed upon the current interactions with other Khmer such as development works and trading. Additional teacher for children and salary support: There has already been insufficient teachers‟ providing education for children. The commitment to send kids to school would even increased if sufficient teacher to be provided. This is the hope for the next five years. Agriculture training and exposure visit: Indigenous peoples have long been practicing their tradition agriculture but continue to do the same thing is not applicable in the current context such as farm land is now being smaller and less productive. There is a need to identify other modern options where local agriculture can be enhanced through some trainings and exposure visits to some of the best agriculture producers in other parts of the province. - Ten years plan Water storage tank with 10mx10m and pumper: The demands for water tank in the middle of the village and water pumper/generator are among the main most concern for every man that participated. They realized of inconsistent rain falls that would have been horrible by the next 10 years if no sufficient water storage to be made available. Furthermore, the pipe lines connected to each household in which water can run directly into their kitchen is needed. Fence around the houses: As the current village households have no particular fence or marks to identify which housing lands belong to which families, only that everyone knows
accept the practice. Building fence around their house not just help identify their properties but also protect cattle entering and defecate. Skills on how to fix motor, radio and TV: As most villagers now access to modern technologies, they face maintenance problems and this requires that some local communities knowledge in repairing such tools. Bringing the tools to Banlung or O Ya Dao is costing more time and money. Key assessment findings: Children Group Having discussions with children who are attending school while some dropped off showed a interrelation between the number of teacher to the children dropped off rate. What has been a non-solved issue is a limited teacher for the current primary education in the village. Even though, some children managed to continue their education as some quitted due to the inconsistent absent of teacher (s). Among the children involving in the discussion, their preferred expectation is to have enough number of teachers in their primary school and the potential of teacher of English where curiosity tends to derive their eagerness to come to class and learn new language. With such pressuring issues, some of the main important which children could identify as their future include; Continue their education of either in O Ya Dao or in Banlung after finishing their primary education here. Clean drinking water: Some of the children realized that drinking fresh water from the well or stream do not keep them healthy, but with limited care of their parents and the habit of drinking water without boiling is seen as the result of having no boil water for them. Enough teachers: enough number and committed teachers of either primary school or English language is a great motivation where children may discover their more potential to coming to school.
5- Katieng Village: Village Situation Katieng village is about 12 Kilometer from Banlung town. It located in the Katieng Labang II Commune, Lumphat district. The village is surrounded by several ecotourism sites such as Katieng waterfall and Kachang Waterfall. The population is Prao ethnicity with over around 400 members, divided into 103 families. The main occupation of the villagers is varied. Some are doing both paddy rice field and chamkar. Few household have adopted fish pond and livestock raising together with additional subsistence NTFPs collection to supplement their daily food. Other small selling business within the village is also found to be quite accessible in term of ingredients for food. Wage laborer is mostly hired to external/within the villager farmers. The village is very much closely situated next to the community forestry which is under the current support of Ockenden Cambodia working in partnership with RDCNRM. Given such rich in forest resources, pressuring on the illegal logging is still seen as a continual problem with not much intervention from the authorities. Continue to ignore that would further 21
create a risk of failure in community forestry management as planned between the communities and the local implementing NGOs partner. Below are the key findings of their problems and needs to be addressed classified by current needs, 5 and 10 years needs plan. Key assessment findings: Women Group Current needs/problems: Medical support and health post center: Current inaccessible to health within the village is not just seen in other villages but this Katieng is pressuring every day time then someone is sick and most of the case must be brought to Banlung. Requesting a health post alone does not help but together with a committed medical local doctor would ensure more sustainability. Two additional blocks of school buildings: Schooling is not sufficient in number of classes and teachers. Building extra rooms and provided trained teachers are essential in meeting the children demand to education. Furthermore, women and children expressed rules and regulations set by the national schooling where uniforms must be wore and study materials are on student‟s expenses. These have a huge burdens on family economic as well as children interests to schooling. New dirt road construction: Road was once approved to construct and now its condition is quite poor. Many times villagers face motor crash or their motors are not able to move up the high hill, especially when family member is sick or when carrying goods. Mosquitoes nets: Most are aware of the mosquitoes bites and some even used them at night. These do not apply to all villagers who are not able to afford. As rainy season may come in 5 months, they have thought of these nets as to protect from malaria. Throughout discussions, they now realized that dried seasons must be also at risk if sleeping without any nets. Water well and water storage tank (dried season no water): Water is very hard to access in dried seasons as even open well are difficult to dig due to concrete rocky underground. The possible way is to store water in a bigger tank and pump it from somewhere nearby so that the villagers can access better. Electricity: At night time, each household has their own lighting system of either through lamps, batteries or firewood. These are not a longer solution, but electricity connected into the village that provide day and night. Support widow and the poorest families: The participants accept that they are bit better off than some other most poorest families who are in great need of livelihoods and self reliance. NGOs and government should develop some programs to help these too poor families and bring them out of such poverty. Cash crops plantation: cash crops have seen great beneficiary such as cashew. Providing more cash crops options to be planted in the village and farms are needed to have extra income and support the family needs.
Livestock raising (chicken, ducks and pigs) and techniques: Lots of complains on why the chickens, ducks and pigs die. Yet, commitment to raise them remain there. 15 Latrines: Having toilets ensure better sanitations and cleaner environment. As most of the villagers defecate their waste every in the bush, this latrines are seen as new habit but they are useful and needed for the entire village. Improving rice/food yield: Food shortages have been a major problem facing most of the villagers. Most of them have no alternative plans which they increase their food, some suggested to have some tools such as plowing machines and techniques. Protect forests: Illegal logging still is an ongoing problem even the community forestry establishment is under way. The good option would be to facilitate the recognition as soon as possible. Potential of rape: The forest is no longer a suitable place for woman going alone. Some cases of attempted rape identified previously. The women are now reluctant to go on collecting NTFPs. The available solutions would be to look at how this attempted could be prevented via some collection action and solving mechanism. Domestic violence: Women are in almost everywhere could be facing domestic violence. In this village, women suffered sometime from husband beating. Working towards to some behavioral change and supporting women rights to domestic free slowly are needed. Too many children: Some families have four to five children in a short sequence time. This burden more on family health, economic and eventually food insecurity. Contraceptive methods were once aware among male, but male disagreed that on such things are male‟s responsibilities. Identifying some entry points into this contraceptive with locally adaptable approach is needed to discussed and involved all key holders include men, women and elderly. Five years plans:
Tools for plowing: Over 50% of households use paddy field farming. Reliance on the cattle to plow is expensive and still very difficult to manage. With some machinery to plow their rice help boost their rice yield outputs as well as reduce burden on labors. Also, a collective plowing tool would help cost less but increase more productive. Rice de-heading machines: Even with rice planted and grew, these women expected to have rice de-heading machine to remove rice seeds from the rice-plants. Family concrete containers: Individual family water concrete container helps store water at home in a big amount each time they collected and improves the greater uses of water. Generator to pump water for agriculture purposes: As paddy field need a lot of water to be filled in the field, irrigation or generator to pump water improve better rice growing and likely to have more food over the year. - Ten years vision: Road pavement: Connecting village to other public services via improving good conditions like “paved road‟ 23
Village market: Some household stalls are running within the village, but these are too small and too limited in term of choices. A bigger village market where most of the things can be found is viewed to be the impact in reducing their cost of travelling, yet increasing village economic activities. Key assessment findings: Men Group - Current needs/problems Water scarcity for agriculture and cash crop: No irrigation has been developed for the paddy fields that constrain agriculture to be enhanced. Providing ways where water supplies can be injected into the fields are the key to improving rice yield. Medical support staff (malaria, diarrhea, itchy, cold): Health volunteer is available within the village but things have been stopped as no incentive is provided. Enhance and provide qualified health supports who understand about malaria, diarrhea, itchy problems are needed to ensure malaria and related cases would be reported to the health departments. Similarity, this applies animal health as well. Illegal logging: The current committees on forestry management are weak and the local authorities are neglecting the illegal logging. Working with local authorities and local committees in identifying mechanism should be explored. Improving income: Household faces no permanent income. Besides seasonal farming, more opportunities to look at how income can be generated would be a better entry point in improving their economic status. These have been suggested including fish pond and raising livestock techniques. Increasing land fertility and develop organic fertilizer: Land losing fertilities causing dropping in rice yield. Some have used heavily chemical to enhance their productions. Such practice of chemical may harmful to the sustainable rice farming if not used properly. The actions plans can be developed and seek ways where organic fertilizer should be encouraged or better techniques maybe applied. School teacher: Teacher for the village kids remain absent for some times and insufficient number of teachers are one of the main causes of dropped off students. Providing extra teachers and support their allowance is ensured the long running of their teaching position as well children attending classes. - Five years plans Contraceptive tools and techniques: Many children in a shorter time sequences no longer a preferred wish, yet male complaints of women not knowing how to prevent pregnancy. These contraceptives tools should be properly developed and worked with both men and women. Village electricity: Lacking energy and night time electricity is an obstacle where women suffer burden and water collecting. With electricity, water can be pumped into their homes and collecting firewood for lightening can be reduced.
Health center and qualified doctors: Current health center is not available within the village. Everyone who is ill must either go to the commune where health staff are insufficient or occurring more expenses by going to Banlung. Provide training to village chief and commune chief about forestry law: the issues of illegal logging and no finding solutions for such forest conflicts derive from the lacking knowledge of forestry law among village chief and commune chief. Develop fish pond and livestock development: Fish is rarely found among the villagers except getting from the market. Having fish pond and techniques on how to raise them provide better access to protein and food. Water well pumpers: Water scarcity would remain an issue unless well and its pumpers to store water in a tank where quick water collecting would be needed. - Ten years plans: Ensure sustainable use of forests: Current confusing among how forests should be sustainably managed among men consider as the worries that forests may not be longer under the community management. Develop traditional music/art teams and their musical instruments: Potential of traditional arts re-establishment to enhance cultural and traditional preservations. Clearly demarcate the village boundaries with Labang II and Labang I: Village boundaries conflicts are at risk of losing not just land but natural resources and creating further conflicts among the neighboring village. Working towards a common resolving conflict mechanism would be a desired where both find their own agreed solutions. New road construction to Banlung: Poor road to access and be accessed by others pressuring villagers to be isolated and inaccessible to other public services. Road up and down the high hill are obstacles to other markets and opportunities. Key assessment findings: Children Group Children have frequently complaint of insufficient teacher and the abnormal absent from the class hours without any notices. With such behaviors discourage children to be punctual for their schedules as well from attending class regularly. Other issues which burden children are the child labor both at home and field. This sort of work has been recognized as usual since family needs labor to help. Continuing pressuring this issue would further affect children‟s education as well as create risk of child‟s growth. As small as the age of 8-10 years old, children understand that their current status with regards to education is not satisfactory. Their needs to have access their own transportation such as bicycle and other study kits include pens, books and uniforms found to be greater requirement in ensuring the proper education attainment. Plus, health condition of the children is poorly maintained with no regular visit to the doctors. Whatever circumstances of their current obstacles, their strong vision of becoming a doctor is more repeated among some of the children. Be a NGO worker, teacher and 25
become a police officer are the second most rated to provide better social services into their communities.
6- Kourn Village: Village Situation Kourn village is situated along Sesan River, Vern Sai District, to the north of Banlung with about 35 kilometers from the capital town. Total of 138 Kreung families with 549 members, the village is quite well distributed of 258 females and 58 children with the age of schooling. Lies between one of the most difficult road to access (the road seems to be on the way of a construction), the population main livelihoods are from combination of paddy fields and chamkar rice cultivation. Fishing is among the most source of protein, yet the current dam operation in upstream in Vietnam posses a huge risk to their livelihoods and health problems from the use/consumption of river. Below are the key findings of their problems and needs to be addressed classified by current needs, 5 and 10 years needs plan. Key assessment findings: Women Group - Current Needs/problems: Imbalance of household tasks with husband: Women repeatedly reported of burden on the household work. They do not commit that their husbands are not helping them but the facts that household works are too much. A good thing to start with this is to look at how gender relations can be enhanced/shaped through some gender awareness programs. Land encroachment from nearby village: Several cases reported by women that their farm lands are being exploited by nearby villages as boundary conflict is still has not solved. Working with relevant local authorities to finalize the boundary conflict is a key to ensure the local governance of forest resources such as community forestry. Livestock raising and disease control: Animal is often raised but frequent diseases killed chickens, pigs and sometime cattle must be carefully monitored. There is a need where diseases outbreak can be prevented, checked and treatment supports. General population health: Health is a concern among women who expressed the long distance walking to the health center in the commune. A local health center can be built so that health condition can be improved and long walking distance maybe reduced. Gangster (fast driving in the village), killing chicken and eat: some younger adolescents have been disturbing the villagers by stealing chickens, village properties and causing dangers to other with their fast motor driving. There must be a need to work in changing and reshaping their behaviors Lack of food/flooding: Insufficient food as current flooding destroyed almost rice and crops. Looking at how drought resistance crops to be adapted in this area such as dried corn season is the supplement to their food supplies.
Two well pumpers: Clean water scarcity have not been enough accessible. Most drink water from the river which is generally populated by upstream dam. Therefore, two extra water well pumpers are needed to meet such demand. - Five years plans Tractor (kour yorn) to carry harvested rice and bringing the ill to hospital: Bad road with poor bridges are needed to be reconstructed. Current commune fund to build new road is halted. These women believe that with strong Kour Yorn can really help both in carrying out goods as well as transporting people in case of sick or emergencies. Bicycle for children going to school: Some children do not go to school as they live far from the village (they live at the fields). To commute to school by walk is really hard; therefore bicycles for these children are needed. Weeding machine and rice milling machine: Weed growing is very fast during cashew harvesting and rice planting. Yet even if weeding is done, rice milling machine is needed to help remove the rice husks, rather than pounding them by hands. Without doing so, women are the biggest hit in term of labor and burden. Sewing machine: Limited income generation and when cloth got damaged, there is hard to fix and expensive to buy new one. With sewing machine, women can have new skills for income generation and supply services for the local need. Ten years plans
Health post center: a health center and medical staff for women have been identified as insufficient for a long term run such a health center should be establish. Another key express of need is Kour Yorn for transporting rice harvested, plowing and taking the sick to hospital. Key assessment findings: Men Group - Current needs/problems Resolve conflict of village boundaries with Kachon village: ongoing boundary conflicts are not just boundary issue but also natural resources (community forestry) which have been shrinking. Resolving those conflicts would lead to better access to natural resources. Some of the case reports on the weakness commune councils involvement even marginalized the issue. Further cooperation in preventing illegal logging: Some internal villagers cooperated for illegal logging. This can be tackled through working with the CBOs, village chief and commune councils where mutual understanding maybe met. Health post center: Health problems have been a pressuring issue as no any health post within the village. Every time villagers get ill, they must go to Kachon village which is about 5 kilometer for health services. Additional wells and latrine construction: Villagers defecate in no latrines. Some have done so behind their bush. These reflected by the villagers that should no longer practiced, but villagers need some support to build latrines and skills to implement them. 27
Vegetable gardening and equipments: great potentials for vegetable gardening where village is based along the river and with no skills and equipments to do so, village requested to have this important vegetable gardening to be further developed. Water filters: As water is collected from either river or unclean sources, the water filters would help filter water better. Cattle for paddy fields: Villagers have been doing both chamkar and paddy fields, but these paddy fields need cattle to prepare the land. And most villagers do not own their cattle or in most cases these cattle die over some years due to diseases. Supply such as cow or buffalo bank would help lots of labor spent on farming but animal health staff or vaccination on animal should not be undermined. Small grant to help raise livestock such as chickens, pigs and buffaloes: With the needs of assisting labor in farming, extra fund for livestock raising would add the possible of income generation as well as more food or even as a reserved social safety which these livestock can be converted into cash in such of emergencies. NFTPs died: Forests are dried and logged off quite often without so much prevention. Sometimes, a timber was logged and fallen down destroyed varieties of wild vegetables. These wild vegetables are more preferred then the vegetable sales at the market. The villagers need agr0-forestry - Five years plan: Irrigation and water supplies for agriculture and household needs: Even the village is closely by the river, the irrigation for the paddy fields are not available. As well as the need of clean water for household consumption is insufficient. Accessing to irrigation and clean water will facilitate on boosting the agriculture and assist better for household demand on clean water. Rice milling machines and rice de-heading machine: Villagers took extensive times on rice processing/planting. The need of rice milling and de-heading machine would be expected to employ in the next years so that times can be more managed and rice development can be boosted. - Ten years vision Village market: Local market is poorly running by the some local individuals. The dream of having a bigger market where most things can be available within the village is for all is agreed up on. These men are hoping collective market can be established some times in the next 10 years where common profit can be shared for developing the village and providing the needs of the whole community. Kour yorn for carrying goods: Transporting harvested rice and other goods have been recognized as the heavy things for men. Expecting to have the Kour yorn to carry these goods are the tools to lighten the burden. Bicycle for children living away from village: Some children could not attend regular class due to the distance far away from school. Those children stay at the fields with their parents. By ignoring this factor future children would not be able to attain this education. Providing 28
the access to this transportation would ensure the better attainment for the children to have classes. Key assessment findings: Children Group Children face several drops out and unable to attend class with the limited access to study materials, food, transportation, working with parents at the field and insufficient teachers. Discussing with among 6-8 children revealed that the possible way to help them achieve better dreams of their future to become a teacher, doctor and NGOs staff is to working towards bringing them back to school or ensuring their full participation in class. Ensuring such big task requires working effectively with parents and elderly respected people so that child labor can be reduced, sending girls to school can be accepted and number of children attending can be increased.
7- Takok Phnog Village: Village Situation Takok Phnong village is about 70 kilometers from Banlung, including approximately 25 kilometers from O Ya Dao district town. Takok Phnong village is the only Phnong ethnic indigenous people in Ratanakir with total population of about 100 families, consisted of nearly 90 children with the age of schooling. The village main occupation is rice farming, fishing, wild life trapping and additional cash crop income such potatoes and soybeans and animal raising. The village is completely isolated with very poor infrastructure such as road, bridges, hospital, school, meeting house and telecommunication system. With exception to water sources which is available all year round from a stream behind the village, yet the water remain not so clean or not has been filtered. Below are the key findings of their problems and needs to be addressed classified by current needs, 5 and 10 years needs plan. Key assessment findings: Women Group - Current needs/problems Livestock raising: Pig and chicken are popular among these women group. The interests come from the possible of earning some income to buy medicine and rice. Even such interests on livestock, they also convey their worries on the disease outbreaks on their animals. The both skills of livestock raising and fund to raise these livestock are the only hope for women to raise income. Increase food yield: Women do not seem to have enough food to eat in most of the case we interviewed. Some told of how their crops failure leads to insufficient rice. The express of this limited yield was identified as the cause of flooding and not enough rain, together with soil infertility. Health problems: Women face not just normal health problems, but maternity health that even difficult to reach for support with such inaccessible health center and bad road.
Clean water source: Water seems to be no a problem as it has all year running stream but this is not clean. Most drink fresh without boiling is a risky to health problem of all villagers. There is a need to support tools that allow them to have better and cleaner water Fish pond: Fish is the second protein besides wild and local meat. But fish is seen to be easier to raise than livestock. Women would both choose to raise fish and livestock compare to men most prefer fish. Teacher for children: A local house hosts some education program but this is not recognized as a formal education. Women are worried that their children could find no future if no education. It is really a good point to start where mother understood the important of their children‟ education, this would mean that their kids will be allowed to go to school. Five years needs
Plowing machine: Even women do not plowing the field but their work is seen are bit lesser if there is cattle or tools to plow and prepare their land. The needed is not a private own but a common where every family can borrow and ploy for certain of time. Improve rice yield: Rice milling: Women in every village we discussed said their most busy task besides farming is rice pounding. With an assistance of rice milling machine for the next five year would reduce big amount of women labor as well as may help provide them with extra time to perform some other tasks. Saving: Women have no cash to save. Anytime if they or their members get sick, animal or convertible properties will be sold to help bring member to hospital. Having access to saving where group of women would develop a self help group is essential to sustain a long term reserved for family emergencies and business opportunities. - Ten years vision Individual buffalo for plowing: Having a community plowing machine is not so preferred compare to individual own plowing tool. This has been referred as buffalo ownership to plow rice field. Water tank: Collecting water is hard and heavy. Plus, having it from the stream is not clean. Storing water in the middle of the village and then transfer/collect from this point provide better access, lesser time spent and lighter burden as this collecting water is mostly women‟s works, not men‟s. Health center and medical staff: Health remains inaccessible even for both women and men. But women face over concern of maternity health, specially on delivery and stomach ache. Working towards resolving health problem is not about health alone, but the surrounding factors are needed to explore. Key assessment findings: Men Group - Current needs/problems Livestock raising: Chicken and pigs are the next supplementary income and food over the period of food shortage. However, these livestock include cattle face sickness every year with no health support and vaccination. Improving these sectors with good animal health technique and vaccination are needed. 30
Cash crops: Cash crop includes eatable fruits are identified with good potential with this isolated village. At least the tree can provide fruit during some seasonal time. These men expressed great commitment towards these eatable crops but lacking the means to grow them, both financial and techniques. School for children: The discussion also revealed that the needs to have their kids attend class are the preferred for their next generation. But government school does not exist leaves nearly on hundred kids unattended. Well and tank: Even with accessible to water source is available within a close walk, the need to clean water and reachable to their vegetable gardening is expressed to be assisted. Health center: Villagers remain untouched when it comes to health. Poor road and non available of health support within a suitable time continue to be a great obstacle for all of these villagers. Village demarcation: Village boundary conflict with neighboring is still pressuring this community to handle their forest and farm lands. Attempted to solve the conflict has not been successful. With the assistance of external support by working with village chief and commune councils of related concerns are the key towards to resolving the conflicts mutually. Village market: There is one individual Vietnamese married Phnong villager‟s shop, but food stuffs are expensive. The communities common market where profit can shared and joint are among some keys to bring back the sense of togetherness and community ownerships. - Five years needs Rice yields family: Insufficient rice yield is faced every year, particularly this year when flood hit quite badly left some villagers with crop failure. Working towards some of the recoveries on this agriculture and drought/wet resistant crops would be immediately needed. Livestock: Most villagers rely on their livestock such as chicken but they die every year. Some villagers even eat these death meats. The ways to look at how these livestock can be more sustained are needed. Road and bridges: most villagers have complaint of how their time spent on traveling on buying food and accessing to other public services. Some potential of constructions are under way, yet nothing sure has been made. The sooner the better for this road to be built. School and teacher: The future of these children mostly relies on the education of these kids attain. Some rumors of school to be built but not yet seem to be reliable. Kids also wish to go to school. Such desire is suitable to implement some education programs. - Ten years needs Village conflict of boundaries: Ongoing boundaries conflict with Samoth village threatening every day the potential lose the farms land and forest resources. Plowing tools and carrying tools: As rice yield is getting lesser productive and land become smaller, the employment of plowing tools would be needed to help with their rice farming. 31
These dreams seem that impossible among them but most believe that “ it is better than not dreaming about it”. Medical health staff for villagers and animal: Lacking such health support does not only seen to be important for human, but animals which most villagers rely on for their farming and livelihoods are as both equally important. And should not be underestimated. Malaria and no net to sleep: Malaria is threatening villagers every year. Some face serious illness from malaria especially kids, but also other illness of stomach ache is frequent reported among elderly men. Key assessment findings: Children Group Children face no recognition of schooling as the current non formal education is being implemented irregularly with no permanent teacher and study tools. The future expectations of these children are amazing ranging from becoming a teacher and continue to go as high as possible with their education. This has to be solved from the current foundation years where children should be going to regular class and receiving sufficient materials to fulfill their studies demand.
8- Yeak Loam : Situation Yeak Loam commune borders Bang Lung town. Since the capital of Ratanakiri province moved from Lumpat to Bang Lung the Tampoun people who inhabit the area have had increasing pressure to sell/hand over their land. The five villages have had their ability to practice their shifting agricultural techniques revoked due to land losses, also the final of their three sacred mountains is under threat to development. It is believed that once the final mountain has been acquired by the company the company will desire to own Yeak Loam Lake (Beoung Yeak Loam). Development plans have suggested cable cars, a road around the lake and a casino. Due its proximity to Bang Lung this commune is faced with many positive and negative issues that relate to being so close to a Khmer modern town, also most of their land has gone already. With the exception of the lake, this devastating situation will probably be mirrored throughout the province. This Tampoun community have been protecting and managing the lake for years. Without active assistance to help them keep management rights to the lake, and advice on how they can reap the benefits of the increasing number of tourists visiting the province the existence of this Tampoun community is under immediate threat. Beoung Yeak Loam is a beautiful volcanic lake only 5km North of the center of Bang Lung. They are twelve years into a twenty-five year sustainable management agreement with the government. Beoung Yeak Loam has special spiritual significance to the indigenous people of Ratanakiri. However as infrastructure improves throughout Cambodia and Ratanakiri and its commercial value rises. The five villages that surround the lake are Sel, Chree, Phnom, La Por and Lone village, with a population of approximately 2,000. 32
Similar to other indigenous communities, this Tampoun ethnicity main occupation is rice cultivation with supplementary of cashew, soybeans, potatoes, NTFPs collection and livestock raising. As mentioned before they have serious land issues. Lone Village has no village land left now and the villagers live isolated their fields (chamkas) . All the other villages have their land reduced. None have all their swidden farms. Fourteen people receive a salary of less than $25 to work full time at the lake. Their proximity to Bang Lung has significant more opportunities and treats than with other communities. Also currently managing the lake brings hopes and fears to the local Tampoun community. There is a core group of very active people who have kept positive in spite of massive intimidations from outside parties to give the lake away. There is much interest and excitement from the villages since the beginning of Ockenden support. Ockenden supports Yeak Loam through its small grant system and will help Yeak Loam register as an association. The community has some other assistance from the Highlander Association and one village has technical support on fist raising from CEDAC. Below are the key findings of their problems and needs to be addressed classified by current needs, 5 and 10 years needs plan. Key assessment findings: Women Group A group of women were spoken to in Sel village, and some families in Lone village Current Needs: o Education for their children. This was repeated throughout the discussions and with every individual spoken to. Their ability to farm is limited due to land losses. The women were concerned that their children would no be able to farm at all. So they wanted good education for their children so they could compete on the job market with the low Landers in Bang Lung o Improved limited land farming techniques, some women had herd that some NGOs were helping people develop new farming techniques, the lack of water and seeds to grow in dry season was a problem. Outside the protected area there are no areas of forest left for NTFPs o Training for children to work with tourists at lake. Everyone was aware that the area was getting busier. The newly paved road from Vietman was some cause for concern, but the road improvements from Bang Lung to Stung Tren were seen as a good thing for about half of the women o Assistance finding trade for the woven products (Sel villages has traditional weavers). They were very aware that while this product could be marketable there were many NGOs in the province supporting weaving, and this was bringing down the price. The women suggested they needed to work together better, and try to make links with other traditional weavers to keep the price constant. Especially as lots of outside sellers are selling machine woven products as hand made o Stop the mountain being taken (from woman in lone village whose only land is a field at base of mountain) o Clearer understanding of rights and forest and lake rights, there was some confusion surrounding land rights, the agreement with the lake and indigenous peoples human rights 33
o Less time pregnant, many women stated that they were pregnant so much of the time it was limiting their ability to farm o Numeracy skills, “we can not read and add up the numbers” there was frustration from some that they were getting ripped off from middle men when they were selling cashews o Healthier chickens while some had no problem with there chickens some had massive problems with chicken ill health premature mortality o Opening cashew seed techniques, to sell the nuts. There was some understanding that value could be added by going through the difficult task of opening the seeds o Womens rights and domestic violence. Two women stated that due to the massive pressures their village is under, domestic violence had increased in the past few years o Children learning to listen and respect elder again. There was worry as to the future of their children, as to whether they would follow their traditional customs and animist way of life. Youths groups, information exchange was widely supported o Children need to learn the good and bad of Phnom Phen which is getting nearer. The fear was that one-day Phnom Phen would spread to the whole of Cambodia. While the minority felt that this could offer good opportunities most felt this would completely destroy their culture and way of living with out any hope of survival. Next five years plans o Better local school and secondary o More secured rights and benefits from the lake o Part time or full time wage employment o Learn Khmer and another language o Better communications with other villages o Sell in the Bang Lung market o Sell weaving and other crafts o Good education for children about their rights o Lost of talking to the children about current and past cultures o Getting more profit from goods Ten years vision o Some children working in Phnom Phen and over seas o Good schooling, teachers present and school free o Respect for them as elders, more womens‟ rights than before o Protection of their grand children from working for the Casino or other companies o More affordable luxury goods, e.g hair cuts
o Key assessment findings: Men Group Continued protection or lake and forest and more benefits from the tourists (home stay etc.) - Current Needs: The group initially asked were the committee, (the committee currently are all male) Followed by the currently active members of the Yeak Loam Advisory Group (who are all male too) 34
Also some individual males were asked in Chree and Phnom village o Keep lake (committee and others). This was the overriding main issue. With out the lake the community felt they had nothing. In spite of all the outside influences, animism is still string in the community. There is some fear that the sprits are angry as they have lost so much land and their sacred forests. However the village elders and others regularly go to the lake to summon the sprit of the lake to ask is for a fruit full future and for forgiveness over the land/sprit losses o Begin talking to the 8 villages on the other side of the mountain about the companies activities. There was some hope over the future of one of the „taken‟ sprit mountains. There was an immediate need to join with the eight villages on the other side of the mountain as both sides were being coerced and lied to by the company o One central meeting house for all five villages, the villages were saving $5 each for this, as they felt they needed one central place to meet. They are looking for some outside support too o Rowing boat and life saving skills at the lake o Places to cut bamboo. Bamboo has 100s of uses for indigenous people. Places are limited; this could be part of good management of the protected area. It was agreed a management plan needs be compiled o Fix wells in 3 villages, they broke very soon after instillation o Training to get jobs as no animals to hunt, employment in Bang Lung and at the lake, many men were lost as to what to do and their futures. While their was some sadness that their traditional existence was no longer a viable option (hunting forest animals, forest work), they were all keen and open to learn new skills o Affordable health care, Bang Lung too expensive Was a concern, no traditional doctors were available for interview, This needs more research. o Help getting rattan, as none here (from ex-village elder who is too old now to walk to Vearn sai to get rattan to make traditional baskets) o Youth project for kids. There was concern over the exposure their youth were having form Bang Lung e.g. karoke. There were some reports that some youth from the villages were turning bad and were stealing pigs from the villages to sell pigs to have more money for Karoke o Passing of knowledge from elder to youth about songs and stories, and making new songs and stories, there was worry that some youth were turning away from their culture o Teaching youth about what forest animals there were, making the animals out of mud o Better road to link to paved road (1 to 3 km) would make wet season not effect assess to market and bang lung o Business understanding , how to make a business profitable o Better understanding of human rights o Making videos o Re demarcate protected boundary and plant agreed area o Link with other agencies who can assist in advocacy and legal assistance o Boats and life guard training Next five years plans o Linking small businesses around the lake with local produce 35
o Showing eco-living supporting eco-tourism, compost loos o Traffic calming, making people drive slower o Training courses for outsiders on how to cut an manage bamboo, how to make a mat, a basket, a skirt, spin cotton o Event management: Creating manageable crowds at the lake of people who support indigenous products, i.e. food events, trade fairs, swimming events, nature days, youth and video events o Processing and value adding of produce o Bung Yeak Loam continuing to be the leading eco-tourism area in Cambodia (run by the local Tampoun community) Ten years vision o Confidence to keep management rights beyond the 25 year lease o Some land security beyond the protected area o Some children studying in Phnm Phen o Beoung Yeak Loam a excellent example of eco tourism in Asia (run by the local Tampoun community)
Key assessment findings: Children Group Low attendance from teachers and school far away In the future some children wanted to work at the lake, some in Bang Lung , many in Phnom Penh and overseas. Only very few expressed an interest in farming
Conclusion: A key to consider
Throughout the entire discussion, the assessment found that common current and future needs are similarity across every village. These include resolving basic needs in fulfilling their food security, agriculture, cash crop (fruit trees), fish pond, water, education, health and enhance natural resources local management. However, such similarity should not dismiss the different culture, tradition, village surrounding factors and the common notion of participation. Some ideas of private land ownership have become a major preference in most villages to fence their own house and mark their own properties. Unlike previous long tradition of land sharing and collective ownership, this private fencing house would create the potential of further conflict where each household demand an unclear marking of their properties. It is making sense that as land became shorter, they must be aware and prepared of their potential loses if they don‟t mark it clearly. This however seems to slightly violated the land law where indigenous community do not own individual land. Such propose of private land ownership should be clearly examined. Yet, working towards enhancing common ownership where villagers can improve their community solidarity and cohesion would be a step for the future of their sustainable use. As experience shows that once previous land were marked under a particular ownership, chances of being illegal land sales tend to be more prevalence. Though it did not deny that community land were also forced to sell. Fulfilling the basic needs would involve more involvement with the local community to help provide capacity building and encourage the skills to be shared. The capacity building 36
should as much as possible ensure more active participation of women in all level from the identifying the needs to be trained and the skills to be shared. Improving water access in aiming to reduce the women labor on water collection is in questioned. If the aim to reduce the women burden, the good chance is also to work with male in understanding who their wives have been burden. Only men are aware of this and together the commitment to share, then women burden can be reduced. The same thing with rice milling machine, as women did the rice pounding does not mean that introducing the rice milling would necessarily enhance women time in leisure and reducing less heavy work. Yet, the same principle would be considered to engage men in helping them aware of such strong gendered culture where women would still be the most hardest hit if continue without working with these men. On the idea of education for children is widely agreed to be related to number of children, classes and teachers. In most village discussed, education issue is discussed all the time. Yet, child labor at field and home, especially girls, face the most dropped out and burden. Toward achieving education is to ensure that parents complete allow their children to go to school and take all actions to reduce child labor. This should be done as an aggressive manner but slowly engaging parents, village chief and elderly respected figures to understand the burden children facing. Working in all levels more closers with the communities not just help better understanding their needs but fulfilling the needs which they find ways to solve themselves with assistance of external support. To end this important note, the most important consideration is not to assume that these similarities result in similar outputs or meet similar needs. To go further is to allow more time in studying more details of every basic needs and identifying more concrete discussion and exploring on each key findings, providing the key solutions which discovered and agreed as the solved solutions by the communities are more needed.
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